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Name:Noemi Acevedo

Period:1

BLOOD VESSELS
1. For the list of vessels below, note whether it is an artery or vein or both
and describe its location.

Vessel Name Artery/Vein/Both Location Description


Common carotid Artery by the neck

Brachiocephalic Artery, vein chest area

Subclavian artery, vein shoulder area

Jugular vein around the neck


Vena Cava vein chest area

Aorta artery upper chest

Common iliac artery, vein lower stomach

Femoral artery, vein near the knee

Renal artery, vein middle of the chest

Pulmonary artery, by the heart

Coronary artery by the heart

Cardiac vein near the heart

External iliac artery vein lower stomach

Axillary artery near shoulder

2. Read the following passage about muscle contraction moving blood.


In addition to pressure gradients, there are other mechanisms that aid venous
return of blood to the heart. These include pumping actions of noncardiac
muscles as well as movements of the heart itself, and they depend on the valves in
the veins, which point in the direction of the heart. This orientation ensures a
forward flow toward the heart: blood flowing forward forces the valves open;
backflow snaps them shut. The picture below shows this action in a vein lodged
between two skeletal muscles. When the muscles are relaxed, blood flows forward
because of the pressure gradient described above, and the vein fills with blood.
The contracting muscles squeeze on the vein and force blood in all directions.
Blood flowing backward closes the bottom valve, but forward-flowing blood keeps
the upper valve open so that blood spurts in the forward direction. When the
muscle relaxes, there is no longer any external force pushing on the venous walls:
the pressure gradient from below (farthest from the heart) forces blood flow in the
forward direction, opening the lower valve and reestablishing the initial condition.
Thus, each time the muscle contracts and relaxes a spurt of venous blood is sent
toward the heart. This action is called the muscle pump.
A good illustration of the importance of the muscle pump in exercise is provided
when a runner remains motionless just after finishing a strenuous race. His cardiac
output is still high and his capillaries and small blood vessels are still dilated in
response to the exercise. Without the muscle pump the veins are quickly drained,
venous return to the heart decreases, and the cardiac output may falter sufficiently
to compromise the blood supply to the brain. Fainting can be avoided if the runner
continues mild exercise for a few minutes.

What causes the valves in the veins to open?


Blood flowing causes this to happen.

What causes the valves in the veins to close?


Back flow causes the valves to close.

Describe how the muscle pump works (not the heart).


When the muscles are relaxed, blood flows forward
because of the pressure gradient described above, and the vein fills with blood.
The contracting muscles squeeze on the vein and force blood in all directions.
Blood flowing backward closes the bottom valve, but forward-flowing blood keeps
the upper valve open so that blood spurts in the forward direction. When the
muscle relaxes, there is no longer any external force pushing on the venous walls:
the pressure gradient from below (farthest from the heart) forces blood flow in the
forward direction, opening the lower valve and reestablishing the initial condition.
Thus, each time the muscle contracts and relaxes a spurt of venous blood is sent
toward the heart.

A runner who remains motionless after completing a strenuous race may faint. Why?
His cardiac output is still high and his capillaries and small blood vessels are still dilated in
response to the exercise. Without the muscle pump the veins are quickly drained,
venous return to the heart decreases, and the cardiac output may falter sufficiently
to compromise the blood supply to the brain.
3. Examine the cross section of an artery and vein.

Which letter represents the artery?


Letter A represents an artery.

How do you know this is an artery?


I know because it's shaped as a circle.

Which letter represents the vein?


letter b represents the vein.

How do you know this is a vein?


The structure of the vein.

4. Decide which vessel is being described below. (Can be more than one)

A. Carry blood away from heart E. Carry blood toward the heart

B. Walls consist of 3 layers A. the thickest walls

E. Walls 1 cell layer thick B. Branch to form capillaries


E. _Have valves D. Smallest, most numerous

C. Branch to form Arterioles A. Site of gas exchange

C. Converge to form Veins

5. Explain what you think goes wrong when varicose (enlarged) veins appear on
legs.
When the veins appear on the legs, they are full of blood and if they do get cut, you
can lose a substantial amount of blood.

6. How can you tell by simple observation whether bleeding is arterial or venous?
The arterial bleeding is bright red and spurting and the venous bleeding is dark red
and oozing.