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Chapter 1

1 . 1 B AC KG RO UND Airports facilities. By 2030, the redevelopment of Toronto Pearson.

GTAs population is expected to Since the 1999 Master Plan was
Toronto Pearson International
reach 8.2 million and the demand adopted, the majority of projects
Airport had its origins in 1937
for Toronto Pearsons facilities is it envisioned have been com-
when the federal government ac-
projected to be 66 million passen- pleted, and it is now appropriate
quired nine farms in the Malton
gers and 801,000 aircraft move- to update this important
area to serve as an airport site for
ments. As the GTA continues to planning document.
the City of Toronto. Toronto
grow, so does its air travel needs
Municipal Airport in Malton The updated Toronto Pearson
and its reliance on a world
opened in 1938 offering two hard Airport Master Plan will present
class airport.
surface runways, one grass landing the traffic demand forecasts and
strip and a converted farmhouse The Greater Toronto Airports required facility infrastructure to
for a terminal building. From Authority (GTAA) is now in its meet capacity requirements
these modest beginnings at a 11th year of operating and manag- through to 2030. Within this
remote location on the outskirts ing Toronto Pearson. The GTAAs planning horizon, Toronto Pearson
of what is now the most populous mandate is to ensure that the is projected to reach its practical
city in Canada, Toronto Pearson Airports facilities and air services capacity. Accordingly, the Toronto
International Airport has evolved match the needs of the growing Pearson Airport Master Plan will
to become Canadas busiest airport population of the GTA and south- explore capacity optimization
and one of the countrys most sig- central Ontario. To address this opportunities and the eventual
nificant pieces of transportation significant responsibility, the need to address airport capacity
infrastructure. In 2006, the GTAA embarked on a 30-year planning and management as
Airport handled close to 31 mil- vision for the development of Toronto Pearson approaches its
lion passengers, 417,000 aircraft Toronto Pearson in 1996. Since ultimate capacity.
movements and 517,000 tonnes that time, the GTAAs primary
of cargo. focus has been to replace obsolete
airport infrastructure in order to
Toronto Pearson is surrounded
improve the facilities and services
by the rapidly growing Greater
that Toronto Pearson has to offer
Toronto Area (GTA) and serves a
the region it serves.
region with a population in excess
of 5.5 million people. By 2020, For the past eight years,
the GTAs population will likely The Airport Master Plan
reach 7.3 million at which time it (2000-2020), published
is estimated that some 50 million in 1999, has provided
passengers and 637,000 aircraft the framework for the
movements per year will use the

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

decisions; and, it provides a con-

sistent and publicly recognizable
vehicle for federal and provincial
governments, investors and stake-
holders to assess the progress
being made.

In light of the investment and air-

port redevelopment undertaken at
Toronto Pearson by the GTAA
over the last decade, an update to
Terminal 1 and Apron Area the Master Plan is required. With
the major construction phase now
1 . 2 A I R P O RT M A S T E R Another major objective of the
complete, it is necessary to review
P L A N P R O FIL E Master Plan is to provide the
the timing of future development
framework required for corporate
1.2.1 Master Plan Objectives decision-making that allows air- at Toronto Pearson.

The primary purpose of the port management to make day-to-

Airport Master Plan is to describe day decisions aimed at preserving 1.2.2 Master Plan History
the long-term development of long-term development options. It
The first Master Plan for Toronto
facilities that will be required to also guides technical staff by pro-
Pearson was released by the federal
enable Toronto Pearson to meet its viding sufficient warning before
Department of Transport in 1967
strategic objectives while efficiently new facilities and services will be
and was followed by numerous
serving the needs of the travelling required and makes it clear at an
studies over the next 30 years that
public and the region it serves. early stage the key milestones of
addressed airport growth and the
The Master Plan serves not only as airport development.
provision of adequate airport
a blueprint for the development of
The Airport Master Plan will also capacity to meet the rapidly
the Airports physical facilities, it
be of great interest to the Airports growing air traffic demands of
also provides a snapshot of its
many partners and stakeholders. It the Toronto Region.
existing facilities, conditions, and
provides an indication of the
capabilities; examines future needs; Following the decisions to dis-
GTAAs plans for infrastructure
and establishes the Land Use Plan continue development of the
development and creates long-
for the Airport. Pickering lands, the Department
term clarity and certainty for all
of Transport produced the Malton
The Master Plan is a comprehen- those affected or interested; it
Contingency Plan in 1975 which
sive study of the Airport that serves to notify commercial,
recommended 36 courses of
describes the short-, medium- and industrial and community interests
action aimed at squeezing more
long-term plans for airport devel- of the future plans for airport
capacity out of existing facilities to
opment. The Master Plan will development in time for their
enable the Airport to cope with
address airfield, passenger termi- comment, assistance and partici-
demand pressures up until 1982.
nal, groundside access, cargo, pation; it provides a useful tool for
business aviation, support and communicating to a range of A new Master Plan was published
ancillary facilities, and the facility stakeholders, including airlines, by Transport Canada in 1982 that
improvements required to enhance funding institutions, local and recommended a number of major
the overall operating efficiency of regional municipal authorities and improvements to airport opera-
the Airport. other local interests to allow them tions and facilities. Improvements
to make well-informed investment

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

included the construction of a from the private sector. The Plan the 1999 Master Plan was the
third terminal, expansion of cargo also presented specific proposals development of passenger terminal
operations, expansion and develop- for the further long-term facilities required to meet aviation
ment of air carrier maintenance development of airport lands. demand over the 2000-2020 plan-
facilities, and improvements to ning horizon. It defined the long-
Transport Canada issued a revised
ground transportation facilities, air term vision for Toronto Pearson
Master Plan in 1995 in response
traffic services, air navigation and and the Airport Development
to the federal governments new
airside facilities. It further empha- Program (ADP) that was required
direction for Toronto Pearson. The
sized that development of the to provide sufficient capacity for
focus of this Master Plan was the
Airport would be done on an the next 20 years to maximize the
development of Toronto Pearsons
incremental basis in order to development potential of
airside system to its ultimate
respond to the constantly changing Toronto Pearson.
capacity and the provision of addi-
demands for airport facilities.
tional passenger terminal capacity
The 1982 Master Plan also estab- beyond the year 2000. The Land 1.2.3 Master Plan Setting 2007
lished a Land Use Plan for the Use Plan further refined the long-
The development of Toronto
Airport that identified specific term development concept for the
Pearson, as described in this
areas designated for on-site devel- Airport and subsequently formed
Master Plan, is predicated on a
opment. The Infield Area south the basis for the planning and
number of planning parameters
and west of Runway 15-33 was to development decisions made by
and assumptions which include
remain undeveloped in the imme- the GTAA.
the following:
diate term, but was to be retained
Shortly after the release of the Population and demand for air
for long-term development of ter-
1995 Master Plan, the GTAA transportation within the GTA
minal, cargo, and other facilities,
unveiled a concept to replace and south-central Ontario will
as required during the 1990s
Terminals 1 and 2 with a single continue to grow.
and beyond.
unified terminal capable of accom- Toronto Pearson will remain the
The Master Plan was updated modating 45 to 50 million passen- principal international airport
again by Transport Canada in gers per year in conjunction with for commercial traffic within
1986 and stressed the primary Terminal 3, which was consistent southern Ontario for the duration
need to ensure adequate terminal with the approved Land Use Plan. of the Master Plan timeframe.
and groundside capacity over the Aircraft operations will continue
The GTAA published its first
next 10 years. A major component under the current regulatory
Master Plan for Toronto Pearson
of this Master Plan was the 1984 environment.
in December 1999. The focus of
Airside Capacity Study, which rec-
ognized that additional runway
capacity would ultimately be
required if Toronto Pearson was to
continue as the primary air carrier
airport in the Toronto area.

The 1986 Master Plan concluded

that a multi-sector third terminal
was required in the near term and
further recommended that pro-
posals to design, construct, and
operate a third terminal be sought

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

future development at Toronto The Airports noise management

Pearson. It will explore optimiza- plan.
tion options and discuss the need The Land Use Plan that identifies
for additional airport capacity to space requirements for aviation
accommodate the regions air activities during the planning
travel activity as Toronto Pearson horizon and designates land into
approaches its optimum capacity. areas for specific types of activity.
Opportunities for optimizing the
Toronto Pearson is situated in a use of the physical infrastructure,
built-up urban area with little 1.2.4 Master Plan Approach
given that the Airport has
room for expansion. This Master Plan provides the reached a mature stage of devel-
Adequate external transportation strategy for the long-term develop- opment; identification of capac-
infrastructure within the GTA ment of the Airport over the plan- ity optimization options aimed
will be provided by the relevant ning horizon to 2030 and will at achieving efficiency improve-
municipal, regional and provin- examine the following topics: ments and increased throughput.
cial authorities to ensure that The socio-economic profiles of Requirements for airport
passengers, freight, employees, the local and regional communi- capacity to meet the long-term
and visitors can access the ties the Airport serves. aviation needs of the GTA and
Airport. The types of aviation activity south-central Ontario.
With the ADP complete, Toronto that Toronto Pearson is intended
Pearson has reached a mature This Master Plan for Toronto
to serve throughout the plan-
stage of development thereby Pearson builds upon the GTAAs
ning horizon.
establishing the foundation for long-term vision for the Airport
The airport environment and
the Airport to achieve its opti- as presented in the 1999 Airport
the environmental impact of the
mum capacity (that which best Master Plan (2000-2020). It pro-
Master Plan.
balances financial, environmental vides the framework for develop-
Airfield, passenger terminal and
and social considerations). ment over the 2008-2030
ground transportation facilities,
Wherever possible, incremental timeframe and combines them
capacities and development
expansion of existing facilities into an overall picture of what
plans, including transit initia-
will be used to deliver new facility requirements and future
tives; description of the ultimate
capacity. planning options are necessary to
build-out of Toronto Pearson
Toronto Pearson will be accommodate forecast traffic
facilities and the balancing of
developed to its optimum volumes.
key systems.
capacity, which will likely be Practical and maximum airside
reached within the 2030 capacity. 1.3 AIRPORT PROFILE
planning horizon. Airport commercial services and
Optimization measures will be 1.3.1 Airport Setting
facilities such as Business
required to ensure the highest Aviation, airline support, and Toronto Pearson is located 25 km
and best use of existing and cargo facilities. northwest of Torontos central
planned facilities. Airport operational support business district in the heart of the
Reliever airport capacity will be facilities and services including southern Ontario region. The
required at other airport sites in emergency services, airport Airport is surrounded by a variety
southern Ontario before 2030. maintenance, administrative of industrial, commercial and resi-
In summary, this Airport Master facilities and utilities. dential land uses and is bound by
Plan will review the timing of

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

a series of major highways and and provides a link to down- Ground transportation links from
regional arterial roads: town Toronto via the Gardiner the Airport to business and resi-
Hwy 401, part of the Trans- Expressway. dential centres of south-central
Canada Hwy, borders the Airport From the northeast to the south- Ontario are provided by nine
to the south. west, the Airport is bordered by major highways, (including Hwy
Hwy 427 forms part of the Airport Road, Derry Road and 401, the principal east/west high-
eastern boundary of the Airport Dixie Road. way through southern Ontario), a

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

growth in the international sector.

If current trends continue, passen-
ger traffic is forecast to reach
36 million passengers by 2010,
50 million passengers by the year
2020 and 66 million passengers
by 2030. Similarly, aircraft move-
ments have shown healthy growth
between 1996 and 2006, from
375,000 to 417,000, and are
expected to reach 637,000 by
2020 and 801,000 by 2030.

Today Toronto Pearson serves a

Toronto International Airport, 1964
network of over 120 non-stop
vast system of local and regional central location within the international and domestic desti-
roadway systems, and various national transportation network, it nations and same-plane service to
modes of public transit. is Canadas primary hub for 100 other international cities, and
domestic, transborder and inter- the list is growing. These routes in
Toronto Pearson is situated in the
national air travel. Toronto Pearson turn provide links to the remain-
northeastern corner of the City of
is also the countrys busiest airport ing world markets. Due to its
Mississauga although a small por-
handling over 30 per cent of proximity to the populous U.S.
tion of the Airport is located
Canadas air passenger traffic, market, Toronto Pearson plays a
within the City of Toronto. The
47 per cent of the nations air key role in the North American
communities surrounding Toronto
cargo and 12 per cent of Canadas air route structure with service
Pearson also include the City of
aircraft movements each year mak- provided by 79 airlines. There are
Brampton and the Town of
ing it the focal point for regional, 11 domestic, 26 U.S.-based, and
Caledon within the Regional
provincial and national aviation. 42 other foreign airlines.
Municipality of Peel, the City of
Vaughan in the Regional Muni- Toronto Pearson has served as Additional airlines are seeking
cipality of York, and the towns of Canadas main international air- government approval to gain land-
Halton Hills and Milton in the port since 1957 and as Canadas ing rights in Toronto. Scheduled
Regional Municipality of Halton. busiest airport since 1962. In services are supplemented by sig-
Due to their proximity to the 2006, Toronto Pearson ranked nificant charter activity to numer-
Airport, these communities derive 29th in the world for passenger ous North American, Caribbean,
the most direct benefits and the traffic, 17th in North America for Latin American, and European
greatest impact of Toronto passenger traffic, and 2nd in North destinations. In addition to pas-
Pearsons operations. America in terms of international senger service, eight airlines pro-
traffic after New York (JFK). vided regular cargo and courier
service and over 200 business avia-
1.3.2 Aviation Setting The Airport has enjoyed signifi- tion operators offered service to
cant growth over the last decade numerous domestic and trans-
Toronto Pearson is the principal
(1996-2006). Passenger volumes border destinations in 2006.
commercial service airport in the
have grown from 24.26 million to
Greater Toronto Area and south- Due to its favourable location
30.97 million, averaging 2.5 per
central Ontario and, with its within Canada, Toronto Pearson
cent per annum led by strong

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

1.3.4 Toronto Pearson

International Airport Today
The area of land within the cur-
rent operational boundary of
Toronto Pearson covers 1,867 hec-
tares (4,613 acres) and encom-
passes airside facilities, passenger
and cargo terminals, parking,
access roads, business aviation,
and aviation support facilities.
Terminal 1
Airside Facilities
not only serves those visiting or role as an air cargo/courier airport. Toronto Pearson currently has five
living within south-central The Region of Waterloo Inter- runways in operation aligned in
Ontario, but also the growing national Airport has recently both the east-west direction and
number of passengers using the introduced commercial air service the north-south direction.
Airport as a connecting point for to Florida and Caribbean destina-
onward journeys. Torontos central tions. Other southern Ontario air- The east/west runways are:
gateway location means that an ports such as Buttonville, Runway 06L-24R measures
estimated 60 per cent of North Brampton, Burlington, and 2,956 metres (9,697 feet)
Americas population is within a Oshawa provide opportunities for in length,
90-minute flight from Toronto general aviation and commercial Runway 06R-24L measures
Pearson. service in the vicinity of the GTA, 2,743 metres (9,000 feet)
but none has the infrastructure for in length,
Given this strategic location and Runway 05-23 measures
significant scheduled air service.
available capacity, the GTAA will 3,389 metres (11,120 feet)
The closest commercial airport
focus on the development of in length.
with any extensive passenger
Toronto Pearsons gateway status
service is in Buffalo, New York. The north/south runways are:
as a means to diversify revenue
and ensure the residents of the Runway 15L-33R measures
GTA access to an increased 1.3.3 Historical Profile 3,368 metres (11,050 feet)
number of destinations. in length,
Toronto Pearson International Runway 15R-33L measures
The Toronto City Centre Airport Airport has come a long way since 2,770 metres (9,088 feet)
is the only other airport within its early days as Malton Airport. in length.
the GTA that accommodates What began as a 420-hectare air-
scheduled airline service, albeit on field located on farmland situated The existing five-runway system is
a very limited basis. The Toronto on the outskirts of Toronto has capable of handling 520,000 to
City Centre Airport is located off- become Canadas largest and
shore from downtown Toronto on busiest airport. The highlights of
Toronto Island and is operated by Toronto Pearsons history are illus-
the Toronto Port Authority. trated in Figure 1-2 located at the
Hamilton International Airport, end of this chapter.
currently served by three passenger
airlines, has taken on a significant
Terminal 1

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

of the new terminal and will con-

tinue to serve as an overflow facility
in the years to come. The IFT
offers 11 bridged aircraft gates and
provides additional passenger pro-
cessing capacity of approximately
four million annual passengers.

Ground Transportation Access,

Circulation and Parking
The groundside road system links
all terminals as well as the various
Terminal 3
cargo and air carrier support facili-
610,000 arriving and departing domestic, transborder (Canada- ties. Parking garages are provided
flights per annum. U.S.), and international at both terminals. The Terminal 1
passengers. Parking Garage is an eight-level
An extensive system of taxiways,
structure offering 9,000 spaces and
measuring over 40 kilometres in Terminal 1, with 49 bridged gates
the Terminal 3 Parking Garage is a
length, provides access between the and nine commuter positions, is
five-level structure providing 4,200
runways and the passenger termi- the base for all of Air Canadas
spaces. Other parking areas
nal, air cargo and airline hangar operations, as well as for the inter-
include the remote Reduced Rate
areas. The Central Deicing Facility national Star Alliance member
Parking Lot located across Airport
also forms part of the airside system airlines plus several other inter-
Road with 2,400 spaces, employee
and consists of six deicing bays, six national airlines. The Terminal 1
parking facilities located through-
staging bays, an operations centre Satellite provides an additional
out the Airport totalling 7,000
and a central glycol storage area. 15 commuter aircraft positions
spaces, and a consolidated Com-
which brings the practical capacity
Other airside facilities include the mercial Vehicle Holding Area for
of Terminal 1 to approximately
terminal apron areas, airside roads, taxis, limousines and charter buses.
21 million annual passengers.
and the vast system of electronic,
An elevated Automated People
communication, navigational and Terminal 3, with 32 bridged gates
Mover, known as the LINK Train,
visual approach aids that provide and three commuter aircraft
is capable of moving between
both precision and non-precision positions, is the base for more
10,000 and 12,000 people per day
approaches to the runway system. than 50 airlines from around the
and provides the link between the
world including WestJet, the
Passenger Terminals Reduced Rate Parking Lot,
Skyteam alliance airlines, and
Toronto Pearson has two passen- Terminal 1, and Terminal 3 via
the oneworld alliance of airlines.
ger terminals offering 97 bridged cable-pulled trains.
The Terminal 3 Satellite provides
aircraft gates and 32 commuter
a further five bridged gates and
positions, bringing the current
five commuter aircraft positions
estimated maximum capacity of
bringing the total capacity of
the Airports terminal system to
Terminal 3 to approximately
approximately 38-40 million pas-
14 million annual passengers.
sengers. Both Terminals 1 and 3
handle all three sectors of traffic: The Infield Terminal (IFT) was
built to provide additional gating
Terminal 3
capacity during the construction

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

services to the aviation commu- Other facilities include three flight

nity including parking, fuelling, kitchens operated by CARA and
servicing, and hangarage of air- CLS Catering Services, six aircraft
craft. Ground transportation ground handling equipment main-
services, communications facilities, tenance facilities, fuelling facilities,
lounges, meeting rooms, catering and aircraft waste facilities.
services, customs, and flight plan-
Airport support facilities include
Airport LINK Train ning facilities are also provided to
emergency response and coordina-
visiting pilots and passengers.
Air Cargo Facilities tion, policing, security, airport and
Commercial aircraft operators in
Air cargo operations take place at airfield maintenance, and various
the Business Aviation area serve a
three different locations on the administrative functions. Toronto
variety of aviation segments,
Airport: the Vista Cargo area, the Pearson is home to three fire halls
including special purpose passen-
Airport Infield, and the FedEx site. plus a state-of-the-art fire training
ger service such as executive, air
area, an Emergency Coordination
The Infield Cargo area (also ambulance, and tour operations.
Centre, a canine unit, an airport
known as Cargo West) includes
Airline and Airport Support security and pass control building,
three cargo buildings, a large
Facilities and a police station to accommo-
common-use cargo apron, vehicle
A wide variety of support services date the Region of Peel Police
parking and truck manoeuvering
housed in numerous facilities Department. Other on-site support
areas. Tenants include Air Canada,
throughout the Airport are neces- functions include an airside bussing
American Airlines, WestJet and
sary to facilitate aircraft opera- facility, central workshops and
Worldwide Flight Services. The
tions, airport maintenance and stores, GTAA Administration
Infield Cargo area is connected to
administrative functions. Building, Central Utilities Plant,
the passenger terminal area by a
Cogeneration Plant and 14 storm-
598 m, four-lane vehicle tunnel. Facilities dedicated to the servicing
water management facilities.
of aircraft operations at Toronto
The Vista Cargo area (or Cargo
Pearson include seven airline air-
East) is a privately owned and
craft maintenance hangars oper- 1.3.5 Airport Layout
operated complex that consists of
ated by Air Canada, Skyservice,
a multi-tenant U-shaped facility The development of the Airport
Air Transat, and the GTAA. These
with an adjacent apron area. The has been governed by the orienta-
facilities are used for line mainte-
FedEx Cargo area (Cargo North) tion of Toronto Pearsons existing
nance including routine aircraft
serves as the Canadian hub two sets of parallel runways. The
maintenance and inspection.
for Federal Express. The site is
home to two cargo buildings plus
dedicated ramp space.

Business Aviation Facilities

The Business Aviation Area
houses some 11 hangars and two
fuelling facilities and is home to
two Fixed Base Operators (FBOs),
Skycharter and Landmark
Aviation. A third FBO, Skyservice
FBO, is located in the Infield
Area. FBOs provide a range of Ineld Terminal and Airside View of Terminals 1 & 3

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

15-33 runways (running north/ and Runway 05-23 (east/west ori- North and Airport South) along
south), along with the associated entation) set the boundary for the with the Airport Airside and some
taxiways, provide the boundary for Airport North and Airport South additional smaller parcels that
the Airport East and Airport areas. Existing developments in make up the airport lands are
Infield areas. The 06-24 runways these four major areas (Airport described below.
East, Airport Infield, Airport

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

Airport East majority of the 16.4 ha (41 acre) other airport support facilities by
The Airport East area is an amal- site for cargo facilities. There is the development of new terminal
gamation of four development also a flight kitchen located in this and airside facilities.
areas identified in the 1999 area and Air Canadas flight simu-
New infield facilities include a
Master Plan as Areas 5, 7, 11, and lator building.
multi-tenant air cargo complex
12 and accounts for 259.2 ha
Airline Aircraft Maintenance Area consisting of three cargo buildings,
(640 acres).
(Area 7): This 31.6 ha (78 acre) the GTAA Three Bay Hangar for
Passenger Terminal Complex area, located northwest of aircraft maintenance, the
(Area 11): Terminals 1 and 3 are Terminal 3, is leased for large air- Skyservice Avitat maintenance
located in this 209.1 ha (517 acres) craft maintenance operations. Air hangar, the Skyservice Lounge
area along with their associated Canada owns and operates five serving their business aviation
parking structures and the 500- hangar complexes in this area operations, the Cara Flight
room Sheraton Gateway Hotel sit- complete with maintenance Kitchen and the Infield Terminal.
uated atop the Terminal 3 Parking support shops and offices.
Also located in the Infield are
Garage. Also accommodated
Aviation Fuel Tank Farm several airline support facilities,
within the Passenger Terminal
(Area 12): The Fuel Tank Farm, navigational aids and the en-
Complex area is the bulk of the
maintained and operated by trance to the four-lane Infield
road network servicing the passen-
Consolidated Aviation Fueling for Tunnel that provides vehicular
ger terminals and the LINK Train
PIFFC, occupies a 2.1 ha (5 acre) access between the Infield area
elevated guideway.
site located north of Terminal 1. and the passenger terminal area.
The Terminal 2 Parking Garage, This facility holds the main airport
Airport South
also located in Area 11, will supplies of jet, automotive and
This 55.3 ha (136 acre) develop-
remain in use for employee parking diesel fuels.
ment area is located south of
until a new parking structure is
Airport Infield Runway 06R-24L and includes
constructed in Area 6B by the end
The Airport Infield Area (Area 10) Areas 2A and 2B.
of 2009.
is situated between the parallel
Area 2A at 45.7 ha (113 acres),
The Pearson International Fuel north/south runways and occupies
the larger of the two parcels,
Facilities Corporation operations 142.3 ha (352 acres). Nav Canada
facilitates a number of support
headquarters (PIFFC) occupies a Air Traffic Services facilities, con-
facilities including several GTAA
site located adjacent to the sisting of the Control Tower and
administrative and maintenance
Terminal 1 Satellite. This facility the Area Control Centre, are
facilities that were relocated to this
accommodates administrative accommodated here as is the
area due to the redevelopment of
offices, staff support functions, Central Deicing Facility and the
their former sites. Facilities located
and a vehicle maintenance and Moore Creek Stormwater
in Area 2A include the GTAA
parking area for fuel tankers and Management Facility.
fuel carts. The triturator facility,
The balance of the site has recently
which contains equipment for the
been developed as part of the
processing of aircraft sewage, is
Airport Development Program.
located adjacent to the PIFFC
The need for the development of
the Airport Infield area arose as a
Vista Cargo Area (Area 5): The result of the growth in cargo
Vista Cargo Centre leases the demand and the displacement of
Ineld Three Bay Hangar and FBO Facility
the previous air cargo area and

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

The 36.3 ha (90 acre) Business There are building height restric-
Aviation Area houses 11 hangars tions over the property imposed
and two fuelling facilities, and is by the adjacent runways. Potential
home to various commercial air- uses on the site could include
craft operators that service a variety additional cargo or airline
of aviation segments including support facilities.
special purpose passenger service
Airport East Access
Terminal 3 Interior such as executive, air ambulance,
This area is comprised of five
tour operations and aircraft parts
corporate administrative offices, parcels (Areas 6A, 6B, 6C, 6F, and
and maintenance. Also situated in
Pass/Permit Control Office, 6Z) totalling 68 ha (168 acres).
Area 8 are the North Fire Hall and
Airfield Maintenance Building, Parcel A (10.7 ha/26.4 acres)
Wildlife Control Centre.
South Fire Hall, Airside and Inter- accommodates the Airport LINK
terminal Bussing Facility, and the Both Areas 13A (24.1 ha/60 acres) Train Viscount Road Station and
Central Workshop and Stores, and 13B (38.8 ha/96 acres) have the remote Reduced Rate Parking
which also provides space for the commercial/industrial develop- Lot. Parcel B (16.8 ha/42 acres) is
Airport Emergency Support ment potential. Area 13B is home being utilized for employee park-
Centre and Canine Unit. to the CAE Flight Training ing. Both of these parcels are
Centre. The remaining available located north of Airport Road and
Other facilities in the area include
developable area is vacant and the west of the former Hwy 409 lands.
one flight kitchen operated by
balance of the site is comprised of Parcel C (8.3 ha/21 acres) accom-
CLS, the Air Canada flight simula-
creek valley lands. Area 13A has modates the GTAAs Cogeneration
tor building, Servisairs ground
significant building height restric- and Central Utilities Plants and
handling equipment maintenance
tions over the property as it is on the City of Mississauga Fire Hall.
and storage facility, the Air Canada
the approach to Runway 15L and
Ground Services Equipment Area 6F (3.2 ha/8 acres) consists
therefore offers limited develop-
building and Annex, the Transport of the lands located on Dorman
ment potential.
Canada/Peel Regional Police Road that were acquired by the
Building (Airport Division), a Area 14 (24.4 ha/60 acres) is home GTAA in December 2000 to
concrete recycling plant and the to the FedEx courier facilities. accommodate the development of
Environment Canada meteoro- the Hwy 409 inbound roads that
Area 15A (16.1 ha/40 acres) refers
logical compound. serve the passenger terminal com-
to the first phase of the former
plex. Area 6Z (29 ha/72 acres)
Area 2B at 9.6 ha (24 acres), Boeing lands that were transferred
refers to the portion of the former
located to the east of Area 2A, is to the GTAA in May 2006. The
Hwy 409 lands recently acquired
leased as a car rental complex. ownership of the Boeing lands is
by the GTAA from the Province
being turned over to the GTAA in
Airport North of Ontario that also accommodate
phases. These lands offer access to
Located north of Runway 05-23, the access roads to the passenger
the airside system and significant
the Airport North area refers to terminal complex.
available development heights.
Area 8 (the Business Aviation
Future uses could include aircraft Airport Airside
Area), Area 14 (the FedEx site),
maintenance or cargo facilities. This area (Area 13), comprising
Area 15 (the Boeing lands), Area
the largest bulk of airport property
16 (the Skeet lands) and two Area 16 (12.3 ha/30 acres) com-
(1,168 ha/2,886 acres), accommo-
parcels located north of Derry prises the former Skeet Club
dates runways and taxiways, navi-
Road known as Areas 13A lands, which were transferred to
gational aids, airside roads and the
and 13B. the GTAA in February 2007.

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

Central Deicing Facility and forms facility and a parking facility on a GTAA operates Toronto Pearson
the operationally protected areas lease basis. as a public facility for the benefit
around these facilities, as dictated of its customers (the travelling
by the Airport Zoning Regula- public and cargo shippers) its part-
tions. This area has extremely ners (airlines, government agen-
limited development potential cies, Canadian Air Transport
beyond the current functions 1.4.1 Corporate Profile Security Authority, retailers) and
accommodated due to the exten- other stakeholders (federal, provin-
In July 1994, the Government of
sive restrictions associated with the cial, municipal and regional gov-
Canada announced its National
Airport Zoning Regulations. ernments). Entirely self-funding,
Airports Policy whereby the
Other lands within Area 13 are in the GTAA is a not-for-profit cor-
management, operation and main-
the flood plain of the creek valleys poration that reinvests any operat-
tenance of 26 airports within the
and thus have no development ing surpluses to expand and
National Airport System would be
potential. develop the Airport.
transferred to locally controlled
Also located within the Airport Canadian Airport Authorities. The GTAA is governed by a
Airside area is the newly con- Toronto Pearson was identified as 15-member Board of Directors
structed GTAA Fire and Emer- one of Canadas core airports that comprised of five appointees from
gency Services Training Institute made up the National Airports the regional municipalities of
(FESTI). This state-of-the-art System and would be managed by Durham, Halton, Peel and York
facility was created to train GTAA an airport authority. and the City of Toronto; two
Emergency Services and first appointees from the Government
The Greater Toronto Airports
responders from around the world of Canada; one appointee from
Authority (GTAA) was incorpo-
and includes a confined space the Province of Ontario; four
rated in 1993 as a non-share
training building, a burn building, appointees from a pool of nomi-
corporation under Part II of the
a rescue tower, as well as a training nators comprised of the following
Canada Corporations Act and was
field and classroom facilities. organizations: Law Society of
recognized as a Canadian Airport
Upper Canada, Association of
Other Airport Lands Authority by the federal govern-
Professional Engineers of Ontario,
In this category are included sev- ment in 1994. Although it was
Institute of Chartered Accoun-
eral parcels of land surrounding incorporated in 1993, the GTAA
tants of Ontario, Toronto Board
the Airport, some of which have did not carry on a commercial
of Trade, boards of trade and
development potential. They are business prior to its acquisition of
chambers of commerce in
identified in Figure 1-4. Toronto Pearson on December 2,
Durham, Halton, Peel, and York;
1996, pursuant to a 60-year
The largest of these parcels and three members appointed by
ground lease with the Govern-
(11.3 ha/28 acres), known as 13E, the Board. This governance
ment of Canada.
is prime commercial/industrial
land, currently vacant, located at The GTAA is an airport manage-
the intersection of Hwy 401 and ment and facility development
Dixie Road. company and was originally
created to operate and develop
Parcel 6E (5.6 ha/13.8 acres) is
Toronto-Lester B. Pearson Inter-
located south of Airport Road at
national Airport within a regional
Carlingview Drive and accommo-
system of airports in the Greater
dates a stormwater management GTAA Administration Building
Toronto Area. Specifically, the

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

Development Program. Through

unwavering commitment to this
Plan, Toronto Pearson is now well
positioned with modern airport
facilities that will allow the Airport
to compete on the world stage.

Vision Statement
To be a leading airport company
championing sustainable global
access for the Greater Toronto

View from LINK Train With the completion of the

Airport Development Program,
structure ensures a wide range of The Ground Lease governs the
the GTAA has recognized the need
business, community and social commercial relationship between
to adjust strategic priorities and
interests are represented and that the GTAA and Transport Canada
resources. Whereas for the last
the Board has, as a whole, the for the term of the lease. It deter-
10 years the GTAA has been
necessary skill set to oversee the mines the rent to be paid and
designing and building
management of the GTAA. Board generally allocates risk and respon-
Toronto Pearson, corporate strategy
members are appointed for a sibilities between the GTAA and
and resources are now focused on
three-year term and are eligible to the federal government for all
improving the competitiveness
be reappointed to a maximum matters related to the operation of
of the Airport. Materially, Toronto
limit of nine years. the Airport. By virtue of its status
Pearsons competitive position will
as a tenant under the Ground
be achieved through its ability to
Lease, the GTAA has the authority
1.4.2 Ground Lease leverage the existing airport infra-
to set and collect airline rates and
structure through maximizing and
On December 2, 1996, pursuant charges from airlines; negotiate
optimizing airport capacity,
to a Ground Lease between the and issue leases, licenses, and per-
improving productivity of facilities
GTAA and the federal govern- mits; and construct and develop
and services, and increasing the
ment, the GTAA assumed the the infrastructure of the Airport.
value that customers and stake-
operation, management and con-
holders place on Toronto Pearsons
trol of Toronto Pearson Inter-
1.4.3 Corporate Strategic Plan facilities and services.
national Airport for a term of 60
years with on option to extend the During its first 10 years, the Master Plan Linkage with
term for an additional 20 years. GTAA corporate strategy has been Corporate Strategic Plan
The lands and facilities leased pur- focused on airport facility develop- The Strategic Plan establishes
suant to the Ground Lease ment and construction. The GTAAs vision for Toronto
includes all airport lands, build- opening of Terminal 1s Pier F on Pearson to be a leading airport
ings, structures and certain roads January 30, 2007 was a significant company championing sustainable
and bridges providing access to milestone marking the completion global access for the Greater
the Airport, but excludes any of the Airport Development Toronto Area. Now that the
assets owned by Nav Canada, the Program. The 1999 Master Plan Airport has been redeveloped into
operator of Canadas civil air navi- provided the vision, framework, a world-class facility, the GTAAs
gation system and any assets and direction for the Airport strategic focus is centred on
owned by tenants.

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

well prepared to accommodate $4.4 billion comprehensive

future demand. This development Airport Development Program
has been guided by the GTAAs (ADP) for the improvement of the
first Master Plan adopted in 1999. Airports infrastructure, discussed
in greater detail in Chapter 4.
When the GTAA assumed the
management, operation, and con- The construction component of
trol of Toronto Pearson on the ADP is now complete, a
Runway 05 Threshold
December 2, 1996, it took on remarkable logistical feat consider-
improving the competitiveness of major challenges as much of the ing that the Airport remained fully
Toronto Pearson as a gateway to Airports infrastructure was out- open and accessible throughout
Ontario, Canada and the world. dated and in poor condition. At construction. Facilities have been
By improving competitiveness, the time of transfer, major site designed to enable future expan-
Toronto Pearson will support and problems existed, such as inade- sion when demand warrants fur-
enhance the economic develop- quate road systems, insufficient ther investment. With the recent
ment of the GTA, southern apron areas, and facilities that were completion of the redevelopment
Ontario and Canada. in dire need of refurbishment, of Toronto Pearson, the GTAA has
expansion or replacement at the created the right platform to sup-
While the Strategic Plan estab-
time of transfer. The existing pas- port the regions future growth and
lishes the vision, values and strate-
senger terminals and runway sys- economic development.
gic direction for Toronto Pearson,
tem had a practical annual capacity
the Master Plan looks forward Other significant accomplishments
of approximately 28 million pas-
20 years to ensure the best and that the GTAA has achieved in its
sengers and in 1996 were already
optimal use of Toronto Pearsons first decade include the purchase
experiencing an actual demand
most fundamental resources its of Terminal 3 from the Airport
level of over 24 million passengers.
land and its newly developed and Development Corporation, en-
Both terminal and groundside
expanded infrastructure. abling the GTAA to consolidate
capacity was limited and in many
the management of all of the
cases operating beyond reasonable
Airports passenger terminals; the
1.4.4 The GTAAs First Decade capacity. In terms of serving the
acquisition of 1.5 km (0.93 miles)
future aviation demands of the
During the first decade of its of Hwy 409 from the Ontario
region, the Airport was not
stewardship of Toronto Pearson, the Ministry of Transportation to
adequately equipped.
GTAA has managed the Airport rationalize the Airports roadway
through rapid growth in traffic It was clear to the GTAA that the system; the purchase of the former
that saw a 28 per cent increase in Airport was in need of immediate
passenger demand and a 12 per improvement and a long-term
cent increase in aircraft move- strategy to properly serve the
ments from 1996 to 2006. The growing travel needs of the GTA
GTAA has also been responsible and south-central Ontario. The
for the most extensive develop- GTAA replaced the short-term
ment project ever undertaken at incremental planning practices of
Toronto Pearson, development the past with a long-term vision
that was essential to meet the that would meet the future head-
demands of this growth and to on. To meet the projected demand
ensure that the Airport would be for air travel through Toronto
Pearson, the GTAA developed a

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N

operation of Canadas largest and

busiest airport.

1.4.5 Summary
The federal government created
the National Airports Policy to
permit airports to be more respon-
sive to local interests and needs, to
support local economic develop-
ment, to promote Canadas com-
Terminal 1 (left) and Terminal 1 Parking Garage (right)
petitiveness, and to shift the cost
of developing and operating air-
ports from the taxpayers to those
who use the facilities.

The GTAA has delivered on this

policy. The outdated inefficient
facilities at Toronto Pearson have
been replaced by modern and
upgraded infrastructure. Specific
local needs of the community have
guided the GTAAs objectives and
there is now a long-term vision for
the Airport that will be presented
in this Master Plan. With the air-
Terminal 3 and Sheraton Gateway Hotel port redevelopment complete, the
Skeet Club lands adjacent to the history on time and on budget; GTAA has positioned Toronto
Airport lands; negotiation of an and achievement of ISO 14001 Pearson as a world-class facility
agreement to purchase the Boeing environmental standards certifica- that supports tourism, business
lands consisting of more than tion making Toronto Pearson the and economic growth for the
45 ha (111 acres) adjoining air- first North American airport region and the province.
port property; completion of the awarded this certification.
largest bond issue in Canadian
Figure 1-5 illustrates the develop-
corporate history for airport
ment projects and land acquisitions
expansion and redevelopment;
that the GTAA has implemented
completion of one of the largest
since 1996 after taking over the
infrastructure projects in Canadian
management, control and

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N


The 1930s
February 1935 The federal government promises to build an airport in Toronto the nest in all Canada.
July 1937 Toronto City Council votes to proceed with the immediate construction of airports at both Toronto Island and Malton.
August 1937 The federal government acquires nine farm properties in Malton for airport development.
August 1938 The City of Toronto opens Toronto Municipal Airport in Malton (informally known as Malton Airport).
August 1938 The rst ofcial landing at Toronto Municipal Airport.
January 1939 The City transfers responsibility for Toronto Municipal Airport to the Toronto Harbour Commission.
January 1939 The Airport receives ofcial licence to operate as an aerodrome facility.
February 1939 The Toronto Harbour Commission immediately transfers the Airport to the Department of Transport under a lease
agreement until December 1940.
February 1939 The Department of Transport contracts Trans Canada Airlines to operate the Airport until 1940.
The 1940s
1940 The federal government leases Toronto Municipal Airport from the City of Toronto for the duration of the Second World
War to use primarily for military training.
January 1942 Maltons Air Trafc Control Centre starts operations.
April 1946 The federal government agrees to operate Toronto Municipal Airport for the next 10 years, leasing the property from
the City.
May 1948 The federal government installs an Instrument Landing System (ILS) at Toronto Municipal Airport.
January 1949 A new terminal building opens providing additional capacity for 400,000 passengers per year.
The 1950s
January 1954 The federal government announces long-range plans to extend Maltons runways and spends $5 million to expropriate
property to make Toronto Municipal an international airport.
June 1955 U.S. Customs begins pre-clearance at Malton.
1957 By 1957, Toronto Municipal Airport takes over from Montreals Dorval Airport as Canadas main international airport.
1957 The introduction of jet-powered aircraft in the late 1950s leads to the need to increase runway lengths beyond the
current 1800 m (6000 ft) and the rst long runway (15-33) is completed.
November 1958 The City of Toronto sells the Airport to the Department of Transport and the Airport becomes federal government property.
December 1958 Construction begins on the rst of 4 planned aeroquay passenger terminals (Old Terminal 1).
The 1960s
October 1960 Toronto Municipal Airport is ofcially renamed Malton International Airport in recognition of trans-oceanic service.
November 1960 Malton International Airport is renamed Toronto International Airport (Malton).
1962 Toronto International becomes the busiest airport in Canada surpassing Montreal.
1962 The new east-west parallel runway (06L-24R) is completed and Runways 15-33 and 06R-24L are extended to 3,400 m and
2,900 m respectively.
1964 The federal government opens the Air Cargo Centre north of Terminal 1.
February 1964 The rst aeroquay terminal (Terminal 1) is opened by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. Terminal 1, with 23 gates, was
built to handle 3.5 million passengers annually.
July 1968 The federal government announces it will not build a second aeroquay terminal, opting instead to build an interim
terminal capable of handling new wide-body jets.
1968 Plans for a new airport in Pickering are introduced and proceed until 1975 at which time the Pickering project is halted
by the Ontario government.
1969 Construction of Stage 1 of Terminal 2 commences.
1969 Runway 06L-24R is extended to 3,200 m to accommodate jumbo jets.
October 1969 Ontario introduces a 51,500-acre noise zone around the Airport and will allow no residential development within it, only
soundproofed hotels.

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N


The 1970s
June 1972 Terminal 2 opens with the capacity to serve 6 million passengers. Originally designed to be a cargo facility, its role soon
changed as passenger trafc continued to grow.
March 1972 The federal government purchases 7,527 hectares of land within Pickering, Markham and Uxbridge for the purpose of
building a second international airport for the Toronto area.
April 1973 Stage 2 of Terminal 2 is completed and Air Canada moves its entire operation into Terminal 2.
1973 A Category II ILS is installed allowing aircraft to arrive and depart in most weather conditions.
1974 A new international pact with the U.S. establishes customs and immigration pre-clearance procedures.
1977 Terminal 2 international expansions increase its capacity to 9 million passengers per year.
The 1980s
1981 Terminal 1 international expansion increases its capacity to 6.5 million passengers per year.
1984 Toronto International Airport is ofcially renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport.
1988 Construction of Terminal 3 by a private consortium commences.
July 1989 The federal government announces Toronto Pearson is to be developed to its optimum capacity. The federal government
begins the environmental assessment of the Toronto Pearson site.
August 1989 The Minister of Transport announces Pearson will continue as the major airport for Southern Ontario and will be
developed to its optimum capacity in terms of social, economic and transportation considerations.
The 1990s
1991 Terminal 3 Canadas rst air terminal facility developed, owned and operated by the private sector, opens with 24 gates
capable of handling 10 million passengers per year.
1991 The federal government commences public hearings on the ndings of the Environmental Assessment of the expansion of
Toronto Pearson.
February 1993 After three years of detailed environmental studies (from 1989-1991) regarding future airside development, followed by
four months of public hearings in 1991 and 1992, the Minister of Transport announces that three additional runways are
to be constructed at Toronto Pearson to meet air trafc demand in southern Ontario until approximately 2010.
March 1993 The Greater Toronto Regional Airports Authority (GTRAA) is established as a community initiative led by the regional
municipalities of Durham, Halton, Metropolitan Toronto, Peel, and area boards of trade and chambers of commerce.
July 1994 The Minister of Transport announces a new National Airports Policy. Toronto Pearson is dened as one of Canadas core
airports that will form the National Airports System and will be managed by an airport authority.
November 1994 The GTRAA is reconstituted with a new name: the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA). The GTAA is ofcially
recognized by Transport Canada as the operating authority for Toronto Pearson.
December 1994 The GTAA signs a letter of intent to initiate formal negotiations with Transport Canada for the transfer of Toronto Pearson.
1995 The GTAA unveils a concept to replace Terminals 1 and 2 with a single unied terminal capable of accommodating
50 million passengers per year.
2 December 1996 The GTAA signs the Ground Lease with the federal government and assumes the operation, management and control of
Toronto Pearson.
April 1997 The GTAA purchases Terminal 3 from the Airport Development Corporation, the consortium that built, operated and
maintained it under contract with Transport Canada, thereby consolidating the management of all three terminals.
1997 The GTAA completes the largest bond issue in Canadian corporate history for airport expansion and redevelopment.
November 1997 Runway 15R-33L, Toronto Pearsons fourth runway, begins operations.
1998 The rst phase of the new Central Deicing Facility opens.
July 1998 The location of the Toronto Pearson Airport Operating Area in the Region of Peel (for Mississauga and Brampton) was
determined by an Ontario Municipal Board ruling.
July 1998 New North Fire Hall and re training facility open.

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N


The 1990s (contd)
1998 Toronto Pearsons Airport Development Program, the GTAAs $4.4 billion plan for the redevelopment of the Airport, is
launched and groundbreaking ceremonies signal the ofcial start of construction of the new passenger terminal.
July 1999 New South Fire Hall opens.
1999 Two additional Central Deicing Facility pads are constructed.
1999 The GTAA receives ISO 14001 environmental standards certication, making it the rst North American airport to be
awarded this certication.
1999 The new Air Trafc Control tower is commissioned measuring 34.5 metres higher than the previous tower.
The 2000s
2000 The GTAA purchases 1.5 km of Hwy 409, west of Hwy 427, from the Ontario Ministry of Transport to rationalize the
Airports roadway system.
2000 The GTAA facilitates the move of 40 airlines between terminals due to industry consolidations and in preparation for the
opening of the new terminal.
2000 The old Air Trafc Control tower, commissioned in 1963, is demolished to make room for expanded ineld facilities.
2000 The Ineld Tunnel opens providing a link between the ineld and the terminal buildings.
2001 Cargo operations are moved to the new ineld facilities.
July 2001 The GTAA enters into an agreement to purchase the Boeing lands comprising more than 45 ha adjoining airport property.
August 2001 The Ontario Municipal Board ruled on the Toronto Pearson Airport Operating Area location within the City of Toronto.
2002 Runway 06R-24L, Toronto Pearsons fth runway, and the dual taxiway in the terminal area become operational.
April 2004 The rst phase of New Terminal 1 opens comprised of piers D and E offering 14 bridged aircraft gates and nine commuter
November 2004 Old Terminal 1 is demolished.
October 2005 Ten additional bridged gates become operational in New Terminal 1.
July 2006 The Automated People Mover Train, named the LINK Train, begins operations connecting Terminals 1 and 3 and the GTAA
Reduced Rate Parking Lot on Airport Road.
January 2007 The second phase of New Terminal 1 becomes operational with the opening of Pier F, the international pier, consisting of
an additional 25 bridged gates.

Chapter 1 > I N T R O D U C T I O N