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## 1. If the tangent at the point (a, b) to the curve x3 + y3 = c3 p

3p
meets the curve again at the point (p, q), then (a) 2np + ,(2n + 1)p 2np + ,(2n + 2)p
2 2
(a) ap + bq + pq = 0 (b) aq + bp + ab = 0
3p
(c) a 2 + b2 = p2 + q2 (d) None of these
(b) 2np + p, 2 np +
2
2. The equation of the normal to the curve x + y = xy, where it 3p

cuts x-axis is (c) 2np + ,(2n + 2)p
2
(a) y = x (b) y = x + 1
(c) y = x 1 (d) x + y = 1 p 3p
(d) 2np, 2np + , (2n + 1) p, 2np + ,
3. If the parabola y = f (x), having axis parallel to the y-axis, 2 2
touches the line y = x at (1, 1), then
(n I )
(a) 2 f '(0) + f (0) = 1 (b) 2 f (0) + f '(0) = 1 7. The tangent at any point on the curve x = a cos3 ,
y = a sin 3 meets the axes in P and Q. The locus of the mid
(c) 2 f (0) - f '(0) = 1 (d) 2 f '(0) - f (0) = 1
point of PQ is
4. The sum of intercepts on the axes of coordinates by any (a) x3/2 + y3/2 = a 3/2 (b) x2/3 + y2/3 = a 2/3
(c) 4(x + y) = a (d) 4(x2 + y2) = a 2
tangent to the curve x + y = 2 is
8. If the relation between subnormal SN and subtangent ST
(a) 2 (b) 4
at any point S on the curve by 2 = ( x + a) 3 is
(c) 8 (d) 2 2
5. The angle between the tangents at any point P and the line p( SN ) = q( ST )2 , then p is equal to
q
joining P to the origin O, where P is a point on the curve
y a 8a
ln( x 2 + y 2 ) = c tan-1 , c is a constant, is (a) (b)
x 27b 27b

## (a) Constant (b) varies as tan1 (x) 8b 8b

(c) (d)
27b 27
p
(c) varies as tan1 (y) (d) equal to
2 9. The value of n in the equation of curve y = a1- n x n ,
6. The general value of such that the line so that the sub-normal may be of constant length is
x cos + y sin = p is a normal to the curve 3 1
(x + a) y = c2 is (a) 2 (b) (c) (d) 1
2 2

M ARK YOUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
RESPONSE 6. 7. 8. 9.
480 IIT-JEE MATHEMATICS C h a l l e n g e r

16. Two men P and Q start with velocities v at the same time
x3
x
dt from the junction of two roads inclined at 45o to each other.
10. The equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2 2
1+ t If they travel by different roads, the rate at which they are
being separated is
at x = 1 is
(a) v 2 (b) v 2+ 2
(a) 2 y +1= x (b) 3x + 1 = y
(c) 3x + 1+ 3 = y (d) None of these (c) v 2 - 2 (d) v / 2
17. x and y are the sides of two squares such that y = x x2.
11. Given a function f :[0, 4]
R is differentiable, then The rate of change of the area of the second square with
respect to the area of the first square is
for some a, b (0, 4) [ f (4)] - [ f (0)] =
2 2
(a) x2 x + 1 (b) 2x2 + 2x 1
2
(c) 2x 3x + 1 (d) x2 + x 1
(a) 8 f '(b )f (a ) (b) 4 f '(b ) f ( a)
18. With the usual meaning for a, b, c and s if be the area of
(c) 2 f '(b ) f ( a) (d) f '(b )f (a ) a triangle, then the error in , ( ) resulting from a small
12. A function f is differentiable in the interval 0 x 5 such
error in the measurment of c ( d c) is given by
f ( x)
that f(0) = 4 and f (5) = 1. If g ( x ) = , then there dc D .dc
x+1 (a) dD= (b) dD=
4s 4s
exists some c in 0 < c < 5 such that f '(c) equals
( abc ) sc
1 5 (c) D= (d) None of these
(a) (b) 4 s2
6 6
19. If the sides and angles of a plane triangle vary in such a
1 way that its circumradius remains constant, then the value
(c) (d) none of these
6 da db dc
13. The distance covered by a particle moving in a straight
of + + is (where da, db, dc, are small
cos A cos B cos C
line from a fixed point on the line is s. Where
increments in the sides a, b, c respectively)
s 2 = at 2 + 2bt + c, then acceleration is proportional to (a) 0
(b) a + b + c
(a) s2 (b) s3
(c) s 1/2 (d) None of these (c) a sin A + b sin B + c sin C
(d) None of these
14. A man is moving away from a tower 41.6m high at a rate of
20. If f (x) and g (x) are differentiable functions for 0 x 1
2m/s. If the eye level of the man is 1.6m above the ground,
then the rate at which the angle of elevation of the top of such that f (0) = 2, g (0) = 0, f (1) = 6, g (1) = 2, then there
the tower is changing when he is at a distance of 30 m from exists c (0,1), for which f '(c) =
the foot of the tower is (a) g'(c) (b) 2 g' (c)
4 2 (c) g' (c) g' (0) (d) None of these
(a) - rad - s -1 (b) - rad - s -1
125 125 21. The equation 3 x 2 + 4 ax + b = 0 has at least one root in
(0, 1) if
p
(c) - rad - s -1 (d) None of these (a) 4a + b + 3 = 0 (b) 2a + b + 1 = 0
300
4
15. At any point of the curve 2x2y2 x4 = c, the mean propor- (c) b = 0. a = (d) None of these
tional between the abscissa and the difference between 3
the abscissa and the subnormal drawn to the curve at the 22. The real value of k for which the equation x3 3x + k = 0
same point is equal to has two distinct roots in (0, 1) is
(a) ordinate (b) radius vector (a) k R (b) 0 < k < 1
(c) x-intercept of tangent (d) subtangent
(c) 1 < k < (d) k f

## 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

M ARK YOUR
15. 16. 17. 18. 19.
RESPONSE
20. 21. 22.
APPLICATION OF DERIVA TIVES - 1 481

23. If and are any two roots of equation ex cos x = 1, then 29. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has two distinct positive
the equation ex sinx 1 = 0 has roots, then the equation ax2 + (b + 6a) x + (c + 3b) = 0 has
(a ) exactly one roots in ( , ) (a) two positive roots
(b) Exactly one positive root
(b) exactly two roots in ( , ) (c) at least one positive root
(c) at least one root in ( , ) (d) no positive root
425
(d) no root in ( , ) 30. Let f(x) = ln x and g(x) = x2. If c (4,5) then c ln 16
24. If the normal to the curve y = f (x) at x = 0 be given by the 5
e q u a t i o n 3x y + 3 = 0, then the value of equals to
-1 (b) 2 (c2ln 4 8)
Lim x { f ( x ) -5 f (4x ) + 4 f (7 x )}
2 2 2 2
= (a) c ln 5 8
x 0 (c) 2 (c2 ln5 8) (d) c ln4 8
31. A rocket of length h is fired vertically upwards with velocity
1 1
(a) (b) 1
3 3 v(t) = (2 t + 3 ) ms . If the angle of elevation of the top of
the rocket from a point on the ground at time t = 1 sec is 30
1 1
(c) (d) and at t = 3 sec is 60, then the value of h is
5 4
1 5
(a) (b) (c) 3 (d) 1
25. Let P be a point on the hyperbola x - y = a , where a
2 2 2 2 2
is a parameter, such that P is nearest to the line y = 2x. x2

x cos1 t 2dt at
Then the locus of P is
(a) y = 2x (b) y = x 32. The slope of the tangent to the curve y =
(c) 2y = x (d) x + y = 0
1
d2 y x= is
26. For the curve ax 2 + by 2 = c, y3 + 4 = 0, then the 42
dx2

equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 will have (a) 0 (b)
(a) imaginary roots (b) real and unequal roots 2
(c) real and equal roots (d) both roots infinite 4 8 1 6 8 1
27. Let f(x) and g(x) be differentiable for 0 x 1, such that (c) 3 4 (d) 6 4

f (0) = 2, g (0) = 0, f (1) = 6. Let there exists a real number c in
[0, 1] such that f '( c) = 2 g ' (c), then the value of g (1) 33. Equation of the tangent to the curve y = e| x| at the point
must be where it cuts the line x = 1
(a) 1 (b) 2 (a) is ey + x = 2 (b) is x + y = e
(c) 2 (d) 1 (c) is ex + y = 1 (d) does not axist
28. If f and g exist for all x [ a ,b ] and if 34. A point is in a motion on the curve 12 y = x3 , the ordinate
g ( x) 0 " x ( a, b) then for some c ( a ,b ) , is changing at a slower rate than the abscissa in the inerval
f (c ) - f (a) (a) ( 2, 2) (b) ( , 2) (2, )
=
g( b) - g(c) (c) (2, ) (d) (0, 2)

## f (c) 35. If m is slope of common tangents y = x x + 1,

2
(a) f (c) g ( c) (b)
g ( c)
y = x2 3x + 1 then m is
1 f ( a) f( c)
(c) f (c ) - (d) 1
g (c) g( b) g ( c) (a) 2 (b) 1 (c) (d) 2
2

## 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

M ARK YOUR
28. 29. 30. 31. 32.
RESPONSE
33. 34. 35.
482 IIT-JEE MATHEMATICS C h a l l e n g e r

## 41. The curve x + y ln (x + y) = 2 x +5 has a vertical tangent

36. Slope of the normal to the curve x = t 2 + 3t 8,
at the point ( , ). Then + is equal to
y = 2t 2t 5, at the point P (2, 1) is given by
2
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 2
42. If the fuction f: [0, 8] R is differentiable then for
7 7 6 6
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 6 7 7 8

## 37. If m be slope of a tangent to the curve e y = 1 +x2 then

0 < , <2, 0 f (t ) dt is equal to
(a) | m | > 1 (b) m 1
(a) 3[ 3 f ( 2 ) +
2
f(
2
)]
(c) | m | < 1 (d) | m | 1
38. Angle formed by the positive Y-axis and the tangent to (b) 3[ 3 f ( 2) + 3 f ( )]
5 3
y = x2 + 4x 17 at 2 , 4 is (c) 3[ 2 f ( 3 ) + 2 f ( 3)]

(d) 3[ 2 f ( 2 ) + 2 f ( 2 )]

(a) tan 1 9 (b) tan 1 9 43. If f (x) = 0 is a cubic equation with positive and distinct
2
roots , , such that is the H.M of the roots of

(c) + tan 1 9 (d) f ( x) = 0. Then , , are in
2 2
39. If the line joining the points (0, 3) and (5 ,2) is a tangent to (a) A.P. (b) G.P.
(c) H.P. (d) none of these
c
the curve y = , then value of c is 44. Let the equation of a curve be x = a( + sin ),
x+1
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 4 y = a(1 cos ). If changes at a constant take k then
rate of change of the slope of the tangent to the curve at
40. Coordinates of the point on y 2 = 8x which is nearest to

the circle x 2 + ( y +6) 2 =1 is; = is
3
(a) (2, 4) (b) (18, 12)
2k k 2k
(c) (2, 4) (d) (18, 12) (a) (b) (c) k (d)
3 3 3

## M ARK YOUR 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

RESPONSE 41. 42. 43. 44.

## PASSAGE-1 (iii) g '( x ) 0 for any x ( a, b)

then there exists at least one point c ( a ,b ) such that
Cauchy Theorem : If two functions f and g are
(i) continuous in [a, b] f (b) - f ( a) f '(c )
=
(ii) derivable in (a, b) g (b) - g( a) g '(c)
APPLICATION OF DERIVA TIVES - 1 483

1. Which of the following inequalities is true The length p of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent (i)
-1 -1 is given by
(a) |tan x - tan y || x - y | " x, y R
k 2 - 2ah 4a( h + a) - 2 ah
(b) |tan-1 x - tan-1 y || x - y | " x, y R p= = = a( x + 2 a) ....(ii)
4a 2 + k 2 4a2 + 4a( h + a)
(c) |sin x - sin y | | x - y | " x, y R
Also,r2 = h 2 + k 2 = h 2 + 4a (h + a) = (x + 2a)2 ....(iii)
(d) |cos x - cos y | | x - y | " x, y R From (ii) and (iii) we obtain p 4 = a 2 r2 , which is the required pedal
2. Suppose , and are angles satisfying equation.
sin sin x2 y2
0< <<< , then = + = 1 is
2 cos cos 4. The pedal equation of the ellipse
a2 b2
(a) tan (b) tan
(c) cot (d) cot (a) p 2 = a 2 + b2 - r2
3. If f (x) is continuous in [a, b] and differentiable in (a, b)
1 1 1 r2
then there exists at least one c ( a , b ) such that (b) = + -
p 2 a 2 b 2 a 2 + b2
f (b) - f ( a)
equals
b3 - a3 1 1 1 r2
(c) = + -
p 2 a 2 b 2 a2 b2
f '( c)
(a) 3c 2 f '(c ) (b)
3c2 1
+
1
=1
(d) 2
(c) f ( c) f '(c ) (d) 3c2 f (c) f (c) p r2
5. The equation of a curve is given in parametric form
x = a cos 3 , y = a sin 3
PASSAGE-2 The pedal equation of this curve is

The relation between the distance of any point on a curve from (a) r 2 = a2 + 3 p2 (b) 3r 2 = a 2 + p 2
the origin and the length of the perpendicular from the origin to
(c) r 2 = a2 - 3 p2 (d) r 3 = a 2 - 3 p 2
the tangent at the point is called the Pedal equation of the curve.
Let the cartesian equation of a curve be y = f(x) 6. The cartesian equation of a curve is given by
Equation of the tangent at a point (h , k ) is c2 (x2 + y2 ) = x2 y2 . The pedal equation of this curve is
y - k = f '( h)( x- h) xf '( h) - y + k - hf '( h) = 0 1 3 1 1 1 3
(a) 3
+ 2
= 2 (b) 3
+ 2
=
If p, be the length of the perpendicular from (0, 0) to this tangent, p r c p r c2
then we have
1 1 1 1 3 1
| k - hf '( h) | (c) + = (d) + =
p= p 3
r 3 3
c p 2
r 2
c2
.....(1)
1 + { f '( h)} 2

## Further k = f(h) .....(2)

PASSAGE-3
and r2 = h 2 + k 2 .....(3)
where r is the distance of the point (h, k) from origin.
Eliminating h , k between (1), (2) and (3), we obtain a relation Read the following write up carefully:
between p and r, i.e. p = f(r), which is the required pedal equation If f ( x) = ( x ) n g( x),
of the curve.
For example if the equation of a curve is y2 = 4a (x + a) then f ( ) = f ( ) = f ''( ) = ... = f n 1 ( )= 0 where f (x)
Tangent at (h, k) is and g (x) are polynomials.
2a For a polynomial f (x) with rational coefficients, answer the
y-k = ( x - h) 2ax - ky + k 2 - 2ah = 0 ...(i) following question.
k

M ARK YOUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
RESPONSE 6.
484 IIT-JEE MATHEMATICS C h a l l e n g e r

## 7. If f (x) touches x-axis at only one point, then the point of

The tangent at (1, 2) of y = x +1, will meet the curve
3
tangency is 11.
(a) always a rational number y = x3 +1 at
(b) may or may not be a rational number (a) ( 2, 7) (b) (2, 9)
(c) never a rational number (c) (3, 28) (d) ( 3, 27)
(d) nothing can be said
12. The tangent at t of the curve y = 8t3 1, x = 4t 2 +3 meets
8. If f ( 3) = f (2) =0 and f ( 3) < 0, then the largest
the curve at t and is normal to the curve at that point, then
integral value of c can be (where f ( x) = x 3 +ax 2 +bx c+ ) value of t must be
(a) 18 (b) 19 1 1
(a) (b)
(c) 12 (d) 6 3 2
9. If f ( ) = f ( ) =f ( ) 0,
= f ( ) f= ( ) f =( ) 0 =
2
where < and f (x) is a polynomial of degree 6, then (c) (d) none of these
3
(a) all the roots of f ( x ) = 0 are real and distinct

## (c) exactly two roots of f ( x ) = 0 are real

f : R R, f (x) is a differentiable function such that all its successive
(d) f ( x ) = 0 has exactly two coincident roots derivatives exist. f (x) can be zero at discrete points only and
f (x) f (x) 0 x R.
13. If f (a) = 0, then which of the following is correct
PASSAGE-4 (a) f (a + h) f (a h) < 0
(b) f (a + h) f (a h) > 0
In second degree curves, a line which once touches the (c) f (a + h) f (a h) < 0
curve cannot meet the curve again but in cubic and other (d) f (a + h) f (a h) > 0
non-algebraic curves, the tangent can meet the curve again. 14. If and are two consecutive roots of f (x) = 0, then
If we solve the equation of tangent and a cubic curve, we (a) f () = 0 (, )
will in general get three roots two of which will be equal (b) f () = 0 (, )
since they will correspond to the point where the tangent (c) f () = 0 (, )
was initially drawn. (d) f () = 0 (, )
15. If f (x) 0, then maximum number of real roots of f (x) = 0
10. The equation of tangent to the curve y = x3 +1 at (1, 2) is
is/are
(a) y = 3x (b) y = 3x +1 (a) no real root (b) one
(c) y = 3x 1 (d) none of these (c) two (d) three

## M ARK YOUR 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

RESPONSE 12. 13. 14. 15.
APPLICATION OF DERIVA TIVES - 1 485

## Statement-2 : Line joining (1, 1) and (2, 0) is

1. Statement-1 : The tangent to the curve y = 4 +sin 2 x
perpendicular to the line y = x.
at x = 0 is parallel to x-axis. 3. Statement-1 : Wherever exists the slope of tangents
Statement-2 : The range of function y( x ) is [4, 5].
to curve tan( x + y) = e x+ y is constant.
2. Statement-1 : The shortest distance of the line y = x
Statement-2 : Wherever defined the equation
from the curve ( x 2)2 + y 2 =1 is represents family of parallel lines.

2 1.

M ARK YOUR 1. 2. 3.
RESPONSE

1. For the curve y = bex / a 4. Let and are two distinct positive numbers such that
(a) the subtangent is of constant length loga a = a and loga b = b then a can attain the values
(b) the subnormal is of constant length
from the set(s)
(c) the subnormal varies as the square of ordinate
(d) the subtangent varies as the radius vector (a) 1
0,
e
(b) (1, 3 e )
2. If a, b, c, be non-zero real numbers such that
(c) (1, e1/ e ) (d) ( e , )
1
0 (1+ cos8 x)(ax 2 + bx + c) 5. The tangent lines for the curve y =
x
0 2 | t | dt, which are
parallel to the bisector of the first quadrant angle are
2

dx = (1 + cos8 x)(ax 2 + bx + c) dx = 0, (a) y= x+
1
4
(b) y= x+
3
4
0
3 1
then the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has (c) y= x- (d) y= x-
4 4
(a) roots of opposite sign x y 4
(b) at least one fractional root 6. If + =1 is a tangent to the curve x = 4t, y = , t R
a b t
(c) one root in [0, 1] and other root in [1, 2] then
(d) one root in [, 1] and other root in [ 2, ] (a) a > 0, b > 0 (b) a > 0, b < 0
(c) a < 0, b > 0 (d) a < 0, b < 0
3. The real values of a for which the equation x3 3x + a = 0
7. The values of the parameter a so that line
has three real and distinct roots is
(3 a ) x + ay + a 2 1 = 0 is a normal to the curve xy = 1,
(a) 2 < a < 2 (b) a -2
is / are;

## (c) a 2 (d) - 2 < a <

1 (a) (3, ) (b) ( ,0)
2
(c) (0, 3) (d) ( , 3)

M ARK YOUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
RESPONSE 6. 7.
486 IIT-JEE MATHEMATICS C h a l l e n g e r

## 1. Observe the following columns :

Column-I Column-II

a2
(A) The normal line to y = bex/a p.
b2
where it crosses y-axis, has slope equal to
a
(B) Subnormal length to xy = a 2 b 2 at any point (x, y) q.
b

1 3
is p then y is equal to
p
(C) The length of subtangent at any point (x, y) on the r. a2 b2

x2 y2 p|x|
ellipse + = 1 is p then
is equal to
a b 2 2 y2
(D) If m be slope of tangent at any point (x, y) on the curve

x2 y2 my b2
= 1 then is equal to s.
2 2 x a
a b
2. Observe the following columns :
Column-I Column-II

3
(A) If the curves y = 1 cos x, x (, ) and y = x + a touch p. 0
2
each other then the number of the possible values of a is
equal to
(B) If two curves y2 = 4a(x b 1) and x2 = 4a(y b 2),where a is q. 2
a positive constant number and b 1 and b 2 are variables,
touch each other then their point of contact lies on
xy = k a2, where k is equal to
(C) The point on the parbola y2 = 4x, which is nearest to the r. 3
circle x2 + (y 12)2 = 1 has the ordinate equal to
(D) The ordinate of the point(s) on the curve y3 + 3x2 = 12y s. 4
where the tangent is parallel to y-axis is/are t. 2

1. 2.

M ARK YOUR
RESPONSE
APPLICATION OF DERIVA TIVES - 1 487

## 3. Observe the following columns:

Column-I Column-II
(A) The intercept of the common tangent to the curves p. 2
y2 = 8x and xy = 1 on the axis of y is equal to
(B) Let f be a real function whose derivatives upto third q. 0
order exist and for some pair a,b R, a < b

f ( a) + f '( a) + f "( a)
log = a b,then \$ c ( a, b)
f (b) + f '(b) + f "(b)

f "'(c )
for which is equal to
f (c )
(C) Let f(x) = (x2 1) (x2 4), and , , be the roots of r. 1
the equation f '(x) = 0 then [] + [] + [] is equal to
([t] represents the integral part of t)
5
(D) If three normals can be drawn to the curve y2 = x s.
4
from the point (c, 0) then c can be equal to t. 2
4. Column-I Column-II
(A) Number of points on the curve p. 4
xy = 2, where tangent makes an
acute angle with x-axis is equal to
dy
(B) If y = sin 1 ( l n ( sin x ) ) then at q. 0
dx

x= is equal to
2
(C) The slope of the tangent to the curve r. 1

x = et sin t , y =et cos t at the point t =
4
is equal to
1
(D) If be the angle of intersection of the s.
2

curves y = x2 and 6 y = 7 x3 at
(1, 1) then sin is equal to

3. 4.
M ARK YOUR
RESPONSE
488 IIT-JEE MATHEMATICS C h a l l e n g e r

1. If the tangent at (a, b) to the curve x3 + y3 = c3 meets the 6. If the point of intersection of the tangents drawn to the
a b
curve again at (a 1, b 1), then 1 + 1 + 1 is equal to curve x 2 y = 1 y at the points where it is met by the curve
a b
xy = 1 y be ( , ) then + is equal to
2. If the curves ax + by = 1 and a 1x2 + b 1y2 = 1 may cut each
2 2

## 1 1 1 1 7. The segment of the tangent to the curve x 2 / 3 + y 2 / 3 =16,

other orthogonally such that - = l - then
a a1 b b1 contained between x and y axes, has length equal to
is equal to 8. Tangent at P1 (2,3) on the curve 3 y = x3 +1 meets the
3. If the acute angles between the curves y = |x2 1| and y =
|x2 3| at their points of intersection be such that curve again at P2 . The tangent at P2 meets the curve at P3

## m and so on. If the sum of the ordinates for P1 , P2 , P3 ,.....P60

tan q = then m2 is equal to
7
2183 8
4. If the tangent at any point P (4m2, 8m3) of x3 y2 = 0 is a be S then S + is equal to
normal also to the curve x3 y2 = 0, then 9m2 is equal to 27
5. If be the angle of intersection of curves
y = [|sin x | +|cos x |] and x 2 + y 2 =5, where [.] denotes
the greatest integer function, then tan2 is equal to

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

M ARK
YOUR
RESPONSE

6. 7. 8.
APPLICATION OF DERIVA TIVES - 1 489

## 1 (b) 9 (c) 17 (c) 25 (c) 33 (a) 41 (b)

2 (c) 10 (a) 18 (d) 26 (a) 34 (a) 42 (c)
3 (b) 11 (a) 19 (a) 27 (b) 35 (d) 43 (b)
4 (b) 12 (b) 20 (b) 28 (b) 36 (b) 44 (d)
5 (a) 13 (b) 21 (b) 29 (c) 37 (d)
6 (a) 14 (a) 22 (d) 30 (b) 38 (b)
7 (d) 15 (a) 23 (c) 31 (c) 39 (c)
8 (d) 16 (c) 24 (b) 32 (c) 40 (c)

## 1 (a) 4 (c) 7 (a) 10 (c) 13 (b)

2 (c) 5 (c) 8 (b) 11 (a) 14 (b)
3 (b) 6 (d) 9 (a) 12 (c) 15 (b)

## 1 (a, c) 3 (a,d) 5 (b, d) 7 (a,b,d)

2 (b, c) 4 (b, c) 6 (a, d)

1. A - q; B - r; C - p; D - s 2. A - q; B - s; C - s; D - q
3. A - t; B - r; C - p; D - r, s, t 4. A - q; B - q; C - q; D - r

1 1 3 32 5 4 7 64
2 1 4 2 6 1 8 20