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Education of an Architect by Elizabeth Diller; Diane Lewis; Kim Shkapich; Tadao Ando: The

Yale Studio &Current Works by Tadao Ando; George T. Kunihiro; Peter Eisenman
Review by: Val K. Warke
Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), Vol. 43, No. 4 (Summer, 1990), pp. 45-50
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of the Association of Collegiate Schools of
Architecture, Inc.
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45

Education of an Architect
Edited by ElizabethDiller, Diane Lewis,
and KimShkapich
Preface and Afterwordby John Hejduk
Forewards by John Jay Iselin, Bill N.
Lacy, and Alan C. Green
With Essaysand LectureTranscriptsfrom
VariousContributors
Rizzoli, December 1988
352 pp., 829 illus., $50.00 (hard-
cover), $35.00 (paperback)
Tadao Ando: The Yale Studio &
Current Works
Introductionby KennethFrampton
With Essays by Tadao Ando, George T.
Kunihiro,and Peter Eisenman
Rizzoli, May 1989
144 pp., 200 illus., $25.00 (paper-
back)
Schools of architecture often find the
need - for love or for money - to
produce books about themselves. That
any establishment would find its Architectonics:A SuspendedPendulumBalance byCharles
establishmentary self rather than its Reidy: 1984/85
constitutionalother (architecturein this
case) to be the fitting focus of a book The titleof the IrwinS. Chanin School of At firstglance, a similarobservation is
signifies either a tremendouslyself-as- Architectureof the Cooper Union'sbook, made by Diane Lewis and Elizabeth
sured academic body altruisticallymoti- Education of an Architect, rejects any Diller, two of the editors of the current
vated to share its recipes with an eager initial article. It is not "TheEducation," book (who also appear sometimes as
public, or a quietly desperate faculty which is possibly too immodest;nor is it studentsand sometimesas faculty mem-
hoping to extend the search for its dis- "An Education,"which is probably too bers withinthe text's labyrinth).Theysee
cipline beyond its own borders. Archi- diffident. As a phrase, "Educationof an theirbook as a "Portraitwhich "notonly
tectureschools make books about them- Architect"is like "BronxZoo" or "Plaza manifests the change the school has
selves because they desire others to Hotel;" it is an order barked at a cab- undergone, but is evidence also of a
discover what they knowabout architec- driver. It is self-consciously contracted, particularstability".However,in thesame
ture, or because they desire others to painstakingly direct, and peremptorily introduction,they present an intriguing
know how muchis yet to be discovered. dismissive of discussion. These charac- dichotomy: "Clearlythe assuredness of
teristics sometime seep into the book's the ink line [in the earlier book] has
Reading the books they make is very pages. yielded to the complexitiesof the pencil".
muchliketryingto knowsomeone through This depiction of a place where
a reflection in a funhouse mirror: it is Itis also a reused title. Itappeared for its assuredness yields to complexity best
possible to discern a figure, albeit one firstassociation with the Cooper Union clarifies the dismissal of the addendum
subjected to controlled distortions, and in the catalogue was entitled Education "A Point of Views." It is not because it
behind the figure one might be able to of an Architect: A Point of Views. The has evolved into A Matterof Certainty,
make out the surrounding midway. A disappearance of "APointof View"may as Bill Lacywould suggest, but because
careful reconstruction, unfolding the be relatedto what BillN. Lacy,President the singularityof view pointso pervasive
complex geometries of reflectionwould of the Cooper Unionfrom 1980 through in the earlier test diffractedinto a count-
yield the patientreadera "true"image of 1987, describes as the 1988 catalog's less array of lines of investigation. The
a school; further ratiocinations would lackof tentativenessinthe projects:"Now "particularstability"achieved is the type
provide a depiction of architecture(at it is sure of line, sureof direction. Herein of stabilitygained by understandingthat
timeof publication,of course)somewhere lies a fulfillmentof a promiseonly hinted a complex discipline can be predictably
in the background. at in the earlier efforts." provokedintoan infinitelymorecomplex

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46

disciplinebysubjectingitto increasingly beamanda rayof lightora ship'scross- damentaldirectnessof thisprogramsug-


moreelaborateconundrums. The"stabil- member.Fromthe beginning of the new gests the latentintangibilityof even the
ity"is acknowledgment thatnotall can architect'seducation, the knownis to be most presentcommodity.The problem
be known. In a later essay/problem displaced by a constellation of others. demonstrates howduringtheeducational
statement,Prof.Dillernotesthe conven- The paradoxically arbitraryfinitude of process itself, the productionof every
tionof associatingstabilitywithsanity. only fifteendefinitionsis not confronted. objectis deemedautomatically to be the
Perhapstheschooi's"particular stability" productionof a simulation,even in the
is itsabilityto cope withan architecture A more compelling method of probing face of one-to-onescales and literalma-
oncethought to be directandself-evident, the known is provided by Elizabeth teriality.The problemshows that self-
with beauty defined by architecture's Diller's first year "Architectonics"exer- consciousutilitarianismtendsto reduce
capacity to converge on a Juan Gris cises. Froexample: the sanctityof Function,renderingit or-
paintingforexample,butnow knownto dinaryandsometimesjusta bitsilly.The
expan intoa virtualfractalnetworkof Probe/problem 10 of 10: the Balance, problemsucceeds beautifully as a form
ungraspablecomplications. a study in equilibrium. of enlightenment.
Consider one pound.
When 1971 's Education of an Architect Constructa 'balance' to measure one Elsewhere, one finds that the texts
appeared, it becamea sourcebookfor pound of any substance in fractional throughoutEducationof an Architect
schools and students.Many teachers increments.Develop an equation, using frequentlysummontwo catchwords:
believedthattheycouldsimplyissuethe a counterweight principle, to pose a "absent"and "metaphor." The"absent"
problemsas statedandequallyexquisite "known"against an "unknown"and to is used to referto somethingintangible
projectswould pourforthfromthe bar- be modified by a fulcrum. Study the whichhas been spacio-temporarily dis-
rels of Graphos pens. Studentssaw reciprocitybetween visual and physical placed (or at least displaceddue to a
themselvesas the title'sapocryphalar- forces. shift of focus). It has left in its stead
chitect,and mimickedline weightsand something"present" which is tangible
lungshapes. Itwas all harmlessfununtil Ratherthan displacing or compounding anddescribable."Emptiness" and"void"
the problemsbecame problems.Most the traditionallyunderstood meaning of are oftenused in conjunctionwith"ab-
educatorsback then,even those at the "balance" as it relates to architectural sent"and generally refer to the gap
CooperUnion,knewor suspectedwhat structuresand compositions by returning betweenthepresentandtheabsent.This
the drawingson the walls shouldlook simply to its multiplicityas a linguistic gap is dimensionallyindecipherable.
like. "Whatis threetimesthree?"and signifier, Prof. Diller's problem defamil- One suspectsthatthe absentis what is
"Whatis ten minusone?"are bothvery iarizes conventionallanguage. As a pro- commonlyunderstoodto be architec-
good problems when"nine" is theanswer gram, it is a genuinelytranscendentpiece ture,orat leastarchitecture as it "should
sought. of provocation: justreading it evokes a be."Whatis fabricated-what is made
novel understandingof a concept laden present- is ostensiblya substitutefor
Inthe recentbook, containingprojects with preconceived formalassociations; architecture.Butis ita suggestive,antici-
spanningfrom1972 until1985, some itsuggests notonly the general actions to patorysubstitute?Or does its internal
of the old war-horsesreappear.In the be taken, but it posits a potentialcritical completenessoccludethe possibilityof
firstyear, the ever-popular
Nine-Square method which can permeate the design an architecture?
Gridproblem,developedbyJohnHejduk process; and a series of such exercises
in Texas in the early 1960's, is still suggests the initiation of a process of Here,the second termcomes intoplay,
present, althoughreduced to an em- laying bare the structureof the problem for metaphoricais a traditionallyac-
blematicpresence:a photographof a - ceptable substitutionfor propria,par-
developing mechanisms to be re-
gridded model, now centered over a called throughoutmostarchitecturalcur- ticularlywhen the thing itself mustbe
seriesof dictionarydefinitionsof beam, ricula and even some actual design coaxed intoelucidation.However,there
column,wall, and so on. situations. is an oppositeuse of metaphoralso at
workhere, suggestedby the use of the
Theintroductionof languageas a force Also, one should cite the UtilitarianOb- moreromanticandominousterm"empti-
forexpandinginvestigationis clearlya jects problem, introduced by Tod Wil- ness:" metaphoras the suppressionof
goal here.Thefifteenprinteddefinitions liams. It asks students to produce an the unspeakable.
of beam, forexample,invitean implicit actual, usable object. Gaspare Malek's
syntacticdialogism between the pre- off-centerumbrellais one result.Despite Interestingly,the projectsillustrateddo
sumed normative(and assumedto be the obvious tectonic virtuesof such con- verylittleto pose metaphorical relation-
conceptionof
prejudiced)architectural ception-to-realizationproblems, the fun- shipsin attempting to lead to a possible

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47

determinationof architecture.Metonymy pervasive methodology. This is despite its removalof architecturefromconsider-


emerges as the trope of choice, and the admonition in Ricardo Scofidio's ation, butwill at best cause to emerge a
usuallywith an excruciating literalness. provocativeessay: "Bewarethe criticism series of architecturalbyproducts). Or
Trumpetsections become A Place for of the methodologist,whose condemna- the graduate may discover a thirdmode
Music."A box of body parts becomes a tions is a type of agoraphobia, fearing of operating.
shelter for abused women. Prosthetic the virtual infinity of ideas that open
jointsbecome a house and clinic for an outwards", though it is consistent with The third mode might originate with
orthopedic surgeon. And so on. One RaimundAbraham's concept of theory the analytical exercises proffered in
should cite Kathleen McElduff's den- as a necessary delimitation. As men- the text. "Analysis"was largely docu-
tists' office, however: formallyderived tioned above, the complexity cited by mentation in the 1971 version, appar-
from a set of braced teeth, it is the Lewisand Dilleris the resultof a confron- entlyintendedto familiarizestudentswith
ne plus ultra of this approach. Ms. tation with the "virtualinfinityof ideas" a work of early twentieth century
McElduff begins with the intention of in the early years of the Cooper educa- architecture while improving their
exploring the "language of fear" tion. However, in the later years this graphic and model-making abilities,
judged to be inherent in dentistry.The methodology emerges, perhaps the re- and decentering their creative egos.
resultis a comedic sado-masochisticwork sults of infinitaphobia. Current "analysis," beginning with
of architecturalbridgework,rivallingthe Raimund Abraham's Ledoux projects
role of the dentist in the LittleShop of If exposed to both systems, the title's documentedfor 1979-80 and continuing
Horrorfilms, and effectively exhausting fictitiousArchitectwould either have to into the thirdyearcurriculum,seems to
the capabilities of the metonymicalsys- spend a career dissecting programmatic have an expanded repertoireof archi-
tem. concepts (which, when it results in an tecture deemed worthy of study,
architecture,resultsinone curiouslyfused involves multiple media, and encour-
Thatone can discuss the presence of an to a specific programin a type of func- ages the students to superimpose their
operant system, particularly evident tional determinism)or one dancing on egos upon those of their predeces-
among the most recent studentprojects, the lips of an abyss (which will never sors in order to produce a compound
signals the existence of an incipient but resultin an architecturalproduct,due to work that represents both the given
building as an utterance and the
students'understandingsof the building
as a counter-utterance. The analysis
problemsare essential to the education
of this particularArchitect in that only
through these specific analyses is
architecture not "the absent," but is
instead "the other."

Again, one can returnto Scofidio's es-


say, and hisobservationthat"Antinomies,
to survive,need the dialogue of animate
conversation, not the monologue of a
coroner's report".Withoutthe casting of
a dialogical other (in an architecture
school, one would suspect that architec-
ture, society, nature, or the past would
be ideal candidates), only elaborate
monologues can occur. Some projects
- the Architectonics, the Utilitarian
Object, the Cartesian "House"(quota-
tion marksmine),forexample -engage
this other, although in a heavily con-
strainedway. Those projectsdependant
on metonymy tend to operate
StudyforDentists'Office on Bannerman'sIslandby Kathleen monologically, making an assertation
McElduff;1983/84 and then isolating it in an exclusionist
rhetoric.

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48

This monologism is also the case with the invisible (the absent). If the reader sual field of anyone looking into it. The
thatpeculiarformof metaphorcalled the were foolish enough to transformthis pages tell of a secure, reasoned state of
conceit. For example, when Robert monologue into a dialogue, in other architecturewhile their dimensions ex-
Browningwrote a poem on Abt Vogler words to penetrate the conceit as one tend to contain the whole of the reader's
and his invention,a portableorgan caTled would a metaphor, a dangerous new world.
an Orchestrion,the poem became cen- meaning looms within. As JerryWells,
teredon the unravelingof the Orchestrion another Texan, has pointed out, the in- Today's Education of an Architect
and its player to reveal the "true"sub- sects described are cicadas. In laying measures 9' X 12' when closed, ap-
ject, something like a well-spent life. theireggs, female cicada will often de- proximately19 'X 12' when opened flat
Whereas in literaturesimple metaphors stroy the tree. The larvae live in the dirt (although its binding resists this degree
utilizethe commonalityof understanding until they start their climb up the tree of opening). It is more booklike in its
between author and reader to initiate trunk.Afterflying fromtheir shells, only proportionsand its properties,and does
ever-expandinginterpretive associations, the male cicadas make sounds. The an- less to occupy the reader'scone of vision.
conceits have little capacity for engag- ecdote becomes a romanticization of The drawings and photographs within
ing speculation beyond the space of the destructionof the sexism. The Texas ci- are seldom on the wordless page. Par-
original text. Since they are dependent cada is also known as the seventeen ticularlywith the paperback edition, the
on the voice of the author, metaphorical year locust because of the length of its waxy cover makes the book slippery to
conceits tend to defy the reader's pen- maturationcycle. It has been seventeen grasp.
etration. Using a conceit, an author is years between publicationsof Education
content instead with its unique imagistic of an Architect. Of course, such ex- Tadao Ando: The Yale Studio and
properties and with its capacity for trapolationcan not have been intended. CurrentWorksis a relativelysmall book,
showcasing the author's prowess in Such, however, is the power of meta- 14 1/2' X9 1/2' when open. Itscover
turning an unexpected phrase. It lays phor, and of language for multiple is of a heavyweight, texturedcard stock
bare the act of writing. The reader of meanings. and is somewhat tactile. Thebook shows
Browning'spoem becomes a voyeur as some of Ando's recentworkand mentions
the poem becomes the poet's dramatic It is the capacity for multiplereadings, a studio he led at Yale in 1987, while
monologue. though, that enables Education of an DavenportProfessorthere. The vast ma-
Architecttoprovide hoursof amusement. jority of the book covers twelve of his
When metaphorsare used in the Cooper When read fromfrontto back, it can be recent projects with drawings, photo-
Union book, they tend toward this par- treated as the fictional account of one graphs, and his own descriptive text.
ticularlyrestrictiveform.Thecity projects architect'seducational adventures,from There are two essays about Ando, one
(always purportingto deal with heavily firstyear throughfifth.The listof students by KennethFrampton,the other by Peter
abridged bits of New York)and manyof and dates near the back of the book can Eisenman:a transcriptof a lectureAndo
the theses are structuredas conceits, be used as a type of mapping device delivered at Yale in which he discusses
usually to the point of suppressing con- whereby the text can be layered by "Howto Deal with the Hopelessly Stag-
textual impetuses in order to render the lookingat all of the projectsfrom1979/ nant State of (Contemporary)Modern
sites virtual,passive, and infinitelymore 80, for example, and then from 1980/ Architecture;"and two short essays on
malleable so as not to detract fromthe 8 1, and so on. The index of names lists the Yale studio, by Ando and by his
design conceits. pages withstudentprojectsin bold print, liaison at Yale, George Kunihiro.
facultywritingsin lightprint,and so one
At least one source of this technique can read the book froma type of worm's- The lecture succinctly lays out Ando's
appears in the book's Preface which is eye view, looking firstat the projects of approach to architecture. Modernism,
an excerpt fromits Afterward,writtenby studentswho became faculty, and then for Ando, is seen as a stylisticvocabu-
John Hejduk, the school's dean. Its de- at the work of theirstudents. The list of lary,divorcedfromitsoriginal(andfailed)
scribes a certain phenomenon in Texas dates and topics of visiting lecturerscan utopianurges and fromits backslide into
whereby insects leave their transparent be compared with the projects to see if the economic determinismthat followed
shells clinging to the trunksof trees. One this bibliographyof glancingly-received the ultimateextension of its functionalist
can hear the insects makingsounds from ideas had any effect upon the education doctrine. Geometryis importantto Ando
the trees "in their new metaphysical of their titularArchitect. (he refersto it as his methodology), as is
form... We can hear it but we can not the direct confrontationof naturalenvi-
see it. Ina way, the sound we hear is a As for format, the original Educationof ronmentby the user within the architec-
soul sound." an Architect, when opened flat on a turalcontainer. Perhaps most unique to
table measures just a little over 24'X Ando's campaign, at least as viewed by
Thisconceit is then given a fixed mean- 12'. Itis a very large and properdouble Western audiences, is his attempt to
ing by Hejduk: the shell is art, thoughtis square which consumes most of the vi- integrate Japanese ritual and spatial

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49

conceptions with modernarchitecture- Praise of Shadows which proposes a questions: "Whatshould be the goal of
a combinationof two traditionsachieved Japanese outlook on the varieties of architecturaleducation?"and "What is
largelythroughgeometryand spareness. naturallight. possible and impossible to achieve in
Framptonwritesquite fondlyabout Ando education? (Ando-p15).These, perhaps
here and on several other occasions, When an individualis asked to conduct like the design problem itself, become
and certainlyAndo's work representsa a design studio specifically because of rhetoricalquestions, for Ando offers no
fine exemplar of Frampton'scritical re- his or her unique achievements, the answers. Thebook ends with Eisenman's
gionalism. Eisenman, who produced a physiognomyof education becomes al- essay which ends with an observation
free-associational lecture on the related tered. The students must first teach which infersthe unteachabilityof "Ando".
concept of criticalpractice, publishedin themselveshow to learnfromthisteacher,
the Cooper Union book, pens an ap- who is elevated by the situation to the Perhaps this perceived disillusionment
preciation of Ando and his role in post- status of model. In the case at hand, is the reason there are only three
World War IIJapan. since Ando's work is remarkablefor its photographs of student projects. Cer-
synthesis of a modernism, know, espe- tainly the commitment to include
As a presentation of Ando's work, the cially in Japan, only by its afterimage, Ando's oeuvre makes juxtaposition
Yale book has more sketches than most with the "Japaneseaesthetic conscious- awkward. There are, however, critical
texts on Ando. However, the Global ness," the students had to develop con- descriptions by Ando of two addi-
Architecture monography on Ando is versantfamiliaritywith a delimited mod- tional student projects. Since these
perhaps the mostcomplete and includes ern architecture(undoubtedlythe reason projects are not shown, the critiqueis
all the projects presented in the Yale for requiring Frampton'shistory), and give exclusive authority. Interestingly,
book. The Electa/Casabella documen- they had to effect a passable degree of the text ends with the following
tation Tadao Ando: RokkoHousing is Japaneseness (certainly the reason for sequence of photographs: an interior
probably the mostinsightfulcoverage of requiringTheBook of Tea and In Praise view of the architecturestudio at Yale in
Ando's design processes in relationto a of Shadows). 1962; an aerial view of the campus; a
specific project. One is led to assume group shot of Ando, Kunihiro,and the
thatthe proportionatelyinordinateinclu- The second major obstacle becomes class; two action shots of the final re-
sion of Ando's work is the resultof either the studio problem itself. The Rudolph view; a sketchof the studentsenrolled in
a contractual obligation of his accep- building, although it is considered by the studio (identifying them by their
tance of the DavenportProfessorship,or Ando to be a normative example of names, native countries, and/or un-
it is an opportunitytaken by the pub- modern architecture (a position which dergraduate schools); and a photo-
lisher, Rizzoli, to produce a supplement requires Venturi'ssupport), is already graph of Ando in his studio. In other
to its 1984 Tadao Ando: Buildings phenomenally a museum of architec- words, there is morevisual coverage of
Projects Writings. ture, albeit a rather rococo exponent the personalitiesinvolvedthanthereis of
of the venture. The building is too the products generated. There is a
Our concern here, however, is within eccentric to be consumed as an conceptual symmetryat work here: if
Ando's participationin the Yale studio, exhibit, too tardy to be of any the studio is being vaunted because
and with the educational system sug- formative value. It is a monumental of the presence at Yale of a popular
gested by the relation. Ando's involve- presence which strives to represent a personality, then the logical outcome
mentwith the studio was limitedto one personalized accumulationof modernist of the studio is the final promotion of
week of classes each monthof the se- spatial and materialideals. Eitherthe the students as personae, as demigods
mester. The studio typically met twice a building remains and simply becomes initiated into a personalitycult.
week. The design problemwas to trans- the museum, or it goes away, having
formPaulRudolph's1962 Artand Archi- never happened, yielding instead a Yale's programis a graduate program.
tecture Buildingat Yale into a museum somewhatunreasonable site for such a It is sustained by enticing under-
of architecture. The intention was to program. Given the philosophies of graduate students, generally from
stimulate a confrontation with issues the instructor,the problem becomes a architectureor pre-architecture
programs.
associated primarilywith the continuity tautology. The motive for the text can be seen
of the modernist program - largely as a formof solicitation to this specific
the subject of Ando's own work. The And still, the instructoris not satisfied market.The easily consumable message
students were requiredto read Ken- with the results. Frustratedby what he is the hallmark of advertising. As
neth Frampton'sModern Architecture: perceives as the Americanstudents'ex- such, this mission is largely accom-
A Critical History, Robert Venturi's cessive facility for form-making(a per- plished by the cover. The direct text of
Complexity and Contradiction in Ar- ception modified by George Kunihiroin the cover tells us that Tadao Ando
chitecture, KakuzoOkakura'sThe Book his evaluation of the semester's events), was at Yale. The subtext is that, if one
of Tea, and Junichiro Tanizaki's In Ando is led to ask several fundamental were to go to Yale, one would be in a

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50

performas narratorsin a prolepsis of


imminentcatastrophism.When architec-
tureis seen to be impossible, then either
teaching will also be impossible, or it
will be possible only when its subject is
impossibility.Forexample, a numberof
thesisprojectsin theCooper book appear
to emerge exclusively in a writtenform.
Since the productionof a text (to write)is
a volitional activity, when chosen in
preference to the productionof a more
directedly architecturalobject (e.g. a
drawing or model), there is in the pro-
duction of a text as the terminal mani-
festation of an architecturalproject the
implicitdesire for architectureto be im-
possible. A thetic act overcomes the
hope of a syntheticone.
Do not believe fora momentthatyou and
I are removed fromall of this. We may
feign distance fromthe funhousemirrors,
but we can not study the reflections of
George Kunihiroand Tadao Ando (center, left and right) otherswithoutourselves being caught in
and the Yale Studio a line of refraction.If there is a success
to Educationof an Architect- and there
are many - it is that, like its predeces-
studio with someone as respected as Having tried to constructbodies for the sor, its diagrammed orbits of idiosyn-
Tadao Ando. images in the "funhouse mirrors,"and cratic postulations,disseminatedamong
having argued the capacity for a meta- students and faculty members across
The audience of Educationof an Archi- phor to extend its life into that of its America and beyond, unsettledschools
tect is most likely architecture students readers, I will suggest an explication for everywhere into either uncriticallysimu-
and faculty members across America, the "midway' in the background, and lating the problems illustrated, or into
and alumni of the Cooper Union. Be- invite extended scrutiny as furtherevi- reassertingtheir own sense of balance.
cause the Cooper Union is an under- dence appears. Or, as Prof. Diller would have it, of
graduate school, it is extremelyunlikely sanity.
that students entering from high school Bothtexts reviewed here reveal an archi-
would be enticed by - much less be tecturewhich resistsregulation,bothpose Val K. Warke
aware of - this text. In a sense, the dissatisfactionwith failed agendas, and Cornell University
Cooper book is a noble venture; it is a both belie the mythof a single universal
- much less international -
polemic cast into the maelstrom. species of
architecture. Ando, a gifted architect,
Furthermore,if the Cooper Union ap- finds that when he is hired as a mission-
pears almost obsessively driven in its ary, he himself becomes the catechism,
investigationsof an architecturalepiste- the object of the discourse. To teach
mology, the Yale depicted could be such a lesson places himin opposition to
seen as being piloted by a faith in his own ideology. His acculturationof a
epidemiology - that architectural specific strain of modernarchitectureis
knowledge can be transmittedthrough localized and discreteand so is disserved
casual contact. While Cooper's faculty by distributionin the marketplace.At the
pose problemswhich functionto intermit- Cooper Union, the reluctanceto engage
tently problematize architecture,the in- in exhausted architectureas an interlocu-
tention of the Yale studio is to demon- tor resultsin a discourse which, when it
stratethatthere is no problem,or at least occurs, is primarilyinternalized;the fac-
that the solution is readily accessible. ulty act as authors while the students

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