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Water for
African Cities
Tandale Chakula Bora is a low income settlement located in Tandale
Ward in the City of Dar es Salam. The settlement lies in the neigh-
borhood of a similar unplanned settlement known as Manzese. The
low income area is characterized with high population density, lack
of reliable basic social services including water supply and sanitation
and prone to waterborne and water induced diseases outbreaks.
The socio-economic wellbeing of the suburb contradicts the mean-
ing its name Chakula Bora which means a balanced diet.

Students enjoy access to clean water. UN-Habitat

According to the 2002 According to the 2002 National Population by the conventional water supply network,
Census, the current population of Tandale water supply to the area has always been er-
National Population Ward is estimated as 69,999 living in about ratic due to the fact demand for the precious

Census, the current 19,537 households occupying an area of

450/km2. The community has a second-
liquid in the City of Dar es Salaam is far more
than the actual supply at the moment.
population of Tandale ary school with about 1,600 students and
teachers who add up to the suburbs day In that understanding, DAWASA through its
Ward is estimated as population. special unit (the Community Liaison Unit

69,999 living in about According to the needs assessment baseline

CLU) initiated a standalone scheme for both
the school and the community involving the
19, 5370 households study conducted by a consultant hired by Dar rehabilitation of a deep borehole located
es Salaam Water and Sewage Authority (DA- in a school compound , installation of a
occupying an area of WASA) and UN-Habitat, it was established 5000lts storage tank and a water point to
450/km2 that there is need for training for both the lessen the acuteness of water supply scarcity.
school and the neighboring community. Re- The borehole ceased operations in 2001 due
liable water supply services stands to be the to several reasons the leading ones being
first priority in front of other basic services. poor management and improper operation
In spite of the fact that the area is covered set-up. Under the previous arrangement,

2 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Promoting hygiene by the use of hand washing facility in Consultative meeting with women on water and sanitation needs. UN-Habitat
schools. UN-Habitat

the project did not have any extension to un-conducive. The situation needed a timely cused on developing a tailor made manage-
the community outside the campus neither intervention to address the problems. This ment model and conducted comprehensive
did it include a sanitation component leave has pushed DAWASA and UN-Habitat to capacity building and awareness programs
alone the fact that the management struc- jointly develop and implement the Tandale to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the
ture didnt consider interests of both parties Chakula Bora Community/School Integrated operations and management of the facilities.
for it was entirely managed by the commu- Water Supply and Sanitation project. The
nity and hence was biased to the school. The project has focused on addressing the previ- The lions share of budget (90%) was cov-
set-up resulted in a series of operational and ous management issues and improvement of ered by UN-Habitat with fund allocated
management conflicts and eventually the the existing supply set-up through rehabilita- through United Nations Development Assis-
project ceased operations. tion of the existing infrastructures, extension tance Plan (UNDAP) of Tanzania. The remain-
of water supply services to the neighboring ing balance (10%) was funded by DAWASA.
The aforementioned Tandale Chakula Bora community and overhauling the sanitation Currently all activities under the agreement
Community situation has been adversely af- facilities of the Manzese School. are complete and the project is now fully op-
fecting the social-economic wellbeing of the erational. This document provides details of
residents of the community and also mak- The Cooperation Agreement signed be- the implementation process from inception
ing the teaching and learning environment tween DAWASA and UN-Habitat not only to completion and is intended to be useful
of the Manzese Chakula Bora Secondary included the physical construction and reha- to various practitioners as well as a reference
school, which forms part of the community bilitation of the infrastructures, but also fo- for future similar interventions.

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 3

The Project

Jointly implemented by DAWASA and UN-Habitat whereby the later was the main financier, It was unsafe and
Tandale Chakula Bora Integrated Community & School Water Supply and Sanitation project disturbing for community
needed a special implementation approach due to its nature to ensure that both beneficiary members to fetch water in the
groups (School and the surrounding community) are adequately covered and sufficiently served. school compound.
I commend the project set-
The Project Objectives Scope of the Project up for providing water to the
The overall objective of the project was to The targeted beneficiary population was neighboring community. We both
improve the livelihood of Manzese Second- about 16,000 (including the school com- have to exist and be served in a
ary School and Tandale Uzuri Community munity), which is around 25% of the total more organized manner
through provision of reliable, affordable and population of the Tandale Ward whereas the Mr. Linus Mwakasege, Head Master MCBSS.
sustainable water supply and improved sani- following specific activities have been carried
tation services. The following are the proj- out and completed;
ects specific objectives:
Carrying out a comprehensive baseline
i. Provision of reliable, affordable and sus- study of the target school and community
tainable water supply services and im-
proved sanitation and hygiene practices Rehabilitation of the existing water supply Rehabilitation of the school toilet facilities
to the Tandale Chakula Bora Secondary infrastructures including the borehole, the and installation of hand washing facilities
School and the neighboring community panel house and water drawing points.
Formation and capacity building for the
ii. Build capacity of the beneficiaries in man- Construction of a new 4.5km water sup- Apex Organization that will oversee man-
aging the scheme and its corresponding ply network with increased storage capac- agement and operations of the project
infrastructures ity (from 5,000lts to about 40,000lts) and through;-
5 water drawing facilities within and out-
Development of an Apex Organization side the school compound. mobilization,
structure to enhance efficiency, account- training and
ability and sustainability in day to day op- Construction of a demonstrational rain- initiation of a self-help strategy
erations water harvesting system in the target Carrying out school sanitation and hy-
school giene awareness campaign programs

4 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Construction of the rain water harvesting tank. UN-Habitat

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 5

Project Implementation Process

3.1 Project Implementation Cycle 3.3 The project Financing Arrangement 3.5 Community Mobilization and In-
The project financing arrangement consid- volvement
ered the financing plan, cost elements and In order to create awareness and sensitize
funding mechanism/contribution. The fi- the community, community mobilization
nancing plan is composed of the physical and capacity building programs were con-
(hardware) and capacity building (software) ducted. The process involved the following
part. A total project budget earmarked key activities:
was US$115,000. The cost elements in-
cluded baseline study and capacity building Conduction of community meetings at
(US$35,000) and design, supply and con- different levels
struction (US$80,000). Of the total budget Preparation and conduction of training
of the project UN-Habitat contributed about programs
90% and the remaining balance 10% was Organizing a stakeholders workshop to
covered by DAWASA. review the project and share experience
Formation of an Apex Organization com-
3.2 Problem Identification 3.4 Signing of the Cooperation Agree- prising of representation from both parties
Prior to implementation commencement, a ment
special analysis was conducted to ascertain The agreement signed between DAWASA The project implementation process was
the ground situation including the prevailing and UN-Habitat outlined roles and responsi- participatory in nature with the benefitting
problems, factors that lead to the previous bility of each party to the agreement. While communities fully involved in the entire pro-
failure, the actual condition of infrastruc- UN-Habitat had principal roles of financing cess. The rationale behind the move was
tures, the prevailing services conditions as the project and coordinating its implementa- to ensure that the beneficiary communities
well as provisional designs and budget for tion process, DAWASA facilitated the ground clearly understand the nature and com-
projects revival. Results of the analysis led to execution of the project as well as coordina- plexity of the project and that the sense of
the development of the Cooperation Agree- tion of various stakeholders involved. project ownership is created amongst them.
ment and eventually the project

6 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Its good that the project will be operated by us through leaders selected by ourselves. I hope they
wont let us down and take us go back where we were! Mr. Hassan Rashid Tandale Chakula Bora resident

These were very important aspects of the Rehabilitation of the exiting borehole and
project in terms of commitment, account- the panel house
ability and eventually making the interven- Rehabilitation of the existing toilet facili-
tion sustainable. ties including installation of water supply
and hand washing facilities
3.6 Detailed Designs and Procurement Construction of new storage facilities
The process of developing detailed designs Construction of a new water supply net-
and procurement of service providers for work with five drawing points
goods and services was conducted in ob- Construction of a demonstrational rain-
servance to the requirements of the pre-set water harvesting system at the school
standards and procedures. Ethical conducts
and professionalism were observed to en- 3.8 Monitoring and Evaluation
sure that the final products of the projects DAWASA and UN-Habitat have been con-
attain the required standards and eventually ducting monitoring of the project as a con-
the project objectives are met. tinuous process through implementation
review and progress reporting. After com- Newly constructed water storage facilities and a panel house. UN-Habitat
3.7 The Construction Process pletion of the construction process, DAWA-
The following activities were carried out dur- SA will continue to monitor the project man-
ing the construction process: agement to ensure that it is being managed
with efficiency and in a sustainable manner.

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 7

Life After the Project
As earlier narrated, the school campus has been going without water and neither were there
decent sanitary facilities to make the learning and even teaching environment conducive.
Ms. Asha Ally, a form three student has the following story to share on her experience of the
situation before and after the project.

Lack of water and proper sanitation facilities in The two stories underline the
school affected me in two ways. First it affected my significance of the project in terms of
learning ability because I had to spend some of my
improving social-economic wellbeing
time looking for water in the community for various
uses particularly when I wanted to visit the toilet.
for both the school and the Tandale
Secondly due to the use and consumption of unclean
Chakula Bora community and that
water and bad hygiene practices I was frequently at- the projects objectives have been
tacked by water borne diseases especially diarrhea. successfully met.
Imagine a lady of my age visiting a toilet without
water? I think that was terrible not only to me but to
my colleagues and of course the teachers as well be-
cause they also used to face the same situation. Now Tandale Chakula Bora
that water is available at school I can devote all my residents getting water
time to studies and I am able to use the school toilets from a kiosk outside
the school campus
comfortably. Hygienically I feel transformed and as a UN-Habitat
Asha Ally - school student young lady feel my dignity has been restored

As a result of this project I and my fellow women will

be relieved with the burden of walking long distances
Likewise, the water supply situation in Tandale Chakula Bora and queuing long hours for water, also my spending on
used to be terribly desperate. Apart from the fact that the water has been reduced from Tshs. 4000 to Tshs.2000
area is covered by the conventional water supply network, per day. We will not be frustrated by dry DAWASCO
water supply to the area has never been reliable. Mrs. Re- taps any more as now we have our own water from
hema Kobelo, a resident of Tandale Chakula Bora, has the our own community borehole. I really thank everybody
following story to share regarding the project and the ex- who made this happen because initially we thought it
will never happen and it was yet again another tale
pected changes its going to bring.
we have been hearing regarding water supply

8 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Water for all. UN-Habitat/Julius Mwelu

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 9

What Has been
Achieved (hardware
& software)

Construction of the rainwater harvesting tank. UN-Habitat

S/N Item Unit Quantity By meeting the project objectives, it is A better structured management model
1 Storage Tanks liters 40,000 worth saying that the project has been suc- has been put in place through formation
2 Tanks Towers 3m & 6m No 2 cessful to the level of implementers as well
of the Apex Organization
3 Supply network Km 4.5 as beneficiaries expectations. Table 5.1 be-
4 Water drawing points No 5 low provides a summary of infrastructures Improved communities capacity and

Rehabilitated school
No 24 improved or constructed under the project. knowledge through trainings, meetings
and workshops
Demonstrational RW
6 No 1 The achievement of the project as far as
system Availability of reliable water supply ser-
Borehole 75m deep the beneficiary communities are concerned
7 and discharge of No 1 vices hence improved health
spreads beyond the infrastructure improve-
ment. The following are some of indirect Improved sanitary services particularly for
8 Panel House No 1
benefits the communities have gained as a the school campus
9 Hand washing basins No 8
result of the implementation of the project.
A remarkable water price relief compared
to that of the pushcart vendors

A generally improved learning and teach-

ing environment

10 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Students access to safe clean drinking water. UN-Habitat

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 11

Lessons Learned
The implementation of Tandale Chakula Bora project has not only
improved the social wellbeing of the School and its surrounding com-
munity, but it also has taught DAWASA a lesson in two main aspects.

Rehabilitation of school toilets in progress. UN-Habitat

Ms.Neli Msuya, the head of the Commu- the community and school manage- to DAWASA experience, one of the major
nity Liaison unit emphasized that develop- ment, the newly established management constraints in sustaining WSS projects has
ment of tailor made management models structure seems to be the best workable always been allocation of projects funds
have proven to be effective in avoidance arrangement and DAWASA are in the for other community activities apart from
and management of conflicts in jointly process of replicating it in all similar in- the intended investment and O&M ser-
managed schemes. tervention starting with the Kipunguni B vices. This has mainly been caused by the
community/school WSS project which is fact that communities do not have alter-
TCB institutional arrangement spearhead- underway. native sources of income to cater for other
ed by the Apex Organization under the community challenges hence solely rely on
MoU as the best option to avoid conflicts Implementation of TCB came with an idea projects revenue. It is believed that inter-
in situations where the nature of a project of embedding an income generating ac- vention like Tandale Chakula Bora project
requires a joint management structure. tivity in the form of a self-help strategy. is improving house hold income of the
Bearing in mind that TCB project eased DAWASA strongly commends the idea benefiting communities through provid-
operations for more than seven years as and vows to adopt it in implementation of ing an alternative source of income from
a result of management conflicts between community WSS interventions. According water supply services revenue.

12 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

Tanzania celebrates United Nations work, delivering as One UN Tanzania. UN-Habitat/Anne Musotsi

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 13

The way Forward

The project has been completed but this To evaluate the impact of the project signing a Water and Sanitation Programme
doesnt mark the end of activities. The against the pre-determined objectives with various components reaching out to
fact that communities adjacent to Tandale various continents of the world particularly
Chakula Bora do not have reliable water To provide technical assistance especially those with high number of developing
supply services, envisages an increase in in the areas of O&M and management of countries. One of these major components
demand of the precious liquid which can the project finance is the Water for African Cities Programme,
be well beyond the capacity of the current more popularly known as WAC.
supply. This is a challenge that needs to be To carryout sanitation and hygiene cam-
addressed by both the beneficiary communi- paigns for both school and the neighbor- The Water for African Cities Programme
ties and the implementing entities right from hood community aims to contribute to the achievement of
the outset. the water and sanitation related Millennium
To document and disseminate the project Development Goals and the World Summit
In that understanding DAWASA has high- implementation process on Sustainable Development targets by as-
lighted the following post construction ac- sisting participating utilities to improve the
tivities aiming at ensuring efficiency and sus- UN-Habitat-Water for African Cities Pro- management and delivery of water and sani-
tainability in management of the scheme as gramme tation, particularly in informal settlements of
well as accommodating the future demand: The Millennium Development Goals target in cities and towns across Africa.
relation to water supply is to halve, by 2015,
To assist the community to plan and imple- the proportion of people without sustain- The first phase of the programme was suc-
ment a cost recovery program and oversee able access to safe drinking water. The 2002 cessfully completed in 2003 giving way to a
extension of the network coverage World Summit on Sustainable Development second phase (WAC II) which incorporates
(WSSD) added another relevant target that more African countries and cities. The sec-
To continue providing training to the com- reads as to have, by 2015, the proportion of ond phase is being implemented in 17 cities
munity through the apex organization people who do not have sustainable access in 14 countries.
committee to basic sanitation.
The ultimate objective of the programme is
To monitor project operations through UN-Habitat has contributed towards the to address the urban water and sanitation
monthly and quarterly reports achievement of these MDG targets by de- crisis through efficient and effective water

14 Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13

bility major of which is the high percentage
of unplanned settlements within its service
area. Unfortunately, the settlements, provide
homes for the largest population of the City
most of them being low income communi-
ties. Obviously lack of reliable water supply
and sanitation services in such settlements
makes them vulnerable to water borne dis-
eases and similar epidemics.

To address the challenge, DAWASA in col-

laboration with various development part-
ners has initiated several interventions aim-
ing at improving social-livelihood of such
communities through provision of reliable,
Access to water makes the learning environment clean and conducive for learning. UN-Habitat affordable and sustainable Water Supply
and Sanitation (WSS) Services. To enhance
demand management, build capacity to Gender Mainstreaming in Water and San- commitment, DAWASA initiated a dedicated
mitigate the environmental impact of urban- itation unit (Community Liaison Unit) which directly
ization on freshwater resources and boost Training and Capacity Building deals with low income communities.
awareness and information exchange on Some of the initiatives include:
water management and conservation prac- DAWASA Interventions in Serving the
tices. This objective is tracked through the Urban Poor Implementation of the life-line tariff
following six thematic components: The Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Au- scheme
thority (DAWASA) is an autonomous utility
Pro-poor Governance and follow up In- authorized to provide water supply and sew- Implementation of the first time new con-
vestment erage services for the City of Dar es Salaam, nection fund programme and
Improved Sanitation for the Urban Poor the satellite towns of Kibaha and Bagamoyo
Urban Catchment Management as well as the towns and villages located Implementation of the Community Water
Water Demand Management along its two main transmission mains. Supply and Sanitation Program (CWSSP)
Water Education in Schools and Commu-
nities Like many other Cities across Africa, DA- Through the unit DAWASA initiated more
Advocacy, Awareness-raising and Infor- WASA has been facing similar challenges than 250 stand-alone WSS system and has
mation Exchange in the course of undertaking her responsi- been monitoring their management.

Water for African Cities: Tandale Chakula Bora | 2012/13 15


FRONT Cover Image:

School girls cleaning their hands during break time in Arusha, Tanzania.
UN-Habitat/Julius Mwelu

BACk Cover Image:

Safe and clean water.

Tekalign Tsige Sahilu, Regional T. Advisor (Anglophone)
Water for African Cities Programme,
Urban Basic Services Branch
P.O.Box 30030, GPO Nairobi 00100, Kenya
T: +254 (20) 762 5166 M: +254 724 797 185
E: Tekalign.Tsige@unhabitat.org

Neli Msuya, Community Liaison Manager
Dar Es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA)
Dunga/Malanga Street, Mwananyamala
P.O.Box 1573 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
T: +255 2227 60015 M: +255 784 266 660
E: msuyan@gmail.com