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jjS SOLID INORKS
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Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
About This Book ....... . . .. . . . ....... . .. . ...... .. . ............ . . ........ . ... . . . .. .. .... . . . ... ... .2
Prerequisites . . . ... . . ...... . .. . . .... . .... . ..... .... . . ...... . ... ... ......................... .. 2
Pro duct Visualization ...... .. ..... . ... ... ........................ .. . . .. . ....... . ... . . .............2
Pro duct Visualizat ion Tools . . . . .. . .. . .... . ....... ...... ... ...... . . .. ....... . ....... . . .. .. . ...... . 3
Appearances.... ... . . .... . . ..... .... . . ... . .. .. . . .. . ..... .. .. .... .. .............. .. .. .. . ... . . 3
Display States . .. . ... ......... . . . ... . . . . ... .. . .... .. .... .... ............ . . . . ......... .. ..... 3
Photorea listic Rendering .... ........ ... .. . ... ... ..... ....... . .......... . . ...... . ..... . .. . .... . .. 4
Right Bra in versus Left Brain .... ... . . . .. .... .. ... . .. . ... ... . . .. .. ... . ....... . ....... . . .. . .. . . . . . 4
Right Brain ... . ... .... . ........ . . . . ........ . . . ...... . ........ ..... . ........ . ..... . .... ... ... 4
Left Brain ....... .. . . .. . . . ... .. . .................... .. ............. . ..... . . . . . . ... . ... . .. .. . 4
Putting It Together ........ . .... .... .. ..... . .. . . ... .. .... . .. . ......... . . ... ........ . ... . .. . . . 4
What Is This Book About ? . . . .. . .. . . ....... .. ..... ... .... .. .. ... ..... . ...... . ...... . ..... . ....... 5
Cameras ...... . .. .. . .. ...... . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . ..... .... . ... ..... . ....... . .... .... .. . ............. .. 5
Rendering Results.. .. . . ... .... . . . .. ..... . . .... .... .. ... ..... . ....... . .. .. .. .... ... . ....... . . . .. . 5
Instructional Design Philosophy . .. . .. ..... . . .. . .. . . . ... . . . .. . ..... . . .... ... .... . ..... . . .. . . .. 6
Using This Book . . . ... . ....... ...... .... ... . .. ..... . .. ........ . . .. .. . .... . . . . ... ....... . .... . 6
About t he DVD............. ....... ... .. . .............. . . .. . . . . . ...... . ....... . .. . ........... 6
Images ... .. .... . . .. ... . . .... .... . .. .... ............ ... ....... .. ......... ... . . . ... . .. .. ...... 7
SolidWorks Versions .......... . .. . ... . . ... ... . .... . ... . . ..... ... ....... . ..... . .. ... . . ... . ... .7
Third-Party Software .. ... ..... .... .... . ... . .. ....... .......... . .... . ...... . . . . .. . .. .. .... ... -7
Conventions Used in This Book . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. ..... . . . . . . ... .... .... . . ............ ... 8

Chapter 2: Visualization Methods


Product Visualization Overview .. .... . .............. ... .. . .. ......... . ...... .. . . . . .. . . . .... . . . . . .10
OpenGL . .. . .......... .. .... ...... . . .. . . . .. .. .. .... ..... . .. .. . . . . ........ ... .... .... ........10
ii

OpenGL Shadow ............. ... ... .. ... . .... . .......... . .... . . .......... .. ... . ..... . .... . ..12
Software OpenGL .. .. .. .... .. .. ............. ..... . ...... . ... ... . ... ... . . .... .. ..... . ... . . ..... .. 12
ReaiView . ......... ... . .... ...... ............... ... .............. ... . ..... ...... .. . .... . . . ...... 13
ReaiView Shadows . . . .... ... .... . . . ..................... . ....... .. . . . ........ ...............14
Graphics Cards ........ .. .. ..................................... .... . ............. . ... . ....... . ..14
PhotoView 360 ... . .............. ..... ............... ...... ............... .. ................15
Product Visualization Display Comparison ... . . . .... . .......... . .......... . . . .. . ....... . ... . .... ..16
Elements of Product Visualization .. ......... ..... ... . .. .. ......... . ... .... . .. ... ... . . . .. . . . ......16
Model ........ .... . .... .. ..................... . .. .... ... . .. . . .. .. . . .. .............. ... .. .. ..16
Viewpoint ........... ..... ....... .. ........ .. .................... . . .. .......... . .... . .. ... ..16
Appearances ... ... .. . .. .. .... . . ......... .. . . .. ... ... .. ....... .. ..... . ............ .. .. .. . .. . . 17
Scenes . . .. . . .... .. ......... ... . ... .... . ..... ......... . . . .......... . .. . . .. ...... . . . . . .. . .... 17
Lighting ... .. . ..... . ... ... .. . .... ........... . .. .............. .. . .. ............. . . . . . . .. .. . .. 17
Monitor Corrections ..... . ............. ... . .. ... . . . ... .......... . .. . . ... . . ....... . . . .... . . . . .. .. . 17
Monitor Adjustments ......... ... . . ................................. . ............... ...... ... 17
Color Correction . .............. ...... ................................................ . ......18
An Adjustment Alternative ... .. .......... .. .. .. ....... . ........... . .. ..... . .. .............. ..19

Chapter 3: PhotoView 360


Wh at is Photo View 360 Software? ..... . ..................... . .... .. .......... . ....... ..... .. . .. 22
Starting Photo View 360 ..... . ......... . ................................. . ...... . ............... 23
Photo View 360 User Interface ........... . ... . ...... ..... . .... . ... .. . .... . . .... . .... ... .. .. .. . .. 24
Photo View 360 Menu . .... ... .. ....... .. ....... ... .. . .. . .. .. ... .. . .. . ..... . ... . .. . . . . . . .... 25
Ren der Tools Toolbar . ..... .. . . . . .. ... ...... ........ . ........ . .. . . . . . .......... ... ...... .. . 25
CommandManager ... .. . . ..... . ..................... . ...... .. ... . . .. . . .... . ........ ... ..... 25
DisplayManager... . .... . . .. .. ....................... . .... .. .... .... ... ... .................. 25
Appearances, Scenes. and Decals Tab .. . .. . .............. . ... ..... . .. .. ................... .. 26
Getting Help . ... . ... .. .. .. ...... ....... . . .... . ............... . ..... .. .. . .. .. .... .. .. ........ ... 27
Dyna mic Help .......... . . . . .. ...... ... . ... . ........ .. ........... . .. . ...... ... ....... . ...... 28
Discussion Forum .. . . ........ ............ . ......... .. ... ... . .......... ......... ... .. . . ... .. 28
iii

Options .......... . ... . ...... .. .. . ........................ . .. . ....... . . . ....................... . 28


Set Photo View 360 Options .. ........ . .......... . ........ .. . . ..... .. .... . ..... . ......... . . . 29

Chapter 4: Basic Visualization Workflow


The Visualization Process . . ...................... ..... ............. . .......... .................. 32
Stages in the Process .................. . ................... . ............... ... .. ........... 32
Materials and Appearances ................ . ...... ...... ..... .. ............ . .......... . . ........ 33
Default Appearance ......... . ......................................... . . ................... 33
User Interface ....... . ........... . ....... . ..................................................... 33
Display Pane ..... . ......... . .......................... . .. . ........ . .... . ....................... 34
DisplayManager........ . . .. . . ......... . .. . ............. . ....... . ... . ........................... 34
View Appearances .... . ........... . ....... ... . ... .......... . . .. . ... . ....... ....... .. .... ... 35
View Deca ls . ....... .. . .. .................... ..... .. ... ... . . . .. .. . . . . ... .. .... . ......... . .. 36
View Scene, Light s, and Cameras ........ . ..... .... . . .... .. . . . .. .......... . .. ....... ... ..... 36
Photo View 360 Options ........ . .. . ............................. . ................ .. ... .. . .. 37
Task Pane ........... . ..... . .... . .... . ................ .......... .......... . .................... 38
Case Study: Space Navigator ... .. . ... .... ........... ................................ ............ 38
Appearances ...................................................... . ....... ... . ................. 40
Appearances, Scenes, and Decals Tab .. .. ............... ........... . ... . ................. .. . .41
Unseen parts ..... . .... . .. . ................................................................ 45
Decals ....... ... .. . .... . . .. . .. ........................... . ......... .. ...................... 47
Scenes . .... . . .. .... . . .. . ... . .. . ...... . ........ .. .. . . ........ . .... . .......... . ..... .... . ... ..... 51
Scene Library ... . . .. . . . .. .. . .... .. .. . ... .... . . .. . . ........... . . . .............. . .. .. . ... .... .51
Lights . .... . ..... .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . . ........ . ........ . ........ . . . ... . . . ......... . ................. 54
Render the Model .. .... . .... . .......... . ...................... . .. . . . ..... ..... ... .. .. . ..... 55
Photo View 360 Interface .......... ... .... .......... ....... . ........... .. ... .. .... ... ........ . .. 56
Render Preview ................................................................................ 56
Preview Window .................. . ........................ . ............................... .57
Integrated Preview ..... . ................................................................... 58
The Rendering Process ........... . ......... ..... . ......... . ... . ............. .. ......... . ....... 62
iv

Case Study: Display and Appearances .. . ... . ................... .. ............. . ..... . ...... ... . . 64
Case Study: Appearances from Materials . .. .. . .. .. . .......... . .. ....... . ... .............. . ... ... 68
Appearances from Materials .. . . . .... ... . . ....... .. . . .. .. .... . . ... ......... ..... ... ...... ... 68
Removing Appearances ..... . ... ... . . ...... .... ....... .... .... . . . .... . .. . ....... . . .. . . .... . . 72
In Summary .... . . . ........... . ....... . .... .. ... . .. . .... ..... ... . ..... .. . .. . . ... ....... ..... 73
Editing Scenes ..................... .. ... . . ... .. . ........ . .... ... ........ ...... ..... ........... . 73
Render and Preview Quality . .. ........... ... . ......... . . . ..... . .... . ..... .. ...... . .. . . ......... . 75
Case Study: Quality Sett ings .... .. . .. . ........... ..... .......... ... . ... .... . . .. . ........... . .. ...77
Final Render Window ....... ..... . . .......... ... ........ .. . . ..... . .......... . ... . ..... . ... . . 84
Comparing Resu lts .. . . .. . ... . ..... . . . .. . .. ... . .... . .. .. .................. . .. .. ...... . ......... . 85
Statistics Tab . . . ... . ............... . ........ ... . . . . ................. . ...... ... .... ..... .. . . 85
Compare and Options Tab ... ...... ....... ...... ... ..................... .. ..... ... ......... . 86

Chapter 5: Applying Appearances


Introduction . ... ....... .. . ...... . .. ... ...... ... . ... .... ... . ..... ..... .... . . .... ...... . . . . .. .. . . 92
Appearances ..... .. . ... .......... .. .......... .......... ...... .... .... ..... ..... . . .... . ... . .... . 92
Appearances versus Materials ....... . ...... . . . . ....... .... .. ... . . ... .. ........ .. ....... . . .. 92
Applying Appearances .. . .... .. ...... .. . . ... . ... .. . . ... . .. . . . . .. . .. ........... . . . ..... .... . . . ... 93
Appea rance Target . .... .. . . . ...... ...... ..... ........................ . . .... . ..... . . ....... . 93
Task Pane .. ... ..... ..... . .. . .............. .. .... . ..... ... . ... ..... .... . ..... . ....... .. .... 94
Appearance Callouts .... . .. ... . . ... . . . . ... . ... .. ... ......... . .. . . ........ . . . .. . .. ... ... . ... 94
Display Pane .. ...... ........ .. .............. ... ....... ........ ..... .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .... ...... 94
PropertyManager for Appearances ....... .. ........... . . . .. ...... ..... . . . .. . . . ... .... . ..... ..... 95
Basic Properties .... ........ ....... .. ..... ..... ....... .. . . ... . ......... .... ...... ..... ..... 95
Advanced Properties . ......... . ..... . . ... ... . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . ... ..... .. . .... .... ...... 95
Hierarchy of Appearances ... ... . .. .......... . . ... . ............ ..... ..... . ... .. .... . .. .. . . . . 97
Appearances Display .. ... . ..... . . . ..... .. . . ............. ..... ... . ... . .. ... ....... ... ....... 98
Procedural versus Text ure Appearances . . ... . . ... . . .. . . . . ... ... . . ...... ......... ........ . ... ... . 98
Procedural Appearances .. . .... . . .... ........ .... ..... . . . ........ .. .... ... . ... .... ... .......... . 99
Texture Appearances .. ...... . ... .. . .. .. .. . .... .... ........ . . . . ..... . ....... . . . ...... .. . .. ... ... 99
v

Case Study: Computer Monitor ........................... ... ...... .. ..... . . ... . .... . . ......... 102
St ages in the Process . . .... .. . .... . .... ..... . . .............. . . . . .. . ..... . ...... . . .. . .. .. .. 102
Perspective View ... . . . .... . .. . . .. .... . .. . . .. ....... .. ............ . ..... .... ......... .. ... 103
Modify Perspective View ............ . ............ ........ ......... .. ... ... ... ... ...... .... 103
Creating Custom Colors ........ ..... .............. . . .... . ....... ...... ...... . ...... ....... .... 106
Defini ng a Color ... .... . . ........ . .......... . .. ....... . . . ......................... .. ... .....107
Custom Folders ... . . ........ . . . .. . ... . ... . . .. . . . ..... . ... .. . . .. .. . . ... . .... . . ... . .. .. . . . .. . 110
Hierarchy Review ...... .. .... ............... . ..... .. .. .. . ... . ... . ... ... ...... . .... . ..... . .... .. 117

Chapter 6: Appearance Mapping


Texture Mapping ................ ...... ............ . .. .... ............ . .... .... ............... ..122
Why is Texture Mapping Important? . ......... . ....... ... ........ .... .... ...... . .... . .. . . . ...122
Topics .... . ......... . ....... .. ....................................................... . .....122
Textures . .. . .................................. . ........... . .. . . ........ . . ...... . . .... .... . .....122
Case Study: Texture Mapping ........ . ....... .... ............. ...... ...... .. .......... . . ...... . .123
Texture M apping ..... ...... .............. ....... ............... .......... ........ .... . ....... ..125
Automatic Mapping .. . ...... ... . ........... . .. .. ........... ..... ................ .... .... ...125
Projection Direction . .. ................. . .. . . .. . .. ........ . . . .. . . . . . ... ......... . .... .. .... 126
Text ure Orientation .. ... . ....... . ........ . ... . . . .... . . .... .. .... . . ... . ........ .... ....... . .... 128
Mapping Reference .. .... .......... . .................. .. . . ........ ....... ... ... . ........ .. 128
Mapping Type .............. .. ... . ...... . ................... .. . .. .. . .. . .. ... ..... ... ... . .. 128
Steps t o Correct the Mapping ................... .. .................. ... ................ . .. 130
Initial Texture Size and Alignment .. .... . ... .. .. . .. ... .. .... .. ........ . . ....... . .... . . . . .... 130
Removing Appearances..... .. .................... ..... . . .. .. . . ... . ...................... .. 130
Cylindrical Mapping ...................... . . . . .... ... .. . .. ..... . . .. ... .... . . ......... . .. .. ..135
Spherical Mapping ........ ...... .. .... .. . .... .. . .... . ..... . ....... ... ........... . . . . .. ... . 136
Mapping Adjustments (Mapping by t he Numbers) .. . ..... .... . ..... . . ..... ... . ......... . . . . ..... 138
Projection Mapping ... . ..... ......... ........ .... ............ . . . ........ .... ....... . .... .. 138
Cylindrical Mapping . ... . .. . .. ... . . ... .. .. .. .. .... . . . ..... .. . ..... . . . .. .. ... . . . ... . . . . .. . .. 142
Spherical Mapping .. .... ......... . .. . ......... ......... ... ..... .......... . . ... ...... . . .... 145
vi

Chapter 7: Decals
Decals ........ ........ . . . . ......... .. ........ . .. ..... . .. .......... . ... .. .... .. ... ...... .. .. .. . .152
Print Screen ................................ ... .. . .. . ....... . .. . ... . ... .. ..... .. . .. . . .... ..152
Case Study: Monitor Face ... .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . ........ . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. ... . . ....... .. ...... ..... .153
Applying Decals ... . . ... . .. .... ..... . . ....... . . .. . .. . ... . .. . ....... . ...... . ... . ... .. . ... .. . 156
Decals PropertyManager .. .... ... . .... .......... .. . . .... .......... . .. . .... .. ..... . .. . . . .. . 156
Decal Files .. .......... . ... . ..... . . ......... . . . ...... ... . . ...... ... ............ .. . .... ..... 160
Decal Mapping ...... ... ... . .......... . .... .. . . .... . . ...... . .... .. .. . . ..... . .. ... .. .. .... . ..... 162
Applying Decals .......... . ..... ... . .. . . ...... .... . . . ...... .......... ..... ... . . ... . . .. ..... 162
Case Study: Label Mapping . ... ..... .. . .. . ................ .. . .. . ... . . . . .. . . ..... .. ....... ... ... 163
Case Study: Multiple Decals ..... .. ..... . . ......................... . ............... . .. . .. . . .. .. 166
Adjusting Decals ... .... .... ........ . . .. . . . ... . .. . . . .... .. .... . ....... .... . . . . . . . ........ ...167
Image Masks ......... .. .... . ......... .. . . .. . . . ........ . ......... . . . . ......... .. .. . . . .... . 169
Decal Visibility ................. . ..... ......... .. .. ............ .. ............. ......... .... 169
Add a Decal with a Mask ... . .. ... ... . ..... . ........ . . . ........ ...... ..... . . . ........ ... ... 169
Decal Order ... .. ....... ....... . . ..... . . .. . . . ... .. . . .... . ... ... . . . . .. ..... ... . . .. . .. . .. . .... 175
Case Study: Gradient Masks ........... .. . ..... . .. .......... . .......... . ...... ... .. .. ..... .. .. . .176
Solution .......... . ...... . ....... . ....... ... . .... . ... . . . .. .... . . . .. . .. ......... . . .. . .. . .... 177

Chapter 8: Viewpoint
Viewpoint .. ........ ... . . . . . . . . ... .... .. .. ... . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . ...... . .. .... . .... .. ....... .. ..... 184
Positioning t he Viewpoint ... .. ....... . ........... .... . ... .... .. ........ ...... ... .............. 184
Middle Mouse Button Functions .. . . . ........ ... . .. .. . .. .. . ....... . ... . ........ . ... ... .. .. . 185
Arrow Keys .. ... .... ....... .... ............. . ...... . ... . ... . ...... . ......... ....... .... . . . 186
Adjusting the Arrow Key Movement .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. ... ... . .... . . ... ...... . .... ..... .. .. . . . 186
Named Views .. . ... . . .. . ...... . . .......... . .... . ..... .. ... . . .... . . . . ....... .... .... .... . . ... .. .187
Perspective View ............ . .. .... . . .. . .. .. . . ... . .......... . .. ... ... . ....... . .......... .. . . . .187
Modify Perspective View ..... .... . .. . ...... . . .. . ... ...... ... ......... ................... . .. 187
The SolidWorks Camera ... . .... . ..... . ..... . ............. . . . . . ... . .... ... . ... ... . .. . .. . . ...... 189
Topics .... ...... ...... .. . ............. .. . . .. ... .. . .. . .... . .......... . . ..... . . . .... . . ... . .. 189
vii

Adding Cameras ........ . . . .... . . .... . .... . .... . .. . . .. .. .. ... .. . . ............ . . . .......... 189
Aiming and Positioning the Camera .. ... ...... . . .... .. . .. .. ... . . ..... ..... . .. .. ... ... . ..... 190
Case Study: Cameras . . . .. ..... ......... . . . ...... . ............ . ...... . ..... . ... . . . . . .... ..... .. 190
Locking t he Camera Position....... . ......... . .............. . .. . .... . ....... ... ........ ..... 191
Camera Lenses ... .. .. .... . .... .. . . . ... . ... ... .... . .. . .. .... . . .. . ...... . . . ... . ..... . .... .. 194
Field of View ....... .. . . ........... .. ............ ....... ....... ..... ..... . ... . . .. . .. . ..... 194
View Rectangle .. . ......... . ..... ... . .. . . ...... . .. .... .. .. . .. ..... . ....... . .............. . 195
View Rectangle .... . .. ...... ....... ... ......................... .... . ....... ... ...... . ... . . 199
Camera Rotation ... . . . . . . . .. . .. . ............ . .. . ....... .. .... . ... ... . . ...... ...... ........ 200
Camera Aspect Ratio ......................... ... ........ . ....... .. . . .... ... ... . ........... 202
View Area ........ .. . .... ... . .. . . . .. . ......... . ..... ............ . ..... . .... . .. .. .......... 208
Apparent Depth ..... .... .... . .... . . . . .. ..... . ......... . . .. .. . .. ........ ....... ..... .. .. ... ... . 209
Case Study: Apparent Depth ......... .. . . .. .. . .. . ..... . .. ......... . . .... .. ... . . . . . ... .. .. ..... . 209
St andard Lens ........ ... .. ........................... . . ..... . .... . ..... ..... . .... . ........ . ... 211
Depth of Field ............................... . .... . . .. .. ... . .. .. ... . . . . .......... ... ........ ... 211
Use of Depth of Field . .......... .. .. .. ........ .. . ................ . .......... .. ........... .. 211
Case Study: Setting Depth of Field . .... . . .... .......... . .. . ....... . ............ .. . ... . . .... . .... 212
Case St udy: Gett ing Behind the Walls .... .. .......... . .... . . . .... ............ . ....... . . ..... .... 217

Chapter 9: Scenes and Lighting


Scenes and Lighting ..... . . . . ....... . ... .. .......... .. . . . . ........ . . . ...... . ..... . ............. 224
Scenery Choices ........ . . .. ......... .. .. .. . ....... . .... . . .. ... . .. . .......... . ......... . ... ... 224
Scenes and Environment . ..... ..... . .. ...... ..... . . ... ... . .. . ....... ......... . ...... . . .. . . 225
Lock to Model or View .............. .... ....... . . ... .... . ......... . ......... . .. ... .... .. . . 225
Scenery . ... .... ... .... ........ . . ........ ...... . .. ...... .. .. .... . . . .. ... .. . ... ... ........ . 226
Scenery Examples .... . .... . ..... .... . . .. .. ........... .... ........................... .. ....... . 227
Scene Selection ........... . ...... . .... . .......... . ..... . ....... . . . . . ................ . ... . . .... .231
Appearances, Scenes, and Decals Tab ... ........ . .. . ............ ...... ........ . ... . .... .... 232
Edit Scene PropertyManager . ... . ..... .. ......... .. . ... ... .... ...... . .......... . . . .......... . . 233
Scene Library ....... . ... . ........ ..... . . . .. . . ......... . .. . .. .. ...... . . .... . ... .. .. ... .. . . .. . . . 233
viii

User-defined Scene Archives ................ . .. ... .. ............. .. ............. . ... . . .. . . 233


Case Study: Scenery. .. .. . ........ .. ....... ... .. . ................. . ......... . ........ ... ...... . 234
Preset Values ........................................... . .. . . .. .. . ..... . ............ .. .. .. 234
Lighting .. ... ........... . .. ............... .... .. . ..... ... ...... . ......... .. ........ .... ..... .. 237
Keep Background . . ... . .. . ... . . . . . ...... . ....... .. .. . ... ...... . ..... .. . . . . .... . .... . . . .. . . 237
Stretch Image to Fit ... .. . ......... ... . ..... . ... . .... .... .... . ... ...... . . .... ..... ...... .. . 241
Scene Floors ... . ............. . ... . .......... . ... ... ..... .... . . .... . ... .. . . . .. ...... .. ..... 245
Light Propert ies .................. . ........ .. ....... . ..... . . . .. . . .. ..... . . ..... . .. .. .. .. .. 246
Show Lights ..................... . .............. . ............ ... ............... ... ....... . 247
Light ing Coordinates . ....... . ..... ....... .. . .. .. .... .. ............ ....... .. . .... .......... 248
Positioning Lights .. ......... . . ... . .................... .. . ........ . . ... . . ... . . . ... .. . ... .. . 249
Shadow Properties ... ..... . .................... . . ................. . . .. . .... . ... . .... .. .... 250

Chapter 10: Output


Output Design Intent .. . .. ... ...... ... .... .......... .. .. . . . . .... .. ...... . . . . ............. .. .. . . 256
Stages in the Process ........ .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. ...... . . ... . .. .. ... . . . ..... .. .... . ... . .. ... 256
Output Options ......... .. ................ . ........ . . .................. . ...................... 256
Preview Renderings .. ... . .. ... . ......... .. .... ... ................ ... ...... .. .............. . . .. 256
Methods to Increase Rendering Speed ......... ... ......... . .. . . .... . ...................... 256
Render Contours ... .. ....... . ........ ... . .. ... ... . ... ... .. ... . . . .. .. ...... .. ...... . ........ . .. 258
Case Study: Contours .. ...... . .. .... . . .... .. ........ .. ............. . .. . .... .... .... . . ... . ... .. 259
Case Study: Sales Brochure . .......... . ............... . ...... . . ... . ...... ... . ... . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .266
How Many Pixels to Render .. .... . ... ....... .. .... . .. .. ... .. ... . .... . .. . ..... .. . ... . . . ... . . 267
Calculating Correct Number of Pixels....... . . . . ... ..... . ........ ... ........ . . .......... . ... 268
Out put Image Size ........ . ..... . ... .. . . .. . ... . . .... . .. . . .... . .. . . . . ... . ...... . ........... 268
Aspect Ratio . . . .. ........... . .. . .......... . ... ... . . ...... . . .. . ... . . .. ... . ....... . ......... 269
Scaling Up .. ............. . .... . .. .. .... . .... . .... . ............ . ... . .... . . . . . .. .. . ... .. . .. . .271
Scaling Down .. ... . ... .. .. . .. . .... . ............ .. ............ . .... . .. .... . . . . .... . .. . ... .. 273
Screen Presentations ................... .. .. . ....... . ..... . ..... . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. .. 275
Monitor and Projector Resolution ............... .. ...................... . .... . .. .. ... ... .. . 275
ix

Case Study: PowerPoint . . . .. . ......... ... .......... ..... ........ . ............ . ................ 276
::>ost-processing Images ....... .. . ... ... . . .. . ......... .. .... . . . .. .. ..... . . .... . ................ 278
Alpha Channels ......... ... ........ ..... ............ ... ......... ..... ......... ....... . ....... . 278
Case Study: Alpha Channel. .. .......... ... ......................... ... ......... ... .... . ... ..... 279
Save Laye red Image ..... . .. . .. . .. ....... .. . .. . . . .. . .... . . . . ... . ...... ... . ... ..... . . . ..... ..... 281
Bloom ........... . .... .... ........ . ........ . ... . . .. .... . .......... . .. . ..... . .... . ....... . .... . 283
Using Bloom ....... . .............. . ....... .... . .. .................... . . ...... . ........... . 287

Chapter 11: Display States and Configurations


Rendering Using Display States and Configur ations .... . . . ................... . ...... .. ...... ... . 290
Display Stat es ....................... ... .......................... .. ........ ..... . . .... ....... 290
Creating Display States ............ ... ...... .... . ........................... ... .. . ...... . . 290
Stored Display States .. ... . ... ...... . ....... ....... ........ ..... .......... .... . . . . ..... ... 290
Configurat ions ........... . ......... ..... .. . ....... .. . . ..... ... .. . .... .. . ....... .. .... . ... .. . .. 290
Display States or Configurations? .................. . .... .. .... . ... .. . . . ... .... . .... . . ........ .. 290
Display States versu s Configurations . .. ........ ..... .. . .. . ...... . .. ... ..... . . .. ........... 291
Display Pane ................................................ .... ............... . ......... . 291
Display Pane Icons . . .. . .. ... . ............... . .... .. . ...... .. ..... ........ . ....... ... ... ... 292
Stages in the Process ............. . . . ....... .... ....... .. . . ... . ........... . . .. . . ... ... . ... 293
Appearance Hierarchy in an Assembly ....... .. . ..... .... . .. .... . . . ..... . . .. . . .. ........ ... ..... 293
Case Study: Assembly Configurations-The Locking Pin .. ............... .. ...... ........ .. ...... 294
Case Study: Watches ..... .. .. .. ...................... ... . .. . . ... ........... ....... . ......... .. 302
Fine-Tuning ...... .... .. . . ... .. . .. .. . . ........ ... . .. . . . . ......... . . . .. . . ... . . .... .... .... . . 306
Image Evaluat ion . ... . . ...... ... .. ..... . . .. ... . .. .... ........... .. . ... .... ....... ........ .. 307
Adjustments ........ .... ......... ... ........................ ... . . ........ . .......... . ... .. 307

Chapter 12: Reflective and Transparent Appearances


Reflect ions .... ......... . ... . . ....... ... ............ ..... . . .. . .... . .. . .......... . . .. . . ........ 314
Environments ...... .. .......................... .... .............. . .. .. .. ............ .... .. 314
Case Study: Environments .. ... ... . . .... . . . . .... .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ...... .. ..... . ... .... ....... ... 315
Case St udy: Kitch en Scene ... .......... ... .......... ..... ...... . ............................. ... 321
X

Reflection and Refraction Options ................. . ..... . .... .. .... . ... .. ................. 324
Secondary Reflections ...................................... ... ..... . ..................... 325
Ray Tracing Depth ... .... ............................ .. ...... . .. ... . ....... ... ........ .. .. 325
Refractions .. .. .... ..... ... .................... ... .. ......... .. ..... ..... . ..... ....... ... . 328
Custom Render Settings...................... .... ......... . ..... ....... .... .... ...... ..... 330
Alternate Choice ... .. ........................... .. ........................... . ............ 332
Liquids ..... . .......... . . .... . .... .. .... . . .. ....................... . ............... . .......... 334
Caustics ............... .. .... ........ ............... .... ... ........ ................. ... ...... . 335
Types of Caustics .... .... ...... . ..... . ..... . ...................................... ........ 335
Caustic Settings ................ . ... . ........... . .. .......... . ............................ 336
Case Study: Caustics ... ... ....... ....... . ........... . ..... ...... ............... .... ...... ..... 337

Chapter 13: Advanced Appearances


Advanced Appearances . .. ..................................................................... 342
Appearance Files . .. .. ....... .. ....... . .... . .......... . . . ... ... .......... .. ........ ... ..... 342
Image Files .......................................................................... . .... 342
Overview ............... . ..................................................................... 344
Case Study: The Chess Set .. ....... . ..... . ........ . .............. . ............................ 344
Stages in the Process ......... .. ................. . ................................ . ... . .. . 344
Appearance Library ..... . .. ..... ...... .... ...... .... .. ............. . .......................... 345
User-defined Appearance Folders .. .. ................ ............ ....... .. . . .. ......... . ... 345
Tiled Images ..... ...... ... ........................................... .. ... ........ ... ..... 345
Sources of Additional Appearances ............................. . .... .... ...... ... ......... 347
Creating Appearance Folders ...... ... ... .... .. .. . . .. ... .......... .... . . ... . ................... 348
Create Custom Folders .......... . ......................................................... 349
Accessing Custom Appearances .. .... ........ ... . . ..................... . .................. 349
Create Appearance ........................................................................ 349
Deleting Appearances or Folders.. .... .... . ... ..... ....... .... .... .. . . ................ . .... 349
Appearances Folder Location ........ . ............... . ............................... .. .... 350
The Appearance File ........................... .. ........ . ... ... ........ .. ......... . ...... 355
xi

Assembly Structure ................................ ..... ......... . .. . . .. . ....... . ....... .. 364


- ybrid Appearances .. ..... ........... ... ...... . . ...... . . .... ... . ...... . .. . . ...... . .......... .. 365
Custom Hybrid Appearances .... . .... . ........... . ... .. .... . ..... . ...... ...... .. .. ......... 365
Save Appearance .... . ..................... . .... .. .. .. ..... .... .... .. ......... ...... . .. ... 365
Hybrid Appearances Colors ................. . ..... ......... .......... ... .... . ....... .. ..... 365
'.'wdo Assets ... . . ......... . ...... ....... ......................... ... . . ............. . .. . ...... 370
Using Modo Assets ......... ..... .. . . .. ....... ..... ............ . . . .. ... . .... . ... . . . ...... . 370
Downloading Modo Material Assets ....... ....... ................ . ...... ... .......... .. .... 370
Editing Modo Materials........... ...... . ........ ........ ............ .............. ...... .. 374
~diting t he Appearances ...... ....... ............... ... ......... ..... ...... ......... ....... 374
_Jllination ....... .. .... . . . ....... .......... . ....... .. .. .... ............ ...... . .... . . .... ... .. 375
Illumination Controls .. .. . . .... . . .. .......... . .. . .......... . ................ . .... . . . .. . . . .. 375
Dynamic Help ................ ... ....... .... ... .. ........... . .. .. .. . ....... . . ... . ...... . . .. 376
::::=se Study: Part Display States- The Chessboard (continued) . ...... .... . ....... ... .... . ....... 380
:J-:;tographing a Texture .. . .... ...... ... .. ........ . . ..... .......... . .. ..... ......... . ......... 388
:::-eating a Tileable Image ...... ......... ............. .. ....... : .. .... . . ....... ... . ..... .. . . .... 389
Regular Patterns ....... . ..... .. ............ . ..... . ........... .... .. . ... .. ..... . ...... . .... 389
Irregular Pattern and Photographs .. .... . . . ...... . .. . . . . . . .. .. ..... . . . .... . . ..... . .. . .... . . 390
?hoto Tips .. ................ ... ... . ............. ....... .... .. ..... .. ... ..... ..... . . . .. . ... 392
S_~ace Finishes . .... ....... ............... . . ... .. ... ..... .... .. .. . ........ .... ......... . ... .. 393
Bump Map Images ....... .......... ......... ... . ... .. ... ...... . ...... ........ . . ........... 393
5_-face Finish Controls .. . ..... .. ... . .. .. . . ... . ..... . .. ......... . .. . . ....... .. . ... .... . .... ... . 394
Mapping .... . ....... . ..... .. . . . . .. . ...... . . ..... . .. ..... .... . . .. . ......... . ... . ....... . ... 394
Bump Mapping ......... . ..... . . .. .. .. ....... . .................... . . .. .... ............ . . . .. 394
Displacement Mapping .... ...... ........... . ............. ....... ..... .. .......... ......... 394
:::c.se Study: Flashlight .. .. .... ... . . .. .. ... . ..... ....... . ... ..... . .. . ...... . ..... .... .... .. .. ... 395
Desired Image ......... . .. .. . .... ....... .... .. .... . . . .. ... .. ... . . . ... . . ... .......... . .. ... 395
Surface Finish Patterns . . .. ...... .. .. . .. . ... .... .. . ........... . . .... ..... . ........ .... . . .. 401
:::ase Study: Surface Finish Hole Patterns.. . . ...... ... ...... . ... . . . .. . . . ... ...... ............. . . 402
Other Uses of Displacement Maps .. .... .. ... . ..... . . ... .. ..... . ........ ... .. . ......... ... . 404
xii

Rounded Corners ... ... ...... .. ..... .. ... . ..... . .. . .... . .......... . ... . ....... ....... . .... 405
Missing Files ........... . .. . .......... . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . . .......... ... ........ . .. ... .... . . . . . . . . .406
Search Order .. .......... .. ... . . . ..... . ....... . .. . .. . . .. ..... . ....... ..... . . . .... .. . . . ... .406
Handling Missing Images .... . ........ .......... ......... .. . ........... ............. ...... .406

Chapter 14: Advanced Lighting


Lighting Concepts ... ......... .............. ..... . ...... ..... ... . . . ... ... .. . ...... . .. . ... .. .... 410
Lighting Calculations . . .... . . ... . . ... . ............ . . ... ......... . ........ .................. 410
Illumination Capabilit ies ... ..... . .... . . ... .. ........... ... .... . .. . ... ............ . .. .. . ... . 410
Rendering Basics ......... .. ................ ..... . . ..... . .. ........ . ...... .. .. . . . .. . ... .... .... .411
The Physical World ... . . ............... . .. ..... ........ .. .... .... .................. .... .. . . .411
The Computer World .... .. ....... . ... . .. . .. ..... .... .... ............. . ... .. ............ . ... 411
Ray Tracing ... ....... . ......... . . ... . ... . . . .. . .... .. . . . ... .. ... ....... .. .. . ... . .. . . . ..... . .411
Lighting Methods ..... .... .. .. . ... ..... .. .. . ...... ... . .. ...... . ....... . . .. ............ . . ...... . 411
Direct Lighting . . . ... . . . .. .. .......... .. ... . .... . . .... ........... ..... ..... ... ........... . ... . .. 411
Types of Lights . ... . ... . ....... ....... ........... . . ..... ............ . ... .... .............. 412
Creating Lights ................ .. ............................ . ....... .. ................... 412
Intensity Controls . .. . . ........... . ....... . .... . ... . ................ . . ...... . . . .... . .... .. . 413
Lighting Schemes ... . ............ .... ... ........ .. .......... ... . ... . . . . ...... . . . . ......... . .. . 413
Keep Light ......... . ..... .. . ............. . . ... ..... .. ....... .... ............. . .... . . .. . ... 413
Photographic Lighting ... .... ........ . ...... ...... ............... ... ........................... 414
Lighting Plan ....... .. . . . ... ........... ........ ............... ...... . . ............ ....... .. 415
Shadows....... .. . ... .. .. . . . ... .. ... . . ........ ... . ... . ... .. ..... . . . . ..... . . . ...... .... . . .... . . 420
Shadow Clutter . . ... .. ........... . ... ....... .. . . ....... . .... ........ .. . ...... . ... . . . . .. . . . 422
Shadow Control ...... . .. ... . .. ..... . .. . . .... . ... .... ... .. ... ... ... ... . .. . . ....... .. . ..... . 422
Shadow Properties ...... ......... . .. ........ .............. . . . .... .. ........ ..... . ........ . 423
Case Study: Lighting Principles....... .. .. ............ ....... . .... ...... ........... . ....... . .... 424
Direct Lighting . . ... ... . .......... .... .. . ... . .. ........... . ..... ... . . . ... ..... .. . . . .... . ... 428
Ambient Light .. . ............................. . .... . ....... . .. .... ... ..... . .. . ................. 430
Indirect Lighting .. . .......... . .... ... ................ ...... .... .. ...... . ... . . ... ..... . ......... 431
xiii

Indirect Illumination and Quality............ . ... .. ...... . .. .... ... . . ......... ..... .......... 432
Ambient Occlusion .. . ... ....... .............. ... ................ .. .. .................. ... .. . .. 434
Case Study: Illumination Controls ............ ........ .............. ..... ..... . ......... .. ...... 435
Case Study: Photo Studios and Area Lights . ... . ... .............. ....... ............... . .. .... . . 438
Case Study: Point and Spot Lights ............. . .. . ....... .. ...... ..... ......... .. .... . .. ... . .. 447
Point Lights ....... .. ................... . .. .. .. .. ................ ...... .. . ............ . ........ 449
Point Light or Spot Light? . .......... . . ........ .. . . ......... .. .. ... .......... . ...... ..... .. 452
Spot Lights .............. ........ .. . .... .............. .... ...... . ... . ................... ... ... 452
Photo View 360 Light Characteristics .. ..... . ... ........... .. . . ..... . ...... . . . .... . .. . . . .... .. . . 454
Brightness ...................... ..... .................. ....... .......... ...... . ......... . . 454
Soft edge . .. .... . .... ........ ... . .. ...... .. .. . . .......... ..... .. .. ........... ... ... .. ... . . 454
Spot light radius .... ... .. . .. .. . ...... ........ ... ... .... ............ . . . . ...... . ........... . 454
Shadow quality ..... ... ........... . . . ............. .... . .... .. .. ....... .. .. ... . ..... . . . .... 454
Fog ................ .... ........... ..... ...... . . .................................... . .. ... 454

Chapter 15: Advanced Scenes


Scene Images .. .......... ... ............ . . . ................ .. ..... . ......... .. ..... . ... .. ..... 462
Cube-Mapped Environment Images .... ......... ........ . .... ....... ....... . ... .. . ..... .... 462
Spherically Mapped Environment . . ... . ... .. .. .. .. .. ......... ..... . .. .......... . . . ... ... ... 463
Creating Scene Files .................... .... ....... ....... .... . . ..... ................... . ..... 464
Creat ing Custom Scenes.......... . ... .... . . . . . .......... ... ... ... .. ........... . . .. ..... .... ... 465
Background Image . .................. .. ........ ..... ... . ..... . .. ...... .. ... ..... ..... . ... . 466
Spherical 360-Degree Panoram ic Image . . . . .. . ..... . . .. ..... . .. . ....... .. ......... . . .. ... . .466
Problems ....... ...... . .. ............ .. . ... . .... . ............. ........ ........ ... .. . . ... . . 469
Developing the Images . . .......... . ......... ... ........................... .. ........ .. .... 470

Chapter 16: Advanced Output Options


The Photography Workflow .... . . . ... .. ..... .... . .. ...... . ... .... . . . .... ....... . ... ... . ....... . 476
Post-Processing. . . . .... . . . . .. .. . ... .. . . ... ... . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . .. . ... ... .. . . . ... . .... ...... 477
Final Render Window . . .. ... ................. .. .................. ... ............. . .... .... ..... 478
Image Processing ...... .. . . .... . ....... ..... . . ........... ......... . .. ......... . . .......... 478
xiv

Image Size ... ... .. . .. ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ... .. ... .. ....... . .. .... .. ... . . . . ............... 478
High Dynamic Range .. .. ............... ... ......... .. ....... ... ........ . ... . ............. . 478
Histograms .. . .. ... .. .. ..... .. ... ......... . . .... .. ... .. .... .... . . . .. ... . . ... .. .. .. .. . ..... 479
HDR Photographs .. ... ... .. ... ... ... ......... ... ... ... ... .. ... .. . . ... . .. . . ... ........... . .480
Tone Mapping ........... . ....... . ..... .. ......... ... .. . ..... ..... ............ . ........... 482
Gamma Correction ......... .. .... ........ . .. . . ... ...... .... .. . ............................ 483
Image Processing .. .... ... . ... ... .... . . . .... . . ............................................ 485
Case Study: Image Processing Controls .... .. ......... .. .... . ....... .... .. .... .. ... .... ... .. ... .486
Input Levels and Offsets . ................ . .... .. . ..... . .. .... ..... .... . . . . . ......... .. ... .486
Input Levels ....... ... ... ........ ... .. ..... .. .. ......... .. .. . ..... ......... . .. . ..... . ..... 492
Saving Images to a File ....... . ............................. .. ... .. ..... ...... ................. 495
Post-Processing in Other Software .. .. ... .. .... ... ... .. ... .. .... ... . ..... ... ......... .. .... 495
File Types .. ....... . .............................................. .. . . .. . ................ 496
Which File Type Should You Use? .............. ... .. ............................ . ........ . . .... 496
File Type Variants .. ...... . ... . . ... . ... . ...... ......... .. ...... . . . .. .. . . . . ..... .... ........ 497
File Compression . . ... ... ....... ..... ..... .. .. ... ... ... ... .. ... ... .. ... . . . .... . ........ . .. . 497
Choosing a File Format ............................................. ..... .................. 499
Methods to Increase Rendering Quality ... ... ... .. .. .... ... ... ... .......... .... . ....... . .... sao
Color Management ....... .. . . . ..... . . . . ...................... . .... . ... .. ... .. . .. . . . . .... .... .. 501
Monitor Correction .... . . .. ........ . ........ . ........... . . . .... .. .......... . .. . . .. . . ....... 501
Printer Correction .. . . .......... .. .................. . ........... ... . .... ... .. . . ..... .... ... SOl
Set Affinity .............. . .................................... . .... ............ ..... . . ... . 501
Scheduled Renderings ... . .. . ................................. . . ......... ... ................. . . 503
Scheduling Renderings ......... . ................................... . ... .. .......... . ... .. . 503
Case Study: Render Scheduling ... . ...... . . . .. .. . .... . .. .. .... .. .... ... . .. . .. .. ...... ....... . . . 503
Network Rendering . .... . .......... . . .... . . ... . ...... .. .. . ........ . . .............. .. ... ... ..... .512
Network Rendering Process ... . ..... . .. . .. ........ ........... . .... . .......... ... .... ...... .512
Install and Ready the Client ....... ... .......... ...... ......... . . ...... . . .. . ..... . .......... .513
Render Settings in the Coordinator Computer ..... . ...................... . ..... .. ......... . .513
Client Workload . .... .. ... .. .. .. .. ... . .. ... .. ... ... .... ... .. .. .... ... ......... . .. . ....... .. .513
XV

Render Settings in Client Computers ................... .......... ....... .......... ........ . 514
Final Render Process . . . .......... . . ..... ... . . . . ......... ..... . . .. 0 0 0 .515
When to Use Network Rendering ..... ..... .... 0 0 0 0 0 0 .515

Chapter 17: Tips and Techniques


Putting It All Together ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 518
Model Set up .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 518
Appearances .. . ... ... .... ..... . ........ 0 0 0 0 0 0 518
Render Preview . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 519
Memory Usage ....... ....... .. ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 520
PhotoView 360 Settings ... . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 520
Hardware ........ .... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 521

Chapter 18: PhotoView 360 Gallery


Appendix A: Color
Acknowledgement ...... . ...... 0 0 0 530
Color ..... ... 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 . 0 0 0 0. 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0. 0 0 530
Visible Light ......... 0 0 0 0 0 0 530
CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram .. ....................... 0 0 0 530
Limit ations of Media .. .. 0 0 0 0 0 .531
Color Wheel ............ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 532
Primary Colors .. . ... 0 0 0 0 0 532
Secondary Colors ... 0 0 0 0 0 532
Tertiary Colors . .. 0 0 0 0 0 533
Color Terms ...... . .... . .......... . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 534
Additive and Subtractive Colors... . .... . .. 0 0 0 0 0 535
Subtractive Color Method . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 .. .. 00 .. 0 00 . . . . . . . . .... 0 0 535
Additive Color Method .......... ..... 0 0 0 0 0 535
Color Models 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 535
RGB Color Model . . ..... . .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 535
xvi

HSV Color Mode l .... . . .. ......... . .. ... .... . . . . . .. . .............. ....... .. ........... .. .. 535
CMYK Color Model. .. . ..... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ....... . . .. .. .. . .. ... .. .... .. . . . .... . ... . . . ... 536
Color Depth..... . ......... ... ........ . .. . . . ........ .. .. . . .. . . .. ... . . .. . ... .. .. . ..... . .. . . . 536
Understanding RGB Color.... . ....... . .. . ..... . . . .... .. .. .. . ...... . . ... .... . .. .. . . .. . ... . . . . ... 537
HSV Model Definitions .... .. . . .. .. . ... . ... . .... . ... ....... . .. .. ... .. . ...... .. .... .. ... .. . .... . 540
Hue ................. . ........ . . . . . .... . . . ................ . . . ... . ... . . ... . . . . .... . . .... . .. 540
Saturation . . ... ..... ...... . ....... . ........... ... .. . ... ... . . ...... . . . . . ....... . . . . .. ... . .. 540
Value ............... . . . ............ .. ........... . . . ...... ..... .... .. . . ... ... . .... .. . . ..... 540
RGB to HSV Transition ............... .. ................... .... ......... ... . ... .. .. .. .... . ..... 541
Defining Color in Design Tables ......... . ..... ..... ............ . ..... ... .... . ..... . . . . . .. .. .. . . 543
hexadecimaiDefining Colors in Hexadecimal ... .. .. .. . . . . ...... . . .... ...... .. ... . .. . ... . .. .. . ... 545
Color Swatches . .......................... . .................... . ... . . . ... . . .. . . . . ..... . . .. 545
Creating Color Swatches ............... . .......... . ....... . . . .. . ... .. .. . .. . ... . . . .. . .. . . . . 546
Where do you find color schemes? ..................... . ....... . .......... . ... . . .. ............. 546
Web Resources ..... . .... . ..... . ....... . ...... . . . . . ..... . .......... . .... ...... . ...... . . . . . 546
PowerPoint .... . ......... . .......... . .. . .............. . .......... . . . . . . ..... ..... . ........ 547
Paint M anufacturers ..... . .. . . ..... . . .. . ...... . . .... .. . . . . .. .. . ... . ............ .. .. . . ..... 547
Color Names ................ . . .. .................................. . .. . .. . .. ............... 548
Color Matching Systems . ........... . .... . .. . ..... . .. . . . ........ . ..... . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . ... . ..... 548
Color on the Web ... .. .................................. . .. . ...... .......... . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. 549

Appendix B: Illumination Settings


Acknowledgement. ....... . .......... . ...... . .... . . ...... ....... . .. . . . .. . ...... . .. . . .. . . . ... . .. 552
Illum ination . ........... .... .......... . .............. . ... ... ........ . ........ . . ........ .. ... . . . 552
Appearance Properties .. . ........ . .......... . .... . ............ . ... . . . ... . .. . .. . .... .. .. . .. 552
Common Cont rols ..... . ...... .. .. . .... ... ... . ....... . ...... . ...... . .... ... ... .. ........... 552
Diffuse Amount ......... . . ..... .... . .......... . ............ ... .. ... . .... .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . ... 553
Specular Amount .. ... ...... .. .. . .... . ... . ....... . . ... .. . . ..... .... . .. .......... . .... . . . ... 554
Diffuse versus Specular .................. . .......... . ...... . ......... . ... ... .. . . .. . .. . . .. . 555
Specular Color ................. . .. ..... ...... .. . ... ..... .......... . .. .. .. . .. ... . .......... 555
xvii

Specular Spread . ... . . . . .. ........ ........ . . ...... . ..... . ..... ..... .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. . . . . .... 556
Reflective Amount ... . . .. .. . . .... . ................... . ......... ... . . .. . . . ........... . ..... 556
Blurry Reflections ... . .. . .. .. . ........ . .. . ... . . . ...... . .. . ...... .. .. . .. . ......... . ..... . ... 557
Transparency Amount ...... ....... . ........................ .. . .... ......... . .............. 558
Luminous Intensity . ..... ... ...... . ... . . ..... . ... . . .. .. .......... . ...... .. . .. .... ....... ... 558
Additional Controls ........ . ..................................... ... .... ...... ... ... . .. ... 559
Index of Refraction............ ........ ... . . ........... . . . . .............. . ........ ...... ... 559
Refract ion Roughness .. ... . ......... . ................... . . . ..... . ......... ............ .... 560

Appendix C: Surface Finish


Surface Finish ............ . .. . ........ ... . . .............. . .......... . . ..... . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . ... 562
Bump Map Images ..... . .. . .. . .. ... . ...... .... ... . ....... .... . . ..... . ...... . ....... .. ..... 562
Surface Finish Examples ... .... . .... .... . . ...... . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. ...... ..... . ....... . ............ 562
Brushed .. . . . ... . . ...... . . . . . ..... . . . .. .. . . .. . . .......... . .. ..... .... . ..... . . . ............ 563
Sandblasted .......... . ... . ............................. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . ..... . .. . ... . ... . ... 563
Burnished .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . ... . .............. . .. . . . .. . ....... . ... . ........ ................ 563
Casting ............................................ . ........... . . . ........... .. . ......... . 564
Machined .. . .... . . ......... . . . . .. ..... . .. ........... . . ........ . ... . ..... .......... . .. .. . . . 564
Diamond Treadplate...... . .... ................ . ........ ... .. .......... . ... ........ ........ 564
Tread plat e 1 . .... .. .... .. .. . .. . ..... . ..................... . .............. . . . ......... .. ... 565
Tread plate 2 . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . ..... ... . .. ... . . ..... .... ... . .. .. . . . . . ...... ..... ...... ..... . 565
Knurled . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . ... ... . .. ... .... . ... .......... . . . . ... . . . . .. ..... . . . . .. .. ............ 565
Dimpled .......... . .. .... . .. .......... . ...... . ... . .. . . .... . . .. ... . .. . . . . .. ...... .. . . . .. . . . 566
Chain link . . . .. . .. .... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ... .. . ... . . . ........ .. . . .. . . . .. . . . ..... . ...... .. ..... 567
Wrought . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . ... . ..... ... ........ .. ....... . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . .... .. . .... . . ... .. 568
Rough 1..... ..... . . . . . ..... .... . . ... .. ........... . ........ .. ..... . ........... .... . ... ... .. 568
Rough 2 ........... . ........... .... .. ...... .. .... . ................ .. ...... . ..... .. . . ... .. . 568
Bump Maps versus Displacement Maps Summary ... . ........................................... 569
Bump Maps ... ... ...... . . . ..... . ... . ..................... . ..... . . . .............. . . . . ..... . 569
Displacement Maps .. . ....... . . . .... .... .... . .... .. . . .................. . . . ..... ..... ...... 569
xviii

Appendix D: Hardware and PhotoView 360 Performance


Hardware and Photo View 360 Performance ............. ... ... ....... .... . ... .. ..... ... .. . ..... 572
Central Processing Unit (CPU) .................................... . ............................ 572
Random Access Memory (RAM) ................................ .... ...... ... ................... 573
Operating System . .. ... .... .... ............ .. .......... . ..... ... .. ...... . . .. .. ................ 574
32-bit Operating Systems.. . . .......... . ...... ......... . .. ... ... .... ................... .. .. 574
The Three-Gigabyte Switch ........... ....... . .. .... . .. .. . ... ... . . .. . .... . . . . .. ...... . . . ... 575
64-Bit Operating System . .......................... ... .... .. . ... . .... .... ...... . .... . ..... 575
Graphics Card ....... ..... ... ... .... ... ................. ......... . .... . ... .. ....... . . .... . . ... . 575
Introduction

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:

Be fa miliar with the history of the visualization tools used


in SolidWorks.
Understand the basic concepts of photorealistic render.ing.
Understand and ut ilize the typograph ic convent ions used in
the book.
2 Chapter 1

About This Book


The goal of this book is to teach you how to use the range of product visualization tools available in the
SolidWorks and Photo View 360 software to create views and photorealistic renderings of parts and
assemblies, and produce both electronic and paper output.
SolidWorks and Photo View 360 are such robust and feature-rich applications that it is impractical to
cover every minute detail and aspect of the software and still have the book be a reasonable length.
Therefore, the focus will be on the fundamental skills and concepts central to the successful use of
these products. You should view this material as a supplement to the system documentation and on line
help. Once you have developed a good foundation in basic skills, you can refer to the online help for
information on less frequent ly used command options.
Prerequisites
To get the most out of this book, you should have the following:
Basic experience with the So!idWorks software
Experience with the Windows operating system
Basic understanding of photography

Product Visualization
In early 3D CAD software, there were limited methods to display the 3D CAD model. These were
generally some form of lines representing t he edges of the model or shaded faces. As 3D CAD systems
developed, the methods to display, or visualize, the CAD model have improved and expanded. Within
core SolidWorks we now have almost all the tools available t o us.
What are the different types of visualization? These could include the following:
Seeing through our model
Checking for smoothness
Showing the model to colleagues
Organizing the model by manufacturing types
Adding an image into a presentation for a design review or marketing pitch
Photorealistic renderings for marketing materials
Introduction 3
-------------------------------------------------------
Product Visualization Tools
The tools and capabilities available in SolidWorks to visualize computer models have changed
significantly since SolidWorks was first released in 1995. In the first versions of SolidWorks, t he only
way to visualize a model was through OpenGL,either shaded or wireframe. This is t he method still used
today for shaded models.

PhotoWorks'Mwas introduced in SolidWorks 97 Plus as an add-in product to perform photorea listic


rendering using the computer CPU. Originally, Photo Works used LightWorks as the rendering engine. but
this was changed to m ental ray in SolidWorks 2003 and was initially called PhotoWorks 2. In
SolidWorks 2001 Plus, transparency in assemb lies, shadows, zebra stripes. and antialias edge display
were added.

In SolidWorks 2004, Real View was added to do real time rendering of SolidWorks models, using
technology available on the video cards using the GPU.
In SolidWorks 2009, there was a dual path for rendering using either Photo Works inside of SolidWorks
or PhotoView 360 as a standalone package.
In SolidWorks 2011, Photo View 360 became the single rendering engine used inside of SolidWorks.
Photo View 360 uses the Nexus rendering engine from Luxology, LLC. With this change, most of the key
features of rendering were moved into core SolidWorks for a consistent workflow. For t hose familiar
with rendering in PhotoWorks, the current tools and user interface are very much the same as they were.
Gone however are some of the more complex settings in favor of a much more stream lined set of tools.

Appearances
Originally, product visualization was done using four databases:

Color
!:1 Textures

ReaiView
PhotoWorks materials
Appearances were introduced in SolidWorks 2008, which combined color and textures databases. In
SolidWorks 2009 all appearances were merged into a single database.

Display States
In SolidWorks 2006, display st ates and the display pane were added to allow multiple visualization
setups for assemblies. independent of configurations. In SolidWorks 2008. display states were added
to eDrawings, and in SolidWorks 2010, display states were expanded to include parts.
4 Chapter 1

Photorealistic Rendering
What is photorealistic rendering? Photorealistic rendering is photography using a computer. If it is
photography, why use the computer instead of a real camera? There are two basic reasons we use a
computer to do photorealistic rendering:
The subject does not exist in the physical world.
The product we are designing has not yet been built but we need to show what it will look like for a
marketing campaign, progress review, t rade show, or any number of other reasons. Using SolidWorks to
provide t he model and SolidWorks and Photo View 360 as a camera, we can create images of the model
that look like a photograph.
To add special effects that are not available or achievable in the physical world.
The effects that can be created on the comput er are not limited by the laws of physics. For example, we
can make true point light sources, lighting instruments that are not visible. and lighting instruments that
cast light on an object but do not create shadows. We can also make solid objects transparent to see
what is inside or behind them.

Right Brain versus Left Brain


To be successful with our renderings, we must understand photography. Photography is a mix of both
right brain and left brain act ivities, in other words it is both artistic and technical.

Right Brain
The artistic part of photography covers the placement and view of the subject, how the subject is lit,
where the shadows fall. how the scene is composed, and more. To be a really great photographer, you
must see the final image in your head before you actually take the picture. If you can't. you may still take
some great pictures, but it is more trial and error. and a lot of image files to delete!

Left Brain
The technical part of photography is how the camera works and how the laws of physics apply to the
process. Some of the t echnical topics include understanding concepts such as exposure as a function of
f-stops, shutter speed, and film speed, and how to compensate for backlight or color temperature of
light.

Putting It Together
If you are very artistic but not very technical, you may be able to visualize what you want the photograph
or rendering to look like but not able to produce it because you are not able to set the camera up
correctly.

If you are very technical but not very artistic, you may be able to take pictures that are properly exposed
and have very vibrant color but are uninteresting or do not show off the subject to its fu llest.
Introduction 5

What Is This Book About?


This book is mostly about the left brain, or technical functions. In other words, it is more about
capabilities than artistry. It covers how we use the controls in SolidWorks and Photo View 360 as a
camera. It is not about the art of photography. For additional information on scene composition and
lighting techniques, there are many books available on the market.

Cameras
In regular photography, there are many cameras available from the simple disposable camera to the very
expensive cameras with many automated and advanced functions.

If we picked a group of people at random and gave them all a cheap disposable camera and told them
to take pictures, the results might yield a few really good pictures, a tot of average pictu res, and so me
really bad pictures.
If we gave the same group the best cameras money could buy, the resu lt would probably skew to the
side of good pictures because the better cameras had automatic features to eliminate some of the
problems encountered with the cheap cameras. Some of the people could also use the addit iona l
capability of the good cameras to zoom in and frame t he subjects better, or to change exposu re to
create or eliminat e motion blur. There will still be some bad pictures and some really good ones.

Rendering Results
Obtaining a suitable rendered output is very subjective. When we design parts and assemblies with
SolidWorks, our goal is to achieve the design intent. Knowing if we have achieved the design intent is
very objective and should be able to be answered with a yes or no. If 10 different people review a design,
based solely on the design intent. alllO should agree on whet her or not the design intent was achieved.

Unlike design intent, knowing if we have achieved our rendering goat is very subjective. Subtile
differe nces in lighting, focus, position of the objects against the background, visual highlights, de pth of
field, can cause different people to see the output differently. If we had 10 different people review our
rendering output we might never get a consensus as to whether it meets the rendering goal.
Additiona lly, it can take many times more rendering passes to refine the output than it does to make a
change in the part and rebuild it. This, coupled with the fact that rebuild times are general ly less than
rendering times, can add up to a tot of time spent rendering to get acceptable results.

You should continue t o experiment with the various settings available within the SolidWorks and
Photo View 360 software even after the chapter objectives have been achieved.
6 Chapter 1

Instructional Design Philosophy


The chapters in this book are designed around a process- or task-based approach to learning. Rather
than focus on individual features and functions, a process-based approach emphasizes the process and
proced ures you follow to complete a particu lar task. By utilizing case studies to illustrate these
processes, you learn the necessary commands, options, and menus in the context of completing a
rendering task.
Good photography and computer renderings are the sum total of many elements that come together to
create the fina l result. To be able to put all the different elements together. you must first understand
what each control does and its cause and effect on the outcome. Because this book is more about the
SolidWorks/PhotoView 360 camera t han photography, many of the case studies and examples wi!! show
individual effects in isolation, rather than as part of complete renderings.
Using This Book
This book is intended to be used as a self-paced, self-study course.
About the DVD
Bound inside the rear cover is a DVD contain ing copies of the parts. J,. SohdWorks Step by-Step Guides
assemblies, and other files that are used throughout this book. Running .:.liZ Creating Animations with So!idWorks
~ Photorealistic. Rendering
the Installation Wizard on the DVD will create a directory named _, Cnapter2
SolidWorks Step-by-Step Guides that wi!l have a fo lder for "'-' Chapter4
_ ChapterS
Photorealistic Rendering and subfold ers for all but the first chapter
-<~-" CaseStudy
in the book. Each chapter folder will contain the files used during the ...; Chess Set
various case studies in that chapter. ~ Completed
.!. Downloaded Image Files
Many of the part s and assemblies provided on the DVD have two versions; ~ Monitor
t he files with the names specified in the chapt er are the files you use to ~ Chapt er 6
); Chapter 7
do the st eps in the chapter. The same files with the suffix"_&" are the "" Chapters
same fil es but with the visualization properties (appearances, scenes, .A. Chapter 9
J. Chapter 10
lighting and decals) applied. These files can be opened and then rendered .t Chaptern
to see the final result of the work do ne in the chapter. They can also be .... Chapter12
used to check settings of the various properties. For example. if you are ' - - J-_, c_h-'p_te_r1_3 _ _ _ _ __
instructed to use the part Idler Arm.sldprt for the case study, the same part with the visua lizat ion
properties applied is Idler Arm_&.sldprt. All t he parts and assemblies with the visualizat ion
properties applied are found in the Complet ed folder under the corresponding chapter folder.
Introduction 7

-:p The Design Library is a convenient way t o access the parts and oes.gn Library
2ssemblies used in this book. After you install the files from the DVD, st art ~ ~ d ~
SolidWorks. 00 tJl SohdWorks Content
ttJ ~ Photorealistic Rendenng
In SolidWorks. click Tools, Options, System Options, File Locations. [~l @) Oes1gn Library
l:f.l 'f1 Toolbox
ffi 8 3D ContentCent ral
Under Show folders for, select Design Library.
Click Add. J 0 J
Chapter l O Chapt er ll Chapterll
ln the Browse for Folder dialog box, browse to where you installed the
files. J __:; :_:;
Chapter 13 Chapter 2 Chapter4
Select t he Photor ealistic Rendering folder and click OK.
Then click OK to close t he System Options dialog box.
:;; ~ ~
Chapter 5 Chaptor6 Chapter7

Images
The screenshots in this book were made with the software applications
Chapter 8 Chapt er 9 Rendered
running on Windows7. If you are not using Windows 7. or if you have a Images

different theme setting, you may notice slight differe nces in the
ap pearance of the menus and windows. These differences do not affect the performance of t he
software.

SolidWorks Versions
All visualization settings used in th is book were done with SolidWorks 2013. Service Pack o. As some of
these settings may be refined between service packs. you may not get exactly the same results if you
are using a different service pack.

Third-Party Software
In various parts of this book we utilize t hird-party software applications to accomplish certain tasks or
perform certain fu nctions. The applications we have used are not the only ones t hat can be used and our
use of them does not constit ute an endorsement of t hose products.
8 Chapter 1

Conventions Used in This Book


This book uses the following typographic convent ions:

Convention Meaning
Sans Serif Bold SolidWorks and PhotoView 360 commands and
options appear in this style. For example, PhotoView
360, Final Render means choose the Final Render
option from the PhotoView 360 menu.
Serif Feature names and file names appear in this style.
For example, Idler Arm.sldprt.
17 Do this step. The numbered steps of the case studies are
indicated by sans serif bold type with the numbers
themselves accented in color. This helps t o
distinguish the step-by-step procedures from t he
explanatory text that is interspersed through the
chapters.
Visualization Methods

Upo n successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand the different display modes in SolidWorks and
PhotoView 360.

Understand system requirements for ReaiView.

Understand which visua lizat ion methods depend on the


CPU and which depend on the GPU.

Properly adjust your computer monitor to match your


printer output.
10 Chapter 2

Product Visualization Overview


Product visualization encompasses all the elements to display our models both statically and
dynamically. Static displays include the methods used from initial design through photorealistic
rendering. These are the topics included in this book. Dynamic visualization covers animations which can
be displayed using all the same methods that we wi ll cover in t his book. To learn more about dynamic
visualization. see the SolidWorks step-by-step book Creating Animations with SolidWorks available
from the SolidWorks Merchandise Store at http://store.solidworks.com.
In SolidWorks. there are three levels of visualization: OpenGL, Rea iView, and Photorealistic rendering.
Each level provides different capabilities to view the SolidWorks model.

OpenGL
OpenGL is the first method for visualization of models in SolidWorks. In OpenGL, models can be
displayed as shaded, wireframe, or a combination of the two. It does not require special hardware and
can be software-emulated. All modern graph ics cards, regardless of the cost. have OpenGL capabilities
and therefore the calculations for OpenGL are normally done on the Graphic Processor Unit (G PU) of
t he graphics card. These effects show:
Surface shading including color, ambience. diffusion, specularity. and transparency
Basic texture mapping techniques
Diffused ground shadow
Visualization Methods 11

_ sing OpenGL to display the model provides both wireframe and shaded views of the SolidWorks
..-;odel. OpenGL is usually used when creating models as the shaded options provide a solid-looking
-;10del and Shaded with Edges shows the boundaries or the individual faces, which help when creating
=eatures. When in either Shaded or Shaded with Edges. a single-direction shadow can be shown under
:'le model. With OpenGL, there are no reflections visible on t he surf aces and all lighting is provided by
:::::r ect lights in SolidWorks.

Wireframe Hidden Lines Visible Hidden Lines Removed

Shaded with Edges

A scene can be used in OpenGL; however, it does not . ....~ . ~ . . .,. ' ~ .
. '
provide any lighting and there will be no reflections . - . '

visible from the surfaces.


-

-' .
12 Chapter 2

If all the lights are turned off. the model will be black,
yet the scene still appears to be lit because it is a
separate image.

OpenGL Shadow
With OpenGL there is only one shadow and its position
will be determined not by the lights, but rather by the
scene f loor. The sce ne floor can be aligned with any of
the t hree primary planes of the model, a user-specified
plane, or the bottom view of t he model.

Where to Find It
Menu: View, Display, Shadows In Shaded Mode
Heads-up View tootbar: ~ - View Settings, (gJ Shadows In Shaded Mode

Software OpenGL
Software OpenGL disables the graphics card hardware acceleration and emulates the calculation of
shaded models using t he CPU, essentially eliminating the graphics card from t he process. Software
OpenGL is used when the graphics card is not certified or for troubleshooting when a problem is
suspected to be caused by the graphics card. Because RealView is calculated by the graphics card GPU,
there is no RealView when using Software OpenGL.

Where to Find It
Menu: Tools, Options, Performance, select Use Software OpenGL.
Note Use Software OpenGL can only be selected or cleared when there are no documents open.
Visualization Methods 13

Real View
KeaiView incorporates OpenGL but takes it to another level. More realistic effects can be achieved such
as dynamic environmental reflections in the appearance, self-shadows, a ground shadow and a ground
eflection, as well as more advanced texture mapping techniques. All of these effects are handled by the
GPU of the graphics card. Most modern cards, in the professional workstation class, can display all the
effects of ReaiView. ReaiView supports:
Advanced shading
Reflections (environmental)
Self-shadows
Ground reflection
Advanced texture mapping and bump maps
~eaiVi ew provides another level of visual realism. With
~ea iView, surfaces become more realistic as they now
;;;,ow reflections in real time.

:::
'
~-~

=:ven if there is no scene, there


.-;ill still be reflections from
=-vironment. We will discuss the
=:fference between the scene and
:-:e environment in a later chapter.
14 Chapter 2

RealView Shadows
Real View only casts a self-shadow and floor shadow for the first directional light. The shadow is more
accurate than the diffuse shadow of the normal OpenGL view. Notice t he thin gap as it appears in the
shadow as a result of the part line gap of the glue gun model.

First Directional L

Additional light sources


can diminish shadow effect.

Second Light Source

Gap in shadow

Graphics Cards
How do you determine if your graphics card supports Rea lView? The ReaiView icon shows the capability
by its color.
~ RealView graphics are supported.

~ ReaiView graphics are supported for pre-2008 RealView.


~ ReaiView graphics are not supported.

SolidWorks tests the quality and performance of many graphics cards and provides a listing on the
SolidWorks website at www.solidworks.comjswjsupport/videocordtesting.html. This list should be
consulted before purchasing a graphics card to help choose a certified card. Additionally, the list should
be checked to determine the correct graphics card driver. Note that the latest driver on the
manufacturer's website may not be a certified driver, so it is important to check the SolidWorks list first.
Visualization Methods 15

The not es column of the list will show the capabilities of the card based on the keys shown below:

Key :
. , Card pust!!d all tl!.sts Qt SuppotU all Rea iV\ew featuras
~ Pasn<h.1th llmltiiltion s (SoQ! Neta s ) (L!,l S upports R.~~IVie.wwlth llmitatioM

Sig nificant stability or ri! palnt problem s 41>! S upports pre2.00S R.eaiVIw features
S Us SolidWorks gra phics card display se.tti ng s ~ Multi-hnd hardware accelruad

;4 54~ bit native support ~ Supporu 30Stareo viewing with eOrawings

PhotoView 360
::JhotoView 360 is distinguished from Real View in t hat it is not a process of the GPU, and photorealist ic
-enderings can be achieved regardless of the graphics card used. This is because it is entirely calculat ed
-:JY the CPU on your PC and is rendered in a sequential event and is therefore not dynamic. Therefore.
10u cannot pan, zoom, or rotate a rendered model. Photo View 360 renderings are more photorealistic
:i1an RealView because light rays and reflections are more accurately calculated. The use of High
Jynamic Range {HDR) environmental images allows Photo View 360 users to achieve photo-realism.
::JhotoView 360 rendering supports:
Self-reflection (reflection of objects in one another)
HDRI (environmenta l) lighting
::JhotoView 360 provides a fully ray-t raced rendering
:::t: the SolidWorks model. Unlike Rea lView where t he .
. . 1
-
_,.,.I ~

-endering is dynamic and done by the GPU, rendering


;;ith Photo View 360 is static and done on the CPU.
- he final rendering process can use all computer
:ores and is done as a separate process. which allows
:ou t o continue to work in SolidWorks and other
'"'tinning programs.
- he setup for rendering is essentially all done in core
.... -
SolidWorks. using the same user interface as OpenGL
.::nd RealView.
., . -
16 Chapter 2

Product Visualization Display Comparison


The following image shows a comparison of the same model in OpenGL, Rea iView. and PhotoView 360.
You can see the different aspects discussed in the previous chapter as they apply to the separate
images.

Ray-traced Transparency
Ray-traced Textures
Bump Map Textures

Self-shadow
\
Shadow based
on environmental
lighting
Ground Reflection
Ray Traced Reflections
OpenGL RealView PhotoView 360
Model courtesy of Product Solutions Ltd.

Elements of Product Visualization


When visualizing our model, several key elements will determine how it is perceived. Applying and
adjusting these elements are all functions within SolidWorks.
In the following chapters, we will explore each of these elements.

Model
The smoothness of the model surfaces is determined by how finely the tessellation data is created.
Viewpoint
The viewpoint is the position from which we view the model. In photography. this is the camera position.
In SolidWorks, the viewpoint can be controlled manually by using pan. zoom, rotate and roll, or by the
use of cameras. Wit h the manual tools, perspective can be added. adjusted. or not used. With cameras,
perspective is a result of the lens used and the camera-to-subject distance.
Visualization Methods 17

Appearances
.; ppearances control how the model surfaces react to light and color. Appearances can be applied at
:arious levels {assembly, part, face) and follow a strict hierarchy. Appearance properties such as color,
:l!umination, mapping. and surface finish can be controlled t o change the way the surface looks.
Scenes
Scenes are used for two purposes: to place the model into some context and to provide environmental
.ighting and reflections to the model. There are three ways we can use scenes:
Real-world scene
When the intent is to show the model in the environment where it will be used when built. it can be
rendered using a background image.
Studio scene
When an image may be used in a catalog or brochure, it might be rendered against a solid color or
gradient background.

No scene
If an image is to be used in some postprocessing program to combine it with other images, we may
not want a background that would have to be removed later, so we can render without a background.

Lighting
Lighting can be provided from direct lights or from the environment. In OpenGL and Real View, models
are lit with direct lights only. In Photo View 360, lighting may be from both direct and environmental
sources.

Monitor Corrections
The image on your computer monitor may not look exactly like the images printed in this book. If all the
steps were followed correctly, the difference in color and brightness can be traced to the way the
monitor and Photo View 360 are set up.

Monitor Adjustments
Most computer monitors have adjustments to control the color, brightness, contrast, size, and position
of the image on the screen. Some even provide color standards to help adjust the monitor output to
faithfully reproduce colors.
Before attempting to produce consistent print images. you shou ld adjust t he monitor fo llowing the
manufacturer's instructions.

After the manufacturer's instructions have been followed, we can make additional corrections to fine-
tune the monitor to match the printed material.
18 Chapter 2

Procedure
In the next few steps, we will do an initial set of adjustments on your computer monitor.
Make grayscale adjustment.
Open the file Grayscale.tif in the Chapter 2 \ Case Study folder using any imaging software, such
as Microsoft Paint. Adjust the monitor brightness and contrast so that you can see alllO vertical bands
as separate shades of gray.

0 1 2 3

Color Correction
Computer monitors create colors by mixing the three primary additive colors red. green and blue. That
is why it is called RGB color. When all three colors are on full, you get white; when all three are off you
get black.
Most printing processes use subtractive color where the range of colors is created by a mixt ure of cyan,
magenta, and yellow ink.
For more information on color, see Appendix A.

2 Open the part.


Open the part Color.sldprt found in the Chapter 2\Case Study folder.
This part has a default color appearance attached to each of the six squares that contains the primary
colors used by the monitor (red, green, blue} and the primary colors used in printing (cyan. magenta,
yellow).
The part is oriented to the Front view and is illuminated through the appearance properties.
Visualization Methods 19

3 Examine the part.


Compare the colors of the image to
:hose in the book.

Monitor colors.
J sing the controls on the monitor,
adjust the color so that the rendered
;nage matches the printed image as
: lose as possible .
. .,te The part and its colors should
.:JOk exactly the same when viewed
_sing OpenGL, RealView. or rendered
;ith Photo View 360.

An Adjustment Alternative
::you have access to the Internet. visit the website www.photogropherusa.com/screencheck. This sit e
::J~ovid es an expanded version of the grayscale chart and colors used in the preceding steps.
Photo View 360

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Describe the key characteristics of the PhotoView 360
software.
Identify t he principal components of the Photo View 360
user interface.
Start the Photo View 360 Add-ln.
Set the Photo View 360 Options.
22 Chapter 3

What is PhotoView 360 Software?


Photo View 360 is a software solution from SolidWorks, fu lly integrated into the SolidWorks software
to create photorealistic images directly from SolidWorks models. It can produce photorealistic images
to add visual impact to presentat ions and documents. Renderings may be created from SolidWorks
parts and assemblies, but not drawings.
Some of the key features of Photo View 360:
Photorealistic images directly from SolidWorks models
Photo View 360 int eracts with the 30 geometry created with the SolidWorks software. All changes to
SolidWorks models are accurately represented in the PhotoView 360 images.
Fully integrated into SolidWorks
Photo View 360 software is supplied as a SolidWorks dynamic link library (.dll) add-in. You access all
the controls for Photo View 360 rendering from within SolidWorks and PhotoView 360 items on t he
main SolidWorks menu bar or the Render Tools toolbar. This menu bar is displayed whenever a
SolidWorks part or assembly document is open.
Appearances
The same set of SolidWorks appearances used in OpenGL and ReaiView are used in PhotoView 360
to specify model surface properties such as color, texture, reflectance. and transparency. Other
cust om appearances can be created from images available from various websites, created using
image creation software. or by scanning.

Lighting
Light ing is primarily provided by the environment but additional lights may be added in the same way
a photographer adds lights when t aking photographs. PhotoView 360 uses the same lights that are
added in SolidWorks. Photo View 360 has the sophistication to t race light rays and reflections.
Scenes
Each SolidWorks model is associated with a scene, for which you can specify properties such as
environments and backgrounds. Scenes help to put products in context.
Decals
Images. such as company logos. can be applied to models.
Output
The PhotoView 360 software can output to the screen or a graphics file.
PhotoView 360 23

Starting PhotoView 360


.'.'hen Photo View 360 is installed, the menu and toolbar do not automatically appear as part of the
5-:JiidWorks screen. They must be turned on.

. 1ere to Find It
CommandManager: Office Products>PhotoView 360
:llenu: Tools, Add-Ins... , PhotoView 360

p..ocedure
Click Tools, Add-Ins. Add-Ins ~
~the Add-Ins dialog box, select Photo View 360.
Active Add1<1s l StartUp I
8 SolidWorks Premium Add ins
: :ck OK. D ~ CirOJitWorks
IFi ~
[tl e Photnv~ew 36o OJ
~~r':; ScanTo30
D~ SolidWorks Design Ched<er
0 I} SoidWorks Motion
t5
[]
[)~ SoidWorks Routing D
O (j SoidWorks Simulation []
D SolidWorks Toolbox []
07 SoidWorks Toolbox Browser D
ow solid\lllorks utilities D
[] So&dworks Workgroup PDM D
D liaToiAnalyst El
El SolidWorks Add-ins
0 Autntrace D
D Solidl'lorks Aow Simulation D
[\lj~ SolidWorks Forum 0
D Soid\lllorks Plastics 0
0 SolidWarks XPS Driver D
El Other Add ins
0 30tontrol 10
0 30VIA SolidWorks Plug.;., 0

! OK
I I ~ I A
24 Chapter 3

PhotoView 360 User Interface


The PhotoView 360 software uses the same user interface as the SolidWo rks software. No new
int erface techniques are required. The only difference is that you can use the separate preview window
to preview the rendered model or the preview can be done right in the graphics area.

~
"'"""
~

..,...,
r
~ ~~ CommandManager

. Rtl'ldt:t Tool~ 1@1 ~


a0
l ~ ~ Iii! :ll~e ~ ~ r I . .t
App.<~r;m~~{,olor}
~ ~Plastic
te
Meul
'4! P.tntcd
e ~ Components
;ir.~ P\'/-Mn1040
Render Tools toolbar ~Car
te Sprayed
r.iJ..Y
brown gl,-,s~ te Powder Coat
1:!:.4i
PWMTllOOJ ,!. te Rubber
~"41 bloe low glos~ pintle . ~ G!Ms
t ....~ white lowgiO!:s pla~tc: ~SG!id
4 V <:hromiom plat~
[i; ~mortte rubbef

d ~~rt<olor
If'-' colorZ ..
r:, ...) color<)>
~...) color<4>
l, ,..) cctor<.S>
f'ti..,J color<~6>
tt.-.....J co!or<7>
it;""\) colo:<S>
1; -..j color<9>
~.;!-...) c:;olor<lO>
ti....:J colordl:>
lt-r~ color<ll>
tt....) c:ol0f<l3>
G...,) color<l4>
rtr~ color<l5>
$-ft blue II"glou pl"tk<2~
s ..J color<16>
~-....J c~or<l1>
,_;....,J cuior<l8>
tV-~ c.olor<li>
.rr....) color<20>
~ color<21>
PhotoView 360 25

Photo View 360 Menu ( PhotoView 360 1


::::1ce PhotoView 360 is running, the PhotoView 360 menu will provide I fl> Edit Appearance...

=:::cess to all Photo View 360 commands. "" Copy Appearance


..# Poote Ap pearance _____ , i
& Edit Scene... iI
j Edit Decal...

~"] Integrated P~ev1~w


~ Preview Window
e Final Render
~ Options...
~ Schedule Render...
Recall Last Rende red Image

Customize Menu !
L-~-------------~

~ender Tools Toolbar


-:::Render Tools toolbar will appear whenever a part or assembly Rende r Tool<

:::.::::ument is active. lt can be moved, resized, or docked like all other


3: ...dWorks toolbars. If this toolbar is turned off. it can be turned on by
~pt-clicking an existing toolbar and selecting Render Tools or by using the View, Toolbars menu.

:OmmandManager
==-.der Tools can also be
:::::essed through the
Edit
"'
Copy
~
Paste
&
Edit
ta ,j Integrated
Eot
~ %
Preview
e ~ ~
Fnal Options Schedule
~
Reca~
Appearance Appearance Appearance Scene Decal Preview \V"IIldow Render Render Last
- - ;;JmandManager. Once the Render

=-~to View 360 add-in is loaded,


-? render tools will be located on the Render Tools tab.

:Ji.splayManager
--= J isplayManager provides an outline view of the appearances, scenery,
=~:als, cameras, and light ing associated with the active SolidWorks part or
~semb ly.
E;J~ Scene (Light Cards)
--=J isplayManager indicates which items of geometry are attached to which ! ~~
[ l_~
Background (Color
Environment (kitchen)
=:::::>earances and decals. $-ibJ lights
f <V Ambient
--2 J isplayManager also makes it easy to: j. ~ Directionan
l If' Directiona12
~Camera
Jnderstand the way in which appearance and decal inheritance works. J.. Walk-through
Select and edit appearances and decals associated with the model.
Access the appearance, scene, lighting, camera, and decal properties.
111 -:-ransfer appearances and decals between components, features. and faces.
26 Chapter 3

Appearances, Scenes, and Decals Tab


The Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab is located on the Task Pane
and contains appearances, scenes, lights, and decals. Appearances,
scenes, lights, and decals can be applied to the model by simply dragging
t he it em from the bottom pane of the Appearance, Scenes, and Decals 1;}0 Appearance>(color)
00 ~ Plastic
tab and dropping it int o t he graphics area or on the model. tt-ll0 Metal
~-f.e Painted
! J--.:e Car
I 1 te Sprayed
I ~ PowderCoat
tf!-te Rubber
,.,Tl--~ G1ass
te Solid
:il-te Lights
tit te Fabric
~-te Organic
i tiJ te Stone
: Jh-~ Miscellaneous
e-~ Scenes
t l-Y Basic Scenes
J ~- tit Studio Scenes
j L.~ Presentation Scenes
e-!!lli Decals
L~ logos
PhotoView 360 27

Eetting Help
_ - :.12 product visualization help t opics are found in the SolidWorks help system.

- ""'= -=? files are bot h shipped with SolidWorks in HTML help format and are available online. This
_- = ~ ::nproved search and display functions, as well as a consistent look and feel with Microsoft's
-= 1elp.

=-e : o Find It
=--~= Help, SolidWorks Help
- -:.e Bar: Help g

Pnrrt I Feedbeck on thi!O top:c:

Welcome to SolidWorks Online Help Ir.troducr:,on


:=: User Interfare
:=: SohdWor'k..~ Futld<'ment:ll!; Getting Help
~ -MoVIng from 20 to 3D
Access to Help lists ways to a cc:ess hefp for the SolidWorks product an d
add-Ins, as well as hints for searchfng. See Access to Help.
What's New Introdu ces conc.epts: ~nd provides step-by-step examples
~ <:.onfigu r.~tior.s
for many new f eatures.
.!: Sol:dWorks Co!>tino
Cfick Help, > What s New > PDf or Help > Whats New >
2 D~gn Checker fflML
; .Oe54 ~n Sb.Jdies: in SclidWorks
Interactive Whaes
=.: Oeta1hng and Drawings New
Hichliohts new features in the SolidWorks product and
add-ins.
3- OriveWork!:Xpress Cfid< ~ next to new or dlanged menu items and
PropertyMana(l'ers.
3 -fioXpress:
E Import and f xport !ntroducing Oisrusses conc.epts and terminolooy osed throughout the
2: -Model D1!;p(l!ly SofldWorks SolidWorks application. This dorument is for new
6 Appearances SolidWorks users.
8 Displaying lv1odel lnformc;ti~H'I Qick Hel p > Introducing S<JiidWorks (pdf).
e~camera!;
SofldWori<s Tutorials Steps you through introductory to advanced examples th at
8-0ecaf!; team the functionality of the SolidWorks product and add-
$Scenes ins.
G Ughting
$ Walk~th(oogh Overview
In the Task Pan e, dick the Solid Works Resources tab (j].
Under Getti'ng Started, dick Tutorials <0.!.
8--Snapshots
@ -RealistiC Display and Rendering SoftdWorks Glossary Defines solid modeling and SolidWorks t erms.
&J did< Gl~t~ssa ry in the table of content s.
28 Chapter 3

Dynamic Help
Dynamic help is provided t o assist you in understanding ~ ::-q
the effects of various controls. Dynamic help can be <I? x -i13
enabled separately for appearances, decals, and Basic f~1
PhotoView 360 Options.

Whenever you select, or hover over, an item on the


Illumination or Surface Finish tab of either an
Iliumina tJon
appearance's or a decal's PropertyManager, or certain
settings in the PhotoView 360 Options, dynamic help will o;ffi...., amount:

appear as a balloon. [c~ .. ~..,.


Move the cursor over any active illumination or surface
finish property to display dynamic help pertaining to that
~~t~~-.
J Controts intensity of hght on a surface. A
Sperular cokx": J ~1gher value m akes the surface appear
property. 1 ~b_n~gh_~~'
---------------A
Specular spread:
As an example, with the cursor over the Diffuse property, r.
l o.~r.;
r
dynamic he lp shows the way the model will reflect light as rr-Tr--:~.'

Reflection amou<1t:
t he slider is moved.
[o~~-'~'-~~--' -~-~~1
Discussion Forum [ ]Bkny reflectioos
The SolidWorks Discussion Forum is ava ilable to all Transparent amount:

customers with Subscription Service. It is accessed


through the SolidWorks website and has subgroups for l l.Krinous intensity:

different areas of SolidWorks and its add-in programs fO:OOii~i.;;;,_2---r:


i~tt~ 1 t i I l 1 U1 l! .1 -Hil~.-l 1

such as PhotoView 360. This is a good place to ask


questions of other Photo View 360 users and to share information.

Options
PhotoView 360 has its own options dialog box. Options allow you to customize t he Phot oView 360
software to reflect your preferences for default settings. Opt ions are divided into Output Image
Settings, Render Quality, Bloom, Contour Rendering, Direct Caustics, and Netwo rk Rendering.

For a complete listing of all t he sett ings available th rough the Photo View 360 Options dialog, refer to
the Help menu.

Where to Find It
11Menu: Photo View 360, Options
Render Tools Toolbar: Options ~
DisplayManager: PhotoView 360 Options ~
PhotoView 360 29

S:::: Photo View 360 Options


=e=:-e beginning a project in Photo View 360, you need to set syst em options to make sure everyone
:-c: : the same resu lts.

::edure
Open a new SolidWorks part.
~oView 360 Options can only be set if a pa rt or assembly docu ment is open.

S et PhotoView 360 options.


: : = Options 1~1 o n the Render Tools too lbar.
Output Image Se~ ~
::- ::-e initially only concerned with the Output Image Settings and Render [[{] Dynamic help
i
.::s::Uty. ! OUtput image sue:
! [nox5'!0 {'!:3) I
::: ==- Bloom, Contour Rendering, Direct Caustics, and Network Rendering. . .....CJ 720 ,
10t1Jf! ( ! ! ! !!tf.l~}lf~

Choose output image settings [0 5'10 >


ttH j''.\f _llt !t Jj#Jytuti
3-= =::'.: Dynamic help. This will make it easier to learn the various illumination 1.333 : 1
=:-: s~rface fin ish settings as we proceed through the case studies. ,
I
[J] Rxedaspect ratio

jl r1 Use background
1 .J ratio
aspect
- _- :onsistency, set t he options as follows:

:M-put image size: 72Qx54Q {43}


I. .' Image for
,.........
ma_t: _ _ ___,
[J>EG I
?ixed aspect ratio: Select~d II
1
Default image path:
l:.>l:i C: \SoidWori<s S!Ep-byStep

:Jse background aspect ratio: .c:l~9red l B<owse ... J


!.mage format: JPEG RenderQuality *
:Jefault image path: 0: \ SolidWorks Step-by-Step . Preview render quality:

3uides \ Photorealistic R endering\ Rendered Images !Good I


I Final render quaity:

Choose render quality. I !Good I


' r-J CustDm render settings
--eie are fo ur levels of re nder qua lity: Good, Better, Best. and Maximum. For Gamma:
-
:_- initial renderings. a qua lity setting of Good will be sufficient to see t he 1.6 t .. i
jU,ll1 II 111 1 l " l B~rt !
::-.::..:ects an d also to preview and render quickly. j0 Monte Carlo j
j fJ OU~ent Occlusion j
Preview render quality: GQDQ L_ ~ J

Final render quality: Good tiT~ -- - ~1


Gamma: 1,6 ~~ Rendering ~;
[0 Dire9'(:ausl:ic:s ~j
:::.!ck OK. JQ:-R~dering 4,.l
-portant! Yo u must click OK to save the settings. If you just click on another
:cb, the changes will be lost.

~ Close all open files.


Basic Visualization
orkflow

-.~?o n
successful completion of this chapter,
ou will be able to:
Jescribe the basic steps to render a model with the
SolidWorks and PhotoView 360 software.
A::l?IY appearances to a model, feature. and face.
~a ~ply a scene to a model.
.;.dd a llght to the scene.
~end er a model using Photo View 360.
[:Jmpare rendered images using the Final Render window.
32 Chapter 4

The Visualization Process


To create photorea listic images. there is a basic
process to applying all the elements required.
Most of these steps are done in SolidWorks with ---~--
...Jt;: - ~ '= .
the final rendering steps being done in
Photo View 360.

Stages in the Process


For each SolidWorks model to be rendered, the
process requires the following steps which are
repeated until a satisfactory output is obtained:
Apply appearances
Apply appearances to the model. features, and/or selected faces. =r:r.s..:
Position the viewpoint
Use a standard view. a camera. or zoom, pan. rotate. and roll to position the model as desired. Turn on
perspective to give the model more realistic proportions. --=~:

Set the scene --c-


Select one of the various preset scenes, or set your own background and scenery. -----
Set lighting
Adjust the existing scene lighting or add additiona l direct lights.

Preview
Preview the rendered output using the preview window or integrat ed preview.

Adjust
Creating a good rendering may require adjustment to the scenery. lighting. and appearance to get the
image the way you want it.
Final Render
The model is rendered to the size and quality set in the PhotoView 360 Options.
Choose output
PhotoView 360 rendered output can be save to a variety of file types as a colored or alpha chan nel
output.
Postprocessing
The PhotoView 360 output is not always the final product. The Photo View 360 output may be used
with other programs for add itional effects.
Basic Visualization Workflow 33

aterials and Appearances


::- :::1 to SolidWorks 2008, appearances were just called materials. Starting with SolidWorks/
='-:::~oWorks 2008, appearances have been used to define the way a surface looks, while materials
-::==i.-:e the physica l properties of the solid. While materials have appearances associated with them,
=.:::::earances can be applied that are completely different from the material. An example would be a
2 1ted piece of steel. The material applied would be steel, which would be used to calculate the weight
_- :.1e part and stress calculated through finite element analysis, while an appearance of paint would be
.32G t o show how the part will look with paint applied. Additionally, t he su rface fin ish on appearances

-=-! be different; for instance a brass appearance could have a surface fin ish of cast, rough, sat in, or
:: :shed.
=- =~to SolidWorks 2011, PhotoView 360 used a separate set of appearances. With SolidWorks 2011 and
.=.::=:- versions, all product visualization, including Photo View 360, uses a single set of appearances.
- -erefore, when we apply a material to a part or assembly, the appearance associated with the material
,..., . ] e used in OpenG L, RealView, and Photo View 360 rendering.
: as desired. Turn on
:;efault Appearance
- S:>lidWorks 2009 and later. all surfaces must have an appearance assigned to them. ln versions prior
-: .:::oog, parts did not have to have an appearance but could have a color or texture applied directly to
ry.
::-e part. If a part without an appearance was rendered, the default appearance was used, but not
=::<:ched to the part.
- en you create a new part, the default appearance will automatically be attached to the part. Out of
--:;box, the default appearance is called color. If you open a part created in an older version of
~::idWorks, either t he default appearance color or texture will be used with the legacy data contained
- :'le file.
:-:earance to get the
:.J can set any appearance to be t he default.

... ere to Find It


Task Pane: Right-click an appearance and click Set as default appearance
>

User Interface
eo or alpha channel - ..11ost every function in product visualization is part of SolidWorks and can be used without
::::l otoView 360 being installed or added in. There are three places in t he user interface to add, modify,
2 1 d display visualization information: the Display Pane, DisplayManager, and Task Pane. In many cases.
:;u can access t he same information from all three.
CJrput may be used
34 Chapter 4

Display Pane
The Display Pane is used to view display visibility settings of parts and
~ Space Navigator-1 (Defaul
assemblies. . ~ Sensors
1hJ Annotations
Where to Find It ! j ~ Front
~ Top
FeatureManager design tree: Click to open the Display Pane and ~ Right
to close it t.
Ongon
~ (f) Base-1 <1 >
It: ~Trim Ring-1<1>
DisplayManager e ~ Button-1 <1 >
The DisplayManager provides an out line view of the key propert ies used 1 ciJ ~ Button-1 <2.>
ffl~ Center Controll<1>
for product visualization associated with the active SolidWorks part or iJJ ~ (-) Rubber Base-1<1>
assembly. The DisplayManager has four different sections: . &liMates

View Appearances [%'(if] 6% ~~Jf@l_


View Decals (f]~~ ~

~f/
View Scene, Lights, and Cameras
PhotoView 360 Options v;ew Appearaoce<
View Decals
The informat ion in the DisplayManager makes View Scene, Lights. and Cameras
it easy to: Phot oView 360 Options - - - - - - - J

Ident ify which appearances and decals are associated with which geometry.
Understand the way in which appearance and decal inheritance works.
Select and edit scene properties, appearances, and decals by name.
Transfer appearances and decals between items of geometry in the tree.
Turn lights on or off in SolidWorks and the PhotoView 360 rendering.
Set PhotoView 360 Options.
Where to Find It
FeatureManager design tree: Select DisplayManager tab ~
Basic Visualization Workflow 35

/iew Appearances
~e View Appearances tab lists all the appearances attached to t he model and can be sorted by:
: :l)efaul

History: the chronological order in which the appearances were applied.


~ Alphabetical: by the name of the appearances.
~ Hierarchy: the precedence order of the appearances. Appearances higher up the listing take
~
1.. :Jrecedence over appearances lower in the listing.
~ ~ L]
-
I
~~ ....
~ ~ ..oillll
~~ .... ~~ ~ ~ ~@ ~ ~
. .1<1> ~~ ....
....1<1> ~~ L1
Sort order: Sort order.

blu~ pohsh~d ABS plastic l blue polished ASS plast1c ';l ~ wnn

~
blu~ polish~d ABS plastic<2>
green glas5
;}.
ffi
blu e polished ASS plastic<2>
blue polished ABS plast1C<3> :B .
f ..J yellow h1gh gloss plastic
b lu e polished ASS plastic

'_;~ $.
yellow high glo" plastic @ blue polished ASS plastic<4 > 1: blue polished ASS plastic<2>
~ blue polished ASS plastic<3> [+' ~ blue polished ABS plastic<S> 00 ~ green glass
yellow high gloss plastlc<2> +1 blue polished ASS plastic<6> 1: J yellow high gloss plastic<2>
yellow high glos. pla.stic<3>
yellow high g loss plastic<4 >
~ blu~ polish ed ASS plastic<4 >
$ ..
tk j
blue p olished ASS plastic<7>
blue polished ASS plastic<S>
color
@
.
:)

E' (]Face
blue pol ished ASS plastic<3>
blue polished ABS p lastic<4>

yellow high gloss plastic<S> [- \.J color<2> fh -..) yellow high gloss plastic<3>
yellow h1gh gloss plastic<6> s J color<3> I# J cream high gloss plastic
color @J color<4 > !! b lue polished ABS plastic<S>
color<2> ...) color<S> ~ J yellow high gloss plastic<4>
color<3> . FP .,J color<6> ~~Features
cotor<4> i$ -;J color<7> :tJ blue polished ABS plastic<6>
[ ~ yellow high gloss plastJc<S>
color<S> It] ...) color<8>
e \) matte steel
color<6>
color<7>
matte steel
color<9>
color<lO> :J. blue polished ABS plastie<7>
&, , ) yellow high gloss plastic<6>
color<8> 8 ~ Parts/As.emblies
color<9> til ,) yellow high gloss plastic<7>
color<lO> matte steel f!: b lue polished ASS plast1c<8>
~ . . blue polished ASS plastiC<S> 4i red high gloss plastic ffi Jcolor
~ red high gloss plastiC e- ..1 yellow h1gh gloss plastiC !tHJ color<l>
- ~ blue polished ABS plastic<6> @ J yellow high gloss plastic<2> e0 color<3>
: .J cream high gloss p lastic
- ~ blue p olished ABS plast ic<7>
_ yellow high gloss plastic<7>
~ ~ yellow h igh gloss plastic<3>
$J .) yellow high gloss plastic<4 >
!>) ..) yell ow h1gh gloss plast1c<S>
.!.J
ffi \.) color<4 >

IJ
red high gloss plastic
c olor<5>
- ~ blue polished ABS plastic<8> $ .,) yellow high gloss p lastic<6> $0 co lor<6>
color<ll> IJ 4,) yellow h1 gh gloss plastic<7> 00 V color<?>
iJ ,.J color<8>
itJ 0 color<9>
IJ -,.) y ellow high gl oss plastic<8>
!; blue polished ASS p lastic<9>
IJ ..1 y~llow htgh gloss plastic<9>
@..,) color<lO>
d.-l \ color<ll>

History Alphabetical Hierarchy


36 Chapter 4

View Decals
All decals applied to the model and the face they are applied to are listed.
The order in the list also indicates which decals are on top of the other 2 tj Decals (fop mam sheH)
E' TruckGnll
decals. .I:Jl
Face
I!J .@logo
!J Face<2>
+ @ Decal< (fireman)

---;::,
- -J:-
View Scene, Lights, and Cameras
Scenes, lights, and cameras are listed and controlled by this tab.
-= ~ Scone (3 Point Orange) - : : .:J
Scene Vd) Background (Environment) 2' ~
Both the background (that which is seen behind the model) and t he e Environment (3 point orange)
1.'- b}Lights
environment (a spherical image surrounding the model) are listed and can ~ Scene Dlum1natron

be controlled. Q Amboent
Q' r$1 Diroctionall
l.l' r$' Dored:lona12
Lights - ~Camera
Lighting from the scene and direct lights are shown here. For direct lights, ~ Cameral
~ Cam ....2
their stat us in both SolidWorks and Photo View 360 is shown. ). Walk-through
r=. ~ Snapshots
Cameras 0 Home

All cameras in the model are listed and can be modified.


Walk-through
Walk-throughs are a type of animation path used to show how t he model would look to an observer __.?: -=:;.::
walking through the model.

Snapshots
Snapshots capture the state of the graphics area including the view orientation, zoom, hide/show state
of components, section views, and exploded views. They are only available in assemblies.
Basic Visualization Workflow 37

t :lhoto View 360 Options ( '.~l.nl'lilit'J 'iij 0 llloom ~ I


~ -en Photo View 360 is loaded, the options used to ~ )(;
1
F10ol render orly
Bloom setpoint:
a !'":op main sheiQ =-~o l the settings unique to rendering are displayed in "Outp;;ti"mageS..tti~~
A 100
-~emu fem I .i! (! I \ 1 1 1 _~ 1_r)lit;mnwj
- = options. lJ Dynam<c help 1 I
.l:lgD
face
Output lfllage Sl;re: IBloom extent: I
;J Fac.e<l>
a wernan)
Output Image Settings ,...,
1?20X5'!0 ( 4:3) vI IL 5
!o!fFilTIXITikVA"lii1
-
j
~sed to control t he size, aspect ratio, and format of .o 720
fmf} _l I I I 11 I I! l,khhfrl;trd


1
Con_
t our R,;-ndet)lng ~

::~e rendered output. [0 540 ....,- F111al render only


:;q iU.fTTl lllJIJlJJ)j~Ni'f
~
[]] ~
E,.
t. 333: 1
Render Quality [JJ Fixod aspect ratio
...:sed to control four preset image qualit ies for both
. -. :
Lre thid<ness:
.,. (J Pomt Orange) '_] Use backgound aspect I= .!'"-

<Image~: ~--1
~nd (Environment )
::-:e preview and final render or use custom settings for
...
&-onment {3 point orange)

Sr.:er ltumination
rDent
l:lectlonaU
--:10re controL
Bloom
IDef.U::::epa~:
~~
d::J
C:\SolidWorks Step-by-Step
L" Dir~:Color. . ~

l:lectlonafl ...:sed to add a glow around very bright emissive or ! Browse... J


~

~ -eflective objects in the image. ' Render Qua.rny--


' 100000
1!1T 111 !_ ~ 11 U ! "'rHl1?ti11
~ 1
Pre\ilew render quality: ICaustic quality:
~ Contour Rendering
.__
!~~Dots
J sed to add separately rendered edges in the fina l 1. 1Good . llI --'---'-----
32
isnp H ,, \ ! i " 1rif'"'1
-~
FK1al render QU<>kty: I '. ... --
-endered output. I 1 Ii,J Hetwork Rendering
III
Good ~

In Cusmm render settings


j
Clent workload:_ - .....
~..
Direct Caustics Gamma: 2QOD/"
rm:rrn::rrnww,
16 f ... !' n:Fj" ........................
-.:o an observer J sed to add caustic effect s (light refraction) from m .!! !l ! ! t ! 1'1 U~tl"...-11 i 1 [J] Send di!ltz:l for n~twork job
1
! j

--------'
c irect lights through transparent objects.
Network shared directory:

Network Rendering C:\ t<rnp\

- hide/show state J sed to share the rendering task across multiple aro.-.""Se .
,.
J.tes. computers.
38 Chapter 4
-------------------------------------------------------
Task Pane Appearances. Scenes. and Oecals

The Task Pane is used to apply appearances, scenes, and decals. ...
The choices in the Task Pane are the same whether Photo View 360 is
: :; e Appemnces(color)
~ U legacy
added in or not. ffi ~ Plastic
ttr ~ MI!tal
(tj ~ Pairrt~
. .teli!!l!m
$ ~ Glass
'4j L1ghts
&., ~ Fabric
(f) ~ Orgamo
tl ~ Stone
~ -te Misct.llaneou!i
ees
' t.e
Scnos
BasiC Scenes
~ Studio Scenes
~ Presentation Scenes
~ Custom Seen..
i!:J Decals
t@ logos
-=-
~ Custom Decals

matterubbe:r

Case Study: SpaceNavigator


The SpaceNavigator is a 3D motion controller =~ =
from 3Dconnexion found on the desks of many
SolidWorks users. For our rendering, we will use a
defeatured version that has no internal detail as the
internal components will not be seen in the view we
are going to render.

Our goal in this first case study is to learn the key


steps in the process of creating a rendered image.
We will add the appropriate appearances to the
various components, add a logo decal, and place the
model in a scene all within SolidWorks. Once the The SpaceNavigator is a product of 3Dconnexion. This model
has been provided by them and used with t heir permission.
initial setup is complet e. we will use Photo View 360
to create the final rendered image.
Basic Visualization Workflow 39

_.z There will be places in this initial case study that you will be told to make adjustments to
~ ,.
i..-c;es. Scenes. and Decals
:-::::~erties without a full explanation of why you are doing it or specifically what the expected result is.
~es(color) --ese details will be covered later in the book. For now, the important t hing is to understand the overall
-~ te!C'J
~ i'ioslx:
::-:::::ess and to gain an exposure to the different elements of the rendering process.

~:x:edure
Open the assembly. Specular
::::il the SpaceNavigator Assembly found in the highlights
-~apter 4\ Case Study\SpaceNavigator folder.

~ \fiscelaneous
ia,. Orient the model.
~'""""Scenes 3-=.ect the Isometric view.
& smdioScenes

Turn on OpenGL.
=~eaiView is on, turn it off by clicking View, Display, RealView
;;cphics. This is a toggle, so the same icon turns ReaiView on and

::ice that t he model is uniformly gray because all the parts use the default appearance. While there
~-=specular highlights from t he lights, there are no reflections seen in the surfaces.

Examine the model.


--=assembly consists of eight unique parts, one of which (SN_BUTTON) has two inst ances. Because
:::h instances of the but ton look the same, we will add the appearance in the part file so that it will
=.;:Jiy t o all instances. The individual parts have been extensively defeatured on the inside because we
=.-e not concerned with the construction details, only the final shape.

_ Open the part.


:Jen the SN_BUTTON part in its own window.

Cc-.-:exion. This mode[


;:;- ~eir permission.
40 Chapter 4

Appearances __ ::e;a:as
Appearances affect the way a surface reacts to light. In a part, they may be applied to parts, features, - --= -::::":16
bodies, or faces. In an assembly, they may be applied to assemblies or components. Appearances are of -~~...rt
two general types, Procedural and Textures. Appearance types will be discussed in Chapter 5: Applying
Appearances.
To apply an appearance:
Drag the appearance from the Appearance Selection area of the Task Pane (see page 41) into the
graphics area to apply the appearance to the entire part.
Drag the appearance onto a part, feature, or face, and then select where t o attach the appearance
using the Appearance Target I WI ~ ILl ~~ fl ~ I.
Select the part, feature, or face, then double-click the appearance in the Appearance Selection area
of the Task Pane.
Select the part, body, feature, or face, then right-click the appearance in the Appearance Selection
area of the Task Pane and click Add Appearance to Selection(s) ~ .
Select the part, feature, or face, then right-click the appearance in the DisplayManager and click Add
Appearance.

Note If you press and hold the AIt key when dragging an appearance onto a part. body, feat ure, or face,
the appearance's PropertyManager will open.
Where to Find It
Menu: PhotoView 360, Edit Appearance
Render Too ls Toolbar: Edit Appearance It]
Task Pane: Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab ~
Basic Visualization Workflow 41
---- ----------------- -- -- ----- ------------------------
.!..ppearances, Scenes, and Decals Tab Appearc:snces. S.cenes, and - ~ ttD 1

{; t:o parts. features, - -e Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of the w lil
.;ppearances are of -::sK Pa ne lists all the appearances that are c e Appear.mces(cofor)
Chapter 5: Applying :: ailable to be applied to the model. '+' te Plastic
+' ~ Metal
' ~ Painted
- '-e top pane is the Appearance Library where sxe Rubber
~ Matte
::::::earances are listed in Appearance Folders. ~Gloss
-'-e appearance tree s hows all the folders Appearance ~ Texture Appearance
:Jcge 41) into the -., ~ G lass Folders
:-_-ently loaded. Each folde r can be expanded by Library : ~lights
: :<ing the plus sign next to it to s how the sub- iF <.e
Fabnc
c.=-. the appearance '! t4 Organc
=:: ::!ers. The bottom pane is t he Appearance ;E <.e
Stone
+' ~ Miscellaneous
c.,ce Selection a rea :::.ection area. l+_ ~Scenes
5 @ Decals
l Logos
:earance Selection

rager and click Add

-;i.y, feature, or face, Appearance


color
Selection
Area
42 Chapter 4

6 Add an appearance.
If an appearance is to be applied to an entire part. the easiest method is to drag the appearance into
the graphics window.
Click the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab on the Task Pane.
Click the plus sign to the left of the Appearances folder to expand it. Do the same for the Plastic
folder, then select Textur ed.
Drag the appearance PW-MTll 000 into the graphics area to apply it to the Button part.

- -.e -:p;:;
t t0 Low Gloss
SN_BUTTON (Default< ..te Textured
~ Sen&Ors te Clear Plastic
$- </ Desrgn B1nder te Sat1n Finish
clJ ~ Annotations te EDM
e ~ Solid Bodies(!) -te Patterned
jQJ Sulface Bodies te Composite
~= Material <not specified> ~ Mesh
~ Front ~ Wax
~ Top
i ~ Right
l.. Origin

7 Return to the assembly.


Make the assembly window active and examine the model. Both buttons are now black in color and have
a dull finish.
Basic Visualization Workflow 43

Turn on ReaiView.
c;Jpearance into -_-on Real View by clicking View, Display, RealView Graphics in
-E 1enu.

.:=c:::Jse the defau lt appearance has a high reflectance, we can see


:=- =::tions from the surrounding scene.
"'or the Plast ic

::: part.

Add appearance. Drag ont o this part


:=. ~and the appearance folder Plastic and then select the
:::..::O.ium. Gloss folder.
- :1e Appeara nce Selection area. scroll until you locate the
=:.::::earance black medium gloss plastic.
::g this appearance onto the part SN_UPPER_HOUSING.
-en you release the mouse button, the Appearance Callout
appear. Select Part.

Select part

_ te If it is difficult t o see where the appearance was applied, you


:::1 change to OpenG L display which will remove the reflections.

~co lor and have


44 Chapter 4

10 Add appearance.
The next part is the SN_HANDLE_CAP part which needs an appearance that will look like rubber. We
will add the appearance PW-MTllOOO to the entire part by t he same drag-and-drop method used
previously.
Drag the PW-MTllOOO appearance from the Task Pane and drop it on the SN_HANDLE_CAP part.
Select Part in the Appearance Callout.

Note In the real SpaceNavigator, the SN_HANDLE_CAP has a rubber coating. There is no
requirement to use an appearance that is the same as the actual part. Our only goal is to make the final
rendered image look correct.
11 Add appearance to selection.
Examine the part SN_CAP_INSERT and Top Face
notice that there are three surfaces that will
need to have the same black medium
gloss plastic appearance applied to them as
was used on the SN_UPPER_HOUSING
part. --
Select the three faces.
In the DisplayManager, right-click the
appearance black medium gloss plastic
that is attached to the Trim Ring.
Click Attach to Selection(s).
---
Note We could have added the appearance
t o the entire SN_CAP_INSERT part as was
done in the previous steps; however, we are
adding to the specific faces just for
demonstration purposes.

:.5
Basic Visualization Workflow 45

: Examine the part.


look like rubber. We S= ect: the View Appearances tab of the ~
1>-drop method used : s :J,ayManager and select Hierarchy for the sort
: -=:-. T]
s D im!
::::ANDLE_CAP part. - - ;s dis play, we can see the appearances we have : = black medoum gloss plastoc
I .[J Face
3:'":: .ed so far. PW-MT ll 000 has been applied tG [] Face<2>

1ere is no '--= SN_HANDLE_CAP part and black medium


.[) Face<3>
"" ~ Parts/Assemblies
~ -ss plastic has been applied to the three faces. -= PW-M111000
a : is to make t he final . ~ SN_HANDLE_CAP_&
~?.:<:!.lse faces are higher in the hierarchy than = ...) color
~ SN_FOOT_&
;c.--:s, the black medium glos s plastic shows - ...) colo r<2>
'- ~er on t he tree than the PM -MT l lOOO ~ SN_SUPPORT_&

Top Face = -.) color<3>


?:":eara nces attached to the parts. ~ SN_CASLE_ATTACHMENT_&
~ PW-M111000<2>
e ::an a lso see that five part s have t he default . ~ SN_BUTTON_&
fJ ..j color<4>
:::>=earance Color applied to them because all '% SN_CAP_lNSERT_&
8 ..) color<S>
=-:es must have some appearance applied. ~ SN_LOWER_.HOUS!NG_&
F black medium g lo"' plartic<l>
3 Apply appearances to t he '% SN_UPPER_HOUS!NG_&
S!i_LOWER_HOUSING part.
: -::e"l the part SN_LOWER_HOUSING in its own window.

- :""'e Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of the Task Pane, locate the appearance satin finish
s-Ainl.ess steel under Appearances, Metal, Steel

: :g the appearance into t he graphics area to apply it to the entire part.


- Return to assembly.
=: :urn to the ass embly of the SpaceNavigato r.

....;}Seen parts
- - .s asse mbly contains the parts SN_FOOT and SN_SUPORT
- ich are under the assembly and will not be seen in the rendered
e-.1. We have already seen in step 12 t hat the default appearance
:: .or is attached to this part. Do we need to change the appearance
-::something that is more appropriate? If we need the flexibility to
-: .,der this assembly in other views, then we should change the
::::;Jearance to something more realistic. If the Isometric view is
_s:::ng to be the only rendered view, then it is not necessary to
: -:ange the appearance because t he part will never be seen.
46 Chapter4

15 Add appearance to a component. =


For completeness we will add an appearance to the two parts. In the Feature Manager design t ree, select
t he SN_FOOT.
Locate the appearance PW-MTl l 000 in the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals t ab of the Task Pane
and double-dick it.
In the FeatureManager design tree. select the SN_SUPPORT.
Locate the appearance black medium gloss plastic in the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of
the Task Pane and double-click it.
Appearance hierarchy
Examine the DisplayManager and notice that the
PW-MTllOOO appearance is attached to the SN_FOOT part
at the Components level and that Components appear in the Sort order: IHiorarchy ~j

list above Faces. 1;:1- ~ Components


. B (I PW-MTllOOO
- ~ SN_FOOT_&-l@SpacoNavigator As<embly_&

-e.
S (I black medoum glo plastic
~ SN_SUPPORT_&-l@SpacoNavigator As<embly,
~ ~ Face
black m edium gloss pla<tic<2>
-!;;ii Face
, [ ] Face<Z>
' -I:J Face<3>
8 ~ Part</Asemblies
ciJ (I PW-MTUOOO<Z>
$.,.) color
(!l j color<Z>
$~ color<3>
$ (I PW-MTI1000<3>
~-..) color<4>
ttl J <atin finO<h stainless steel
~ black medium gloss plamc<3>

16 Add appearance to a face.


Drag the appearance yellow high gloss plastic from the Plastic, High Gloss folder onto the
bottom face of the SN_FOOT and select Face.
:::.s 3
Basic Visualization Workflow 47

::.Xamine the assembly.


~r design tree, select 1= = : hough both appearances are
:::-:: : ::l, the yellow high gloss
; -=.-:..:.c attached to the face is hidden ~J
:b of the Task Pane S- ~ Components
_ :-: PW-MTllOOO attached to
S a PW-Ml11000
-= : ::mponent because components ~ SN_FOOT_&-l@SpaceNavigator Assembly_&
8 black medium gloss plastic
~ - gher in the hierarchy. ' ~ SN_SUPPORT_&-l@SpaceNavigato r
e O Face
s. and Decals tab of ' t=;J J yellow medium gloss plastic
. .[] Face
El-a black medium gloss plastic<2>
fJI Face<2>
[) Face<3>
li:J Face<4>
~ S ~ Parts/Assemblies
.. - ------- ? liJ a PW-MT11000<2>
,...,.XPS ~ . .,_) color
.,_) color<2>
\ ) color<3>
1$1-. PW-Ml11000<3>
~avigator Assembly_& I $ .,_) color<4>
1iJ ..J satin finish stainless steel
~plasbc I a black medium gloss plastic<3>
!a -:@SpaceNavigator Assembly~

piasbc<2>
: Open the part.
:c:.:il the SN_FOOT in its own window.
'~l .. I I:J:IJ:ltit::..:

:-lin t he part itself, we can see the ye llow


]
:::::earance because within a part. a face is at E;!QFace
:--e top of the appearance hierarchy. 1 8 v
yellow medium gloss plastic
{]Face
j
8 ~ Parts/As.embfies
_ Remove an appearance. s y color
sled
-piasbc<3> ~-=-:ause we do not need the yellow ~ SN_FOOT_&

:::::earance, we should delete it t o avoid


::-.fusion. In the DisplayManager, right-click the yellow high gloss plastic appearance and click
; "older onto the ~:move Appearance.

Jecals
::.=:::a Is are image files that can be added to the model just as actual decals are placed on t he final
::-3duct. Beside the image used as the decal, a second image ca n be used to mask the first image so t hat
'"-:Iy certain areas of the decal image show through, very much like a st encil.

-the next few steps. we will add the 3D Connexion logo to the t rim ring of the assembly.
48 Chapter 4

20 Open the part.


Decals are added to specific parts, not the assembly. While decals can be added in the assembly, you
cannot specify a face or faces to which the decal is going to be attached. - --.::.
_. -

Open the part SN_UPPER_HOUSING in its own window. - ~ =


-::e
21 Add the decal.
Change the display to OpenGL.
Note This is not required but will make it easier to see the placement of the
decal by removing the reflections.
In the DisplayManager select the View Decals tab.
Right-click anywhere in the View Decals t ab and click Add Decal.
(jj Joconnexron
Click Browse and locate the file 3D Connexion Logo.tif in the
Case Study\SpaceNavigator folder of this chapter.
!mage file path:
22 Attach the decal. (;i;l C:\So!idWorks Step-by-Step <

The Mapping controls are used to size and position the decal on the part. f ~owse... I
Select the Mapping tab. ~J
; [Mask lmage
Select the face shown. @ No mask
U !mage mask file
(") Selective color mask
Note The model is shown in the Isometric view.
If) ~cat image alpha

There are two things we need to do with the decal. First is to size and position it correctly. The second
is to show only the white letters and logo and not the blue background.
Basic Visualization Workflow 49

Size and position the decal.


, the assembly, you --e ~..:e and positio n of the decal can be controlled eit her by adjusting the values on the Mapping tab
- - :- ::-agging the handles on t he blue and magenta box in the graphics area.

=~ :::e handles to size and position the decal as shown. If you are having trouble, enter the values
-= ~ below in the Mapping tab.
t1apping

[ Cytndrical
Axis direction:
0 Rt width 1l> ~tion
D Rt height to selection
ISelected Rererence J ...., -
lfare<l > I D . u.OOOrrrn ~
itg~ I I I I !11 j II I l_j _~ i-'1"!''.4
~ -
,... 106.oodog
- -
~ ro ; z.500mm --r:~
t 0:: T:) )': t .J -~ ' 4 fyn l I I 1 I ! I I I I II 1 11 ljd~fi~
Aspect rabo: 4.80: 1

0; Joconnexron t ~~~~-!-;~'!!I 1:1~. II ~ . 180.00deg - - -


t. - . }
-
__:_T_ '
t-:~

0 Mirror horlzontaly

::::a.,. lie path; 0 Mirror ver&DIIy

1a C:'SoidWorks Step-by-Step C Reset to Image

I erowse... I
1
Save Dea>i .. J
l8age
'lomas!:
;;;.age maslc file
Sdective OJior mask

<.lse doCi!ll ina9e alpha


.::.rn.l

:::JITectly. The second


so Chapter 4

24 Remove the decal background. 5c aes


As applied, the decal image is a rectangle. We
only want to see the letters and not show the
I ~{~A~~i$t.:~~r.~,
?( ' ~:;. " ' ,
blue background. To do this we will mask out all
of the blue in the image.
Select the Image tab. I Q] ~n:::emnlogo.bf
I Brow.., ...
Under Mask Image. select Selective color
mask. --:: 5

Click on the eye dropper [2]. In the Decal


Preview. click in the blue area of the preview.

The Decal Preview now shows this image. The


area with the red lines is masked out of the
image.

Click OK.
The blue background has been removed and
only the letters and logo are showing.

25 Return to the assembly.


Make the assembly window active.
Basic Visualization Workflow 51

Sa:nes
5::-es are made up of the things we see in t he rendering that are not the model. They can be thought
LT~. .~~t;r:~
~ ~,
::-=s a virtual sphere around the model. Scenes are composed of backgrounds and environments.
3:: :. .".'orks has numerous predefined scenes to make viewing the model more realistic.

I ~~ path: -- X=ne Library Appearnn<:es. Scenes, and Decals


~ Cle.1\30 CoM e><ion l 0110. tif --~Scene Library lists all the predefined scenes that are Lt ~ '
I Browse... ] _-= ~~le to be applied to t he model. 1B e Appeara nces(cofo r)

Isa..., DeG>I ] $-e; Scenes


t-- --=::!;:> sect ion of the Task Pane contains the Scene Library Scene ~ Basic Scenes
~ Studio Scenes
;.. ~ ~
-e-e scenes are listed in Scene Folders. The scene library Library -t,e Presentation Scmes
'*>mask
~ Docals
:.,age mask ~ ~ all the scene folders currently loaded. Each folder can be
s.!ective CDior mask
. . doCill inage ~ <i>annel
~ -::eiced by clicking the plus sign next to it to show the sub-
- :.:-s. The bottom panel is the Scene Selection Area.
-=~:::Jly a scene, select the scene in the scene selection area,
:-e:- drag it int o the graph ics area. Or. double-click the scene
:::- :-: scene selection area.

Scene Reffectiv Floor Black


Select ion
Area
52 Chapter 4

26 Select a scene. Appear.mces. Scenes, and 0_ tf}


Expand the Scenes folder and then se lect Basic Scenes.
'+ f} Appe~ rances(color}
Drag t he scene Soft Tent into the graphics area. =.te., Scenes
~ Basic Scenes
Change t he view orient ation t o Trimetric. and change the display to Q Stud1o Scenes
ti Pr6e:ntat10n Scene5
Shaded. [ Decal<

Turn on ReaiView.

Soft Sp otlight

Soft Tent
Basic Visualization Workflow 53

Appe>Rnces. Scenes. and D- 1t - :=dit t he scene. ~ ~ ~ 1i @ l


I

~ '
Appearances(color)
- =J isplayManager. click View Scene, Lights, and Cameras ~ .
~ '~. - '
~
q
Sanes _-.=..= Scene are listed both the background that we see behind the model t=; ~ tii~Uit~ilm!
'<& Basoc Scenes
-~ -::-e environ ment. These can be edited to adjust their positions and Q Background (Envoronment)
-.e Studio Scenes @ Envoronment (soft tent)
""C. Presentation Scenes
:::::=~ies. ' ~ Loghts
Decals
~ Camera
:::-:~~ ~-c:i ck Background and click Edit Scene. J.
Walk-through

_-::c: Floor, select Floor reflections.


... ,,,-~ ......,... . -- ~
.; X 11)

==-OK. Basic l AdvancEd. Ihma6on l


r llackground
~ Envi'orment
*
Soft Spothght
;
-
I
Envif'Oflment ~

i"'-a... ~ C:'frogram Fiesi,Soitf;'IO<t. s 201

l L Browse...
I- j
I Floot ~]
' [ :":Roor reflections
./ Roor shadows )
Aigl floor ,.., th:
Soft Tent
l"'.-) (xz 3
Roor offset:
12J1!1Oi(n iU:'If t!! I ! )J! I j i j
:
I l li!:e!!i!ifpl
I

~
54 Chapter 4

Lights
There are two different lighting methods, direct lights and environmental light ing. In OpenGL and
ReaiView all light ing is fro m direct lights. When the model is rendered using Photo View 360, primary
lighting is from t he environment but direct lights can also be used to light en shadows, focus attention,
or simulate specific lights that might be part of t he finished model.
By default, all direct lights are initially off in
Photo View 360. Once Photo View 360 is added in,
the View Scene, Lights, and Cameras tab in t he
DisplayManager will show an additional set of !:il ~ Scono (Backdrop - St udio Roo m")
$ ~ light
icons.
To turn lights on or off in either SolidWorks or
'*<j/
~ SpoU
Ambient
D~rection a n
~ Scene Illumination
9 Ambrent
~ ~ Oire:ctionall
~ !>oinU ~~SpoU
PhotoView 360, right-click it s icon and select ~Camera Qi ~ PoinU
eit her: j,_ Walk-through -~Camera
' j,_ Walk-through

!IOn in SolidWorks Phot oView 360 -Off PhotoView 360 - On


u Off in SolidWorks
On in PhotoView
Off in Photo View

Light Type On in Off in SolidWorks On in Off in


SolidWorks PhotoView 360 Photo View 360
Directional
.,...;.~
'~W

Spot
l -..,
~--
.. .
_

Point y.L"y:

In our model of t he Space Navigator, the model will be lit by the environmental light. Because
environment al light ing is from large sources. it does not provide well-defined shadows. We will use one
of the directional lights to create a shadow to help define the size and shape of the model.

There also needs to be a blue light inside t he model that will be visible between the
SN_UPPER_HOUSING and SN_HANDLE_CAP In addition to direct lights. there are several
appearances t hat can be used as light sources. We will use one of these lighting appearances t o create
the blue internal light.
Basic Visualization Workflow 55

1ide components.
g. In OpenGL and -:: - ::<e it easier t o se lect the surfaces of the SN_LOWER_HOUSING, hide the
:~zNiew 360, primary :=::::_:JPPER_HOUSING, SN_HANDLE_CAP, and SN_CAP_INSERT parts.
!::ows, focus attention.
: Add an appearance.
~.: =-~ the two s urfaces s how on t he SN_LOWER _HOUSING.

'* ~ "ile.___
(j ~ I@
- -=Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab. locate the Blue
~ a? pearance unde r Appearances, Lights. LED.
"-
~ Sccn<o (Backdrop- Studio Room*) ::-:__::.e-click the Blu e LED appearance to attach it t o the
"- ughts
;oo..: Sc~ne Illumination : : ::..Jrfaces.
') Amb1ent
~ ~ Directionat1 : Snow components.
~~ Spotl
0 -& Po1ntl =:::-.. the components that were hidden in step 28.
Umera
1t ' !k-through -:-sxler the Model
~otoVi ew 360- On C" 31at the model is set up in SolidWorks and Rea lView, t he next step is t o render it using
=>-c-:N\ew 360.
Turn on PhotoView 360. Add-Iru ~
I'>
- =~ Too l s, Add-ins and select PhotoView 360.
Off in
Active Add-tns IStart Up A

8 SolidWorks Premium Add-ins


PhotoView 360 ='-c:-:JView 360 can also be turned on by selecting it on the Office 0~ D Instant WebsiU, 0
~::ducts tab of t he CommandManager. q2
In
:zrutl'lorks
,
0
.-4~. 0 > Photx>V"~ew 360 "'0 1
~~
~":~:..
.

q ~
f!~ (} ~ (j '1f ~ l ~t_:::;>conToJU
0 '"' SOOdWorks Design Checker
'=!
0
~ Photo'iiew S.c.nToD Soldl'iorks . . So!id\'i orks So~dworks .ToiAnalyst
. . .5o!id''.iorks 0 & SolidWorks t.fution 0
~ Motion Roulin9 Sinulation Toolbox
0 ~ SolidWorks Routing D ~~
~
~~
.. l LaiCUt 'I' sliefet\ I EVa!uat~ t R!lndl;.r Tool$ I Office Products r- O (jl SolidWorks Simulation
0 SolidWorks Toolbox
0
0 I
'tl'
0 SolidWorks Toolbox 6rO\NSer 0 I
0~"! SofidWorks Utilities 0
0 SoiidWorks Workgroup POM 0

~
.
O~To!Analyst 0
. 8 SolidWor ks Add-ins
'c
0 Autotrce 0
0 So!idWorks Row Simulation 0
0 SoltdWorks XPS Driver 0
P~-
~

Because
tows_ We will use one I OK l
-----~ ~~~~~- ..
I Cancel l
~--------------"4
A
~e model.

-+oe
E;-e a re several
c;=~pearances t o create
56 Chapter 4

PhotoView 360 Interface


Once PhotoView 360 is turned on, there will be five additional elements to the user interface:
Render Tools toolbar
The Render Tools toolbar provides all the common tools used for rendering t he model. lt can be used
as a st andalone toolbar or in the CommandManager.

~'La.~ leJ % e % ~ t Render Tocls ~ I


Il ., ~ ~~e%~1 I == ==
Edit Copy Paste
Edit Edit Integrated Preview Final Options Sche dule Recal
Appearance Appearance Appearance St=e Decal Preview Windo"fl Render Render l as t

i /IS~ernbly f Layout l Skel.Cll r Evaluate I Render Tools I Olf~ Pradoos I .


Render

a PhotoView 360 Menu


The menu provides t he same tools as the toolbars. Edit Appearance. .
"' Copy Appearan ce
PhotoView 360 Options Parte Appearance

The PhotoView 360 Options are accessed by clicking ~ in the ~ Ecfr t Scene..
Display Manager. t\ij , Edrt DeU>L.

Preview
I~~;_, ilntegr~ted
1
Previe~.v
PreVleN
Wind_ow
There are two choices to preview the rendered output , by a separate ei
preview window or right in the SolidWorks graphics window. If{E i Final Render
Opt1ons ...
E0 ! Schedul e Rend"...

F 10
ina utput
~ Recall last Rendered Image
1
I; i
Once Final Output @ is selected, t he model will be rendered in its L .l Customize Menu
own window, separate from SolidWorks. While t he model is being rendered, SolidWorks can still be
used to make additional changes to the model.

Render Preview
In order to see what the final rendering will look like, PhotoView 360 can preview the render either in a ,
separate window or in t he graphics area. It is also possible to have neit her preview in use if desired. You
can use either preview method to preview appearances, scenes, and lighting rapidly before committing
to a full-size rendering.

The choice to use the preview window or the integrated preview is a personal one as both provide the
same information. Throughout t his book, the preview window will be used strictly for ease of capturing
the images for publishing. It is your choice as to which met hod you prefer and choose to use.
Basic Visualization Workflow 57

~view Window
;er interface: --e ::review window shows a
=-=5essive (real-t ime) render of
-nodel. It can be used --:-: -;-;odel. Once enabled it will
:r--c::.., active and continue to
=- -2 the image while changes are
-.a:e. The preview window can be
~ ~ ~~~I 81 -~ "?:::i or resized in the same way
a!:: :.-y other window. Smaller
_:;w sizes produce faster
= 2:w results.
II
peoanc~
2-e to Find It
-.nee
IJQII!..r.tnce
=:nder Tools Toolbar: Preview
.'tmdow !i1
'""'-
.'::;nu: PhotoView 360,
-I!
""-
:lreview Window

-
~~e"h
illindow

.._
~M>d......

..l!!liit F.ender~ Image:

"""\Serlu

J.idWorks can still be

:.ae render either in a


' :n use if desired. You
:!y before committing

e as both provide the


":~r ease of capturing
case to use.
58 Chapter 4

Integrat ed Preview
Using the integrated preview shows the progressive render output in the graphics area. Every time the
model is moved or changes are made, the model will render again.

Where to Find It
Menu: Photo View 360, Integrated Preview
Render Tools Toolbar: Integrated Preview ~

.SolidWorks

e
Edit
~
Edit
~ ~
Edit 1 ln~ated
~
Pr"'"'"
e
Final
~ ~
Options ~
r
Re<al
Appear"""' Sa!ne Decal Preview l'!ndow l!nder Render Lost
Render

- :}X

E;J ~ Scene (Soft Tent)


i I@
Q Background (Environm<
Environment (soft tent)
El GJ Lights
' ~Camera
J. Walkthrough

f .,
~-

32 Preview the re nder.


Click either Preview Window ~ or Integrated Preview ~.
33 Receive information.
SolidWorks will display the message:
For a more realistic rendering, we recommend that you switch to perspective view or
view the model through a camera with Perspective enabled. Click View > Display >
Lights and Cameras > Add Camera.
Basic Visualization Workflow 59

-=-::;-eating models in SolidWorks, we genera lly work without perspective so that parallel edges look
; c:rea. Every time the ::. ;:;, on t he screen. When rendering, we are t rying to make the model appear as it does in the physical
: :herefore. perspective should be used.
- urn on perspective.
- - ::-perspective by clicking View, Display, Perspective. This is a toggle, so you turn it on and off with
-.:; s=.11e command.

X =>erspective is less obvious in this model because there are no straight edges. If the model had
r
I ...
-= .....
-=~t edges, such as a cube, the perspective effect would be more obvious and important to the final
~=-:ng.

~
=xamine the preview. ~ Space Navigator_&.SLDASM Photoview 360 201... l =-HID ~
-~ X
-: -~ve all the key elements. but we can make t his
':.::-::=:-with a shadow to help set the model apart from
Pause IJ!--

~
-~ ::cckground.

_ - Examine the lights.


::-e DisplayManager, click View Scene, Lights, and Cameras. ~

-L- ~ --= Soft Tent scene has two directional lights. By default, they are turned on
1:;1~ Scene (Soft Tent)
~
!
- SolidWorks 9' , but they are turned off in Photo View 360 r$J . To create a '
1
~ Background (Enwonm!
Q Environment (soft tent) '
:;;.-<::ow. we will turn on one of these lights, and its shadow. for the rendering. e-GJ lights
)"X Seen~ lllumination
<;V Ambient
9' r$J Directional!
9' <$/) Directional2
~ Ca m~a
Ji. Walkth rough
::"Spective view or
:ew > Display >
- Go Chapter 4

37 Turn on a directional light. e:!~-~~-~::=33~Prthiii&~.1


Double-click Directional2 to open its PropertyManager. ""' x If) x If) p
Select the PhotoView tab and select On in Photo View and
Shadows. 1 1-Ba
-""'
--~-~------'--'-l ifWili~~~~~
[1] On in Solidworks
Click OK. I0 Keep li9ht when scene
changes

D IEditColor... j
Arrilient:

I: J
o

Brightness:

1.
!0.45
' 'j
Specularoty: -
,,.. . ShadoY1 quaity:

L ~-
!flO f t 1
_,:.
I ! Ill ) !J I I Wj lt1i
0.4

r~~
I u Lock to model
-21.
I

I Longi~:
' 7.62deg

I0 Latitude:

28.7Sdeo

38 Examine the preview. te SpaceNovigtor Assembly_&.SLDASM - Pholovi~ ...c.;==...-"'@J'---""=:::11'


The light is now on because we can see the specular
highlight on the SN_UPPER_HOUSING. The
problem is that the light is shining from a position
close to our viewpoint which makes the shadow
posit ion behind the model and not visible. To fix this,
we will move the light to the right and lower.
Basic Visualization Workflow 61

~--.._ OJ _ Adjust the light.


:f) _:::r:e light Directional2 in t he View Scene, Lights, and Cameras t ab of
~ ::e J isplayManager.
: o:)_:::te-click the light to show its PropertyManager.

-
="2
,.....

~
~

~--;-- --- R
.ooclog >:- - -- e graphics area, the light position is IL19htPosroon - R,

~
s .::.e and can be moved by dragging. ;:]Lock to model
,__
i G) Longi tude:
~ 'CJTJIWjiS
.: -:; the light to t he position shown or [68deg
---'
..s2 c.:'te PropertyManager to type in the
.. - ~ -~~-;-- ~~ - ' t: .

0 Latitude:
:o=s .::ion.
, l7deg
- T ~--~ T ) - T _3. 1
l:
J: : < OK.

_ Adjust the viewpoint. ~ SpaceNavigator Assembly_&.SlDASM - Photoview _l =r = ~


-'='=the preview window t o zoom in and center the
P1!Use El!~lll
-.:::el so that it takes up more of the screen.

Make the final render.


: :.< Final Render on the Render toolbar.

- se;:>arate Final Render window will appear and the


=-:!ering process will begin.

~
62 Chapter 4

The Rendering Process


When rendering, Photo View 360 goes through two phases. In the first, it will make four irradiance passes
to calculate all the interactions of light, reflections, and refractions. In the second phase, the fina l
rendering will take place in little squares. called buckets. The number of buckets you will see depends
- 5;
on the number of cores and threads your CPU has. In the images below, the computer has eight cores,
so eight bucket s are being rendered simultaneously.
Basic Visualization Workflow 63

Save t he image.
.rradiance passes -c- the rendering process is complete, the Final Render window will show the complet ed render. To
jSe, the fina l ::e _seful, this image needs to be saved to a separate file.
l'till see depends
1as eight cores,
::::= Save Image.
- e the image Space Navigator. The default file type will be JPEG and the default directory will be
-.: ~ndered Images folder because we set those in the Photo View 360 Options.

-;: Examine the file.


_.::ate the image file in the Rendered Images fo lder. Examine the file properties and you will see that
- .5 720 x 540 pixels, just as we set in the options.

-- Save and close all files.


64 Chapter 4
----- -- ---- ------- ---- --------- --- --- ---- --- -- --- -- --- -
Case Study: Display and Appearances
In this case study, we will apply appearances to parts in SolidWorks to see the difference between
OpenGL and RealView.
Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Solenoid Valve-l.sldasm found in
the Chapter 4 \ Case Stu d.y\ Solinoid-1 folder.
The model is shaded using OpenGL shading. The only
shadow available is the drop shadow, which is
independent of the lighting.

Drop shadow off


Examine both the
FeatureManager design tree
~ Solinoid Valve-1 (Default<DefatJ
and the appearance display ~ Sensors
pane. All part s have a gray $ 0 Design Binder
tfJ (A] Annotations
appearance assigned to them ~ Front
as indicated by the gray ~ Top
~ Right
t riangles in the appearances I. Origin
$ ~ (f) 102826.1-1<1>
column. The lower right triangle $ ~ 102826.2-1<1>>?
indicates that the appearance is [!) ~ 102826.3-1<1>->?
$ ~ 102826A-1<1>
applied to the part. Iii ~ 102826.5-1<1>
til ~ 102826.6-1<1>
If we hover over the triangle the ttl ~ 102826.7-1<1>
$ ~ 102826.8-1<1>
popup shows us that the $ iii MateGroup1
applied appearance is color. ~ PlANEl ~
f!l .g g locaiCirPatternl
Because we have not assigned
any appearances to t he parts,
So lidWorks assigns the default
color appearance . '
automatically.
Basic Visualization Workflow 65
-- -- -- --- ---- -------- --- -------- ------- -- ---- --- -- ----
Add appearance. ~~~&'b&f !~ ~~ ~ 1
::~ence between - 2 =eatureManager design tree, select the part l 0 2826. 1. ~!!J
!l
=~ :::~ Appearances ~ - ~ 102826..1-1-1@...

~
- -::, :he gray square indicated. This is the appearance of t he part.

5:-~-e= Apply at component leveL ,_.


Dr.?.fF.i':l<: ~,~ .. ------- 11'ljl~~~ ~ ~ cUP
..... )( ~ ( 'if_ :_ - - - ')
=--===<the yellow color (third column, third row).
. tsB
~~,;_:::::::::~~--=-==~'__ l (~ !lJ
~ Solinoid Valve1 (Otfau ~
Sensors

= OK. Annotations
~ Front

--E Jfsplay Pane shows the yellow color <$>- Top


<Stl
<$>-

~~13
<$>- Right
-=-=~t:rance attached to the component (part at l. Orig~n

-= cssembly level). The upper left t riangle shows 1:'. ~ (f) l 02826l-1<1>
(, ~ 102826.21 <1>>? ~ ~ .Ll
-:= :::Jpearance attached at the assembly level. l+' ~ 10282631<1> ->? ~ ~ LI
[tl ~ 102826.4-1 <1> ~ ~ LI
---e :Jwer right t riangle shows the appearance ttl ~ 1028265 -1 <1> ~ g LI
-=:3-led at the part level. ~ 102826.61 <1>
rkr ~ g LI
00 ~ 102826.7-1<1> ~ g LI
~' ~ 102826.81 <1> ~ ~ LI
~ 81&\ MteGroupl
_ <$>- PLANEl. <$>-
I Remove Appeara-1ce _! ; ;.: ~~ LoaiCirPatteml
1

2.55 ~;...

.0 ~GS HSV
....-'

--------'
66 Chapter 4
---------- -- ------------ ----------------- - -- --------- --
3 Open the part. --
Open the part 102826.1 in its own window.
Because we applied the yellow color appearance
at the component level in the assembly, it is not
applied to the part itself.

4 Return to the assembly window.

5 Open ReaiView.
Click ReaiView ~ in the Heads-up View toolbar.
The assembly now has reflections from the environment and a
shadow based on t he first directional light.
Basic Visualization Workflow 67

Add appearance. B" ~ ~ dtt L~ ~~~


- ::.e graphics area, select the part 102826.2. ~ ~ r-
-L__----,~--,
~~ e
: . ::< Appearances ~ - ~102ll:l6.2-ll@..
[] Face<l>c;lla...
@, Base-&trude
:: . =<the gray square for the part. Notice that by selecting the face of a l[jBody
::c:.-:, we now have additional choices for the face, feature, and body. 1X
X Remove AI <::onpJnent A. .
~
3= &t Apply at part document level. ~J~ ! ~ l ~ l ~ T~ l ~ l ~l ~ ~e g
P!C FeatureManager design tree iJ 'i!f ~

3= ect the appearance polished copper from the ~ Solinoid Valve-1 (Default
-.? X -V3 1
.@) Sensors
:.J?earances, Scenes, and Decals tab on the Task ${AI
I Bllsic I Mvana:a l Annotation.< I

~~
-~e . ~ Front

: :i< OK.
- ~~~lion
~~~-
~ Color/Image Y~ ~
l
- 1 i~--~
l, -
.~ Top

Origin
$-'% (f) 102826.1-1<1>
~

~~ .
- -2 Display Pane shows the color attached to the :h '% 1028262 -1<1> ->? '% ~
~elected Geometry 1l
~ '% 1028263 -1<1>->? '% ~ Ll
-=- .l.. 0 Apply at component level ~ '% 102826.4 -1<1> '% ~ Ll
@ Apply at part document level $-'% 1028265 -1<1> '% ~ .Ll
.:: ;e open the part in its own window, it has the $-'% 102826.6-1<1> '%~ .Ll

I
102826.2-l.SI.DPRT
=::::earance applied. $ '% 102826.7-1<1> '% ~ .Ll
ffi '% 102826.8-1<1> '% ~ Ld
$- fil~ MateGroup1
i- -~ PLANEl ~
4J. gg LocaiCirPatternl

{ Remove Appearance
I I

Appeal:'aR9e ~
Appearance file path:
(;:] C:\program Fi!es\.')o!idWor

I Browse ...
I
!save appearance .. )

Save and close the assembly.


68 Chapter 4

Case Study: Appearances from Materials


In this case study, we will use the appearances that are assigned by materials added to parts. Then we
will apply appearances to one of the parts to gain a better understanding of the appearance hierarchy.

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Solenoid Valve-2.sldasm found in the
Chapter 4 \Case Study\Solinoid-2 folder.
This is t he same assembly we used in the previous case study
except for the material and appearances assigned. Examine the
FeatureManager design tree and note t hat all of the parts have
materials assigned at the part level.
The display is OpenGL and parts are displayed in different colors.
This appearance is assigned by the materials that were added to
the individual parts.

2 Change the scene.


Click Apply Scene ~ on the Heads-up View toolbar and select
Warm Kit chen.

3 Choose RealView.
Toggle on ReaiView by clicking View, Display, RealView graphics.
ReaiView uses the RealView appearances defined by the individual
materials assigned to the parts.
Appearances from Materials
In the beginning of this chapter the differences between materials
and appearances were explained and we know that the appearance
can be much different than the material. However, when a material
is assigned to a part , that material has a specified appearance that
is assigned with it so that the part will look correct for the material
assigned. If the appearance is not what you want, for instance you :":a'
need steel for the material to have all the weight and FEA -.E
calculation correct, but you want to paint it blue, you can change t he
appearance.
Basic Visualization Workflow 69

Edit the part.


~to parts. Then we :: ::~ or right-click the part 102826.1 and select Edit Component ~ -
Jearance hierarchy.
- -!:"o,:-click the material Tin Bearing Bronze and se lect Edit Material. This opens the Materials Editor.
5#:?-:l the Appearance tab. This shows which color and appearance will be added to this part.

ScldWori<sMa~ ~' ~ I
Appel>--.. [ OossHatdt COslx>m Appication Data I IFavori~s l

l
Ej St2Ei 1
(i] Apply appear-.. of: Tn Seamg Bronze
- ~ Iron
~
Appe~J.- :l ;.!':~ ;--;_1('-'V-~ ~t~.t"' ~....,
.@ AUnriJn Aloys
til Copper Aloys :::Yd v;;'h t~.-..:; f.-'~,-;-'!n.al r.: ~'r:!l.

~= AUrrunBronze ------- ------- -


s
~--

1: l!en'fUn Copper, Ll'lS Ci/000 ~1etal


1: Ber}lo..m Copper, iA'IS C 17200 t+j 4' Steel
shiny
1=6eryli<.m Copper, Ll'lS ClT.m lJ -Jfo Chcome
1: Berylium s-200F, VaaxJm HotPtessed , tt. # A!uToinum

~: Ber)'iom s~sc. vaonn Hot Pressed


1: er....
I e .ftt Bronz~
' ~ '!@@il.h.h@J
1: Clvomium Copper,lXIJS C18.200 ;;- )
~ brushed bronze
1: Comnerdai Bronze, Ll'lS C22000 (9010 Ei (t sabn fino~ bronze
~ = Copper
i~ Copper .Cobalt~ aloy, Ll'lS C175(
1: Free-<:utmg&...., lXIJSC36000
!: Hg.-leaded 1>-oss, Ll'lS CJ4200
~:; Leaded Commerdal Bronze
_ cast bronze
("~bronze
~..~ .(j Br~ss
Ul :Use
t ' =.tom material optic31
properties

1:; Mano<n= Bronze


1: ~ l!iv... 65-12, lXIlS C75700 tt, #Capper
1: Pho!sphor bronze l0%0, iA'IS CS2'100 $ fttr.\d<ei
{f~lnc
1: Tm Beanng Bronz~
{:>fttl~
1:: Wr00!11tCopper
- El 11t.ri.rn Aloys 1:. -Jfolron
. fil zrc Aloys (<;; ._,; 11t.>nun

o _ Other Aloys t>; -# Tt.rlelsten


r.o.. .. r~
- El Plastics
- ..! Other Metals
~ .:.=...:.:..
I Apply I ~ , s.,.., . jconfisl ... j ~

: =: :< Close.
=::_rn to Edit Assembly.
Open the part.
:-:~n the part 102826.4 in its own window.
70 Chapter 4

6 Add appearances.
The part has t he material Acrylic
(Medium-high impact) attached. We
will now add some appearances to
different elements of this part which
will override the appearance applied by
the material.

We will make t he two wires red and


white and the housing black.

Select one of t he wires. Double-click the material red high gloss plastic found in the Plastic, High
Gloss folder.

Repeat t he procedure to make the other wire whit e using the material whit e high gloss plastic.
-
--
Select the top level icon in the FeatureManager design tree and dou ble-click the appearance b la ck
high gloss plast ic.

7 Examine the model.


Notice t hat the wires still show as red and white because appearances
applied to faces override appearances applied t o the part.
-:;c.-

8 Return to the assembly.


Press Ctrl-Tab and select the assembly.

The ap pearances we added to the part file are now used in t he


assembly.

If we zoom, pan, or rotate the model. the reflections and highlights


will all move dynamically.

9 Load PhotoView 360.


If Photo View 360 is not added in, click Tools, Add-ins and select
PhotoView 360.
Basic Visualization Workflow 71

?review the render.


_c;;c ;:;;ther the Integrated Preview or Preview Pause
...::iow t o check the settings.

1mePlastic, High

:! gloss plastic. Render the model.


:::..- Final Render @ on the Photo View 360 toolbar.
Ot:Jearance 1:1lack
: Examine the image.

Save the image to file.


3.: : the image to the Rendered Images folder as
- - r
: ... - =u.

Add an appearance to the assembly.


.3= =-'-the top level icon in t he FeatureManager design tree. Select the appearance chromium plate
- - e Metal, Chrome folder.
.::, =-"' Add Appearance ~-
: -eve now added the chromium plate appearance to the entire assembly.
72 Chapter 4

15 Examine the model.


The entire assembly is now shown in chrom ium plate because
appearances applied at the assembly level are on top of the hierarchy
and override all other appearances applied at lower levels.
:;.,..
~ -
-: .

Removing Appearances
There may be t imes when we need to either edit or remove appearances. There are several different
met hods to remove appearances.
In the DisplayManager, select the appearance and press Delete.
In the DisplayManager, right-dick the appearance and dick Remove Appearance. -a::s-
In an Appearance Callout, click Remove X for the appearance.
In the appearance's PropertyManager, d ick Remove Appearance.
16 Remove appearance.
In the FeatureManager design tree, right-dick the
top level icon of the assembly and dick
Appearance Callout [e l.

Click Remove chromium plate X .


Click OK.
Basic Visualization Workflow 73

~ Preview the render.


--.._ __'/iew 360 now renders the assemb ly using the
:::::=~.:-ances assigned at the part level.

Save and close all files.

- S.Ummary
.:.-=scan be displayed in three different ways:

:::2nGL
==c.:View
=:=:1dered in PhotoView 360

' ::!iting Scenes


E
:..:::=:-:=s consist of lighting, background, and environment. Different aspects of a scene are controlled by
- =-ent tabs on the Edit Scene PropertyManager.
vera[ different
e~e to Find It
' 2;1u: PhotoView 360, Edit Scene .. .
-=s~ Pane: Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab OC.select Scenes
-=ads-up View Toolbar: Apply Scene ~

~e chro m tum plate


74 Chapter 4

The t hree areas of the Edit Scene PropertyManager are:

Basic
This controls the selection of images used for the background and environment. The scene floor can
also be oriented and adjusted.
Advanced
The size and rotation of the floor and the rotation of the environment can be controlled on this tab.
Once a scene is established. it can be saved for reuse as a custom scene file.
Illumination
The Illumination tab is only available when Photo View 360 has been added in. This tab allows the
brightness of the background and model to be controlled separately.
- -~

f Nessage
D Fixed aspect ratio
tBackground ~ Autc>ize floor
rUse nvronment
Width
Rendering brightness:
Environment 1': 6 ~.331 ~
n'' ''''',II'J ,II 'C :
~ C:'frogram Fles\Sold\'lorks 201
Depth Scene reflectivity:
I Browse .. l [0 179.331
iji IIIj IJ Jll 1 ,J1 I I II
;J
H@Miz
~.000 w/srmA2
-~~rll 11 11 ,,, 1 1 " , , ,,, 1
~j
'Jdrliwlk
Floo -"--

[] Floor reflections * A>pectralio: 1.00: 1

I!J Floor shadow>


AAgn floor 1\ith:

(1J[eottom V~ew Plane I


Floor offset:

r1JI:a 1111111111111111 Jl1iii~


I Offset to Geometry I
Browse

SaveSc-..
Basic Visualization Workflow 75

~er and Preview Quality Rend..r Quafity - ~

.: :-_clity of both previews and fina l renderings is controlled by two lists in Pr.,.;e.fl render quality:

== :lhotoView 360 Options. There are four choices: Good, Better, Best, and
jGood I
1 e scene floor can Frlal ren;jer quality:
tum. For each choice, PhotoView 360 adjusts a dozen different l~laxi!un I
Gomrr.aGood
a-eters, but at this point we will only look at four. The table below Ber.er
Best

:rolled on this tab.


--;:rizes these different sett ings. '\F!! 5 J
Good Better Best Maximum
.._-:]-aliasing 8 samples 16 samples 32 samples 128 samples
stab allows the :":.Ciity
.. ber of 4 8 10
-=~ections

:;oilier of 5 9 9 11
-=.:;1actions
-:rrect 128 512 1024 2048
.:mination
-=eys

..,;rti-aliasing Quality
- -.s adjusts the way diagonal lines appear because computer monitors create displays by discrete,
-~:tangu lar pixels. Anti-aliasing adjusts pixels on both sides of the line to make the line look
:.-oother.
'U mber of Reflections
, 1en light bounces off a reflective surface, its path must then be calculated to the next surface. If
-at surface is also reflective, the process continues. The number of reflections controls how far this
::-:~cess will be able to proceed.

:umber of Refractions
- , is is like number of reflections except that it is the number of refract ive interact ions that will be
:alculated.
direct Illumination Rays
:direct illumination calculates the lighting effect fro m surrounding geomet ry by sending out rays
=-om each visible surface and combining the effect from each of these rays. The more rays, the more
a::curat e the lighting contribution of the surroundings, but also the longer the t ime required for t he
:alculations.
76 Chapter 4

Custom Render Settings Rende r Quality

When selected, the number of reflect ions and refractions can be changed Preview render quaity;

[Good
independently from the quality settings. Each can be increased to a FNI r~ QUality;
maximum of 32. The use of these settings will be discussed in Chapter 12. ~ ~I
Gil CU.tnrn render ..,t1ings
:'::Er:
Number of reflections;
4
111' I' !(jiljj ]l i 1 ' HhffS111~

Number of retractions;
,a ~:~
fiku ,, .,, , 1,,,,, , ,1, 1'fi-
,.,..,
11!1 j I I I j I I I JI Jt 1! ll t l<tdi,. ~

-cc: 5I
Basic Visualization Workflow n

...av :.=se Study: Quality Settings


odor "'""tv: ~ - s :::ase study we will examine the effects of the Phot oView 360 quality settings.
or! -]
r :paitr.
-., c2dure
-]
....n.- setmgs Jpen the assembly.
:>freftections: :e- me assembly Studio.sldasm ~
~~
I iii 'U ' '.'D JNi!~!a'!'j : : u1 the Chapter 4\ Case Study\
.r~ : '=-~ Settings folder. This assembly
------- ~.

' ' ! nx 1utJaa~t1 -: :-1wu glass goblets containing a liquid


--= 2 :J'lrome coffee pot.
t f{IIf~'il:l:;-.
I I I I II 1
-::e::-ances have already been added to
-'= ::11ponents: clear glass to the
..:: =:. white wine to the liquid, and
-=-:-:nium plate and matte rubber
- :coffee pot.

Turn on RealView.
-:- :m Real View by selecting ~ on the Heads-up View toolbar. Also make sure t hat Shadows In
:i cded Mode and Perspective are selected.

Add scenery. Appearances. Scenes. and Decals


- ? Task Pane, examine the different scenery choices. The Kitchen ~ 1
-=-=~"".s"ground should provide a good backdrop fo r the coffee pot and (-G e Appearanc:e:s(c.olor)
_,_ C\..
$J ~Scenes
~ Basic Scenes
Q Studio Scenes
:"?5 the Kitchen Background scene into the graphics area. ~ Presentation Scenes:
~<, ffil Decals

Drag and drop scenes anywhere into the


graphics view.

Kitchen Background
78 Chapter 4

4 Examine the result.


We now have the scene in the image but
the models appear to be sitting on t he
floor.

5 Adjust the viewpoint. --..


Adjust the viewpoint to look like the image
at right. Use the named view called
Render View l. Press the space bar and
then double-click Render View l in the
list.
The objects appear to be floating, but we
will fix this by adjusting the background.
Basic Visualization Workflow 79

Adjust the scene.


~=-:: the Dis playManager and then View
~ Lights, and Cameras.

- Z:-click Sce ne a nd then Edit Scene.

S=f=:: the Advanced t ab and adjust the


:....:.onment Rotat ion .

.i::: ~e rotation t o 1S6deg.

Adjust the scene floor.


--= odels still look like they a re above
:Junter. We could adj ust the f loor
"'"E
-=-would adjust t he relationship of the
~ce:s to the f loor of the scene.

:12e:::: the Basic t a b.


--"=-~both Floor reflections and Floor
-=-..C.::ows.

--e-e is now a reflection of the coffee pot


__ ::-e counter top. We can see from the
=- ections that the coffee pot is actually
- :.-e counter top and does not need to be
..:::: _:.i.ed vertically.
So Chapter 4

8 Examine the Render Quality.


In t he Photo View 360 Options, both Preview and Final Render quality were set at Good.
Examine the preview and then do a final rendering.
Click Final Render.
Select t he Statistics tab in t he upper right corner of the Final Render window. This t ab will provide
information on the rendering process.
With the Render Quality set at Good, the settings are:
Anti-aliasing: 8 sam_J;llf;2
Number of Reflections: 1
Number of Refractions: 5
Indirect Rays: 128

While we have a quick render, the glass is not completely transparent because t here are not enough
refractions and we only have a single reflection from the coffee pot.
Basic Visualization Workflow 81

Adjust and render.


a<: Good. - _s ~he qua lity to Better for both preview and final render. and render again.

-""E ~:ti ngs are now:

-=::i-aliasing: 16 _2amples
..ber of Reflections: .4
l-;;s tab will provide
.tber of Refractions: 9

"Ehave two layers of glass (the front and back of the glass) and light refracts at each surface, we
-=.ve enough refractions to see through all the glass. ln t he area where t he glass and teapot overlap,
e 51t must pass through eight glass surfaces as it goes through the glass and then is reflected back
:._- 1iewpoint. In the area where the light must pass through bot h glasses, nine refractions is still not
_._Tl so there is still an area that appears black.
~ere -are not enough
82 Chapter 4

10 Adjust and render. --:.3"


Adjust the quality to Best for both preview and final render. and render again.
The settings are now:
Anti-aliasing: 32 samples
Number of Reflections: .8
Number of Refractions: 9
Indirect Rays: 102.4
The number of refractions has not increased, so we cannot see through more layers of glass and the
same areas appear dark. The additional reflections are barely noticeable but are evident on the outside
of the front goblet where indicated by the arrow.
Basic Visualization Workflow 83

Adjust and render.


c _s:the quality to Maximum for both preview and fina l render, and render again.

-<= settings are now:

-.:rti-aliasing: 128_29m~
.Jrnber of Reflections: lQ
....rrnber of Refractions: 11
,;;.direct Rays: 2Q48

of glass and the - :e the change near the base of t he glass because shadows are now t ransparent. letting light through
:2nt on the outside :c ::ase of the glass. The area where the two goblets overlap is now transparent as there are enough
??-_ :::tions to let light all the way through.

=dl discuss reflections and refractions in more depth in Chapter l2:Reflective and Transparent
I ;-c-.:earances.

..
I
-i
'>.
...~ -. /
, .,

"<-.7~i
"'5 . ..-.otrr ~
_
; ; . p-.
. ~
$. :;,-

.... ~""~;:

'-..... ~- .~ ~
.-'
84 Chapter 4

Final Render Window


The Final Render window provides t ools for several pu rposes. These tools are locat ed on tabs in the
upper right corner of the Final Render window and are displayed similarly t o the Task Pane in
So lidWorks.

Image Processing
The tools provided on this t ab are used t o make nondestructive adjustments t o the rende red image.
These tools will be discussed in Chapter lO:Output.

Compare and Options


The tools provided on this tab can be used to compare two rendered images using several different
methods. Additional render display opt ions can also be set in t his tab.

Statistics
Statistical information can be displayed for each of t he rendered images.

~
3
a
l.<kl
..~Mil
3. ~
!'R<I!ll
~.'IJ>XB

-
...,~ -4,
~ ::::5::
.~ ~9
~
.\'<i~
Pol~ i!lz
.
~
J#it~
...
~~
El><>f!l<10
"'a4
~~~u ~
fl!~~
C2in&ab~ -.,;fM
~lim j;jjll
<4il"
s-
L~~f'l
r,M<
fu
:J:}j,
86 Chapter 4

While we stepped through each Render Quality position in this case study, you would more likely just
use two positions: one at Good to get a draft version of the rendering, and then jump right to either Best
or Maximum quality for the final output. Because the time to render at Maximum is generally twice that
of Best, in most cases Best will be good enough. With experience, you will be able to decide which is
right for the image you are rendering.

Compare and Options Tab


The compare options allow us to look at two images together to see the differences in several different
ways. There are three compare modes:

Wipe
The two selected images are overlaid and the top image is wiped away, revealing t he second selected
image.

c Spotlight
The two selected images are overlaid and the cursor turns into a spotlight which reveals the second
image. The radius of the spotlight can be controlled by the Spotlight Radius.
11 Side by Side
This displays the two images side by side. The images can be scrolled with the left mouse button ana
zoomed with the mouse wheeL

12 Select images to compare.


Select the Compare and Options tab in the Final Render window.
In the Previously Rendered Images section of the Final Render window, select the image rendered at
Better quality, then Ctrl-select t he image rendered at Maximum quality.

13 Select the compare method.


Select Second Selected Image. This will compare the first image with the
second image.
Select none for the Difference method. This wills how the two images just
as they are instead of looking at specific photographic qualities.
Select Wipe for the Compare Mode and Horizontal for the Wipe Method.
Basic Visualization Workflow 87

more likely just ...2. :ompare the images.


~t to either Best -~ ,ou place your cursor over the rendered images, the wipe bar will appear. This bar ca n be dragged
1erally twice that -=:al more or less of the underlying image (image B).
decide which is

several different

second selected

,reals the second

ouse button and

~e rendered at

_-52 the left mouse button to move the images right or left and the
-=-.se wheel to zoom in. Using this method, zoom in on t he area where
~ ':.t.vo goblets are in line. You can now more clearly see the differences
~ ~e two images caused by t he different number of refractions in the
3.::st and Maximum quality settings.
88 Chapter 4

15 Change the compare method.


Change t he Compare Mode to Side by Side.

Use the mouse t o zoom and pan to show the images as below.

Again, compare the same area where the goblets are in aligned.
Basic Visualization Workflow 89

::::hange t he compare method.


5 2 the Compare Mode to Spotlight. Set the Spotlight Radius to SO .
...:;e :-e mouse to zoom and pan to get the image approximately as shown.
__ move the mouse (without holding down a mouse button). the second image will be revealed
-:::..51 the first image. In this case we are seeing the Maximum quality render in the spotlight and the
~ =:!ality render everywhere else.

- Save and close all files.


---------
pplying Appearances

~?O n successful completion of this chapter,


:tu will be able to:
J ilderstand the differences between procedural. texture,
:::nd hybrid appearan ces.
~pply appearances to models.
!.djust appearance properties.
tr ~dd scenery to renderings.
92 Chapter 5

Introduction
Appearances are a core element of good product visualization and rendering. There are many
appearances available in SolidWorks, and each has a wide variety of adjustments that can be used to
fine-tune the way a model looks. In this chapter, we will look at the different types of appearances, how
to apply them, and adjust them.
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Appearance types
There are two general types of appearances: procedural and textures.
Appearance controls and displays
Appearances can be adjusted to change their disp lay properties and alignment t o the model.
Applying appearances
There are several methods to add appearances t o different parts of the SolidWorks model.
Appearance hierarchy
The hierarchy determines which appearances are visible when more than one appearance is attachec
to a model.
Perspective view
Viewing models in perspect ive adds realism to the renderings.
Scenery
Scenery provides a frame of reference for viewing t he model.

Appearances
Appearances affect the way a surface reacts to light. They may be applied to assemblies. components.
parts. bodies. features, or faces. Appea rances are of two general types, procedural and textures.
Appearances are far more than just t he color or pattern of colors you see on t he screen because they
also cont ain information about how the surface will reflect or refract light, transparency, mapping. anc
more. All surfaces of a model have an appearance applied.

Appearances versus Materials


While materials have appearances associated with them, appearances can be applied that are
completely different from the material. An example would be a painted piece of steel. The material
applied would be steel. which would be used to calculate the weight of the part and stress calculated
through finite element analysis, while an appearance of paint would be used to show how the part will
look with paint applied. Additionally, t he surface finish of appearances may be differe nt. For example, a
brass appearance could have a surface finish of cast. ro ugh, satin, or polished.
Applying Appearances 93
-- - - - - - - - --

ng Appearances
! are many -~er~ are many methods to apply an appearance t o a model. To apply an appearance:
-:at can be used to
:~g the appearance from the Task Pane into the graphics area to apply the appearance to t he entire
::appearances, how
:c.-: or assembly.
:~g an appearance and drop it onto a body, feature, or face in the graphics area. Select from the
- =::earance Target I1;;!1 rm ro r~ ~ fll ~ Ithe entity to attach the appearance.
So= :=ct the part. body, featu re, or face, then double-click the Appearance Selection area of the Task
-=:--e.
S= :=ct the part, body, feature, or face, then right-click t he appearance in the Appearance Selection
~a of the Task Pane and click Add Appearance to Selection(s) t't .
l the model.
~ ect the part, feature, or face , then right-click the appearance in the DisplayManager and click Add
~=~?earance.
-ks model.
: :f you press and hold the Alt key when dragging an appearance onto a part, body, feature, or face,
-.: :::;pearance's PropertyManager will open.
:!arance is attached
,.~arance Target
--= - ;Jpearance Target allows you to specify where
"E :::;pea ranee will be attached. When you drag and "' Pin
. =-= an appearance on a component, the Filter
' - - - - - - Component
-:::~::ranee target will appear. If you mouse over ' - - - - - - - Part
:.= :::;;terent targets, the appearance will preview ~----- Body

--at entity. Select the appropriate icon to attach - - - - - - - - Feature


' - - - - - - - - Face
"'E qpearance.
:>lies, components,
and textures. 2 The choices available in the Appearance Target will depend on the geometry available and whet her
reen because they ::re in a part or assembly.
eilcy, mapping. and

!d that are
-el. The material
stress calculated
v how t he part will
ent. For example, a
94 Chapter 5

Task Pane Appearances. Scenes. and Decals


..,
The Appearances, Scenes, and Decals t ab on the Task Pane contains all
e.e
t he appearances, scenes. and decal setups available. You can also put
your own custom folders in this area. . Appearances(color)
U lesacy
le Plastic
f -te Metal
.te Painted
6-te Rubber
fjl ~ Giass
a...e lights
Iff~ Fabric
dl~ Organic
ro..te Stone
~te Miscellaneous
$ ~ S<:enes
' ~ Basic S<:enes
t;f Studio S<:enes
. ~ Presentation Scenes
8 ~ Decals
L.tfl Logos

Appearance Callouts
~Trtn Rilg-1-l@
e
Appearance callouts show the appearances applied to the select ed entity in I;:J Faae<l>~ ..
hierarchal order. This can be very useful when t rying to determine which ~Revolve l

appearance is be ing shown. jnllody


~Trtn Ri1gl X
X Renove AI CMt>one1t ~
Where to Find It tjtest Ill X
Shortcut Menu: Click or right-click or click a body, feature, or face,
select Appearances ~

Display Pane ~t"fi!i r~rr~l ~ el fl~~ << m,QJ . ~


The Display Pane is used to display and ('I ) ('f )
access visual properties of features in a ~ Center Control-1 (Defaultlnf~ liJl ~ Space Navigator-1 (Defaull
~ ~ Sensor> @] Sensor>
part. and parts or components in an taJ Annotations ~ (hl Annotations
I :;: Material <not specified> <& Front <$>-
assembly. <s>-IB I ~ Top ~
. ~ Top <$>- ~ Right ~
~ Right <$>- k. Origin L
k. t. : ~(f) Base-1<1 > ~ ~ Ll

l
Origin
ff.1 -~ Revolvel ~ TrimRing-1<1> ~~ ....
: ~ Filletl [] ~ Button-1<1 > ~u ...
1. <$>-
$- ~
Planel <$>-
rll
~ Button-1<2>
.., ~Center Control-1<1>
~ " ...
~ :3 ....

Extrudel
eJ FilletS (6 ~ (-) RubberBase-1 <1> ~~~
eJ 0 rn-!ilijl

Filld:2 Mates
eJ Fillet4
, Axisl ,.
_ _n_
1
CirPtternl

Part Assembly
Applying Appearances 95

oa:o. Scenes, a...d~ --:IpertyManager for Appearances


....___~ f -: -==-opertyManager of an appearance allows you to control the appearance properties that are
Da!S{color)
- --: ed to the model. feature. or face. The PropertyManager is organized by two types of properties
"l
J[
- 5everal tabs that represent major functions.
~ Properties
}
...b:J
I

::~ ::xoperties include the ability to change the color


; , weathere'!_~

~ - -il;i!
.:_,.weathered bri~}
" l( -{1;
~ ~ ~a texture appearance. t he basic mapping of the Basic ( Basic
-......,.,.
I
~
I Advanced Advanced
I
_-e to the surface. The tabs are: f~ Color y~ 1!\appilgl
{Image (GJ eo~or~f ~ ~ L
' 1::t!or/Image ,Selected Geometry :::t i IMessage- '~ J
I_ ::;~y appearances can have their colors modified. @Apply at component level
Scenes Select<><! Geomdry 1\
"Scenes 0 Apply at part doOJment level
@ Apply at component level
J:Dbon Scnes .epping Canisl:erl@Canis!Er Asse
O Apply at part docunent
::;Jping controls how appearance patterns and level

~cedures are positioned and scaled onto the model's ~ carister-lCConister Assla
:.J surfaces.
~
~ TriTt Ri"lg-1-1@...
IFaa.<l>Clfte. -- rdnced Properties [ Remov Appearance
~ Raoolve1
{JBody = -~iced properties include additional color/image and
~ TriTtRi1g-1. X ~c::::ing controls plus the ability to change the ..
,0-color ::::
[ Remove~ I
X Renove AI Cool>onmtA. ,
J- Jlation {the way the surface reacts to light) and the ~lapj>ing-Eontrols 1\
S t:est lll X Mapping styl:
__ -::::e finish. The tabs are:

:::alor/lmage - ~~
~ Cjl ~
-::ditional options are available to select different
~ages and to save a custom appearance.
~J[IJ


i
Mapping siz:
p:ot"1 (Default
~apping
!""" --ere is greater control provided to map the

.~
~
~ :::pearance to specific sizes and to flip the Mapping
~
t. :.Jpearance map to different orientations. ,255 ~
1<1> ~ g .Ll
!!J"l <l > ~~~ umination . 1255 t;
l<l> ~~ ~ --e Illumination tab controls the way light is reflected @RGB O HSV
1<2> ~~ ~
:a.troi-1 <1 > '% :3 ~ =--d refracted from the model. Color
.. 3ase-l<l> '% ~ !!1:'1
Surface Finish
1 e surface finish will give the appearance of roughness or a pattern, such as a knurl.
,!.ssembly
96 Chapter 5

Advanced Properties Tabs


Examples of the various properties accessible through t he Advanced tabs are shown below.

Basic Advanced Basic Advanced ] Basic Advanced=

fG;J Cr/TJM9e r!. Mappilg.


~ lbni1atioo ~
i~ s.rlace Frlsh

ll'lessage :Surface Finish ====_,.:A


;o
~Selected
- -
Geometry
weathered brid<

'~ Apply at component level ~Dynomichelp ---


, Apply at partdoo.Mncnt Diffuse amount:
level fijO"toView Surface Finish
1.00
G'J
!G!J cansrer-t(I:CaniSW......,. .,. - ~ ""!" Bur!> mappWlg
&nip strength

LJ~-~ j
>:
.. l.OOmm
lil;ffJmo;;r;rcr.:uw;e-,....
"..] o.sp~ac~t""''''*l<J

Displacement dislarlce
l.OOmm
* Iff II I ! I I J I 1 1 I I I ! I I 1'"4ifuwl

;:::~~~~: /:~
Appea rance
Appearance fie palh:
I
(;;;J C:\"rQ9"om Fi<!s\SoidW;; j Surface Finish

I Br~ I
!Save ~ SiZe/Orlentatlon
Jl l'\
Reflection amount (Re.o!V"~ew
0.000
:J . ; ' T_T .1
,~ T
...:

[lJ Fixed aspect ratio 0 Bklrry reflections


"'!) c;olor
0 Fit widtl1 to selection Transparent amount:
/~ Llnt height to selection 0 .00 ~-
~~standard Tl a ~5.033l3333mm
, 11
'" 1 1 1
~:-
1Hiiin)
1' t J11 1
'j_ T T T-~~-~-"! _i

l ll11ioous intensity:
T_

~~
[0 . 55.03l33333mm .: .
' '11 II !Jl II 'II il I li Ng~
Aspect ratio: 1.00 : 1

[] ~"OTor hori:ron12111y
o ~or verlic:aly

Reset to Image

1"'"5~,5.;. .-
Mapping
Illumination
- -'
255 t:~
j
,.------,~,

- :j
@RGS () HSV

Color/I mage
Applying Appearances 97

- :a::.-chy of Appearances
1below. - .r:: c:::e where appearances
-~:::lied affects the final
~ - he hierarchy in an
~ --=-~ly works opposite the
1 Advanced
e..c
:.: ::oes inside a part. Assembly Color
I
C<h~ 1~ Mapjlilg:
......lion __ c;>ply an appearance at
~fftsh '
35embly level. it overrides
Component Color
iooce Ftnish :::-: r appearances. If you
ez!hored brick "
en appearance to a part,
O)notric help
_ ::werridden by appearances
~ Sumce Finish
~mappOlg
:tt
: == to element s of t he part
""~~ --:: :s features, bodies, and
oo:m F-""
P 1!f'0U!1U41:tP -~
lloplacement mappi1g

~t distance ~ ;- erarchy is:


OCI:rn ~
J I !I I It /1 I l)Jtfijnl
-ssembly
Surface Finish ::::::mponent
-c:ce
=eature
3Ddy
::art
98 Chapter 5

Appearances Display
Texture, procedural, and hybrid appearances are
included together in the appearances folders and use
t he same icon. The only way to tell which type of
appearance you have is by the available properties.
l [ Basic
I Adv~
: -~-
Texture appearances are based on an image while 1 ll?'J!bonation
procedural and hybrid appearances are not. Hybrid J ~~l't1iltt
f ~ t~
I A;i;}01c>rj!mage
images may have mapping controls or controls to
Selected Geometry ~ [ ~ressage
change the colors of the appearance. 0 Apply atc~t!evel
ISelected Geomeby ~-
@ ::::::at part docunent
Procedural Texture Hybrid ' 11apping
ISpherical :
;;..
,. ~.9
,.,..., I I I I,. I

t ~~( , I I I
t~

I SizejOrientation
0 Rxed aspect ratio
EJ Rt width tD selection
-l
_..---' "" ['] Rt height tD selection

When a texture or hybrid appearance is selected, the


Texture or Hybrid a rt=3in
'1 1 111
1 1
'J!
1 i'hbli
1I 11 11 1

Mapping tab will have additional controls to position, !


[0 1.33333333in l::
"d J'''' '' '' 1watu
size, and orient the appearance on t he selected Aspect ratio: 1.00 : 1

geometry. Q ~~~g I 'T T'T-R

~ tti I I I I
~I

Qj [-;OOdeg
r 1 r r
:::r:::T&
0 fo'irror horizontaly
0 Mirror vertlcaly
i
I
I
I
I
I Reset
-
to !mage I

Procedural versus Texture Appearances


To compare the differences between procedura l and texture appearances, each was added to the sarr:
part. The part was created by sketching a square on the Top plane t hen extruding it to different depths
Each image is of the Isometric view of the model.
Applying Appearances 99

1?:-.:xedural Appearances
&:3001H@J - -:-:=Cural appearances define the applied colors based on the X, Y. and Z coordinates of each point on
'*I english brick ,_ -e s.. -face of the model. Notice that the top face of the model changes each time the extrusion depth
)C ,S :a 5 es. This is because theY value fo r the coordinates of each point on the top face changes as the
; - .....s:on depth increases. The bottom sections of the front and right faces remain constant because
,..~
~ J~Mappilg
:
i!asoc I Advan<ed
-
. -
--
-
-.ave the same X, Y. and Z coordinates in all three extrusions .
-=- :Jiocedural appearances, no user mapping is required. The appearance joins correctly on all the
~= Youcan see that t he appearance appears to go all the way through the solid and t he resulting
~ ~
-c?5 are just what we would expect if we took a block of wood and kept cutting away at the top face.
Geometry - ~

~ ~
:~ Tl
~ ' o.OOdeg ~
~ cc::t::l
~ 'O.OOdog f-,1
~....:::r...:u::::o:::J

1-/(lrientatioo ~~

J 'ilred ~ratio

~ 1'11: width to selection


lit height to selection

C L33333333in f.;
fi;J.! I I I I I I II l i i!ijjiio1

C L33333333in f.".
M1 .f l i i I I !I!!J ! id.QJ'pt'
Aspect ratio: 1.00 : I

~ O.OOdeg
J I I I I I
A
(J O.OOdeg
')O::::L:I_i_ i_l_i
.! -:xture Appearances
1
-:: -:. . -e appearances are app lied like wallpaper. During application, they can be stretched, shrunk,
D) jQ,OQd~g ~
'!"i
1 I I l I
-:=.:ed, and reoriented t o make them fit the surface. The pattern will be duplicated as many times as
._;-or horizontally . . =-ssary to cover the entire surface .
::::;~or verkaly

ReS<!! to Image --e :.::>pearance used in t his example is an 8X 8 square grid. There
_ : ' 'lite circle to indicate the pattern center.
Pattern
-"E :.::>pearance was mapped differently to each of the three
;added to the same ce nter
-.:: .e faces. The texture appearance is a square, so it maps
~o different depths.
~~-" as a single instance on the top face. As t he ext rusion depth
--::-:ases, t here is no change to the map because it is applied
--=- ;:he extrusion.
--e ~ont face has the texture mapped to use one instance for the width and height of the block,
-::::hing the pattern as necessary.
100 Chapter 5

The right face has the texture mapped to the same scale as the top. The pattern is centered on the face
Because the face requi res more than one instance of the pattern in the leftmost example, t he patterr
actually moves up the face and addit ional amounts of the pattern are added to cover the face. The
reverse happens in the rightmost example as less than one instance of the pattern is needed. The cente-
moves down the face and part of the pattern is not used.
Applying Appearances 101

ntered on t he face _ - ::.ences


~mple. the patterr :: ::;JJpare what happens when we add an additional feature to the model. in this case a revolved cut.
~ the face. The ;:-::::edural appearance maps to the surface to give the impression that the ap pearance goes all the
1eeded. The cente- -::mgh the block. The text ure appearance maps itself to t he spherical surface in three pieces which
~: =;t well to one another or the surrounding planar faces.

:,e ,.,ay to think of the differences between procedural and texture appearances would be to consider
_ :::onstruction techniques to build a wooden shelf. If you use a single piece of solid wood, this would
e a procedural appearance because the grain is continuous throughout the shelf. If you round a
- : - or edge, t here should be no discont inuities in the grain. If instead of a solid piece of wood, we
...:.2:: a composite material, like particle board, and then added a layer of laminat e, this would be like
_,:: ~g a texture appearance. If we bevel an edge of shelf, we do not have to make any adjustments t o
E ::~ocedural appearance, but we may have to apply an additional inst ance of t he texture appearance.
102 Chapter 5

Case Study: Computer Monitor


The computer monitor for this case study is a three-part assembly. We will use this assembly fo r this
and other case studies in fo llowing chapters. In this case study we will apply appearances to the
different parts, features, and faces of the assembly. Our end result will not be our desired final rendering
because we will need additional skills that will be covered later.

Stages in the Process


To complete this project we will do the following:
Apply appearance to the model.
This is a molded plastic part.

c Edit the appearance.


Not finding a stock color to our liking, we will create a custom color.
Applying Appearances 103

=:a spective View


:;embly for this ~ -::-,ally do not create solid models in perspective views because it is generally easier to view
:es to the ~ = edges as parallel. When rendering, however, we are trying to make the final output appear as it
j final rendering :: :o our eyes. For this, a perspective view is very helpful.
_ e to Find It
.: J : View, Display, Perspective
;;:,.; Toolbar: Perspective ~

5.fy Perspective View


c-s.::ective in the real world, as well as in SolidWorks, is related t o the size of the object being observed
:::~-=distance of that object from the observer. You can modify the perspective by specifying the
_.::ss--;er Position value in the Perspective Info rmat ion dialog box. The smaller the value, the greater t he
~ of perspective distortion. For finer adjustment, use decimal values, i.e., 3.S.

_ e !o Find It
.:.:.~: View, Modify, Perspective

'au must be in a perspective view to change the perspective setting.

_dure
~en the part.
:e: :~e monitor assembly found in the Chapter 5\ Case Study\Monitor folder.
Dlange the view. Onentation
~
5 2 to the named view Render View. Press the space bar and double-click ~~~ 4:1
~ ..:,r View in the list. i;t#t5\!J.
"Normo! To
"'Front
Set the perspective. "Bad<
"left
- :- perspective, click Perspective ~. "Right
"Top
'Bottom
"'sometric
1ew, Modify, Perspective and change the value t o 1.5. "Trinetric
"Dimetric

Save the view.


: :,; is as a new Named View called Render View l.
104 Chapter 5
---------- ---- -------- ---- ---- ----- --- -- ------ ------
5 Preview the render.
Make sure that Photo View 360 has been
added in and then select either the
Integrated Preview or the Preview Window.
We are doing this just to see our starting
point. Because there are no appearances
c --
attached yet, everything in the assembly will
be rendered in the default appearance.
When initially inst alled, the default
appearance will be color.
Because our focus in this case study is
appearances, some things have already
been set up in the assembly file. This
assembly has a scene called Grill Lighting
attached which produces the gradient background and causes the mode l to take on an appearance
similar in color to the background.

6 Open the monitor part.


We will add the appearances to the individual elements of the part file, rather t han work at the assemb
level.
In the FeatureManager design tree, right-click the part LCD monitor 15 and se lect Open Part.

7 Change the view.


Change t o the named view Render View l .

8 Apply the overall appearance.


In the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of the Task Pane. locate the
appearance PW-MTllOlO located in the folder Plastic, Textured.
Sort order. jHistory y:
Right-click the appearance and select Add Appearance to part. g ~ PW-M111010
~ LCD monitor 15
The DisplayManager shows that the appearance has been added to the part.
Applying Appearances 105

Examine the preview.


--.s 5 just a test to check our progress. The
~:I appearance is what we expected.

:1at we have an appearance that is


:r- :Hack in color, the scene has less effect
-=color of the model.

appearance Apply appearance to a face.


:o -=-::nt face of the monitor is the LCD screen, which is a different
-::-:-ance. While the overall monitor has a textured appearance, the
at the assembl = 5:reen should be smooth.
-: : -che face of t he monitor.
)pen Part. ::::=:: the appearance black low gloss plastic in the Plastic, Low
-s~ .::older.

:;::-click the appearance and select Add Appearance to selection(s).

~[_
!t ~
UA~
106 Chapter 5

11 Add appearance to buttons.


There are five buttons on the monitor: a lit power button
and four function buttons. Each of the buttons will be a
light gray color. The power button will be lit by an
internal LED.
Zoom in on the leftmost function button.
In the FeatureManager design tree, select the features
Extrude 1 and Dome2, then in t he graphics area select
the fillet between the two selected features. We have to
select the specific face in the graphics area because the
Fillet2 feature contains other faces to which we do not
want to add this appearance.
Press and hold the Alt key, then double-click the appearance light gray satin finish plastic, fou nc
in the Plastic, Satin Finish folder.
Note By holding down the Alt key, we open the PropertyManager so that we can edit t his appearancE..

12 Adjust the color.


The default gray color is not exact ly what we want, so we will create our own
color. Gray is created by an equal amount of red, green, and blue light. If we se lect
each of the gray boxes on the right column of the color palette, we will see t he
red, green, and blue sliders move to the corresponding values for t he color
selected.
If we are only going to use this color for this one appearance, then we could adjust
the sliders to get the color we want. If we want to create a color that we can
reproduce, we can use the color palette.

'12-8 -oa--
@B.GB C !:!SV

Creating Custom Colors


There are many times that the small palette of default colors is not enough t o meet your needs. It is c
simple matter to create additional colors. We can define over 16 million colors by adjust ing t he 256
individual values of red, green, and blue.
For more information on color, see Appendix A.
Applying Appearances 107

:Fining a Color
: olors can be created by specifying values for Red, Green and Blue (0-255). or Hue, Sat uration and
..:.:::-..;nance (o-240 ).

:: Jr can also be defined graphically by Color


_ ,:-55.ng the cross hair and the vertical slider. Basic cokxs
-'E s:::uare graphic window represents hue and r t.. . o r c
r coc
-...-ction. The lower left corner represents
-~=s of zero for both. Saturation increases oo li!l
o
~ : ally and hue increases to the right. The
:al gray scale is luminance.

r.r
Custom col001:
~ Terminology
- :: s the color reflected from or transmitted
orr r r r r r r-- IU ~so Red 255
rrrrrrrr 1 s..o G-een 255
~gh an object. In common use, hue is Ekitne Cu:tom Cclors Color L.um. 240 Blue 255
plastic, founc
.:::.i=:.""ied by the name of t he color such as red, I II I
OK Cancel hid to Custom Com
l.
- :;e. or green.
is appearance
_-:Jtion is the strength or purity of the color. Saturation represents the amount of gray in proportion
- e hue. specified from o (gray) to 240 (fully saturated).
~ -once is the relative lightness or darkness of the color, specified from 0 (black) t o 240 (white).

Change the color. Color ~


:::-=: e-click the color preview box next to the eye dropper [21. Basic coloo
I:J I I:::D I. . CJ D
--; Color dialog box appears. None of the colors on the palette are the
r oo o
;:.- ::e are looking for.
or w
o

Ml
Ci r
Custom coicn
rrrrrrrr
~ rrrrrrrr
!!,G8 O !::!SV I Defne Custom Com I
I OK ll c....ce! I
1r needs. It is c:
ing the 256
108 Chapter 5

14 Define a custom color.


Click Define Custom Colors.
Color --
Click in the upper left box under Custom colors.
o r wo r a wCJ
a r ooc; a m
This sets the target location for our new color. a uc
o

rr
~rrrr
rrrrrrrr r Hue: ~60
Sat: 0
Red. 255
Green 255
Delone Cuotom Celom Color I.J..m: 240 Blue: 255
OK Jj Cancel J Jldd to Custom Celom

15 Select the color. Color


Type in values of 210 fo r each co lor: Red, Green, I Basic col~:
and Blue. The equivalent values for Hue, !o r oo r a ou
Saturation, and Luminance (160, 0, 198) will 1a r o o 11
o
appear automatica lly.
The Color box shows a preview of the color.
o

rr
Click Add to Custom Colors. The custom color Custom colors:

appears in the target box we selected. orrrrrrr r---- Hue: ,60 Red. 210
rrrrrrrr ! Set: 0 Green 210
Click OK to close t he Color dialog box. Def,ne Cuctom Co:o., Color Lum: 198 Blue 210
OK II Cancel ( :: Jldd to Custom Colo_rn :: J
Applying Appearances 109

~ ~ Apply the color.


- t 2? pearance color is now the lighter gray we just created.

I - -:..-: :he Advanced button. i jjstllndord I


- -2 may want to use this appearance for other elements of our rendering, we
save t his appearance that uses the lighter gray color. ~~
=.: Save Appearance.
"" ~60 Red 255
"" 0 <non. 255
"" 240 BkJe. 255
ID eu.tom Colors

~ j ~:
~ l>;B,GB "') I:ISV

I
- Save the appearance.
c-e the new appearance monitor light gray satin finish plastic and save it to the Monitor
_ .::=;- found in the Chapter 5 \ Case Study folder.

::) J~ Chapter 5 Case Study Monitor @ I s~ar&. Monttar


.. 160 Red 210 ~e N"" folder ~
ill 0 ~. 2 10 Monitor
No rtems match your se,rch.
198 BkJe 210 Practice Exercis~
Chapter&
!;;;m Colors : :: : ]
Chopter7
_ ChapterS
Chapter9
ChapterlO
- Cha pter 11
- Chopter12
@
..11 Chpter13
~ Motion Project
Rendered !mages

Filename: f!Olf.Mff5SS
_ .._
IJJI!!ffiii+.M!effiff5l!Cir.:t I

Save as type: [Appearance Files (".p2m} J


Descnpt1on: Add a descnpt1on

0 Remove bend Lines

- "*"' Folders ~ [ Cancel


110 Chapter 5

Custom Folders
When we create custom appearances. decals, scenes. and lighting schemes, we save them to custom
folders rather than the existing folders found in SolidWorks. We do this to prevent the folders from
being deleted during an update or new SolidWorks installation.
When we create a new custom folder, SolidWorks will warn us that t he new folder is not visib le in the
Task Pane and offer to make it visible.

18 Show custom folder. Appeara nces. Scenes, a.nd D- ,._

Click Yes. .... t..: ~ t

The monitor folder will now be listed in the Appearances section with a
!TJ e Appearan ces(color)
$-te Plastic
&..-..(:@ Metal
blue folder icon to indicate that it is a custom fo lder.
f.:J ~ Painted
S ~ Rubber
SohdWori<:; 11J.te Glass
00-~ Lig hts
1 Thefolder 1; teFabric
LU 1 rtl ~ Organic
[c\$Oitdworks stepwby-!.Otep guid~\product
visualiution\ c hapter 5\case study\monrtor) ( Ge Stone
S ~ Mise neous
where you have chosen to save this. app ea~nce is not : ~monitor
currently visible m the Appeari!nces folder of the Task
Pane. I;: #! Scenos
llJ -~ Decal s
Do you \!Vish to m~ke the folder visible?

m onitor hght grey satin finish


plastic
Applying Appearances 111

=.xamine the model.


em to custom :c--ode!, screen, and first function
folders from :=..., a re now rendered in the desired

t visible in the

rces. Scenes. and D- {:;'


~ ?

.._
,...nces(color)

leta!

._i.
.ned
abber

gilts
lbnc
<gonic
=.xamine the DisplayManager.
~ neous
IDnltor ::view the appearances as History, we can see the
"II; _-the three appearances were added. When viewing . .. "'' i T:.1:11f:'"'...--:-..:

.:::erarchy, we can see that the appearance applied to Sort order. IHierorchy ~I Sort order. i_H_i!;tO.'Y ~I
~TJ""lJ im 'Tl . 1\lnil!oF!o!
-=overrides t he appearance applied to a feature,
- ~ overrides the appearance applied t o the part.
$-...;) monitor light grey satin
e. - bJ Face 0.. I ~ LCD monitor 15
black low gloss plastic

-t: :hree faces of the first function button are attached I


bl_ack low gloss plastic
l ..li] Face<2>
Ej' @, Features
I j B
LfJI Face
.\ ) monitor light grey satin fini
1

=::-: custom appeara nce. s..V monitor light grey satin


Dome2
. @, Extrudel
j
;

II
It gtey satin finiSh
I @, Extrudel -li:J Face<2> '
i!&astic l-.f!:J Dome2
8 ~ Parts/A..emblies
~- PW-MT11010
L ~ LCD monitor15

Add the appearance to the other buttons.


5::: =-:t the three faces of each of the three other funct ion buttons and
"'-;: -:::wo faces of the power button.
112 Chapter 5

In the Disp layManager. right-click the appearance monitor light gray


satin finish plastic and click Attach to Selection. The custom sort order. IHistoty ...-1
appearance is now added to all the faces of the buttons. 8 ft lfi,Wiil,lll
. ' ~ LCD monitor 15

Note We could not apply the appearance t o the feature LPattern2 e ~ black low gloss plastic
; !;;il Face
because it also contained the geometry for the dimple face around the S monitor light grey satin finish plasbc
1
il Face<2>
button. e Oome2
~ Extrudel
CJ Face<3>
f !l;i Face<4>
t IWI Face<S>
-1!;1 Face<6>
G;l Face<7>
!;I Face<8>
1 .ij;l Face<9>
!;l Face<lO>
fJI Face<ll>
I;J Face<l2>
.IJ Face<l3>

22 Add appearance to the trim.


Select the eight faces that make the t rim strip around the monitor.

In the Task Pane, right-click the cust om appearance monitor light


gray satin finish plastic and click Add Appearance to setection(s).
Applying Appearances 113

=.xamine the DisplayManager. 'miT"':.r.

~ 2-se we added the appearance from the Task Pane, it became a Sort order. jH1story -I
.:c..::~e instance of the appearance. If we had attached it to the first f;1 (t PW-M111010
15 . ~ LCO m onrt:orl5
Jlastic .::::-::e in the DisplayManager, the eight faces of the trim strip would d (t black low glo" pfil5tic
~ .:een attached to the first instance of the appearance. iJ Face
!)' satin finish plasbc S .j monitor hght grey satin finish plastiC
l:iJ Face<2 >
.(]1 Face<3>
1W Face<4>
~ Face<5>
J:jl Face<6>
li;jJ Face<7>
IQ Face<8>
Li Face<9>
liJ Face<IO>
j;l Face<ll>
C Face<l2>
liJ Face<l3>
el Dome2
~Extrude!
8 ~ monito r hght grey satin finish plastic<2>
iJ Face<l4>
li] Face<l5>
IJ Face<l6>
iJ Face<l7>
.iJ Face<l8>
C1 Face<l9>
.iJ Face<20>
IU Face<21>

Edit an appearance.
=..:.::::use we have two instances of the appearance, each can be edited
'"'C.-=::Jendently of t he other. We want to make t he t rim strip lighter than the
~:: :J n s .

~ ;-t-click the second inst ance of t he custom appearance and click


E::::t Appearance. I
~ ed t he light gray color (eighth column, second row).

1J..~: ~~-odil.:
=:< OK.
1 - ._ ,,

I
@B.GB . J tiSV~ I
114 Chapter 5

25 Examine the preview.


The trim stri p is now slightly darker than t he
buttons.

26 Apply appearance to power button.


The power button is lit by an internal LED.
In the FeatureManager design tree, select Extrude25. This is the circle
and bar that shows that power is on.
Apply the appearance Green LED from the Lights, LED folder.
--,:: ::

27 Add to an appearance.
We want to use the same appearance on two of the indicator lights. Sort order. IHistory
B- lf.TJiiilllli
Select two of the indicator lights. In t he DisplayManager, right-click the j L ~ LCDmonitorl5
Green LED appearance and click Attach to Selection. These two new $-. blade low gloss plastic

surfaces are attached to the single instance of the Green LED ap pearance
so that editing this one appearance changes the appearance on these two B.
~"'\) monitor light grey satin finist
$ ~ light grey satin finish plastic
Green LED
i- ~ Extrude25
l.-[g
indicator lights and the power button. Face<22>
l.fi31 Face<23>
Applying Appearances 115

S<amine the preview.


'= - -J ;v have all the appearances we want to
~ :J this part.

re will go back to the assembly and


-= cj)pearances t o the remaining parts.

: Open the assembly.


=-~-rn
to the monit or assembly.
- - Add appearance to components. Uhf::F.!J:I lil:l:

- =monitor base and arm will use the same appearance as the Sort order. IHierarchy I
:;:.::ons. Efl" ~ Components
8 -'\) monitor hght grey satin finish plastic
~ LCD monitor Arm-l@monitor
: :-;e FeatureManager design t ree. select both the i ~ LCD monitor Base-l @monitor
l......-:J monitor Base and LCD monitor Arm parts. ~ @Face
$-. Green lED

- :::e Task Pane. right-click the monitor light gray satin finish i @-0 monitor light grey satin finish plastic<2>
~ light grey satin finish plastic
:-?.stic appearance and click Add Appearance to selection(s). 1 ID . black low gloss plastic
~==:J $ ~Features
$-V monitor light g rey satin finish plastic<3>
m
onrtorl5
=...::mine the DisplayManager. Notice that the appearance is
=::2ched to the components in the assembly. This appearance will
1 f i.
Green LED <2>
e ~ Parts/Assemblies
Jlo<s plastic

!h.
Efk.J color
,tu: grey satin finish f ::-.-=rride any appearance t hat might be added at the part level. $_...)
color<2>
..On finish plastic
PW-MT11010
!25
2>
3> ::: Open the base. -~--A~_:_. ---?
==en the part LCD monitor Base in its own window. Sort order. jHistol)l I
Eh,) color
--e DisplayManager shows the default color appearance attached to this part l ~ LCD monitor Base

:;:cause the monitor light gray satin finish plastic appearance is


=::ached at the assembly level.
=we render this part. it will render in the default color appearance.
116 Chapter 5

32 Return to the assembly window.

33 Render the assembly.


This render is just to check the results.
We are not finished with this assembly yet. but we will put it aside for now as we have not yet coverec
the other topics we need to finish this rendering. In the upcoming chapters we will discuss decals.
scenes, and lighting which will be used to create a better rendering.
Save t he assemb ly and parts but leave them open.

::
Applying Appearances 117

chy Review
:-.c:::ter 4. the hierarchy of applied appearances was discussed. This order is:
-.ssembly
:::;nponent
)Vere::
-::::e
l5
=::ature
~.::dy
~-t

.....E.-:mes it may be difficult to see the differences between some of these, so we will do a simple test
.==~.ying appearances to our existing assembly.

- 11onitor assembly we have appearances applied at several of these levels.

_=-ret Appearance Modeling Element


-.=embly
-~ponent monitor light gray satin finish LCD monitor Base
plastic
LCD monitor Arm
~ black low gloss plastic Face of the monitor
Green LED Indicator lights
monitor light gray satin finish Numerous faces of the buttons
plastic
:;...=-ture Green LED Extrude 25
I~

~ PW-MTllO l O LCD monitor 15


118 Chapter 5

Add appearance to the assembly.


Our hierarchy tree shows that any appearance we apply
at the assembly level will override all other
appearances.
Select the top level icon in the FeatureManager design
tree and apply the appearance yellow high gloss
plastic from the Plastic, High Gloss folder.
In the DisplayManager the yellow high gloss plastic
is shown attached to the assembly.

2 Examine the model.


Everything is yellow high gloss plastic because
appearances attached to the assembly override all Sort order. IHierarchy J
other appearances. e ~Assembly
1 m yellow high gloss plastic
~ ~ Components
3 Remove the appearance. ' '\.) monitor llght grey satin finish plastic
e (JJ Face
In the DisplayManager, right-click the yellow high
gloss plastic appearance and click Remove
$ ~ Green LED
t$-V monitor light grey satin f1nish plastic<2>
I
Appearance.
!f-0 m onitor light grey satin finish plastic<3>
(!) 'I block low gloss plastic
e~$ ..)
Features
monitor light grey satin finish plastic<4>
I

~ ~ G reen LED<2>
a ~Part
$- color
$~ color<2>
liJ
PW-Ml11010
Applying Appearances 119

Add appearance to a component.


-e FeatureManager design tree, select the part
:...:::::> monitor 15.

-~ly the appearance blue high gloss plastic from


-=Plastic, High Gloss folder.
- :::1e DisplayManager the blue high gloss plastic is
..::::-.m attached t o the assembly component.

~ ~~!~.-~
So rt order. j Hierarchy y J

I
~ Component.s
~ \.) monitor light grey satin finish plastic

ltl .
11} ~ blue high gloss pla<tic
8 !;;il Face
Green LED
riJ_,_) monitor light grey satin finish plastic <2 >
1> V
ltJ monitor light grey satin finish plastic<3>
.3> t i 00 ~ black low gloss plastic
~ ~ Features
$....,) monitor light grey satin finish plastic<4>
:4> lit. . Green LED <2>
8-~Part
lf\) color
$ '~:!) color<2>
lit ~ PW-MTllOlO

Render the model.


en you render the assembly, the entire component LCD monitor 15 is blue high gloss plastic.
- . the appearances applied at the part. feature, and face level are overridden.

Remove the appearance.


- the DisplayManager, right-click the blue high gloss plastic appearance and click Remove
~pearance.

Open the part.


: ? en t he part LCD monitor 15 in its own window.

-.: assembly level. appearances applied to the assembly override everything else. At the part level it is
_st the opposite. An appearance applied at the part level does not override anything.
120 Chapter 5

8 Add appearance to the part.


In the Feature Manager design tree, select the top-level
icon fo r the part.
Apply the appearance red high gloss plastic from
the Plastic, High Gloss folder.
The appearance red high gloss plastic replaces the
PW-MT1 1010 appearance that was previously
applied, but it does not override any of the appearances
applied to the features and faces of the model.

Sort order. jHierar<hy T j


C? g m
, $ (f Green LED
S...) monitor light grey satin finish plstic
It\ . ) monitor light grey satin finish plostic<2>
1tJ (f black low g loss plostic
e Qla Features
S -..) monitor hght grey satin finish plastic~3>
!B Green LED<2>
8- ~Part
(fJ red high gloss plastic

g Close all the files without saving.


ppearance Mapping

- ?on successful completion of this chapter,


:Ju will be able to:
.;pply texture-mapped appearances to models .
.;djust texture mapping for different surfa ces.
~
J nderstand the mapping controls for t he different
11apping types.
122 Chapter 6

Texture Mapping :.Z.:


The application and mapping of texture appearances is more involved t han procedural appearances. lr
this chapter, texture appearances will be applied to various shapes to explore the different methods tc
map and scale the appearance to the underlying part.

Why is Texture Mapping Important?


Texture mapping applies to not only appearances, but decals and surface finishes as well. All three of
these functions are types of textures which can be adjusted to fit the geometry of the mode ls.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Texture appearances
Texture appearances are two-dimensional images that are applied to a model like wallpaper.
a Texture mapping
The method in which the texture image is applied to the surface can be adjusted by stretching anc
rotating the image.

Textures
Textures are 20 graphic files that are applied like wallpaper. They are applied to t he surfaces of the
model by shrink-wrapping. The method used to shrink-wrap the text ure is called mapping. SolidWor~
supports five types of mapping: Automat ic, Projection, Surface, Cylindrica l, and Spherical.
SolidWorks supports the use of the following image file types fo r textures:
Windows bitmap (* .bmp)
Portable Network Graphics (*.png)
High Dynamic Range(*.hdr)
Tagged Image File (*. tif)
TARGA (* .tga)
RG B (* .rgb)
AdobePhotoshop(*.psd)
Joint Photographic Expert Group [JPEG] (* .jpg)
Hybrid Appearances
Hybrid appearances have repeatable patterns and have some characteristics of procedura l appearanc:3
and others of texture appearances. Like procedural appearances. they can have t heir color changed. L::~
texture appearances, they are mapped to the su rfaces of the model.
Note Color can only be changed for texture appearances by editing t he original image used to crea,.=
the appearance. With hybrid appearances, the color is changed in the appearance's PropertyManage-
Appearance Mapping 123

=.:se Study: Texture Mapping


ances. l- - F :Jarts have many different surfaces of different shapes, mapping
~thods t:: =:-:-..;re can be time-consuming and require a lot of effort to get all

three of
s.
E :atterns sized and lined up correctly. Rather than start on
-~:hing complicated like the part at right. we will use a simpler part
....,.- ::) learn what each of the controls does.
/tl..,.
.....
) l4
~'"'""" .

~~-----~_r---:::::#;/
.. .

>.
r~~----.-. ;
-
~..... ...._..-''

'

!f.
--::c :}roject will use a simple model to map a texture appearance to the various surfaces. Our goal in
:5 ::ase study is to learn about mapping methods and adjustments rather than producing a realistic
1ing and ~ c:oring.

of the
tidWorks

)earances
nged. Like

ro create
vtanager.
124 Chapter 6

Procedure
We will use a simple part that contains examples of t hree
common types of surfaces:

Planar
Cylindrical
Spherical

Procedure
1 Open the part.
Open the part Texture Part found in the
Chapter 6 \ Cas e Stu dy fo lder.

2 Select Isometric view.


Orient the model in an Isometric view.

3 Turn on RealView.

4 Apply texture appearance.


Add a texture appearance called checker pattern to the entire model.

Select the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab in the Task Pane.

Locate the appea rance checker pattern in the M iscella n e ou s , Pattern folde r.

Drag the appearance into the graphics area.

5 Examine the modeL


The texture has been applied to the e ntire part, but it
doesn't look ve ry realistic or natural. Because we did
not choose a method to map the appearance to the
model, SolidWorks selected t he default setting of
Aut omat ic. The mapping is reasonable on the planar
surf aces, but t he pattern breaks up on t he cylinder and
hemisphere.

To correct this, we will adjust the way t he t exture looks


with texture mapping.
Appearance Mapping 125

-.=xture Mapping
-.::-applying a texture appearance to a SolidWorks model, the SolidWorks software examines the
c::: of the underlying geometry to select the best mapping to shrink-wrap the 20 texture around t he
- -:Jdel.

c:::Jing can be done automatica lly, or we can force the fit by applying surface, projection, cylindrical.
;;;:-:erical options to selected surfaces. Mapping can be referenced to the current view, a selected
..:::.: or a selected plane. These control the direction from which the appearance is projected onto the
~:e.

:-e to Find It
-..=;:>earance's PropertyManager: Mapping tab

--=:nmatic Mapping
-=llatic texture mapping selects one of the three

~
.:.::21 coordinate axes (X, Y, and Z axes) whose plane is
-;:s: closely aligned with t he surface of the geometry
:::::::h point and maps t he appearance normal to that
=.-e.

--:;texture space works well for any planar geometry


-:ch surfa ces are approximately aligned with the
~tt~~
..
~
..
. .o..,

-::pal axes. For arbitrarily aligned planar geometry,


=-= :Jrojection texture space may be more appropriate.

Edit the texture map.


- :--e DisplayManager, click View Appearances. Right -click the checker pat tern appearance and
.c ::::t Edit Appearance.
126 Chapter 6

7 Change the mapping to projection. Ri!Wlf!Hi tmm


;. ;m ~ ..
Select the Mapping tab.

-
~ )( ~ .,:t )( ~

Click the Advanced button. The Basic button has a


subset of the controls available with t he Advanced
~~~~ Color~:'~
~ ~~~ Mappilg:-
I Basic

~ lhnnation
II Advanced

~~Fnstl
option. lected Geo~by
rs;-
@ car/lrMge 'I~ Ma!>Pi"19
Texture Part.SI.DPRT
""'

I
For Mapping, select Projection and XY for projection Selected Geometry jl

r
~
direction. This maps the texture to the XY (Front} Texture PartSLDPRT

plane of the model.

I Removo ~"'~ J
Mapping ontrols
Mappilg style: ""'
i I Remove Appearance I ~

- ~~
r1apping If
IProjection
:
.
~[I] ci
-
IXY

Mapping size :
O.OOOin .
- -:
-~[1]-
I O. OOOin

It
'--
nun ! I I I ! Jill I ll fdtttr

8 Examine the model.


The texture is st reaked along the top planar faces of the model and the pattern elongates as it stretch~
around the cylindrical section.
Projection Direction
The projection direction aligns a texture based on a reference plane. The plane may be defined by
select ing a default plane (XY. YZ, ZX}, face, or using the current view.
Appearance Mapping 127

Other orientations.
== each of the other projection direct ions and examine the effects on the model.
llt.an<:l!d

-=(

~~
----
~
"

~
XY YZ zx
-----,
-----:1
..

~
~
....:-
"'"".. ,.1,.
r
- T-.&p
~-.:t ~ ~ q a;J . t)&:r ~- W

;tretche5

d by
Current View ,J
(Isometric)

Standard Views using Current View


with Isometric as the current view
128 Chapter 6

Texture Orientation
Mapping reference and mapping type are used to orient the texture map to the model.

Mapping Reference
Mapping refere nce determines the start position of the image.
Projection Direction
Mapping a texture by projection is done normal to the selected references. Using the XY direction is
projecting normal to the Front plane.
Selected Reference
Mapping a texture to a selected reference {face or edge) causes the t exture to be projected normal t:
the plane or along the edge and onto the model.
Current View
Text ures may be mapped relative to a view. Th is is like putting t he texture on the face of the compute
monitor and projecting it onto the surface.
Once a texture is mapped to a view, and applied. the view orientation of the model can be changed
without affecting t he mapping.

Mapping Type
Mapping type determines how the texture is applied to the model surfaces. After the texture is oriente:
by the mapping reference, the mapping type specifies how the t exture will be applied to the surfaces

Mapping Type Description Results

Surface The texture maps


automatically ont o the
selected surface.
If the surface is not planar. the
texture space maps all points
based on the UV texture
coordinates of the model.
Appearance Mapping 129

;epping Type Description Results


:- _-tomatic The t exture maps to one of t he


X, Y, or Z axes.
The Automatic texture space is
appropriate for most planar
irection is geometry.

j normal tc

S:herical The t exture maps all points on


e computer the surface of a sphere.
Spherical mapping is like a
:hanged Mercator projection.

!is orientec
e surfaces.
: ylindrical The text ure maps all po ints
onto a cylinder.

13'
~

,
130 Chapter 6

Mapping Type Description Results

Projection The texture space projects


onto all points.

~~~~
.

:: :! :1
'
Steps to Correct the Mapping
To adjust the mapping in this model. we will apply the appearance to each surface individually and the:-
adjust the mapping to the specific face.
This process takes some trial and error to achieve the desired result.
Initial Texture Size and Alignment
Because texture appearances are created by using a rectangular image and repeatedly pasting it on~
the selected surface, the initial size and position of the image and the resulting mapping values may~
first seem confusing.
When the texture appearance is first applied to a surface, the initial placement will be such that the
center of the pattern is in the center of the selected area. The initial size should place a whole numb:!
of images across the major directions. If Fixed aspect ratio is selected, there may not be a whole numh-:-
of complete patterns in one of the directions, depending on the size of the surface.

Removing Appearances
After applying an appearance, you may decide that it is the wrong appearance or it is appl ied to the
wrong entity. If it is the wrong appearance, you can edit the appearance to change it. In some cases. .::
single instance of an appearance may have been applied to multiple surfaces causing difficulty in th.::.
mapping process.
Appearances can be removed from any part, assembly, feature, or face.

Where to Find It
DisplayManager: Right-click the appearance, Remove Appearance
DisplayManager: Select an appearance. press Delet e
Graphics Area: select the part. feature, body, or face where an appearance is attached,
Appearance ~. click Delete x in the callout
Appearance Mapping 131

::r.Ernove appearance. ~ 15 m ~
=:rst remove the appearance we have on this model and then reapply the --- 0
..
e.=.-=1ce one surface at a time. Sort order. IHistmy I
No appearances asSigned. Go to
e J ;splayManager. right-click the appearance checker pattern and click the Appearance tab of the task
pane and drag an appearance
re Appearance. from the hbrary to th e model inj
the graphics area

~
se all geometry must have an appearance. we are warned that there is I Open Appearance Library I
-=-:.y no appearance because we just removed it.
p en Appearance Library.

..!..dd an appearance to the part.


~.-.s andhold Alt and double-click the appearance color located in the
-===-ance Selection area of the Task Pane.
ly and the-
~ ;)ropertyManager, select the Color/Image tab and then select the color
::-:(t hird row. third column) .
.:. ==~e applying the yellow color just to make it easier to see the model as we
_=- the surfaces with the checker pattern in the fo llowing steps.
ting it ontc
lues may a:

1that t he ~
ole numbe;- !.,--
~@RGB- f"\ HSV
tole number
Add an appearance to a surface.
S= ::d t he indicated face, then double-click the
:::::earance checker pattern in the Appearance
:d to the
==-= ::dion area of the Task Pane.
1e cases. a
ulty in the _ Adjust the mapping.
= ~efault. there is an even number of complete squares
- ::1e vertica l direction. and because of the dimensions of
-=model. in the horizontal direction as well.
- :he OisplayManager. right-click the checker pattern
:=:Jearance and select Edit Appearance.
:;:;.ect Advanced and then the Mapping tab.
132 Chapter 6

14 Adjust the texture mapping.


For Mapping, select Projection.

Fixed aspect ratio should be


selected.
Adjust the size of the map to:
Width: 40 mm
Height: 40 mm
1"""'1 ------
Note Because we have Fixed aspect [J "'I.OOOmm :
ijd J1 I I I I! i jj 11 H_1ijnw
ratio selected, we only need to adjust .
either the width or the height. The iii;(! I I t I I I I l I l ! I '1$ji11W
Aspe<:t rtio: 1.00: 1
other will adjust automatically to
maintain the aspect ratio.
[J Mirror horimntaly
~ ] M<ror ver~y
After you enter 40 mm for the width,
just click in the box for the height and
t he value will update.

Click OK.

15 Apply appearance to front faces.


Se lect the front planar face shown.
Apply the checker pattern appearance to this face.
Appearance Mapping 133

Edit the appearance .


..- h - : DisplayManager, right-click the second instance of the
:.- =..~~er pattern appearance and select Edit Appearance.
Dnm :

~ -= -:ed to adjust the appearance so that we have four squares


DnmI I !' U , ~ \j ,,_ =
.,i :::e-: : ally, with a black square in the upper right corner so that it
Jlltation
-c:: 1es the appearance on the right side face.
I a:;pect ratio J
dlh to selection
...:: :e the cyan and magenta square on the face. We cou ld just
,q,t to selection ~~he handles on the square size and position the pattern.
lOOnvn : I
Y"'"1Trtmn~n

lOOnvn .:
IiI I 11 l I ! Jjijpnlt
d ratio: 1.00 :1

lcl.g
:-c.. . ge the orientation to the Front view.
T C

lmlr horiz<>ntl!ly
.:C =:t the Mapping tab.
lmlr verticaly
- -:: 40 mm for the height. This is the same value we used on the
Reset to Image
-.=::ern on the right side.
:r::_s the pattern until there is a black square positioned in the
-:::er right corner.

- Change the aspect ratio.


= :-~ave a fract ional square on the left side of the pattern. To correct this, we
change the width dimension of the pattern so that t he black and white areas
:r:: no longer square.
: =;:r Fixed aspect ratio, then drag the pattern handles to make t he pattern
::er so that exactly t hree boxes fit across the top. You could also type in a new
-~ ...:e for the width, which should be about 49 mm.

-:e You may need to reposition the texture t o keep the black square in the
_:::;er right corner.
~ =:Jrient the model to the Isometric view. 6 49.000mm f:
UH!l '.P'' U"'P rBzt:JP-
0 '10-:iiComn ~ :-
: :k OK. litH.~

ASj)Oct ratiO: 1. 22 : 1

~ O.OOdeg - , > 1
j.
'" JMO-ror horiz<>ntaliy
0 ""'or vertiaoly I I
. I R~tto~ =.!_j
134 Chapter 6

18 Examine the model.


The pattern on t he front face should now match the
pattern on the side face.

19 Repeat.
Repeat this procedure on the other three planar faces as
shown.
Note Unless we are going to render this model in other
views, there is no need t o apply appearances to the faces
that will not show.
Appearance Mapping 135

drical Mapping
--e ::ylindrical texture space maps all points onto a cylinder. This texture space works well for geometry
~ :a is axis-symmetric.

Select the cylindrical face.


~ ::t the cylindrical face and apply the
:.::zcker pattern appearance.

Adjust the pattern mapping.


- ~e OisplayManager, right-click the last instance of the
...._-:::arance and click Edit Appearance.
:e ::t the Mapping tab.
-:-.:e that the mapping type has defaulted to cylindrical
:r:: :he controls are slightly different in that we now have
:::r-:;ols to position the pattern along and around the axis.
136 Chapter 6

Adjust the pattern height t o 40 mm t o match the height on the planar faces. Mapping

!cylindrical
Clea r Fixed aspect ratio. Axis a.-ection;

Drag the pattern handles until the width of each black and white area is G '------~
Projection reference:
essentially square.
Adjust t he value for About Axis until the squares line up with the adjacent faces. I Update ID ~ l
,. [6Q.3053~ r.
,_'CT_..LI_ L.:.._1__C__.

t ["ti".l7i35s&;;;,; .....
Jij(l l I ljfi!_l !) I !JlfsftfUw
I5"1Ze/Orientation
[ ] Fixed aspect ratio
I::] Fit width ID selection
I EJ Fit height ID selection

;I ~
1
I13[ Li tflJJ lf
[J 14. ZOOmm
t
.
.-;..
1I I !.jd'#fi.W

[J Mirror ho<izontaly
0 Mirror verticaly

I ResetiDimage

Spherical Mapping
The spherical texture space maps all points onto the surface of a sphere. Spherica l mapping can bema=
-.-=~
difficult t han the other types of mapping because of the additional controls.
~=
22 Select the spherical face. 5
Select t he spherical face and apply the checker pattern
ap pearance.
Appearance Mapping 137

.; Adjust the pattern mapping.


~ :-;e DisplayManager, right-click the last instance of the
a.on:
l ?:::earance and click Edit Appearance .
L
'
., reference:

ldatetl;~ I
:K.F=: t: J:.....:L.t: f.
5S6nm :-
1 fi I ! l lj f j{td1if11W

IPO(tratio

tD selection

"' tD selection
mn r:,
I I I I''' lti}rljllMi ::1 spherical mapping we have additional adjustments to orient the pattern. -~ .... ~
~'''"I III 'd3.J.:..
-abo: 0.35: 1
:= -st try to use the drag handles to get the size and location of the pattern
= -ect. Then use the PropertyManager to make the small adjustments
'~"""
~ lBO.O<ld<!:g
. j:.. T .
l I
-
ldog ~:,
)-T_T_' - e-:essary to fine-tune t he patt ern. ~ 45.00deg
ar horizontaly
:e Whether the alignment is correct is a subjective judgment. If the squares
l _ l J
ar verticaly
Size/Orientation ~
lleset tD Image := 1ot line up to your satisfaction. continue to adjust t he mapping values unt il [ JFixed "'1)eCt ratio
::.J are satisfied. [J Fit width tD selection
tJ Fit ~t tx> selection

ng can be morE
- -ay take a great deal of trial and error to determine the values that make a iiiTII"
<;O.OOOrrrn .:
1 11!! 1 1 ii'lill 1"lll'i
!
I
-.,model render t he way you would like it to look. It will be rare when you hit
[[J 37.300mm ,: \
- :c: correct values on the first try. Also, there are several combinations of 'R?!-H I I I I I I I I j il I !! Jl'i1ll''!i''
Aspect ratio: 1.07: 1
-.=;:>ping size and offset values t hat will give a satisfactory result. ~ O.OOdeg .-
1 - .
2- Save and close the part. fj lBO.OOdeg ~=
1
d} 3.00deg !
I
1 .
CJ Mirror horizontaly I
n MiTOI"verticaly J
I Reset tD Image~
138 Chapter 6

Mapping Adjustments (Mapping by the Numbers)


In the previous example, the actual mapping dimensions used to adjust t he textures were not important
What was important was making t he adjacent texture maps align with each other and filling the surfaces
with a complet e patt ern. Many instances of mapping will be done just as this exa mple in that we just use
trial and error to get a texture mapped to t he model so t hat it looks correct.
ln other cases, we can use the mapping dimensions to quickly cover a surface with a uniform map if we
know the surface dimensions. This will become more important when we apply decals to the model.
Note For the fo llowing examples we will use a simple, square checker pattern. The actual
pattern does not have a black border. it is only shown here for clarity.
Projection Mapping
Projection mapping is the simplest of the different mapping types. The texture map will
be projected onto the surface and t iled. Tiling duplicates the pattern as many times as necessary to
cover the surface. The controls available allow us to position the pattern origin and stretch the pattenr
to get the correct number of instances.

Procedure
1 Open the part.
Open the part Projection Mapping practice found in
t he Case Study fo lder of this chapter.
This is just a simple block with length and width
dimensions in millimeters.
Appearance Mapping 139

Apply appearance. Appea rances. Scenes. an d Dec;als -{!:a

not important ::::.= =:t the front face of the model and then select the Appearances, e ~ [il ...
g the surfaces ::C::Oes, and Decals t ab on the Task Pane. S e Appeara nces(color)

1at we just use e & Scenes


=--::--ss and hold the Alt key and double-click the appearance texture from ffi- Decals

-= ;ppearance Selection area. Hold ing the Alt key when applying an
orm map if we .::::-::: arance causes t he PropertyManager t o open.
the model.
:::e : :t Advanced in the PropertyManager and then the Mapping t ab.

Adjust the mapping.


--e RealView preview shows us that the pattern starts in the center of the

color

ecessary to
--=Horizontal location direction is shown with a red arrow and the
stical location direction is shown with a green arrow. These correspond
ch the patt ern
-:: :~e icons next to the spin boxes.
- -.;: :llue and magenta rectangle shows t he size of the seed inst ance of the
:.:::ern. The width {blue) and the height (magenta) are in units of length.

- [o.DOOnm ~
.....~ - - - - - - - - -....- 1 IPrJt lli 1 I I fj lljjl (i~Qtui
!o.OOOmm f.-1
t iiiiJ:iJ. J JJ I'( tlj!t t!d@llii~

ate/Orientation

I ~I 6 f2L 42857228mm f."'


fsg, fJ! tJ I I II tti i 'j!jpiwi
I

I 1m ~;~~~ ~~:::;j
Asped ratio: l.OO : 1
~ 'o.OOdeg ---~.
'1-I- r .!._.....} J..::a
LJ Mtror hornon1211y
0 Mirror verti<:aly
I Reset to Image
140 Chapter 6

4 Adjust the texture map size. S'ae/Orientation jt

If our intent is to get two instances of the pattern in the vertical direction and 0 Fixed aspect ratio
0 Fit width tn selection
three in the horizontal direction, we can do this without trial and error. 0 Fit helglt tn selection
,....,
0 25.000rrrn
The part is 50 mm by 75 mm. To get two instance in t he vertical direction, each ' '

pattern instance must be 25 mm. Th e same is true for the horizontal direction 0 25.000mm
- ..
''

t o get three instances. Aspect ratio; 1.00 : 1


Q ;o.OOdeg
- .:
Type 25 mm for the width and press Enter. j_T T T
' -- - -
[J Mirror horizontally
Because Fixed aspect ratio is selected, t he width and height will maintain their 0 Mirror veri!Goly
original relationship, and the height will also be 25 mm. I R5et1xllirlll!J<' I
5 Examine the preview.
The preview window shows t hat we have the desired number of
instances of the pattern.

==
Appearance Mapping 141

Mation ~ Change the pattern size.


<:Spect ratlo
:-e only wanted two instances of the pattern in each direction,
!'.h to seledion
!tit to selection E vould have to adjust the map width to 37.5 mm.
rorm
t iii lJ{f!j l t_lpaQ
f!; = ~~- Fixed aspect ratio. We need to do this to allow the width and
---~
rorm "E 51t to be different
2 ratlo ; 1.iiO:"l
jog ~
- -::2 37.5 mm for the width and press Enter.
~ ~ -i_

.... horizontal y
:ror vertiealy

Reset to IrQage

Change pattern offset.


- =:::1 reviewing the preview we want the lower right square to be white instead
1 14ap~ing
IProjection
-- n 1

- =.ack. G T

IFace <l > I


='"!eed to move the pattern either half the height or width to shift the pattern. -~~ I
I
- :o.ooo;,;;;
: uill move the pattern half t he pattern height IHrN 1} IJ J\ 1J !J 1Lf"H j :t_..

- -::2 12.5 mm for Vertical Offset and press Enter. lt ,,!;;~li i !!H~ij
Examine the preview.
--e :Jreview window now shows a white square in t he lower right
:=~er. The blue and magenta rectangle shows that the seed
~-::2rn has moved up one square.

:e We cou ld have also moved the pattern wit h a -1 2.5 mm


~:cal offset or a 18.75 mm horizonta l offset and gotten the
x;- e results.

Close the part without saving.


142 Chapter 6

Cylindrical Mapping
With cylindrical mapping, an edge of the pattern is applied to the cylindrical face in the same direction
as the axis of the cylinder. The pattern is then rolled around the cylinder.

Procedure
1 Open the part.
Open the part Cylindrical Mapping practice found in the Case
Study fo lder of this chapter.
This is just a simple cylinder with length and diameter dimensions in
even millimeters.

2 Apply appearance. 50
Select the cylindrical surface and apply the same checker pattern I
appearance (default texture).

SolidWorks will default to cylindrical mapping when it determines that


t he selected surface is cylindrical.

3 Preview.
The edge of the pattern is aligned to the Front view and then wraps
counterclockwise when the cylinder is viewed from the top. - - :J

e:

4 Change the view.


Change the view to t he Back view. This makes it easier to see how the
pattern is applied.
Appearance Mapping 143

Change the pattern height.


? same directior =.ould like to get four patterns along the axis 0 Fixed aspect ratio
- e cylinder. The preview window shows that D At y.idth to selection
-.: -:~agenta side of the rectangle is in the same 0 At hei!,nt to selection
:.s :tion as the axis of the cylinder. 8
~~~l jjll!! j i ....

l::~~!ill~
[0
: :.< the Mapping tab in the PropertyManager.
1.00 : 1
Aspoct rabo:
- ~5enta represents the height of the pattern.
Q (lSO.OOdeg Ml
~:cuse the height of the cylinder is 50 mm and I ~ ::I::J,)J -c_-;_:::j

=- 'o'a nt four instances of t he pattern. the 0 Mrror horizuntaly


0 Mirror vertia>ly
-.:::ern height must be 12.5 mm.
Reset to Image
s,o - -:e 12.5 mm for the height and press Enter.
-~-e are now four patterns on the cylinder.
j> ~.e Because the pattern is centered along the axis direction of the cylinder, we actually get half a
=~ern, fo llowed by three full patterns, t hen a final half pattern.

Move the pattern.


- - e wanted to move the pattern seed so that it
r:=.:t s along the bottom of the cylinder, we must
--::1e it one and a half pattern heights. The green It 1 1
-=-=.w in the preview window shows that this is j Projection reference:
-=direct ion for offset Along axis. Note that the
::::sitive direction is down for this model. I I Updatetoeurrent
- -::e 18.75 mm for Along Axis and press Enter.
144 Chapter 6

7 Change the pattern width.


To get an even number of patterns around the cylinder we will adjust the
pattern width.
The units of the width, while in length units, are not the actual dimension of
the pattern. They are based on the diameter of the cylinder rather than the
circumference.
In our example. the cylinder has a diameter of SO mm. If we want eight full
patterns around the cylinder. we would set the width t o the diameter
divided by the number of patterns. To get eight patterns we set the width
t o 6.2S mm {SO mm/8).
Clear Fixed aspect ratio, then type 6.25 mm for width and press Enter.

Change the Isometric view. There are eight complete instances of the pattern.
8 Create a spiral pattern.
s-ae/Orientatlon *
The Rotation changes the angle between the 0 Fixed aspect ratio

axis of the cylinder and the axis of the applied ::::1 Fit width to selection
EJ Fit hoigh t to selection
pattern. The result is a pattern that spirals
around the cylinder.
a 1s.2so;;;;;;--
UIQlftf
t I l_Jtlj
~:,
j il 'Q!J.!III.
[0 ~SOOmm-- r-:
When you change the Rotation. the other ifj ! I !111 I !Ill I 1ffJi:tai4
Aspect ratio: 0. SO : 1
mapping values may have to be adjusted to get Q 7.00d- ; - - ~-
~ 1 T ~_:_1.._1__ T ; j
t he pattern to come out evenly.
D Mirror horizontaly
Type 7.0 degrees fo r Rotation and press Enter. 0 Mirror verticaly

Adjust the Map Width to 9.035 mm and press


Enter.

Click OK.
Note The numerica l values used in this step are "close" but not exactly right. If you would like to be me-
precise you can experiment with small adjust ments and also examine the completed model found in t--"
Completed folder.
Appearance Mapping 145

=xamine the model.


-.:= ::attern now spira ls around the cylinder, much like the way a simple
::-::=11 can be used t o rep resent a t hread.

Close the part.

- -crical Mapping
-~-Ical mapping is similar t o the process used by map and chart makers to represent the earth on a
- :: ece of paper.

m be ;---':"::
Jund if'
146 Chapter 6

The rectangular pattern is applied to the sphere by wrapping it around the sphere, much like the way 2
cylindrical map is wrapped around a cylinder. In the world map example. this wraps the map around the
equator giving us line contact between the texture and the sphere. The map is then shrunk around the
sphere so that the top edge of the map converges on the North Pole and the bottom edge of the ma;::
converges on the South Pole.

North Pole

Equator

South Pole

Procedure
1 Open the part.
Open the part Spherical Mapping practice found in the Case Study
folder of this chapter.
This is a sphere with a diameter of SO mm.
Appearance Mapping 147

? the way:: Apply appearance.


arou nd the :.e :ct the spherical surface and apply the same
around thE :E'a ult t exture appearance.
Jf the mat:
-.= jWorks will default to spherical mapping when it determines
"-:e: the selected surface is a sphere.

Adjust the pole.


-= ,ant the pattern to have t he poles on the sphere where the
.:.>5 :ive
and negative X axes pass through the sphere. Because
E ::-e looking at the preview in the Isometric view, we need to
::-::e the pattern go degrees along a latitude line in the pattern.
..: ~"i: the Mapping tab. Type go degrees for Axis Direction 1.
- s , aves the pole from the positive Y direction to the positive
:::: -ection.

- '::E go degrees for Axis Direction 2. This Si%<!'/O<i'ebtiltion .fl


--::- 2s the pole from the positive Z direction ~Fixed aspect ratio
0 Ft width to selection
---= positive X direction. OR heioht to selection
a ~.6666666611
:.-:ant! If you had trouble with this step,
: sure that you were entering the angles [D ~.66666666on
-~
;j

-e Size/Orientation boxes and NOT the Asped ratio: 1.00 : 1

C::[Jing boxes. Q ~OOdeg - :


..-LI_I_I_ I J r::::l

Q [ 9o.OOdeo :
~ -'-'---

0}~ :
~~ .-r-r..::cr:::::
o~1irror horozont~y
0 Mirror verticaly

[ Reset to Imoge
I .
148 Chapter 6

4 Adjust the map size. S"IZe/Orientatlon


Mapping width and height in spherical ct] Fixed a.pect ratio
j Fit width tn selection
mapping works similar to t he way it does
r-' Fit h.i!!ht tn selection
in cylindrical mapping. In this case. we will 6 12.100mm
just t ry to get an even number of patterns
t o join correctly. ro u.100nvn
I!L
A=ctratio: 1.00 : 1

Select Fixed aspect ratio. This will keep ~ O.O<Jde9


j
the same ratio between the width and
fJ 90.00deg
. j .. __ _:___] __ ,_
~'
height. which is currently one to one.
0) ' 90.oodOQ
Type 12.1 mm for the width and press j."
~J Mirror horizontaly
Enter. Height will automatically change to I ] Mirror verticaly
12.1 mm.
I Reset tn Image

5 Set the rotation angle. Size/Orientation *


Rotation angle will cause the pattern to , ) Foced a.pectratio

, ~ Fit width tn seJec:OOn


twist such that the longitude and latitude
lines will no longer be straight. 6 12.2SOmm ,; .
iiiTJTITrm--rr.-.---rr;;o;; .~
Type 20 degrees for Rotation Angle and ro 12.soo.,;,- ----- ,:~

press Enter. Notice that the pattern does ....-


A5P'ictratio: 0.98: i
not join smoothly. Using trial and error. we ~ 20.00deg
':l--- -- c ' - r P
can adjust the width to get a smooth
-A' '90.00deg
u }- ~ . _._ L1___L_j =-
pattern joint.
Clear Fixed aspect ratio. This is necessary cJ) 90 ~ '- _ ,_

MiTor 1-Mlrizontaly
to keep the height constant while we MiTor vertic211y
change the width. Reset II> Image

Type 12.25 mm for width and 12.5 mm


height.
Click OK.
Note To determine the exact va lues to get the pattern to join correctly takes some trial and error. ;;:
easier to see the effects of the adjustments if you zoom in on the area where the pattern joins.
su]of uJa~
5"' +I "JOJJa pue IE"
soJ!J uado 11e oSO])
suJan ed a4+ uaaM+aq +UJOf LJ+Oows e aAelj Me_=
1apow o4l au!wex:r
s]e)ap "P!H
JapJo ]e)ap :).snfpv
s>jsew je)ap asn pue a:).eaJJ
s]e)ap fi.]dde pue a:).eaJJ
:o+ aJqe aq IJ!M no,
'Ja+de4J 5!4+ .:J.O uoqaJdwoJ Jn.:J.SSaJJns uodr
152 Chapter 7

Decals
Decals are artwork that is applied to the model in SolidWorks. They are in some ways like textures ir
that they are applied to the surface of the part, feature, or face, and may be mapped according to thE
type of surface.
Decals differ from textures in that they are not tiled, and they can have parts of the image masked.
Masking allows only defined areas of the appearance of the underlying part to show through the deC3.
image.
Decals can be made from the same types of files used for t extures:
Windows bitmap (* .bmp)
Tagged Image File (* .tif)
TARGA (*.tga)
RGB (* .rgb)
Portable Networks Graphics(* .png)
High Dynamic Range (*.heir)
Adobe Photoshop C'.psd)
Joint Photographic Expert Group (* .jpg)
Decal size. position, and overlay order can be controlled with the Decals PropertyManager.

Where to Find It
Menu: PhotoView 360, Edit Decal
Render Tools Toolbar: Edit Decal [fiD
DisplayManager: Right-click in the View Decals tab. Add Decal
Task Pane: Drag a decal from the Decals folder in Appearances, Scenes, and Decals

Print Screen
The Print Screen key is used to capture the image
on the monitor and paste it on the Windows
clipboard. There are a variety of other
commercially available graphics programs that
include the capability of capturing images from
the screen. Print Screen is used in this course to
eliminate the need to purchase any additional
software.
Decals 153

"':; It
~
:::=a::i. ) ifferent locations depending on the specific keyboard, but it is usually located to the right
~::tion key F12.

-Screen
_ ::-,ant of Print Screen where only the active window is copied to the Windows clipboard.

:udy: Monitor Face


~ study, we will add a decal to the face of the LCD monitor from Chapter s. We will use a decal,
=-c_- an appearance, because we need just one instance of the image.
154 Chapter 7

Procedure
1 Create an image for the decal.
We will use a screenshot of the monitor model we created in Chapter 4.
Open the file Monitor.sldasm in the Chapter 7\Case Study folder. This is the completed projec-
from the previous Chapter s.
Turn on ReaiView.

On the keyboard press Print Screen.


This copies an image of the screen to the Windows clipboard.

2 Open an image editor.


For simplicity, we will use the Microsoft Paint
application that is included as part of Windows.
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, Paint.
Decals 155

~:e t he screenshot into Paint.


_==~t program, click Edit, Paste .
. . . -g on the version of Paint you are using. you may get a : Pamt ~
-'= .ndicating that the image on the clipboard is larger than
- ::J. If you do, click Yes. 01 The imaQe in the clipboard is larger than the bitmap.
Would you like the bitmap enlaroed?

lr -- ~~ -- - 4 t:1.0 C""'el

" t
e~-ut~

.....
-c- 4- ' ltllol

........
-
~

o- .#a...
~u,M
t .flFJIMI:
..;e o.,..w
.......
.]_ ~St-

ll ~
~
......- t i
. ~ s.:-
"'"""'
"' ....
~ c-o.:..t.

Save the file.


~= ;iles used to create decals are normally kept t ogether in a custom folder.
:::.e Paint icon . : : . and select Save As ...
r: ::he file in t he ... \ SolidWorks Common\ Custom Decals folder. Name the file: Screen Shot.
- Save as type, select 24-bit Bitmap (*.bmp,*.dib).

Oose the Paint application.


. :he Paint icon 11a and select Exit.
154 Chapter 7

Procedure
1 Create an image for the decal.
We will use a screenshot of t he monitor model we created in Chapter 4.
Open the file Monitor.sldasm in t he Chapter 7 \ Case Study folder. This is the completed proje::-
from the previous Chapter s.
Turn on RealView.
On t he keyboard press Print Screen.

This copies an image of t he screen to the Windows clipboard.


2 Openanimageed~o~
For simplicity, we will use the Microsoft Paint 0 .. .:- \if r(j - J :
application that is included as part of Windows. Cl1p-.f lr.uo)"

lOOM

!f"""U

s;n..,r~

$.:.1

(OIIU
I
C.-
l

Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, Paint. -r~-.o=c . . . . . . .;"";;.,_,-.;;;,"'. . . ~ ~~~"'-'--=-

!!!
I

100% ::-
Decals 155

=-=:e the screenshot into Paint.


=~ -t program, click Edit, Paste.

.._ -_son the version of Paint you are using. you may get a :Paint 29
~=-= 1dicating t hat the image on the clipboard is larger than
-q. If you do, click Yes.
(?;) The ifna9e in the cipboard is l<orger than the bitmap.
Would you like the bitmap enlarged?

If____:tes - :1 No Cancel

e--
... .14
~- Mett
~ ~ OIIIllrill
.., ..,a -.....
~ <iJ CIMt
;j

. ~, ......
..
-
~ ~-

... -4 -
~
ct- ....--..
-~
V ~-
..,_
o.
~ C-Ot<ok

Save the file.


-.=52 files used to create decals are normally kept together in a custom folder.

: ~he Paint icon 11::. and select Save As ...


~ :the file in the ... \ SolidWorks Common\Custom Decals folder. Name the file: Screen Shot.
=:r Save as type, select 24-bit Bitmap (*.bmp,*.dib).

Close the Paint application.


: : <the Paint icon . : . and select Exit.
156 Chapter 7

Applying Decals
To apply a decal the steps are:
Select the part, feature, or face on which the decal will be applied.
Select the image for the decaL
Create a mask.
Map the decal (adjust its size, orientation, and position).
Adjust the illumination properties of the decaL
Decal images can be created from any of the image file types supported by SolidWorks.

Decals PropertyManager
The Decals PropertyManager is used to apply and adjust decals. It has three tabs: Image, Mapping. C""
Illumination.

Image
The Image tab is used to select image files and decals. If a mask is t o be used, we can also select tte
method of applying the mask. Custom decals may be saved with t he file type * .p2d.

Mapping
The Mapping tab provides the method of applying the decal to the selected surface and the ability -
move and size it
Illumination
The Illumination tab controls the way t he decal will reflect light The defa ult setting fo r decals is to
underlying appearance. This makes the decal reflect light based on the appearance properties of n
face to which the decal is attached.

Where to Find It
Menu: PhotoView 360, Edit Decal
Render Tools Toolbar: Edit Decal ~
11 DisplayManager: Right-click in the View Decals tab, click Add Decal

Task Pane: Drag a decal from the Decals folder in Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab

6 Open the part.


Open t he LCD monitor 15 part in its own window.

7 Apply a decal.
Select t he fa ce of the monitor

Click Edit Decal ~ on the Render toolbar.


Decals 157

-=cate the decal file.


3.-owse and navigate to the ... \ SolidWorks Common \ Custom Decals
=>-~- -v where we saved the Scr een Shot image.
~ ~ Mappoog f~ ..,._,_ 1
~Imago! l
::o:: :~e Screen Shot image and click Open.
~
. -.'

Image fie path:


~ D:l,<;old\Vorks Corrmon\0

\1ap ping, a-'" J Broflse... I


JSave Deooi... J

;o select thE
.' Selective color mask
Use daa image alpha
-'dwlnel

the ability t:
'.1ap the decal.
:-:: the Mapping tab.

cals is t o Us: :e =2cal will preview directly on t he face we have


2rties of the -2~ed.

ab
158 Chapter 7

10 Select a mapping type.


The decal can be mapped in different methods. similar to the way we mapped a
texture appearance.

Select Projection from the mapping types. This will project the image onto the
surface. l S..lectedGeomeby

11 Adjust the decal size.


Our goal is to have the decal cover the face of the monitor, but with a small
border around the image. Images on monitors may or may not go all the way to
the edge depending on adjustments. We will apply the image so that it is just a
slight bit smaller allowing part of the black image mask to show around the
:ICJ
--- -
I ~lapping

!Projection ~:

edges of t he viewing area. b\1' ISelected Referen<:e ::;:

To size the image, we need to know the size of the face where the decal is being - @:._oo;;., - :
"Ufi.''' 1t 1 111Hdjta
applied. Rather than measure the size of the face, we can start by letting the 1
I t fO:ixmn - ~
decal fill the entire face. then reducing the decal size slightly. j lit1I .i t j1
i_ _ _ _ _ _ _
!p
ij N nw tJ

~iortentat;on ;::
In the Size/Orientation sect ion, clear Fixed aspect ratio and select both Fit
l Ftxeda~drabo
width to selection and Fit height to selection. G!J Fit width to selection J
\ 0 Fit hew# to selection

6 r433.a9999866mm
IJnJ flll_li(li_j! Jrll"'w

[[J 269.81.;;)144lmn -
~~,,I 11! U f)fiif-
Aopectratio : 1.61: 1
1
Q Jo.OO<le9
~_T_"_,....,.._,.........,
-

0 Mi"ror horizoot:lily
0 r-wror verticaly
r
, R~..<!t !Oirr.3!ie
'-------
12 Reduce the mapping size. Sl:te/Orientation

Notice that the decal size is 433.89 mm x 269.81 mm. D Fixed aspect ratio
I'J Fit width to selection
Clear both Fit width to selection and Fit height to selection.
Type 420 mm for width and 260 mm for height.
0 Fit height to selection
~ r=
D ~l!tlllJ~
-
This gives us just a small gap around the decal.
[CJ l:;olf.7=~=-
Aspect ratio: 1.62: 1

Q. 1o.!Xlde!i
'1-:r-....::r_r_~

0 Mirror horizontaly
0 M<ror verticaly

1 Re-..etto Image
Decals 159

5t:t decal illumination. tr.:oecals - -2..


o?:: ~e Illumination tab.

~.._
- "' can take the illumination properties of the appearance to which they are
- eel. or they can be adjusted separately.
-my fIllu mination ~

- s decal represents t he picture on the monitor. it should have its own CJ D)malllie help
from within t he monitor. We can create this effect by using the Luminous l 0 Use underlying appearance
- 5
-::3:5ity pro perty to make the decal emit light. Increase t he Luminous intensity
I
DiffUse Amount:

::..25 w/srm/1.2. ~Ll.J.J. 1.1. Ll~


SpeOJiar amount;
iT
OK. , 1.00
1 I I
I ,~
-{]

SpeOJ!arcolor:
~"""'
~

SpeaJiar spread:
!o.o1
Q I I I I I
tB
1= r r = f 4

~ ReflectiOn amount :
'' 1 ~''drliiIW
10 .00 ~
!:i ,,,.... ,....-,, t4
iDn
r:trabo
D Blurry refledions
~ Transparent amount;

~ ~.oo
r ,---,.... tB
,.---, ., T t4
~ ~
luminous n tensity:
; " m~wu

:4131ml ---
!0.25 w/srm" 2 llH
1-~ I I !lfi t1f.ai
o: 1.61 : 1

----: r
--
~ Examine the model.
crizontaMy - t= decal is bright er t han the rest of the
.r.icaly -.::::el and can be clearly seen in the floor
to ~'llal;e s ection.

iDn
ct r<ltio

' sekction
D selection

I
~9!jJ
r.-
Tt!!Tf1jijjiiii
fT
o: L62: 1

[;
_ :::r__-:r_::c9
crizontally
erticaly

t iD !mage
160 Chapter 7

15 View the DisplayManager. =..3


The DisplayManager shows us that we have one decal. called Screen Shot.
If we needed to make additional adjustments to the decal. we would right-click
8~ D..:als (LCD monitor15__
the decal Screen Shot and select Edit Decal. 8 IS Screen Shot
g Face

Decal Files
Decals, like texture appearances, require two or three files: the decal image file. a mask image (if usee
plus the decal file. The decal file contains the settings used for the decal. such as the illumination st} :
and individual settings and the location of the decal image file. Decal files have the extension* .p2ci.
16 Save the decal. ~ Save As
Right-click the Screen Shot ftQ JJ.
deca l in the DisplayManager ~
Organize
-- --
SolidWorlcsCom... CustomOO<:als

Neo.v folder
~ [ <-,. j j ~arch Custom D~cots P

and click Edit Decal.


~ J. Solicl\l'lorks Common
_____! Custom Appear.mces
Select the Image tab. _ _ _"I.....,_c.:..:ustom Decals
~ Custom Scenes
Click Save Decal. .,!. System Volume Information
& JJi Users
Save the decal file to the ~ J,; Windows [!}
same folder as t he decal ~ u CurrentPrnj (E:)
~ (i':ii Storage (F:)
image
File name: Screen Shot.p2d
... \SolidWorks Common\
Save as type: [D..:aI Files (".p2d)
Custom Decals.
Descnptton: Add a descnpt<on
Click Save. D Remove bend hnes

\#, Hide Foldoss Save ) I Cancel


-_.,;:; ...
-::;- .
_5 -=-
162 Chapter 7

Decal Mapping
While applying the decal to the Monitor, we used one type of mapping. Before proceeding with the nex:
case study, we will explore the decal mapping options in more depth.
The mapping of decals controls their placement, size, and orientation. While t here are many similarities
to mapping texture appearances, there are a few significant differences:
Only one instance of the image file is used, there is no tiling.
An additional mapping type called Label is available for decals.
Mapping Types
The fo llowing methods can be used to map decals.

Label
The decal can be mapped to multiple contiguous faces similar to placing an adhesive label to a
physical part. This type of mapping is also known as UV mapping. When you map the decal to multip =
faces, the fa ces must have linear contiguous edges.
Projection
The decal is applied to a selected plane and then projected onto t he selected model faces.
Cylindrical
The decal is mapped to the cylinder in the same way textures are mapped to cylinders.
Spherical
The decal is mapped to the sphere in the same way t extures are mapped to spheres.

Applying Decals
Decals can be applied t o t he model from the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals t ab of t he Task Pane. T--c
following methods can be used:
Drag and Drop
Drag a decal into the graphics area and the Decals PropertyManager opens.
- - ..:!:
Drag a decal onto a face and the decal will be applied to t hat face and the Decals PropertyManag=
opens.
Double-click - -...'""::r
-
Doub le-clicking a decal opens the Decals PropertyManager.
If faces are selected before double-clicking a decal, the decal will be applied to the face or faces
Decals 163

::se Study: Label Mapping


; with the ne::~ ..:= :; have one additional mapping type that is not available with appearances, labe l mapping. This
: : =case study is used to demonstrate the different decal mapping options.
1y similaritiE!': 3pen the part Decal Mapping.
t ::c;t is found in the Chapter 7 \Case Stu dy folder.

pen the Task Pane.


:::. ::he Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab in the Task Pane, then click the pushpin Eel to keep it
- .=.-

Add a decal. Appearances, Scenes. and Oec.als ~131


_e-==.s can be applied by simply dragging 1- w ~ t

3bel to a
-=-from the Appearance Selection area of t<, e Appearancos(color)

-.:: - ask Pane onto t he desired face. $ ~ Scenes


:alto multip.:: 8 Decals
. ~logos
:~~the decal improved logo from the L~ Custom Decals

=ecals, logos folder onto the face shown.


1ces.

~ro~~~
imp roved logo

ask Pane. ThE

labels logo

Adjust the decal s ize.


ertyManager
.: :k the Mapping tab in the Decals PropertyManager.

'2ke sure the mapping type is Label.


=~ange the size of the decal so that it is 75 mm x 18 mm.
e or faces.
:::::Jtate t he decal180 degrees.
164 Chapter 1

5 Select geometry.
In addition to the one selected face (the one we dropped the decal
on), select the additional five faces shown.
Note The decal preview has been removed from the graphic for
clarity.

6 Apply label mapping.


Drag the decal so it spans the faces
shown. Notice that with Label mapping,
the decal is applied just as if it were an
adhesive label.
Label mapping is UV mapping which
maps the decals to the faces of the Top View
model.
Decals 165

Change the mapping to Projection.


SeleG :-.1Projection mapping, the decal is reada ble in the Top view, but t he lett ers are st ret ched around t he
~s.

Top View

Correct mapping mismatch.


:-.cnge the mapping back to Label.
":::.ve the decal in the direction shown. The boundary
:<=:'wveen the planar face and the fillet is not linear, so the
::2[ al will not map to the face of the fi llet.
~h Label mapping. the decal works very similarly to an
.r:ual stick-on label in that if the stick-on label would
Decal does
--',nkle (not lie flat), it will not attach in SolidWorks.

Cancel.
: .ck Cancel and close the part without saving.
166 Chapter 7

Case Study: Multiple Decals


In t his case study we will use three different decals to cover the surface of the battery. We will explore
the use of masks to let only part of our images show t hrough and decal order to cont rol which decal is
on t op of which others.

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the Battery Assembly from the Chapter 7 \ Case Study\Battery folder.

2 Open the part.


Open one of the batteries in its own window.
Decals 167

~ply appearance .
(ewill explo::: .;: .:: start by applying an appearance to the entire model. This will control the areas that are not
which decal.s =-ed by t he decal.

- the appearance satin finish stainless steel to the entire model.


:...dd a second appearance.
~.s can take on t he illumination qualities of the
__.;:arance of the surface where t hey are applied. We will
..:::. ;:, appearance to all the faces that will be covered by the
12:2 in order to use its illumination settings for t he decals.
Fillets
-,;_--:= the appearance machined steel to the two fillets
'I
~ ::ile face shown.

Face

Apply to first decal.


:._- "9rst decal will be the red and black shrink-wrapped cover of the
.:c-::ery. It is a simple image, creat ed in another image-editing
_,_-~:,uare. To examine the image, open the image
-::.c=-"..ery cover.jpg in Microsoft Paint. Save a copy of this image
_-: SolidWorks Common\ Cust om Decals.
~ ect the three faces that we just applied the machined steel
::::::earance to and then click Edit Decal ~ on the Render toolbar.
: :k Browse and locate the image in SolidWorks Common.
: :k Insert.
.:.:fjusting Decals
-:::usting the decal is like adjusting a texture, except t here is only one copy of t he decal. The position
::1trol will depend on the type of mapping selected.
--e values of scale and offset are measured in the units of the model. When you apply a decal to a
-=::tangular face, it will be centered with the offsets set t o zero.
168 Chapter 7

6 Adjust the mapping.


Select the Mapping tab.
The mapping type should default to
Cylindrical. Adjust the image by dragging
t he handles until the image covers the
face and two fillets.

7 Select the Illumination tab. : - --::2


Select Use underlying appearance.

8 Save the decal. =-


Click Save Decal and save the decal to the Custom Decals folder. The file
extension will be p2d. As with texture appearances. we need the image files
plus the decal file to store the mapping and illumination data.
Click OK.

9 Examine the assembly.


Make the assembly window active.
Because we applied the decal at the part
level. it shows in all instances of the battery
part.
Decals 169

~Masks
.,-,.. se image files are always rectangular. masks allow us to filter out pa rt of the image. Masks are
and white. or grayscale images. When combined with the decal image, only the part of the decal
::;rresponds with the white part of the mask will show through. The part of the decal covered by
:: :::::k part of the mask will not show through. When using graysca le images. the gray value
=--,ines transparency.
.........<ing Techniques
? : are two ways to select the area of the image that will be masked out. Additionally, you may choose
_s:: the entire rectangular image as the decal by not masking out anything.

mask will apply the entire rectangular decal.


;-.age mask file uses an existing grayscale image to selectively mask out parts of the decal.
::elective color mask is used to manually choose which colors in the decal will ~laskimage ~
::.;:: ;nasked out. This is a quick way to create the mask if the deca l is a simple ~ No mask
v lm"'l msk file
::rd or logo, or is against a single background color. @ SelectiveCDior mask

_se Remove Color t o mask the selected color out of t he deca l. That is. t reat ~ =calimaoeaipha
E:rf lbnila~
..
c~
=-r pixels in the decal which have the selected color as transparent.
--e Pick Color eyedropper (2] is used to select colors from the decal
0EEffiE
I
~

!Re1110ve Color
~~ ::~evi ew.

se decal image alpha channel uses the alpha channel of the decal image if it is available.

:er...al Visibility
-:il several decals are used. one on top of another. it can be difficult to see the decal you are working
,. . ) ecals can be hidden just like parts in an assembly. Hiding the decals can also speed up the rendering
~:ess by reducing the calculations needed to produce the output.

-:de Decal/Show Decal


--E Hide Decal com mand prevents decals from being displayed. This is a useful option for temporarily
:..scbling the display of one or more decals when overlaying multiple decals on a part, feature, or face.
row Decal is used to make the decal visible again.
~ ere to Find It
) isplayManager: Right-click the decal, Hide Decal
) isplayManager: Right-click a hidden deca l. Show Decal
~..dd a Decal with a Mask
--e second decal we will apply will be a label. This will actually be two decals that overlap. In each decal
"2 will mask out the background of the original images.
170 Chapter 7

10 Copy images.
Copy the following images from the Chapter 7 \ Case Study\ Battery folder t o
SolidWorks Common\ Custom Decals:
Battery Label l.jpg
Battery Label 1 Mask.jpg
Battery Label 2.tif
Battery Label 2 Mask. tif
11 Add another decal.
Return to the window with just the battery part.
Select the face of the battery and click Edit Decal ~.
Click Browse and select the Battery Label l.jpg from the Custom
Decals folder.

12 Map the decal.


Select the Mapping tab.
Use the PropertyManager to rotate the decal go or 270 degrees to align it to the
axis of t he battery.
Clear Fixed aspect ratio. then use the drag handles to size and position the decal as
shown.
Decals 171

-,;>ply a mask. ar.. ~,


:.:: ""'Ot want everything in the decal image to show on the model, only the ~)(-{'sl

=.-d the center gray box. To remove the remaining parts of the image, we f~~ H1lbiW1aticrf l
:: :>lack and white image mask. r~ !mage
r-tessage ~
- :he Image tab. Browse to select an image mask fie.
See the 'Dea!! Preview' to 1liew the mal
decal.
-;;::: Image mask file.
3rowse under Mask Image and locate, then select, the
-=:c_y Label l Mask.jpg file in the Custom Decals fo lder.

E _:ecal Preview shows that only the gray letters and the gray rectangle will
:::n the model. The red crosshatch area shows t he t ransparent area of
::::al.
!mage file path: I
I;;;) C:'$oidWorks S~y.Step Gt.i ~

E:ecal and mask images are shown below. You can think of the mask as a
I Bro"~=J --~- I
: .:. The black areas are the solid part of the stencil and the white area is L !saveD~~
e-e the image ca n go t hrough. ~

. (! Eineskfile)
u e COIOi iMsk
0 Use decal image atlha chamel
Decal I
f"tlil<il'il\\l!ilii .
. ~
lii(.,,~~

Mask 0 Invertnesk
f-lask file path:
I6:J C:l,'ioidWorks Stop-by-Step GtJi

j Browse... I
Save the decal.
: :< Save Decal and save it to the Custom Decals folder.

: :< OK.
172 Chapter 7

15 Examine the model.


Only the gray part of the decal image is now applied to the model.

16 Add another decal.


We will add one more deca l on top of the gray rectangle in the previous
decal.
Select the face of the battery, then click Edit Deca l ~ on the Render Tools
toolbar.
Click Browse and locate the image Battery Label 2 .t if in the PW
Decals folder.
Click Open.

I POWERED BY SOLIDWORKS I

17 Mask the decal.


To mask a decal. we can also just mask out a color. Because th is decal is only red
and white, we can try to mask out just the white.
Click Selective color mask.
0
Click the Pick Color eye drop per (2). In the preview area, click on the white area. 1111 111
This will mask out everything in the decal image that is white.

-.e
Decals 173

:Jserve the problem.


-=the image. We do not have a smooth mask that only allows the red
-:::3 show through. The problem is caused by anti-aliasing which is used
:::-;;::: h the transitions bet ween areas of different colors by making the
"' : - the boundaries between colors as a blend of the two colors.
~=the color mask only removed white pixels. it left behind anything
::s not pure white.

Change the mask.


-e JisplayManager. select Image mask file, then Browse.
~= the Battery Label 2 Mask.tif fi le in the Custom Decals folder and click Open.
lr
r-
-s the image mask will make a cleaner transition between the decal and the background.
~~"*'-

POWERED BY SOLIDWORKS

Map the decal.


~E =:t the Mapping tab.

-<52the drag handles to rotate, size, and position t he decal over the gray box in t he
=:ious deca l.

Save .
.:.:. 2ct the Image tab.
: : k Save Decal.
: :k OK.
174 Chapter 7

22 Save.
Save the part file. then make the assembly window active.

23 Examine the preview.


If the decals are not in the correct location. you may have to adjust their About Axis position to
about 140 degrees.

24 Render the assembly.


Decals 175

:lrder
-_,::- in which decals are displayed on a part fe ature, or face is determined by the order in which
.=:ear in the Decals fo lder in the DisplayManager.
:.e-==, at the top of the list is displayed furthest from the surface of the part feature, or face. The
=:: : 1e bottom of the tree is displayed closest to the surface. When several decals are applied to
-;:face, the order is the same as if we had physically applied the decals to the model; the last one
e= s furthest from the surface.

:.. ::=:-?Osition multiple overlapping decals on a part, feature, or face, and change the order in which
:; =:-;: displayed.
:::-.c:5e the position of a decal, right-click t he decal in the DisplayManager and select:
_,-e Decal Up (away from the surface)
_,e Decal Down {closer to t he surface)
_:e Rendering Speed
~e decals slow down the rendering process and are not necessary while the scenery and lights are
~ ~djusted, we can hide all three deca ls.

-fide the decals.


-.= JisplayManager, right-click t he decal Battery Cover, and select Hide Decal.

...:.::.::t this procedure fo r the remaining decals.


E =ecal icons will all become hollow when they are hidden.

_ " oeij~iS:::~ --? --- - oec:als~


Decals (Battery_&) B ~ Decals [Battery_&)
- {S battery label 2 ~ ~ battery label 2
- i! Battery Label 1 00 ~ Battery La bell
=- battery cover liJ fj battery cover
Decals showing Decals hidden

n Save the files.


176 Chapter 7

Case Study: Gradient Masks


Decal masks can also be used to control the t ransparency of a decal. In some cases. we need to shov. :
transition from one appearance to another. In this case study, we will add two types of gradient mas--
that will cause the surface appearance of the model to change as we move either radially or linearly
along the model. - =~

Examine the image of the canister. Not ice that the lid and body are predominantly red, but the cove-
turns to orange as we approach the edge and the body turns orange near t he botto m.

1 Open the assembly.


Open the Canister Assembly.sldasm from the Chapter 7\Case Study\ Canister folder.
2 Open the part.
Open the Canister Cover part in its own window.
Decals 177

~ =t:Jly appearance. I _ ~~
s:: ' --e porcelain appearance found in the Stone, Stoneware folder to the /J
- ; ::ouble-clicking the appearance while holding the Alt key. - .z_- 3
~E 3. I >
c:,or section. select t he color red.

:K
=--eview the render.
=:-er render preview t o examine the part The
5 _niformly red. If we were to apply an orange
::rc1ce to the part. the entire part would be
-;-= f we just added an orange appearance to the
=c:s around the outside of t he cover, they would
-::-ge and the rest of t he cover would be red, but
::_ld have a very definite line between the two
-:

.-e want is for the red color to smoothly t rans ition to orange as we approach the outer edge.

--:ion
apply a decal that is pure orange. By using
:::: .. we can use the underlying appearance's
--at ion properties so that t he decal will have
,.. sc;ne look as t he rest of the canister cover.
I use a gradient mask which goes from
=: lack at the center to pure white at t he
=-edge. This will cause the orange t o be
ed out in the center and fade in as we move
r::.c. ,ty from the center. Decal Radial Gradient Mask

.: ::eca l and radial gradient mask will look like the images at right

The gradient mask was made in another image program because it cannot be made in SolidWorks.

Copy images.
_ ~he t hree image files needed for the decals from the Chapter 7 \ Case Study\ Canister folder
--e Custom Decals folder.

: :'a.Ilge DecaLjpg
?.adial Gradient Mask.jpg
-=-:::tear Gradient Mask.jpg
178 Chapter 7

6 Turn off RealView.


Turn off Real View because the gradient will not show in RealView, only in OpenGL. Alternatively, you ca-
use one of the render previews.

7 Apply the decal.


Select all the surfaces s hown.

Click Edit Decal ~ on the Rende r tool bar.

Click Browse and select the Orange Decal.jpg f rom the


Custom Decals fo lde r.

8 Apply the mask. F""::::::::::::::::=::::=:=:::::--~'"'1 Mask I maoe


Select Image mask file, t hen click Browse. 0Nomask
@ Image mask fie
0 Selective color mask
Select the Radial Gradient Mask fro m Cust om Decals
a nd click Open.
1""'9" fie path:

i bl CC:\~~I<s ~~ I
j Browse. .. I 0Invert mask
jSave Decal.. . I Maskftiepoth:
~ [ C:\SdidWorl<s COITV!lCr

1Browse ... j

9 Map the decal.


Select t he Mapping t a b.

Change the ma pping t ype t o Projection and t he projection


direction to ZX. This will map the decal normal t o the Top
reference plane.

Size and posit ion the decal so that it is centered on t he


cover and is essentially t he same size as t he cover.
Decals 179

3,e,.:ct t he Illumination tab .


...:se underlying appearance. This will make sure that the decal and appearance both have the
~al properties.

-= cecal as Orange Radial Fade Decal.p2d.

~tiew the rendered model.


-,::; Grange color start s at the outer edge of the
~~fades to allow the underlying appearance to
- ough.

-pen the Canister part.


part Canister.sldprt in its own window.
~ ::-~e

.:.pp!y appearance.
:ile same porcelain appearance to the entire part and change the color to red .

.!.pp!y the decal.


.:-:: all three faces shown.
:. =dit Decal ~ on the Render toolbar.
3rowse and select the Orange Decal.jpg from the
-Y..<>m Decals fol der.
180 Chapter 7

15 Apply the mask. F::::..:...:=.:;,_....;.._.__jt~ I Mask Image


QNom<~sk
--
Select Image mask file, then click Browse. ,
0 Imoge mosk fie

Select the Linear Gradient Mask from Custom


II 0 Se:ective color m<ISk

Decals and click Open.


I
1

J , _ :_]
Image fle path:
QJ [c~orksc;;;..,.~

l 1 erowse... I
l ~veDec~ ... J

I
0Invertm<~sk

Mask fie path:


. !;!! IC:I,So:idWor~C~

l . t>rowse ... I
L___- --

Linear Gradient Mask

16 Map the decal.


Select the Mapping tab.
The mapping type should be Cylindrical. This will
map the decal around the part.
Size and position the decal so that it just covers the
selected faces.
Note You will have to rotate the decal so that the
orange goes from the bottom toward the top of the
part. You will also need to clear Fixed aspect ratio t o
adjust the height and width independently of each
other.

17 Select the Illumination tab.


Make sure that the illumination is set to Use underlying appearance.
Save the decal as Orange Linear Fade Decal.p2d.

Click OK.
Decals 181

~en der the model.


--e orange color starts at the bottom and fades as we move
- =the top.

c-llrt mask

'le path;
~orks C~
--- -
'- i

Make the assembly window active.


- ::ss the space bar and double-click Cameral. This will give us a viewpoint with perspective. Cameras
::e discussed in the next chapter.
182 Chapter 7

20 Render the assembly.


Both parts now have a smooth t ransition from the base color of red to the edge color of orange.

=-=

-SF-_

21 Close all open files.


ewpoint
1!:.-.s~

"""::::m successful completio n of th is chapter,


:I~ will be able t o:
.=.-eate and save views.
_se and adjust perspective.
_se the camera to define views.
-::just the camera's aspect ratio.
..Jse depth of field to control focus.
J se camera lenses to control perspective.
184 Chapter 8

Viewpoint
Establishing the viewpoint is important to getting a good rendering of a product. In photography, this
the view we see in the camera. In the computer we tend to think of rotat ing the part or assembly, bt.::
the reality is that the model does not move, only our viewpoint changes.
There are two ways t o establish our viewpoint in SolidWorks. The first is to use the Pan, Zoom, RotatE.
and Roll tools to establish the view. The second way is to use a camera, just as if we were taking a
photograph. Both methods can achieve the same results as far as t he view of the model on the scree-
however, the camera option will give us some additional tools to create more rea listic images, such ~
depth of field.
When we use the Pan, Zoom, Rotate, and Roll tools in SolidWorks, our general perception is that we ; r
moving the model. This is usually the result of looking at the model through a computer monitor tha:
stationary on our desk. Reality however is that the model is fixed in model space and we are moving c..
point of view through these tools.

Positioning the Viewpoint


The primary tools for changing the viewpoint are Zoom, Pan, Rotate, and Roll.
~ Zoom to Fit: Zooms in or out so the entire model is visible.

~ Zoom to Area: Zooms in on a portion of the view t hat you select by dragging a bounding box. T-:
center of the box is marked with a plus(+) sign.

[g) Zoom In/Out: Zooms in as you press and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse up. Zoe.....,...
out as you drag the mouse down.

~ Zoom to Selection: Zooms to the size of the selected entity or entities.

~ Rotate View: Rotates the view as you press and hold the left mouse butt on and drag t he mous~
around t he screen.
[g) Roll View: Rotates the view about an axis normal to t he screen as you press and hold the left me
button and drag the mouse.
!) Pan View: Scrolls the view so the model moves as you drag the mouse.
Viewpoint 185

dle Mouse Button Functions


f.i"""""' --:: -;,iddle or wheel mouse butt on on a three-button mouse can be used to dynamically manipulate the
~-:.ay. Using the middle or wheel mouse button you can:

Wheel
'~tl -= Function Button

-:sc ~otate Press and hold the middle mouse Press and hold the wheel mouse
s::-::s button. As you move the mouse, the button. As you move the mouse. the
S<J.::::: view rotates freely. view rotates freely.
~otate about Click the middle mouse button on the Click the wheel mouse button on the
:=eometry geometry. As you move t he mouse, t he geometry. As you move the mouse, the
- NE 3
view rotates about that selected view rotates about that geometry.
-=~ geometry.
. .5-
The geometry can be a vertex, edge,
axis, or temporary axis.
Pan or Scroll Press and hold the Ctrl key t ogether Press and hold the Ctrl key together
with the middle mouse button. The with the wheel mouse button. The view
view wi ll scroll as you drag the mouse. will scroll as you drag the mouse.
Zoom Press and hold t he Shift key together Spin the wheel mouse butt on. The
ox_ 1~ =
with the middle mouse button. The view will zoom larger as you spin t he
view will zoom larger as you drag the wheel downward; smaller as you spin
mouse upward, smaller as you drag the the wheel upward.
l.Zcn~
mouse downward.
Zoom to Fit Double-click the middle mouse button. Double-click the wheel butt on.

lOUSE

~mm:sc
186 Chapter 8

Arrow Keys
Arrow keys can be used to rotate the
viewpoint about the three axes of the Left/ right arrow keys Up/down arrow keys
computer monitor. The up and down arrow
keys rotate the viewpoint about a horizonta l
X axis thro ugh the center of t he monitor.
The right and left arrow keys rotate the
viewpoint about a vertical Y axis through the
center of the monitor. Pressing and holding
the Alt key while using the right or left arrow
keys will rotate the viewpoint about the Z axis
normal to the monitor screen.
Holding the Shift key with the arrow keys
changes the rotation to go degrees.

Adjusting the Arrow Key Movement


The amount of movement caused by the arrow keys is cont rolled in t he SolidWorks Options. The def2~
value is 15 degrees, which is generally good when modeling. However it is too much when trying to
position the model for rendering.
To use the arrow keys for small movements, change the arrow key movement to 1 degree. This is
essentially small enough to nudge the viewpoint slightly.

Where to Find It
Menu: Tools, Options, System Options, View
Viewpoint 187

~edViews
--: e we establish a viewpoint, we need to save it so that we can easily return Onentation lil
v keys ': :::e same position. We can save t he existing viewpoint, section view. or ~ ~ ~~ ~~
- era view for later use. @ $ -
@ ~ @@
-: save t he current view as a named view, press the space bar to open the @ J.
: r"..entat ion dialog. Click New View ~ and type the name of the view. IG saved v.ews

EJElEDEEl ?1
-=::1ange the viewpoint t o a named view, double-click the named view. I
ere to Find It
eyboard: Press the space bar
'lenu: View, Modify, Orientation

~spective View
=normally do not create solid models in perspective views because it is generally easier to view
;c.-aile! edges as parallel. When rendering, we are trying to make the final output appear as it would to
::_~ ey es . For t his, a perspective view is very helpful. If we are not using a camera. we must add
:e-spective manually. If we are using a camera. the perspect ive will be determined by the lens we use.
~ere to Find It
l he defc:.... !lenu: View, Display, Perspective
(ing to /iew Toolbar: Pers pect ive ~

{odify Perspective View


1is is =:=-spective in the real world, as well as in SolidWorks, is related to the size of bl4!411Mil'Ji5 -~J
-e object being observed and the distance of that object from the observer. You ~ )(

:2, modify the perspective by specifying t he Observer Position value in the Observer Position !!;

:lerspective View dialog box. L/ 3


- --
- -e smaller the value. the greater t he amount of perspective distortion. For finer adjustment. use
:ecimal values, i.e., 3.S.
188 Chapter 8

Where to Find It
Menu Bar: View, Modify, Perspective
Note You must be in a perspective view to change the perspective setting.

Perspective = 0.1

Perspective = 3 Perspective = Off


Viewpoint 189

SolidWorks Camera
S:.:dWorks camera allows a more visual approach to establishing a viewpoint. Most of the camera
'=-ents produce the same res ults as could be achieved using Pan, Zoom, Rotate, Roll, and
~ive. The camera however, more closely approximates the actions of a photographer and adds
- s::ditional features, depth of fie ld and the ability t o get inside object s.

"':'~::s
-::::~ics covered in this section include:
:2=nera options
--=settings that are available for the camera include directions. distances, and lens type.
~.=ding a camera
.1.::-,eras can be added directly to a part or assembly document.
:anera properties
:~-,eras can be edited to change the settings including the direction. distance. and lens type.

:gspective
--= camera lens controls perspective.
::rect of focal length
:-:anging the focal length of a lens changes the relative size of distant objects to near objects.
-lept h of field
:::::::::~th of field cont rols which part of the image is in focus.

-'..:::ling Cameras
' :=:--1 cameras
can be added to a document. Each camera will define a view. To see the model as the
=~era sees it, right-click the camera in the DisplayManager, View Scene, Lights, and Cameras tab and
:.c :::t Camera View.
:; When in t he camera view. you cannot move the viewpoint with the Pan, Zoom, or Rotate tools. The
-:_:-:;or will change to ~ if you t ry to change the viewpoint.

~::-e to Find It
::::::splayManager: Scene, Lights, and Cameras button, right-click the Camera folder, Add Camera
.:enu: View, Lights and Cameras, Add Camera
190 Chapter 8

Aiming and Positioning the Camera


When using a camera, either in Target point
Camera position
real life or SolidWorks, we
control the position of the
camera and where it is pointed.
These two positions establish
the camera-to-subject axis. We
can also control the rotation
about t he camera-to-subject
axis. Camera to subject
The camera target point (red
dot) may be moved by: Field of View box
Dragging the target point
Selecting a point, vertex, curve, face, or plane
Typing numerical coordinates
The camera position (yellow dot) can be moved by:

Dragging the move triad


Typing numerical coordinates
Attaching the camera to a point, vert ex, curve, face, or plane
Camera roll can be set by:
Defining the up direction by selecting a line, edge, face, or plane, and then an angle to that direct -
Dragging the camera roll by holding Alt and dragging with the middle mouse button or wheel.
Note Lock camera position except when editing must be cleared to roll the camera by dragging.

Case Study: Cameras


In this case study we will add cameras and adjust their position.
Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Blue Toy Car found in the Chapter 8 \
Case Study\ Camera folder.
Viewpoint 191

~d a camera. ~StliiWorb ]

I r~ ~~ ~- rt!t r~ ~~ :~ ,~
~> - 'L--t r- ......""' - _ .... c..~.._.,. .
! "- '-~--- ,). - ,
7 ".- 0 A 1

--:,ick the Lights !


~..... ~ 'f'lll ,.,,.. ............ I'~,;::...

., t he ~~r'+'li

lll*u#it~-l apgr-~ ... ,""1, ..~....,\).~~~- J eJ-v--~- 6-


:: 2: 'J!anager and select

~ s:-een will split into


___.
:=;1ports showing the

[~
- ::-~s of the camera and
.:c on t he left and the
the camera sees on
-51t.

~1
9 --
t ..""M
,
IU:SM

'
. ' ::wrn.-...
- ~,
~I
I:At ~
" ::,~ --"'""~w -w~
~~f...-r,.t"""''!!"....,.n .2'!1i><~ --~~-'"'"5""~-~

Aim the camera. Camera Type *


=:: Aimed at target. 0 Aimed at toroet 1
0Fioating j/J
--,:d by selection is active, so all we 0 Show numerit controls
l 0 l ockcamera JX)'tiorl except
-:= :o do is pick a point on the model when edithg _j
~:: e we want to aim the camera. ~Target Point . II:~
-?_
Target by se!ection:

L -2:~e it easier to select a point. the L 1 1j


::.Yorks Zoom, Pan, Rotate, and Roll
~
: s "Nill change the viewport on the left
- -::>t the camera position. So the
'Jort on the right (the view the camera sees) will not change.

-<='~ in on the model and select the vertex shown.

...::ddng the Camera Position


-.: ~;oid accidently moving a camera positio n, you can select Lock camera position except when editing.
--:s disables the View commands (Pan, Zoom, Rotate, and Roll) when in a camera view.
192 Chapter 8

4 Position the camera.


The move triad can be oriented to either spherical or Cartesian coordinates. With the Cartesian
coordinate system, the three directions correspond to the X (red), Y (green), and Z (blue) directions :-
the part or assembly document.
With spherical coordinat es, the directions are along the camera-to-subject axis (blue), latitude (gree-
and longitude (red). -
- ~

- :2

@amera Position C~er-a Posjtion *


-~-~
:
Position by selection:

0spherical Qspherical
Ocartesian @ cartes:1an
'\. [28,589in

For additional control, select Show numeric controls under Camera Type. <Camera Type
@ Aimed at target
Select Lock camera position except when editing. {.; floaung

i~ Show numeric controls j


Select Show numeric controls and click Spherical coordinat es. ,.,, Led< camera position "lDSS
ru when editing

Position the camera as follows:


I
Camera .Position
Distance from target: 400 mm Po~Mn by selectiin

Longitude: 45 deg I
Latitude: 15 deg

Note We have used numeric controls only to insure your camera matches the
images provided here. Normally you would drag the camera into position.
O , 15deg
Viewpoint 193

-.djust camera rotation. ~


2 "ault Camera Rotation will roll t he camera around the axis between the Sot rol by selection: ~ I
e--a and the target. For this image, set Roll to D deg. I
~ '~ 1
1: _j
Fa roll can also be adjusted selecting a line. edge. face, or plane.
!GE l?.'i
,!,djust the field of view.
-:: Perspective and SO mm Standard lens and an Aspect Ratio of 11:8.5.
OK.

Select camera view.


-=a camera has been added
-: model. we can select the
-e-a view by the same
r-Jds used to select any
ed view.
- .-click Cameral in the
.:;;:.ayManager and select
=.:r:-:=ra View.
r ember. when you are in
.r2ra view. you cannot use the
~ Zoom, Rotate, or Roll tools
_ock camera posit ion except when editing is selected in the camera properties.

Add another camera .


.:.: a second camera by clicking View, Lights and Cameras, Add Camera.

=r Aim and position the camera.


_ Cartesian coordinates to position
["] ' ("'frl

-= ~amera t o the posit ion shown. The r~-;;;.,..a Poslliq-n - - - - ~


1.1111!!

-set point is the front vert ex on the Position by selection:

;:::- spoiler. I L
Spheric;!~
.se a so mm Standard lens. I 0 cartesian
P.>x'IOOnvn
'dti }q p rrn 11 " II ' q wtrt''4
:.: 2ct 11:8.5 for the Aspect Ratio. We will
~Y . 180mm ~,,
e. ::mine aspect rat io a little later in the ii;:,; T l i I II I!'! I I I '111);tM
::-apter. ~z -6l5nvn 1:
ta '}f I I 'lk' tllJJ I a tfsRij
194 Chapter 8

10 Change camera view. Ori!ntation


Press the space bar to open the View ~~~~
Orientation window. Both camera views i @
have been added as named views. @(j)@@
@
Double-dick Camera2. 'G, !Saved Vrews
jstart
The image should be cent ered on the screen fJ1 I Camera 1
but re latively small. .~ Camero2

EJ El lil EB
Camera Lenses
SolidWorks has six lenses that correspond
to standard lenses used by photographers. In addition to the standard lenses, you can also creat e a
custom lens which is similar to using a zoom lens.

By using lenses, we can control the size of the image similar to zooming our point of view. With t he
standard zoom tool. we could turn on perspective and control it independently f rom the amount of zoe-
With lenses, zoom and perspective are t ied together. With wide angle lenses (lower focal lengths), SL""'
as the 24 mm lens, there is much more perspective. With telephoto lenses (longer foca l lengths), s~:
as the 200 mm lens, there is much less perspective.

Field of View
Field of view controls the magnif ication of the image by using simulated camera lenses. Lenses ha\~
standard View angles 8 that correspond to lenses used by standard 35 mm single lens reflex (SLR
cameras. The Custom angle option allows you to set your own values.

Lens View Angle

24 mm Wide Angle 53.13


35 mm Wide Angle 37.85
SO mm Standard 26.99
85 mm Telephoto 16.or
135 mm Telephoto 10.16
200 mm Telephoto 6.87
Viewpoint 195

l ew Rectangle
-"'e view rectangle helps to see graphically the relationship between the view angle and the subject. It
5 ;nitially placed so that the camera view mimics the noncamera view that is in effect at the time the
::amera is created. The view rectangle distance is initially set so the angle of the view is equ ivalent to a
~andard 50 mm lens.

=: the view rectangle, the View angles e ,Height of view rectangle h. , and Length to . r-=:e-'~,.
ew rectangle e
have a basic geometric relationship. The image in the ~j
=-opertyManager shows this relationship and the simple geometry used to calcu late
-e height based on the view angle and the length. Using simple geometry, the height will be:
-.eight ::: 2 * length * tan (0/2)

~ Perspective is cleared, all parallel edges will be parallel on t he screen.

Change lenses.
"""
:1ange to the different lenses and observe the differences in the model. While you observe the changes,
:'Tlember that neither the camera nor the model are moving.
5..: -s your Distance to View Rectangle is based on the zoom you have when creating the camera, it may be
: =ferent than t hat used to create the images below. To see exactly the same results as shown below,
_u will have to set your Distance to View Rectangle to 350 mm.
e;;
Camera Lens Isometric View of Model Camera View

Perspective Off
~~""-"
Perspective Rl

~]]
h. 350mm - >
lltl!11' II p I 11.1 i ,.,d?!M

~ rlllio_iwidth : .hei<11_9:
11: 8 .5

Drag Aspect Ratio


196 Chapter 8

Camera Lens Isometric View of Model Camera View


24mm 3


e 3SOmm
tf! tf I II I iJ I I! p H :tSD;swf
It 3SOmm

~ratio (w:dth : heirjrt):


11: s.s

e 37.ssdeg

y
e ' 350mm
ii-11 ,, 1 r 1IIJ t [! _
:
'\a.fl"''''
It 2'10nrn ~:
I p i ' I I I I 'I I I I ! irirtllwf
Aspect ratio (><idth : heirjlt):

11:8.5 y J
cL , Dr"~~ Asi>ect~~~---
Viewpoint 197

Camera Lens Isometric View of Model Camera View

=::mm

~ /.

~+--- e->~

~__._it
""T

Sllmm Standard ~]
- 2:6.99deg
1
350nvn ,
7
11 Jl [J if il !1 [4 ju'''''

~ ,.t>o (width : height):


ll: 8.5

.::.:agAspect Ratio
_j

.:; mm

~~
of VIeW

~ it
e->~,
__._
a;;;;relephoto 3
~
::; l6.07deg
1
l 350nvn
"JfJJ f f.\! I I! j [ t}fJ<i"
98.82'flvn
ttu i I Pp ti ( I J !d hHJWII

. - . : ratio (Width : heght):


H:S.S

Jra<J Aspect Ratio


Viewpoint 199

View ,'iew Rectangle


--;e size and position of the view rectangle does not affect the final camera view. The camera view is
s::ictly a function of t he camera position, target. view angle. and aspect ratio.
- 1e fo llowing camera views were created wit h the same camera position, target , lens (view angle), and
=.spect rat io.

Distance to View Isometric View of Model Camera View


Rectangle

F"teld ofVIe'/1 - ~"1


"71 Perspective

~......it
e-'~,

~Ar9e __ _.1,
9 21. 7'1deg r:- l
~ ' .T 1
e ~
~ii'"!J I I I ! I 1t' I '
,:-
o;g.;;
it 96rm1 <-
iiin fWl!tlJ1!!IJlli'1!fi-c
L = 250 mm
Aspect ratio (width : heiglt):
11 :8.5

Drag Aspect Ratio - J


- --
Foeld ofView
---
-- ~
.,
J?~~ I

~'-- e-'~

~ ......it
[ SOrrvn Standard
"T

::J i
./
9

e
26.!J9deo
J"
750mm
!lj 11 UH I lj: .. iftN 1ffi '
~> I ~
.--

it ~~ I !! I II I l!'!ffl~:;, I L = 750 mm
Aspectr~(width: heqlt):
11 : 8.5 ~I
Drag Aspect Ratio '
__j
200 Chapter 8

Camera Rotation
Camera rotation allows t he camera to roll about the camera-to-target axis from 0 to 180 degrees. - =
properly define the ro ll angle, t he up direction needs to be specified and can be a line, edge, face, a- -=- ::;eg ~
plane. Lines and edges define the up direction (zero degrees). If a plane or face is used, the up direct :;.
is normal to the plane or face. If a direction is not specified, the Top plane is assumed, making the
Y direction the up direction.

The following t able shows the camera rotation using a 50 mm lens and an aspect ratio of 11:8.5.

Camera Rotation Isometric View of Model Camera View

0 degrees
~-lion

c =;
_ _ _ ___.l i
._jTop
~ .Odeg j :: I

+45 degrees
rc;;;;...._
r:;=;
jTop

-45 degrees

r.:=;
[ amera
'--R
.:_
<It2
_ tiot>
__ -~.~
~
~ -45cleg .
. 1
Viewpoint 201
- - - -- --

Camera Rotation Isometric View of Model Camera View


degrees-
~e. face. Y +90 degrees
up direG:::::
!~ing the
~~
1:.1~:;:~
.- =-1
I T~ ij

'
~~ - : I

1:8.S.

~w

-go degrees

/~
~~~ -----~1

t
~ -Setrolby
selection:
I T~ -
IS
~-
-90deg
~
T .:
202 Chapter 8

Camera Aspect Ratio


Aspect ratio is the width of an image divided by its height. A 4:3 aspect ratio is an image four units w'.-:2
by three units high. SolidWorks provides us with the most common aspect ratios for film and video rr
we are free to define a custom aspect ratio by inputting va lues either by direct input of the ratio or -:::
dragging the fie ld of view (FOV) box on the screen. The aspect ratio works with the camera lens. W'i
t he camera lens controls the amount of zoom on our model, the aspect ratio defines how our mode. _
framed by the camera. Height is the controlling quantity.
In the following table, we will use only the 50 mm Standard lens and change only the Aspect Ratio.
Notice t hat the view angle. distance, and height remain the same in all images; only the width of th'
frame will change because of the aspect ratio.

Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View

1:1 Square format

R~ofV~
---- - ~
2) Porspect;v

e
~:+] I
:I
26.99deg
) 1 ,

e 'IOOrrrn
IH~rij j
'
i1 {I! l jjf!Jji$jp
.h i 192mm- - f: 4:3
l l i l jl ) I H.! ~

~J.idth : height): -
. Standard video and print format
Aspect Ratio
Viewpoint 203

Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View


- c


i:: Y.CEC
.JJ Perspective
fCZ\:~ c.~

~ h.
e-~.
....... ~
[50iM, Standord ]
9 26.99deg
J
. :l-
toe

- -- -
-
e j!!ifDJJJliJTil'T"JJP'ij
400mm

h. , l92mm - .: .
iiiVJlllm;r:xrrm-w-...4 16:9
Aspect rotio (\\idltl : heiglt):
16:9
HDTV format
Drag Aspect Ratio

Foe~of V"teW

.JPe~ve

~<- e-1


....
~ .......h.
lsomm Standord :J
9 26.99deg t:
1'
e l'100mm . ,:
ti;l j j 1 4_1 f! I J I I jf I 11rJ' "'j

h. ~.;u I!f)! ilqtjljs~~~ 8:5


k;pect ratio (t.idltl : heiQht):
8:5
Widescreen monitor format
D<ag Aspect Ratio

Field of V"oew ~
1 Porspedive


~<- e-1
....
~.......h
[ 50mm Standard )
e 26. 99deg
J -
t:
' __::.
e "i'i
.m;;;;; - -r-:~ I
L' '' 9
I ( l j! I '~t'$'1Wfj

h l92mm t> 1.67:1


oonqqpj! li'l"i:J
:.spect rotio (v.i<lltl: heiglt):
~-67: 1
Cinematic 35 mm format - Europe
... Dfag Aspect Ratio
204 Chapter 8

Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View

~~1 j
~~S~d -*-31
9 26.~eg ~~ . :-I .::

e <ronm .:~
hi !lJllli::rr;rm roiH!Iu I
ft. 19;m.;. .:-
1.85:1 l
i'fj1 11 jj f J I I j II 1_ 11 h!J!il

Aspect rl~: ~'1th : height): v I Cinematic 35 mm format - US/UK

I~ Drag Aspect Ratio


I

2.39:1
Aspect ratio (width : height):
2.39: 1
Cinematic 35 mm anamorphic format
VI

field of View
[J]Perspective
I"
~]
!~standard 3!
9 ~ ~ : I
26.99de9
) . -

f. <ronm
I!J;j
r:
! l ~i. I I u! !I I 11 \tlflif!IN

ft. 1921Ml ~
3:2
n!! IIJ!J HJ IHtB-.'j!utjf '
Aspect rauo ("idth: height):
3:2 v I 4x6 print format. landscape
l
:JDrag Aspect Ratio I
Viewpoint 205
-- ---- -- -
rn View Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View


jl;

"J Perspective

~_._h
e-l,
Ill
~ll!ndard T I ;I

e :~.i.~g
f- 1 " c ----~-
,:-

e 'llOmm
i;tt fTI
:
!f ''' I I Ut '1''11Jmrf
h 192mm '~-
Ui;rt i f j I I I! l , , , I tfNUJif 2:3
A!:;lfft ratio (w!dth : hoight):
4x6 print format. portrait
ll: 3
_:: Drag A!:;lfft Ratio

i Foeld:ofView ;;- -:;: l


:lJ Per'll"CliVe

~
e-l. I
e
IS<ml>Stnard
i26.99deg - - - : -
. )-
e "iiomm
hlj i l ! I ' I i
h
_._
I
-:::-=-:.-=.
J I 'J f U~t-
-~

h
tmn 1' 'V' ',, ' 1111111~
.l92mm
,.-~
I 7:5
Aspect ratio (width : heiglt):
Sx7 print format, landscape
7:5 iI
o Drag P.!;pfft Ratio 1

l
206 Chapter 8

Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View


Field of Voew i\
~J JPerspecti\.'e

~1
[50iMi"St21ndord ~I
8 i26.99deg ,.
_:_Ii
~ 1 .
I
e fiilt 1'100rml
(fl Jl 1_q!
-~ . '~
If I l J,f;,~j!PJi
'
. ~::;;,,,,,_;;;I
Aspoct ratio (width : height):
5:7
Sx7 print format port rait
5:7 ~

[] Drag Aspoct Ratio

r~PerspectiVe
ofVoew ~~
i

~1
~Stonc!Md ~
9 26.99deg >:
1 I I

e ~ ~- I
ldHJJ II! j!J i )J lll fli#U*If 1

J. :.:;;,., " I ;: I ,,;,;:;.~ I


j Aspect ratio (wtdth : heiglt).:_ _
5:4

i s :4 ....
8x10 print format, landscape
lr 1 Drag Aspoct Ratio
Viewpoint 207

ew Aspect Ratio Isometric View of Model Camera View

15011m Standard
e 26.99deg
.).'. --'- .
, :J

'
. ;.o~
L1 '100mm
fi11 I trnTITlinTif''"''
1r. 19~ r:
,,, t l l fi ! i J i 1 I I l ttU'"' 4:5
~ raijo (>">idtn : height):
8x10 print format, portrait
1;:5

Orng Aspect Rlltio


T I
_ _J

Field of View .~~


J Perspective

~h
e----'~.

e
15011m Standard

e ,40en.n
lr. 19~
26.99de<]
.) . .r -

,, -11~" 1
.
J.

ji I I I I I I ( I ,.,,,,.,

-
:J
,. 1
~-
~- I 11:8.5

r:uq!! U( ii II 1.' j1uitatH
I
Aspect rotio {Y.idth : he9'>1):

11:8.5
Drag Aspect Rlltio
__j US letter size, landscape

------

Field of VIew ~

7 Perspective

~'--e---'~

~ lr.
"T

J.

!SOrmt Standard T l
e ~26.99deg .: . I
J-: ' -- .
e l-iO~ - - :
nqt I i J ! I I I I i j li l -.h'1'wf

h 19~ - ,
8-5:11
11? rtl l j j ti t !fi l )fi!1:tiflt
Aspect ratio (~tn: heslhl):
US letter size, portrait
8.5: 11

..J Drag Aspect Rlltio


208 Chapter 8

If you examine all the camera views, you will see that the image height is always t he same percentag:
of the frame height. As noted earlier, the view angle and distance are used to calculate the height. Gi\er
the height. t he width is then calculated from the aspect ratio.

16:9 5X7
HDTV format Print format portrait

View Area
In the above tables, the I ~... !: ! ..2~ ..!.. ,s a!. ~ .!.
....... ...-
~ ...,.s.o.. t.;;.~~- --~

J~W"il U:"illt : t --~1 M ** ~J


camera view images were
all created from the
preview screen as we did
not click OK to create the
camera. Once the camera is
created and in use, part of
the graphics area may be
grayed out to show the area 9
not in the camera view. I
Viewpoint 209

~--
~arent Depth
=s-- ~ e changed the focal length in t he last step. perspective changed, but because the model was small
-=field of view, it might not have been so obvious. In the next example. we will be able to see
e-s:Jective change more clearly and we will see another effect of different foca l lengths; t hat is the
::of t he size of the background objects to the foreground objects.

::ase Study: Apparent Depth


-= ::1ow the effects of t he lens focal lengt h
- :::>th perspective and the background. we
use a simple part. In the last case st udy,
: -E -:eld the camera in a fixed location and
-.::,ged t he focal length of the lens. In this
=se we will move the camera so that the
i""2 ;_ _::Ject remains the same size on the screen.
;x:edure
Open the part.
::en the part Effects of Focal Length.
Examine the part.
--e yellow base has a grid cut into it and t he back wall has a decal applied. r+ ~ M4$.1$4Hfii\+Jffiij
[~ ~ light.
--ere are six cameras already set up. Each camera is aimed at the same point 1$ ~ Camera
~24mmlens.
::-the red and blue box. ~3Sm m lens
~SOmm lens
~ 85mmLens
~135mmlms
ffl 200mm lms
f. Walk-through

-s the focal length increases. the camera-to-subject distance is increased to


::ep the closest edge of the box the same size on t he screen.
210 Chapter 8

3 Change cameras.
View the model from each of the six camera views. Notice that as the focal length increases, you can
see the change in perspective by the yellow grid and the edges of the blue face.
Notice also the difference in the background. As the focal length increases, the lens angle decreases,
capturing a smaller section of t he background. When we view t he image, the background must fill t he
width of the screen so it appears to be magnified and looks closer.

24 mm lens 35 mm lens
Camera-to-Subject Distance = 185 mm Camera-to-Subject Distance = 257 mm

--=-

SO mm lens as mm lens ----...&..I.CI of I


Camera-to-Subject Distance = 381 mm Camera-to-Subject Distance = 635 mm

-J

-w? :,._

135 mm lens 200 mm lens


Camera-to-Subject Distance = 1016 mm Camera-to-Subject Dist ance = 1524 mm

-!; ::t_ -:er


-:-=e -cCJ

-:"":.'; =-
Viewpoint 211

Close the part.

:tandard Lens
-e., we selected different lenses, the SO mm lens was called a standard lens. In photography literat ure
.:: also called a normal lens. In still photography. a normal lens is a lens whose foca l length is roughly
:;_c! to the diagonal of the image projected within the camera. This roughly approximates the perceived
;: :of view and perspective of the human eye. For a 35 mm camera, the image has a diagonal of 43 mm.
--E -nost commonly used normal lens is so mm. but focal lengths between about 40 and 58 mm are also
=.-sidered normal.
. :; The so mm focal length was chosen by Oscar Barnack, the creator of t he Leica camera. as a
=~promis e between the theoretical value and good sharpness. because lens t echnology at that time
~.s such that slightly longer focal lengths were able to achieve optimum sharpness.

~:e The SOmm lens is only the normal lens for 35 mm film. The normal lenses for other film formats
:=re different foca l lengths. For example, a large format camera that uses 4 x 5 sheet film has a normal
E-s of 150 mm.

Jepth of Field
.1en we focus a camera on a subject all objects in the scene are not in focus. Objects nearer and farther
=-:Jm the subject will be out of focus. The depth of field is the distance in front of and behind the subject
-.ich appears to be in focus. For any given lens setting there is only one distance at which a subject is
=-ecisely in focus, but focus falls off gradually on either side of that distance, so there is a region in
1ich the blurring is tolerable.
-,e exact point at which an object is considered out of focus is somewhat subjective and depends on,
~:nang other fact ors, the resolution of t he human eye and t he viewing distance. In optics, the fuzziest a
::lint can be and still be ca lled "in focus" is defined, appropriately, as t he circle of confusion. For film
::ilotography this is usually calculated using the Zeiss formula of d/1730 where "d" is t he diagonal
-;-;,easure of t he film. For 35 mm film (43 mm diagona l}, this comes out t o be 0.024 mm. The exact value
:Jf 1730 is subject to some dispute - it's a ballpark figure - so this number is not exact.

Use of Depth of Field


:>hotographers use depth of field to direct the viewer's eye toward the subject of the photograph and
~o create mood. For instance, a shot of a woman's face in close-up may have shallow depth of fie ld with
someone just behind her visible, but out of focus. lt is a common technique, for example, in melodramas
and horror films.
212 Chapter 8

Case Study: Setting Depth of Field


We will use an assembly to see t he effect s of depth of field. In this assembly, each Toy Car model is i-
a different color and some addit ional whee l assemblies have been added.
Viewpoint 213

..(edure
Open the assembly.
-~=1 the assemb ly DOF
- ~sembly. s ldasm.

Change view.
: -ange t he view orientat ion to the
~ender Camera view by pressing the
SJace bar, and then double-clicking
~nder Cam era.

~1isis a camera position that would


:present the height of a person's eyes
=these were real cars.

3 Preview the rendered model.


..JSe the Integrated Preview to see how
::1e model will render. Without a depth
::>f field, all objects are rendered in
~JC US.
214 Chapter 8

4 Add depth of field.


In the DisplayManager, right- Focus plane
dick Render Camera and
select Properties.
Select Depth of Field.

5 Select the focus point.


The focus point is the point in the scene you want Focus point
to be in exact focus. This may be different from the
point where the camera is aimed.
Select Focus by selection.

Select the vertex shown on t he middle car.

6 Set depth of field.


Type so mm for the Depth of Field f . This will be the distance in front of, and t-d-'(f-
behind, the focus point that will be in focus. <1J !
[lJ Focus by selection:
Click OK.
f ,....50nvn
hi!t:!!. tii iflj!l * .-
Viewpoint 215

?review the rendered model.


2~ see that the red car is in focus. As Out of focu s
::-: 1e to either the foreground or
5 ound, the other two cars lose focus .
c -elps to guide our eye toward the red

Loss of focus

Change the focus point. Focus point


!: :-click the Render Camera and select
~erties.

-c:::ge the focus point to the vertex shown on the


_e car. Remember, we are not moving the camera
:s aim point. only the distance at which the
:=-era is focused.

Render the model.


.::..1 both the yellow and red cars are out of
::us, leading our eye back to t he blue car.
- -.s would not make a very interesting
: ::ture as the out of focus cars are too
:..:oinant in the scene, but you can see t he
= :;ult of moving the focus point.
216 Chapter 8

10 Change the focus point. -...ase c_


Right-click the Render Camera and se lect Properties.
Change the focus point to the vertex shown on the yellow car.

11 Render the model.


Our eye is now drawn to the yellow car
because it is closer to us and in focus. The
loss of focus as we move to the red and blue
cars also gives us a greater sense of depth .

12 Render the model.


Now that the adjustments have been made
and previewed, create a final render.

13 Close the file.


Viewpoint 2 17

:aseStudy: Getting Behind the Walls


-"E :::Jther capability t hat the camera has, that is not possible with Zoom, Pan, Rotate, and Roll, is the
- :y to get behind geometry.
-;;::;"!rendering large settings such as a room or large machine, the only way to get the proper viewpoint
- Zoom, Pan, Rotate, and Roll was to cut away part of the model to take it out of the line of view.
--the camera, there is no need to remove geometry as it will actually move right through the wall to
- ::o the desired viewpoint .

0 ~~0
-~ ~~~

:e Creating a rendering of this office can take significant time; however, it is not necessary fo r the
-=sson. All the key elements of the lesson can be learned without rendering and just using OpenGL or
=2aiView.
218 Chapter 8

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Full Office assembly.sldasm
found in the Chapter 8 \ Case Study\ Office folder.

2 Hide the ceiling.


Hide t he part named ceiling.
This is an assembly of an office with furniture.
Appearances, decals, and lights have already been
added to the assembly so all we need to do is "frame
the shot" or set the viewpoint.

3 Show the ceiling.


Show the part named ceiling.
As you can see in the image above, the ceiling is part of
the rendering of the room, so we must have it visible.

4 Zoom ln.
Try to zoom in and get to a position inside the room.
The only place you can possibly get inside the room is through the door, but if you try to pan, t he outs::
walls get in the way as your viewpoint is still outside the room.
The only way we could get a viewpoint as shown in the image above would be to cut away. suppress
hide the walls and section of ceiling that are in our way.
5 Hide the ceiling.
We are hiding the ceiling to make it easier to select the target point for the camera. Once the came:
aimed, we can again show the ceiling.
Viewpoint 219

.-.dd a camera.
::new camera .

.e-:: Perspective and the 50 mm Standard lens. Select 3:2 for the aspect ratio.
Aim the camera.
E-:i a target point at a vertex on one of the monitors.
E-:ling the exact vertex shown is not important. only that it is
e-:ex in this area.

Position the camera.


.: are going to put the camera in the
.:csite corner of the room from the
~'Juter monitors.

-:r drag t he camera to the position


or use t he values shown at right to
--:Jm
ion the camera.
~ You must select Show numeric
_:. :1 ols, under Camera Type, to be able to
_'"l:--t numerical values to position the
~Era.
-- - !'-;

::--the camera in this position, we are just


) 45deg~ ....:-
"'5 :1ethe room. ' 1 .
0 9deg
-J
25':.

Je7
220 Chapter 8

9 Move the camera.


Drag the camera by t he blue arrow of the Move Triad, to a position beyond the wall. Your viewpoint ~
now outside the room and we see the outside of the room.

Move the camera back toward the target until it is inside the room again. A camera-to-target distar:=
of 7000 mm is about right. We cou ld not get this view with Pan, Zoom, Rotate, and Roll as our viewpc -
would always be outside the room. -
----:-

Click OK.

10 Name the camera.


Name this camera Standard Lens.

11 Show the ceiling.

12 Select camera view.


Right-click the camera Standard Lens and select Camera View.

13 Examine the model.


We used a Standard Lens for this camera
so we have a view with the same
perspective as we would see if we were
standing in this office.

14 Create another camera.


Right-click t he Cameras folder and select Add Camera.

As we were in the Camera View fo r the Standard Lens, the new camera is set up exactly the sa;-'!'
t he active camera.
Viewpoint 221

Move the camera.


-.::_-:ge the longitude of the camera to 18 degrees.

:ause we are moving in spherical coordinates, the


::rera is outside the room.
-?::uce the Distance from target to 4600 mm to get back
.~ :1e the room.

- :< OK.

Cle this Left Camera.

Examine the model.


::now have the problem faced
-nost photographers when -- ~ -

:=..-:ing pictures in a small room


--= ;:he Standard Lens ;. ~=::

:stricts the field of view.

- Change the lens.


Left Camera and select Properties.
::::~ght-click

Select the 35 mm Wide Angle lens.


:::,ick OK.
222 Chapter 8

18 Examine the model.


This opens up the field of view.
but we are starting to see a
distorted perspective. Look at
the vertical lines of the window
and compare them to the picture
frame around the motorcycle.

19 Change to a wide angle


lens.
If we change the lens to 24 mm
Wide Angle we can see even
more distortion due to ext reme
perspective.

20 Close all open files.


Scenes and Lighting

J pon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand the different scene elements.
Add backgrounds to a scene.
Understand the effects of environments.
Control direct lights.
Use environmental lighting.
Control shadows in the rendering.
224 Chapter 9

Scenes and Lighting


In the previous chapte rs, we explored the t hings that happen to the model directly. ln this chapter \',:-
will explore the things that are not on the model, but control t he environment and affect t he way thE
model looks.

Scenery Choices
When we set up a model to render, there are three choices for scenery:

Studio
Studio scenery shows the mode l as you might see it
on the page of a catalog where there is a seamless
background. With this type of scene, our complete
focus should be the rendered model.

In Use
In some advertisements we want to
show how the model will look when in
use. In these images, there could be a
combination of background images
and some modeled props to create
the proper context.
Scenes and Lighting 225

None
.:--.,.. 'Nhen the model will be used in a composited scene.
c, - we can render t he model with either no background
or a background that is easy to remove.
n the image at right, the gray and white
checkerboard area is transparent.

S<enes and Environment


5:enes create the setting around our model. Without a scene, t he model would always be rendered wit h
-.:::hing around it. It could not cast shadows as there would be nothing for the shadow to fall upon.
=.-tironments provide a 3D world around our model to provide something to be seen in the reflections
-- the mode l and to provide more realistic lighting.
-3Ck to Model or View
-en using scenery elements or lights, the relationship between the model and scenery or lighting can
::;e either
of two types, Lock to Model or Lock to View.
: ...-common perce ption is that when we use the view tools Rotate, Zoom, Pan, or Roll, the model moves.
- -eality however. t he model stays fixed and we move relative to it.
.-:<k to Model keeps the scenery or light s attached to the model. Imagine a photography studio with the
~1ts on tripods resting on the floor. The camera (our viewpoint) is held in our hands. To rot at e, pan. or
.:::om, we move our viewpoint. That is, we move the camera to a new location. When scenes or lights are
.:c-<ed to the model, they maintain their position with respect t o the model regardless of viewpoint
xsition. When you change your viewpoint. only the camera changes position.
-.:xk t o View keeps t he scenery or lights attached t o the camera. As you move the camera, the light
.=-:ps its position relative t o t he camera and moves with the camera. For scenery t his would be
?:'Jivalent to t he camera and scenery being attached to the floor. and then moving the model.
226 Chapter 9

Scenery
The basic elements of scenery are the floor,
background, environment, and user-created
objects.
11 Floor
The floor provides a surface under our model. We
can apply appearances to the floor, have it reflect
or record shadows. The floor is locked to the
model so that when we change our viewpoint, the
relationship between the floor and the model
remains constant.
m Background
Environment
Backgrounds are large images located behind or
around our model. Depending on the type of background, they are either locked to our viewpoint o-
locked to the model. If they are locked to the viewpoint, t he background does not move on the scr~
I
as we move our viewpoint. If they are locked to the model, we see different parts of the backgrou;:
when we change our viewpoint. Tiled and scaled image backgrounds are locked to our view while
spherical backgrounds are locked to the model.
Backgrounds can be images, plain single colors, or gradient colors.

Images
When using an image as a background, the image will be scaled so that one image covers the er.:
planar background. Background images are positioned normal t o the view, so they are locked to -
view.
Environments
The spherica l environment can also be used as a background. It can be thought of as a large sp-=
that encompasses not only the model, but our viewpoint as well. This is like being in a planetar;~
where we are inside a sphere and t he background image is projected all around us. We see diffe-=-
parts of t he background as we change our viewpoint and look around. Because we see different p.
of the environment as we change our viewpoint, the environment is locked to the model.
Environment
Environments provide a 3D world around the model. We do not see the environment directly, unless -
also used as a background, only in reflections and the effects of the environment on the surfaces c=-
models. Environments are also used to light the model through image-based lighting.
Scenes and Lighting 227

---e are locked to the model so that as we change the viewpoint , the part of the environment that we
~ ..., the reflections will change based on the model, environment. viewpoint relationship.
:__.. ..:onments are spherically mapped .
..:ser-Created
:... ::an create your own virtual studio by creating parts and assemblies to take the place of real world
- ~~s. For instance, you can model a table on which to place your mode(. or seamless backgrounds to
--:--._ -dthe model. Reflector q_ane(s and area a~ts caa 6e. q_act..u( &e.. s..~<ilo..J~\S.t.<~..~(Q,..<L<:\:-..~<:i~,~
~:::grapher's studio.
3a:
X::enery Examples
0"
~- :.:t the different scenery elements in perspective, we will start with just the model, then add
:ional elements as we move away from the model.
.:: Scenery
;:,;-;::.::--
::. 1odel is rendered without scenery, there is
- ng to put the model in context or to have
~so:
-e::ows other than the shadows t hat fa ll on the
lg; J...,..
-::::el itself.
:::

-.e =--
:-._ -
Self-shadows

::sa-
!21
:;-_:-~=:;:

~ r:.cr=

55
3~
228 Chapter 9

Floors
Floors are not actual geometry, but appear as a planar surface under the model. They can be sized,
oriented, and mapped like t exture appearances. The three primary characteristics of the floor are ~ :
ability to capture shadows, produce reflections, and have an appearance.

No shadow or reflections With shadow and reflections With floor appearance

Backgrounds
Background images are considered to be far
enough away that shadows cannot fall on them.
Scaled and tiled images are always parallel to our Background
screen and are locked t o our viewpoint so they do
not move as we change our viewpoint.
In the images below, the viewpoint is moved, but
you can see that the background is exactly the
same.

/
Viewpoint
and
direction
lU!OdMa]A pue 1apow Jno spun:_
~E'4l aJa4dS E' 5! lU<lWUOJ]AUCl ]E'J!J<l4dS 3.._
::.
230 Chapter 9

For spherical environments, a 360 x 180 degree image is spherically mapped to the environmental spc:::.
A 360 x 180 degree image is so named because it covers 360 degrees of longitude and 180 degrees -::
lat itude.
Notice that the image is stretched at both the top and bottom as the entire bottom edge will map t:
single point at the bottom of the sphere. Similarly. the top edge maps to a point at the top.
Scenes and Lighting 231

.e-.cal environment is locked to the model so that when we change our viewpoint. t he background
-:: :es as we ll.

5c:ene Selection Appearances. S<:ene:s. and Decals ?J


- Jdels have a scene assigned to)hem. Initially, the
~ '
=2 is assigned from the part or assembly template. + 0 Appearancos(color)

--==-ent scenes can be selected from t he Scenes folder "' It, Scenes
~ Basic Scenes
:.- e Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of the Task ..;. Stud1o Scenes
~ Presentation Scenes
-=~:. ~ Custom Scenes
+, . Decals
ere to Find It
~enu: Photo View 360, Edit Scene
=:.ender Tools Toolbar: Edit Scene ~
J isplayManager: View Scene, Lights, and Cameras,
-ight-click Scene
-ask Pane: Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab,
Kitchen Background
Scenes fo lder. double-click a scene
-:-ask Pane: Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab.
Scenes folder, drag a scene to the graphics area

Factory Background Office Space Background


232 Chapter 9

Appearances, Scenes, and Decals Tab


The Scenes folder of the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab provides numerous predefined scenes
The default folders are:

Basic Scenes
As the name implies, just the basic elements of a scene. There is a floor that can be used to shm.
shadows and reflections. plus a plain or gradient background and an environment for surface
reflections.
Studio Scenes
Studio scenes have more choices and can add additional elements to the image. Some of the see-:!\
use floors that have appearances attached rather than just the floor that looks like t he backgrm;-_
Presentation Scenes
Presentation scenes add either rooms or different image backgrounds to place the model in con;:::

Legacy
Legacy scenes are scenes that are still attached to the files from previous versions of SolidWor -
PhotoView 360.
Scenes and Lighting 233

- - Scene PropertyManager
.=es are edited using the Edit Scene PropertyManager. It consists of three tabs to cont rol image
~~ion, size, position, and illumination properties of the scene.

::..eS!: E~tn~tmM Jll ~t'lllm ~ I . moolB.!il ~


t: 3asic tab controls the choice of ...? x ~ ..? X It) ~ X !f)
- t;round and environment
~ (BaSi?( Adv<m<dl ~) ?(Ac!v~J dtrilalim L
:-.=ges. From this tab, the proximity
lladcgro<llld :::. floor Size/Rotation 1::~ j J?hotoV'IO.W IllumiDaticm :::.
: - e floor to the model and its [Image ~! LJ Fixed aspect ratio Ba~ound brightness:

: : tation can be controlled as h .ooo wfsrrn.-..2 ~


0 Autosize floor bun, I) 1jJ q 11 ! t, 1! fi''#~,~,.-4
~ 1

E as turning on shadows and .--- Bro-.-,..,


- .-..- -,] ,..., 1fldth Rendering brightness:
:. 0 Z647.91mm -~:
~"" ::rtions. L
wq ; j '1 111!!!) ~~~~~~~j
12.000 w/srmh2
iiiiiJ [!_ 111' 'l! it' 1 l}lhhnu;j
0~~0(~~~ Depth Scene r~flectivity:
-.=tanced 0 Keepbackr;l-ol.<ld [0 2647.9Imm 12000 wfsrm.-..2 >-$--
---= Advanced section controls the UJ.l 1J I I lJ I ! I 1 I I i H'iii''"' if;t~ l I !J P j I j !i 1I I ij J !jd.ijdfiiM
Environme.nt :::. Aspect ratio: LOO: 1
::=of the floor and the rotat ion of ~ C:lprogram Files\SolidWor Rota~on

-: environment and can be used to 8r0'.,\'Se . . Q odeg .


)-.,_}.:__~_-L_r---,.-- : .-.:::__!'.:._.
L__
=the scene file for reuse. .J

~- - ~
:=:nination 0 Floor reflec~ons
--::Illumination section controls I
[JJ Floor shadows
Align floor wi~1:
""E overall brightness of the (?J!xz ~!
I ~ C:lprogram Fies\Solidl'lor
=-~ered output from the offset

E
I Browse.... j
~''j':::~= l
~ 'omm- - ~:~
-onment. In addition, t he
s:'ltness of the background can I Save Scene... j _ J
:e :ontrolled to better match the -~

_s:-.tness of the model. The remaining control, Scene reflectivity, controls the reflection from the
- =::~1 environment.
--=units, w/srm/\2, are watts per steradian-meters squared. This represents the amount of light power
- :::ng a surface area.
Scene Library
S: idWorks catalogs scenes in folders just as it does with appearances. Several scene folders are
:,...::vided with SolidWorks, stored in files with t he extension * .p2s. The directory is located in t he
.~c.idWorks installation fol der ... \solidworks\ data\ graphics\Scenes.

_ser-defined Scene Archives


_-ser-defined scenes can be created to store complete scenes (background, environment, and di rect
51ts).
_:;t like cust om appearances t hey should be saved to a locat ion outside the SolidWorks installation
- -ectory.
234 Chapter 9

Case Study: Scenery


In this case study we will continue
with our computer monitor by
adding some scenery and adjusting
t he lighting. We want to place the
monitor in an office setting
created from a photograph.

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the Monitor assembly from the Chapt er 9\Case
Study\Monit or folder.
This is the assembly as far as we took it in Chapter 7.

2 Access scene PropertyManager.


In the DisplayManager, select View Scene, Lights, and Cameras, then
right-click Scene (Grill Lighting) and click Edit Scene.
t:;; ~ Scene (Gnll lighttng)
The PropertyManager will open and show the three tabs. ~ Background (Gradr.,...
@ Environm~nt (orange_
, .&l Lights
'.f' ~Camera
f. Walk-throug h
Preset Values
Just to get an idea of what is controlled by each of the predefined scenes, we will explore the diffF=
settings for this scene.
Scenes and Lighting 235

Select the Basic tab.


- ""E Basic tab has settings for the type of background, the file to be used as the ~ )( l<J
~ :m
-onment. and options to align and position the floor. Floor reflections and ~
2:ows can be turned on and off. With the Grill Lighting scene. we get a
~Background ~1
--~.ent background which goes from black on top to tan at the bottom.
Eiradient - 3
I Top gradient color:
--i: ::>ackground options will depend on the choice of background selected.
/ r r w
~ -. ~~ j ' Background
IBottom gradient color:

3]. pP j
;~

-
!Gra<ient _ __
, - T Top <}'c lient C<llor:
~
I :JJ Keep bad<ground
r-- - .
pP Browse... J ~
E.nvironme.nt _
~
1-::]
Bottom C}'alient C<llor: L.: Keep bad<grcx.nd ,9 C:lprog-am Files\Solidl'lork: 1

pP . i ~wse=-:J

~..:.... ____ U~P backgrcx.nd


- - -- - --J o~nd--3
-~~~ fFloor ___i1
[./JFloor reflections j

e widen the PropertyManager. we can see what the file used for the
[~ Floor shadows
A1<Jn floor ;,i1h:
I
~ ~]

-'f'r-;;;;; - - --- - - - .21


-onment is and where it is stored.
IFloor offset:_

C:
~t

Files\Solidl'/orl<s 2!) 13\SoidWO<l<s',:!ata~\textJxes'j)ackgcx.nd~onge_~ds.hdr


I Btowse... j
~

j
..
(,(! I)Jvn

,~ ,~~~::~=~~ij' I
~=

_)

~-
236 Chapter g

4 Select the Advanced tab.


The floor that shows shadows and reflections can be sized manually, or it can be
automatically sized based on the model dimensions.
~
As the primary lighting for Photo View 360 is from the environment image. that IF.loor S"tt.e/.Rotation
D fixed aspect ratio
image can be rotated through 360 degrees to properly position the light.
0 Au tosize floor
The scene file can be changed to something other than the current scene file and vv>dth

after making cha nges. the new scene can be saved as a custom scene.
a 2647.9!mm- - -

~~;-~~~~~~ j !HI"!W
Scene File
I[0 2647.9lmm

~ c:'program files\<olic:tllorks 2013\<olidworks\data'gaphics\<cenes\02 studio scenes\n gr~ lighting.p2s I fiiq;U{l': 'U I' t!U1']W'
Aspect ratio: 1.00 : 1
Browse... Rotation
~ ; Odeg
Sav~scene. j '-'-- -
_T_i_

Scene-Fde
-'?"' =:
[;l;) C:\program Files\Soli<t.'o<r

Browse...

Save Scene. . .

5 Select the Illumination tab.


There are on ly three controls for Illumination:
Background brightness: controls the brightness of the background in ~--~-

Photo View 360 only. Rea!View and OpenGL will not be affected. so you will IPbo toVJew Dlumination

only see the result in the previews or fi nal render. I aackground brightn~
0.900w/= A2
Rendering brightness: controls the amount of light coming fro m the HD RI iifHHPH!PCJU.J J! i **
I Render~ ~tness~
environment onto the model. It is like making the lights brighter. 1.500 w{srmA2

..
(jifi ff]JJ [UJJi {II I II fw
Scene reflectivity: controls the reflectivity of the HDRI environment. Its
11 .~e r~flectivity:
effect can be seen in the reflections on the model from the environment. ., 0 .500 w/S<mA2
OftuP ~.' 11 ft 1 1
_! bt'J ':
Scenes and Lighting 237

...:ghting
~otoView 360, the images applied to the environment are used to light the scene. This is indirect
~[nation because there are technically no lights in the environmental image. To use environmental
-~ .ng, we need two things:

,;;direct illumination
-:direct illumination takes light from the surfaces that surround the modeL This could be the
;:-vironment and the other elements of the scene itself. We will more fully explore indirect
Jmination in Chapter 14. The number of rays used to calculate the indirect illumination is controlled
.::-- the output quality settings.
Suitable environmental images
-";gh dynamic range images, or HDRI for short, contain addit ional brightness and cont rast information
:-at other image formats do not. These images are well suit ed to the task of lighting our scene .

.:ep Background
-en a color, image, or gradient backgro und is selected, the option Keep background is available.
:.;: ecting Keep background will maintain t he existing background when ot her scenes are selected.

~ere to Find It
4-opertyManager: Edit Scene, Basic tab. Background, select Keep background

Change the scene.


: ;:::r Keep background on the Basic tab of the Pro pertyManager.
~ _.:;:ate the scene Office Space Background fro m t he Presentation Scenes folder in the Task
=~-e. Drag the scene into t he graphics area to apply it to the current model.

=..:mine the tabs. We can see that t here are several changes.

: :k OK.
238 Chapter 9

7 Change the viewpoint.


Change the viewpoint to Dimetria and examine ::~

t he render preview. == 0
=~
While t his might be an accept able first
rendering, and with some adjust ment, we could
picture this monitor sitting on th e conference
table, we would like t o make some changes.

Notice that in the background image, there is a


window that is lighting t he t able behind the
monitor. At first, you might think of the
background as a flat image. However, if you look
in the Scene PropertyManager, the backgr ound
is using the environm ent al image which is a
sphere around the model. If you check t he file
that is being used for the environment , it is called conference_room_hdr.
If we were to open this image with software that could read HDR images, it would look like this:

This is a 360 x 180 degree image. You can see that there are three windows along one wall and tv.:
windows along the adjacent wall. The camera is in th e center of the conference table.
Scenes and Lighting 239

rtotate the environment.


.=:t the Advanced tab in the Edit Scene PropertyManager and change the Environment Rotat ion to
-. ~g. Repeat for 180 deg and 270 deg. As you rotate the environment, the background changes to a
-=-ent section of the image and the lighting on the monitor changes because it comes from the
-::mmental image. At 180 and 270 degrees, the windows in the image are behind us and cast more
~. on the front of the model. At 0 degrees, the windows are behind the monitor and the face of t he
---tor is in the shadow of the windows, so it is darker t han the other images.

s.

i\"0::;
240 Chapter 9

9 Take an office photo.


To add realism. we take a picture
of our office to use as a
background.
10 Edit the scene.
In the DisplayManager. right-
click the Scene icon and click
Edit Scene.

11 Change the background.


Select the Basic tab.
For background. select Image from the list and click Browse.

Locate and select t he image Office Photo.JPG in the Case Study\ Monitor folder for this chapc:
Click Open.

12 Adjust the model


position.
Because this is a scaled
background image, it does not
move on the screen as we move
our model. Adjust the viewpoint
so that the screen looks like the
image at right.
Once you have established the
view, save it as a Named View.
This makes it easy to return to
correct position if you
accidently move the model.
Scenes and Lighting 241

:=xamine the render preview.


~ :-re the rendered preview and we can see

:E::. problems:

- -.:= model is not as bright as the image above.


--=~e are no shadows on t he desk.
--=model in the previous step was brighter,
.: ::auld be seen on the top of the monitor
::::-: the top surfaces of the base.
mfix each of these problems in the
_uing steps.

--etch Image to Fit


-.: 1 odel of the monitor and the background image are two distinct entities, one is 30 and the other
~ - :J make them look like they are both in the same 30 scene, we must not only position them correctly,
- 2:so make sure we have a proper viewpoint and aspect ratio.
-~5es used as backgrounds may have different sizes and proportions, just like the graphics area used
~
~:!idWorks.ln earlier versions of SolidWorks, the image was always stretched or shrunk to make sure
t: t:iltire background of t he graphics area was covered. As the SolidWorks model did not change size
::Jsition as the graphics area changed, the relative position of the model to the background would
-~~ge as the graphics area was resized. To correct this, the option to stretch the backgrou nd image to
-:1e SolidWorks screen can be cleared so that the original proportions of t he background image, and
-e-efore the relative position of the model, are maintained.
ere to Find It
=>;-opertyManager: Edit Scene, Basic tab, Background, select Stretch image to fit SolidWorks window
242 Chapter 9

14 Adjust the model position.


In the Edit Scene PropertyManager. select Stretch image to fit SolidWorks window.
The complete background image is used once and is stretched to fit the view area. To see the effec:
click Restore f1 on the SolidWorks window so that it is not full screen. Adjust the width of the
SolidWorks window and observe the relationship between the monitor model and t he background. t.s.
you change the window width. the monitor model will stay in t he same position while t he backgrourc:
image stretches. This has the effect of changing the position of the model relative to the objects see"
in the background image.

In the Edit Scene PropertyManager. clear Stretch image to fit SolidWorks window.

Adjust the SolidWorks window again. This time the model will stay in the same relat ive position to-
background image.
Scenes and Lighting 243

- Adjust the output size.


---e second part of the alignment is the preview render. Its aspect ratio is set in the Photo View 360
:-::tons.

~ the Output Image Size to 1280 x 1024 (5:4) and observe the preview.
::eat for image sizes of 1024 x 768 (4:3) and 1280 x 720 (16:9).

-=1 ake sure that both the image and the graphics area are the same aspect ratio, we must either adjust
.: SolidWorks graphics area to the correct aspect ratio, or we can set the out put size to that of the
--c"Jhics area.
::-;e Photo View 360 Options, select Use background aspect ratio for the Output Image Size. This will
.....:....se the output image size and aspect ratio to match the SolidWorks graphics area.
244 Chapter 9

16 Rotate the environment.


One problem with our preview was t hat t he
monitor was too dark. The reason for this is that
all of the lighting is coming from the
environmental image. Even though we are using
the office background image, the environment is
still t he same conference room we started with.
Because the windows in the confe rence room
were behind the monitor (where the walls are in
our 20 image). we need to rotate t he image
180 degrees so that the windows are close to our
viewpoint.
Edit the scene and select the Advanced tab.
Change the Environment Rotation to 180 deg.
,:
The monitor is now much brighter, but t he
background has not changed because its
brightness is controlled separately.
17 Adjust model brightness.
Select the Illumination tab in t he Edit Scene
PropertyMa nager.
Observe the preview as you adjust the Rendering brightness. Reduce the Rendering brightness to
0.500 w/ srm/\2. Remember, this control is only controlling the amount of illumination fa lling on th:
model from the environment.

18 Adjust background brightness.


Experiment with the Background brightness to see how it only affects t he brightness of t he backgrc....:
image but not the model itself. Between t hese two adjustments. we can achieve t he correct bright~~
for the two elements so that t hey look like they are in the same scene.
Set the Background brightness to 1.600 w/srm/\2 and the Rendering brightness t o o.soo w/srrrf':.
Note Rendering brightness and Background brightness will be discussed in more depth in Chapt:-
Scenes and Lighting 245

Add a floor shadow and reflection.


_ look closely at the image used for the background, you will see t hat some of the elements in the
:: cast shadows. It is important that any shadows we create in the rendering environment match
I!5E shadows in both intensity and direction.

::-:ate a proper shadow under the monitor, we will need to have something fo r the shadow to fa ll on
-=background image is behind the model and not under it like it appears. Shadows created by the
-.:ilmental lights are generally not very well defined because the light source is a very large area. To
-=well-defined shadow, t he other element we will need will be a directional light.
-:-,-::::1e Floors
- :::aque or transparent floor can be placed under the model. The floor is t ransparent by default so
::- ::ny reflections or shadows appear to be on the underlying scene. If you add an appearance to the
:- it takes on t he visual properties of the applied appearance.
:~e to Find It
,::;...:lpertyManager: Edit Scene, Basic tab, select Floor reflections or Floor shadows
=:splayManager: Right-click Scene, select Floor Reflections or Floor Shadows

Turn on shadows and reflections.


:"1e View Scene, Lights, and Cameras tab of the DisplayManager, right-click Scene and select Floor
::aJow and Floor Reflection.
- -=shadow floor will give us a transparent surface t hat will show shadows. This is just what we need in
:: :ase because we don't actually want to see the floor of the room, but rather the background image
- ld it.

Examine the render


=:view.
--e preview render shows that
~ ~ow have a shadow that
'Ccears to be on t he desk (2), but
-::s little definition because of
""E ::>road area lighting from the
; -:lows in the environment.
246 Chapter 9

If we examine the front edge of the keyboard (4). we will see a well-defined shadow that looks like .:
comes from an overhead light. There is also a well-defined shadow behind the external hard drive (1 :
the left of the image. This shadow is probably from the camera flash.
On the right side of the desk is a weak shadow from something out of camera frame (5). This shadm
similar to the shadow behind the monitor. We can now see a reflection from t he monit or base on the :::-
of the desk.

22 Turn off reflections.


Examine the background image. The desk surface in the image does not show a reflection from the
keyboard, so having a reflection from our monitor would be inconsistent and should be removed.
On the View Scene, Lights, and Cameras t ab of the DisplayManager, right-click Scene and clear Flocr
Reflection.

Light Properties t - I
.'!U.
Lights have controls in both SolidWorks and -' X Ii)
PhotoView 360.
~ PhotoView l' -------1
The Basic tab controls the brightness, color, specularity, Photoview Controls ~ lf-:l!asic
;,:=- -- - --
[,!j On in PhotoView Ill an in Solidworks
and position of the light and whether the light is on or off
Brightness LJ Keep light when scene
in OpenGL and RealView. 1 wfsrm A2 .: d'1anges

The PhotoView t ab controls t he brightness, shadow


1 111 1111
"' ' '' ' ! tU1z!!trii D iteoklr..
'-6 Shadows ~ ,. Ambien t:
properties of the light, and whether the light is on or off Shadow softness: 0
j '
in Photo View 360.
0 0

O.OOdeg
j Brig1tness:
Slvldo-.v quz.ity:
After a light is added in SolidWorks, it can be set so that 0.6

it is on in either SolidWorks, Photo View 360, both. or L__


'" '
16
f [j l l f ! Ill If! I f'i$11"'
.
I SpeCU..nty:
- - '1-

neither.
As noted, the brightness of the light in SolidWorks
PhotoView 360
Properties l 1

~ Position -
0.4
0 :~ :r. '

(OpenGL and RealView) is set on t he Basic tab while the [,!) ock to model

brightness of the light in PhotoView 360 is set on the . (iJ) longolude:

Photo View tab. These brightness values are independent I ' lBOdeg
j
of each other. I0 latitude:
6 5cleg - - --..
Where to Find It
DisplayManager: Right-click the light, select Edit [light
typej Light SolidWorks
Properties
DisplayManager: Double-click the light
Scenes and Lighting 247

_ ght s can also be turned on or off by right-clicking t he light in the DisplayManager and selecting
: -=;)in SolidWorks or On( Off) in PhotoView.

Lights
::ositioning lights, the actua l position for each light can be shown by a light manipulator 3 . The
:;:_.ators can also be used to drag the light to a different position. The light positions can be t urned
::::-.::: :Jff by several means.

: ~o Find It
_s::.ayManager: Right-click the Lights folder, select Show Lights
E-'J: View. Lights

- :.rrn on a directional light. r~off in SolidWorks


:c J isp layManager. right-click the light Directionall and select On in I On in PhotoView -
__.View.
1
Edit Directional Light ...

IX I Edit All Lights...


Delete
- :rrn on the shadow. I df IShow Lights
--= J isplayManager, right-click the light Directionall and click Edit i \?' Add Directional Light

L ional Light. ~ Add Spotlight


'()' Add Point Light

2=: the PhotoView tab and select Shadows. Leave the Shadow softness at Collapse All
Expand All
~-"eg and Shadow quality at 16.
Customize Men u
OK.

Show lights.
-c:: JisplayManager, right-click the Lights folder and click Show Lights. This cont rol is a toggle t o
- :1e light manipulators on or off.
Zoom out.
E 2;1 now see the physical position of each of the two
? _.ionallights.
248 Chapter g

27 Examine the preview.


There is now a shadow under the monitor from the directional light; however, it is in the wrong locati=-
compared to the other shadows. It is also a little darker than the shadow under the keyboard and has ::
harder edge.

We will fix these problems in the following steps. To do t his we will:

Move the shadow by moving the position of the directional light.


Lighten the shadow by reducing the brightness of the directional light.
Soft en the shadow edge by changing the quality sett ings fo r t he shadow.

Lighting Coordinates
Spot and point lights can be positioned using Cart es ian or spherical coordinates. Directional lights
only be positioned using spherical coordinat es because they always point at the origin of the pa~ :;
assembly. The origin of the coord inate system is always the model origin. The direction of the axi5
depends on whether the scenery is locked to model or locked to view.
When a light is locked to the model, the principal directions are relative to the Front refere nce ~~
When a light is locked to view, t he principal directions are relative to the fa ce of our monitor.
Scenes and Lighting 249

J oning Lights
~ - : : sition of Directional, Spot, and Point lights can be adjusted by:
: :;.--
-erical input
:o::_5ging the light by its manipulator
~ep osition the directional light. Li!Jhtl'osition ~

e-= on the position of the shadow under the keyboard, the light needs to be [J, Lock tn model

~ longtlude:
-::arly overhead. ln t he DisplayManager, double-click DirectionalL This
-unleg
:sen the PropertyManager for t he light. 1- -
E. _s:-tt manipulator shows that the light is behind the monitor because its
e Latib..de=
- Jn is locked to the model and it is at -180 deg. With a Lat itude of 65 deg,
65deg
r -
1
_5"lt is 25 deg from being directly overhead.
::-.se the Longitude to o deg so that the light will be in front of the monitor and adjust the Latitude
.=:; deg to move the light directly over the monitor.

--.:
L 5--
-:.cr-
E 2. S

i'C= .- J
250 Chapter 9

29 Examine the preview.


Examine the two areas shown. If the light is in the correct position, the relationship between the edge
of the keyboard and its shadow should be the same as that of the monit or and its shadow. Because t-.=
shadow from t he keyboard is very close to the keyboard itself. t he position is harder to determine tr;o-
if they were further away like the monitor. In this case, we are dose enough that the shadow looks
correct.

30 Hide the lights.


In the DisplayManager. right-click the Lights folder and click Show Lights t o toggle them off.

Shadow Properties
There are two controls for the calculation of shadow quality and soft ness.
Shadow softness is set from 0 to 10 degrees and controls the size of the transition area from=
shadow t o no shadow.
Shadow quality controls the refinement or graininess of the shadow edges. Values can range f-:-
to 100.
These controls will be discussed further in Chapter 14.

31 Adjust the shadow quality.


Select the Photo View tab for light Directionall. The shadow under the keyboard is very well de=
so only a small amount of softness is needed. Set the Shadow softness to 1 deg.
Scenes and Lighting 251

:=xamine the preview.


A :;-;:dow is now positioned correctly and edges match the shadows in t he background image. We now
'""-:::; reduce the darkness of the shadow. To do this we will reduce the intensity of the direct iona l
_.:st in PhotoView 360.

Reduce the light brightness.


--: :xightness of the light is controlled in two places. For OpenGL and Real View it is on the Basic tab,
:x: ~or PhotoView 360 on the PhotoView tab of the light's PropertyManager.
-=.E:.:!ce the Brightness on the Photo View tab to 0.2 w/srm"2.

- C{ OK.

Examine the preview.


=::--ything is set except that the monitor face is too bright. To adjust this, we have t o remember where
:ight is coming from. Some of the light on the monitor comes from the directional light. Because we
""E
..sc::l this light to produce the shadow and adjusted it to make the shadow look correct, we do not want
=:I1ange it. That leaves the light from the environment.
~ s~ep 16, we rotated the environment to get the windows of the environmental image behind our
:=Npoint. To darken t he light on the monitor, we will reduce the light co nt ribution of the environment.
-- s will not affect the brightness of the background image because that is controlled separately.
252 Chapter 9

35 Edit the scene.


Open the Edit Scene PropertyManager and select the Illumination tab.
Reduce the Rendering brightness to 0.3 w/srmA2. Notice that this has no effect on t he background a-
shadow.

36 Create a final render.


With all the elements now in place, create a final rendering.
Scenes and Lighting 253

Review the image.


E made a decision early in the process to set the render size to that of the SolidWorks screen in orde r
K-:1--c _ 11aintain a consistent position of the model relative to the background image. One resu lt is that we
~c-. e an odd-sized image with too much background on the left side of the image.

=could have corrected this by adjusting the SolidWorks graphics area dimensions early in the process
....... : cropping the background image before we used it. With all t he available image editing software
_ 2ilable. it is easier to just crop the fina l image.

- 3 Save and close all files.


utput

Jpon successful completion of this chapter,


10 u will be able to:

Create rendered output.


Control preview rendering speed.
Render using co ntours.
Add bloom to rendered images.
Save rendered output to various file types.
Insert images in a brochure.
Insert images into a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Save Alpha channel information for post-processing.
256 Chapter 10

Output Design Intent


Determining the desired output for a PhotoView 360 rendering is very much like determining t he desig-
intent fo r the model you creat e. Whatever the output you create, it is created for some purpose.
Determining that purpose will guide you through the process.

Stages in the Process


The key stages in the rendering process for this chapter are given in the following list:
Determine the desired output
What are we trying to do? Create a sales brochure? A PowerPoint presentation? A graphic for a w?.::
page? Or just show someone sitting next to us what the final product will look like?
Determine the settings for best rendered output
When ready to create the final output. readjust the settings to maximize the quality consistent \', -
the other out put considerations.

Output Options
There is only one way to output a rendered image, and that is to an image fi le. Photo View 360 stor:-s
the last final render images internally and shows them in the Render Browser.
The quality and speed can be adjusted to provide a result suitable to your needs.

Preview Renderings
Previews to the computer screen are not the final output. We generally use the previews for two
reasons:
To visualize the effects of appearance and scenes. This is an intermediate step en route to the~
output.
To capture t he image with screen capture software for use in other programs. Many of the image::-
the intermediate steps in this book were made as screen captures from the preview images.

Methods to Increase Rendering Speed


To this point in this book, we created preview renderings of ou r images to t he screen through eithe--
integrated preview or preview window without consideration for speed or quality. We saw the effe-:-
of speed and quality in Chapter 4 as we changed the settings of both the preview and fi na l rende-
through the four possible settings of Good, Better, Best, and Maximum.
The other consideration is the number of pixels to be rendered.
To render fa ster, the basic rules are simple:
Reduce the number of pixels that have to be rendered
Reduce t he complexity of the image to be rendered
Reduce the quality of the rendering
Output 257

__.._.._._e the Number of Pixels to Render


,::"""E :Jf the methods include:

_o;;= a smaller graphics window.


=:- the integrated preview, the number of pixels to be rendered will depend on the active window size
= ::he monitor resolution. Typical screen resolution is 96 pixels per inch. Using a graphics window
-.:=the size of the original will reduce the number of pixels rendered by 75 percent.
=.: -the preview window, you can scale the window by dragging a corner.
-- alternative method for preview renderings is to use a split screen where one viewport is the
--:?grated preview and the other is in RealView. This allows the benefits of using the integrated
:-=view as a separate window wit hout the problem of the preview window being on top of the work
3'"2a.

::asy methods to reduce the graphics window size are to use the splitter bars to divide the screen or
Windows, Viewport, Two View- Vertical. Once the screen is split whichever viewport is selected
1hen you turn on the integrated preview will be the preview viewport.
Suppress parts.
Work on one part or section of an assembly at a time with all others suppressed.
258 Chapter 10

Reduce the Complexity of the Rendering


There are several options that will requ ire Photo View 360 to perform additional calculations to adc
realism. By reducing the quality of the output we can save time in the early renderings.
Use only basic lighting.
Until appearances are added and the scene is composed, additional lighting and lighting effects ca..:3"
additional calculations.
a Turn off shadows.
If you are using direct lights with shadows. turn the shadows off because they require additiona:
computations. The more lights. the more complex the shadows will be. Red uce shadow edge qua -
Change shadow edge quality to its lowest setting. This reduces the manner in which pixels are
rendered at the edge of the shadow.
Hide decals.
Decals are frequently comp lex images that have to be merged with their masks. Suppress decals L-
ready for the final rendering.

Disable caustics.
Direct caustics calculate t he effects of direct illumination where light from a source goes through :-
or more specular reflections or transmissions before hitting a diffuse object.
Reduce the Quality of the Rendering
There are two parts to quality, that which SolidWorks does and that which Photo View 360 must de
Lower SolidWorks image quality.
The rendered model uses the tessellation data from SolidWorks. Setting the Shaded and draft
quality HLR/HLV resolution in the SolidWorks options to a lower value redu ces the ca lculation : -

Use the Good setting for previews and test renderings.

Render Contours
Contours provide additional detail to the rendered model. They are useful in illustrations to show
additional detail, or by themselves as a line drawing.
The model contours can be rendered either with the model or by themselves. Contour lines can be
rendered in any color.

Where to Find It
Photo View 360 Opt ions: Contour Rendering
Output 259

:ase Study: Contours


--r micrometer will be used for an illustration in a manual.

::3

E -- -

2!C':

E?!~

~
....... - ocedure
Open the part.
:::en the part micrometer found in the Chapter 10\ Case Study folder.

--e viewpoint shou ld be Cameral.

I:>.:
260 Chapter 10

2 Render the model.


Look closely at the model in OpenGL, ReaiView, and the rendered image. Edges that should be smo::-
curves are squared off or faceted. PhotoView 360 uses the tessellation data from SolidWorks.
To improve the rendering quality, the image quality settings must be adjusted in SolidWorks.
Output 261

..:.njust image quality. ~and aaft quaity ft.R,H.v resokltion


low 1-i!tJ (slower)
~:lOis, Options.
__~he Document Properties tab.
:o:::s
Image Quality.
_ = the slider for Shaded and draft quality HLR/HLV
~ution

D
to the right just before the red section.
Shad.d and aatt~llity H.RJH.V r~tion
low
~ OK.

Devilltion: 0.0014751Sin
~ Op- edge length (ljgher quality, but slo'A'er}
. Apply to o~l referenced part doCllml!nl5
[JJ Save tessd!ltion ";1h part document

Rebuild the model.


:::.-:;ss Ctrl-Q to rebuild the model.
262 Chapter 10

5 Render the model.


Compare this image to the previous render ing. Edges are now much smoother.

Rendering time was slightly longer, but for f ina l output. Image Quality should be at Best or Maximu!4

6 Render only contours. {) Contour Rendering

6~
For some illustrat ions. only contours are required.

Click Photo View 360 Options ~


lne tt.daless:
Select the Contour Rendering. =2 !p t t1fl~ ;,.e.

Select Render Only With Contours. 1eat t.r>e Cola


Output 263

Change line color. Color


_ ant the contours to render white, on the same Basic cokn
-- ::>ackground as the previous rendering. r o
Edit Line Color. ---1
d}..contour Rendering
Final render only
~

c

=::::the white color: eighth column, sixth row.
. [] lal
c

:.'" OK.
line ttKkne-..s:
1
. r.ro
::..- OK to close the options. ~r rrrrrr
rrrrr rrr
[~ Custom Col~ ]

I OK ll Conce! l

Render the model.


:::-:~ours
are only rendered in the final rendering, so they will not be visible in the preview.
::now have only contours.

~
264 Chapter 10

9 Render both contours and the model. .il Contou ,:Rendering


FNl r<nder only
For some illustrations, the model is rendered with the contours overlaying the
geometry for effect.
Click PhotoView 360 Options ~-
~~
Line thickness:

- 2 :
USil [i_jfif i ( i1 it1. .
Select Render Contours and the Solid ModeL IEditline Color... :
Click OK.

10 Render the model. -=


The contours are too prominent in this rendering. To improve the rendering reduce the thickness of::-:::
contour lines.
Output 265

-_::just contour line width. '-d Contour Renderi:n; - ~


:lhotoView 360 Options ~ Final render only

- = the contour line thickness to 1 pixel. []~


Line tli3CneSs: l
J K. 1 >.

1Editlile Color . 1

::!lender the model.


~ ==tours are not as dominant in t he rende ring. They now highlight t he edges wit hout overpowering
- ,ness
- age.

3 Save the model.


Save the model but do not close it. The micrometer will be used in t he next case study.
266 Chapter 10

Case Study: Sales Brochure


Create a sales brochure for The Toy Barn.
The brochure could be created using a variety of publishing applications. For this case study we will r.s::
Microsoft Word because it is widely available and the procedures used are fa irly typical of those us?:
in most publishing programs. Our goal in this section is to explore the issues affecting the capture
resolution rather than creating a flashy product so we will keep it simple.

Toy Car
Ru <ltrtd 1t600dpj.
3..5 i=C,g Cy 2.5 i::1.~
I.az:.e. file ~:in -12 liB

Toy Tractor
Radn'M st ."HIO <fl!-i
5 .5 bd:.~ by25 i::.d:.e:o
Filn.in- J llB

Toy Fire En~Jne


Lo.s.safrtsol'D:tioB.
Rez.duedn
J!JJpixoth by7S ::?ixtll
Filt"~in:- 29 KB:
Output 267

edure
. use models of severa l toys. There are three different toy models for the purposes of rendering
-:-::del with different appea rances. In all three models, the appearances, scenes, and viewpoints are
:.0::
==-=! set. We wi ll render each t oy at a different resolution and compare the results.

Toy tractor model courtesy of Marko M. Markovic


Start Microsoft Word.
:: Start, All Programs, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word.

Open the brochure template.

~ The To! Barn I


D
-E"' the file The Toy Barn.docx found in the
--~ :;:~ter 10\ Case Study folder. This is a simple document,
E ::ed in Microsoft Word, with three boxes est ablished to hold
Toy('ar
1 ages of each toy. =~~~
e ,ill render one image of each toy.
L~L--'-->-----~--~-- '.)

To~.._.Tractor

DD
-""E ,'.Jord document has been created with text box placeholders ...,,.. .....
~::.~/=---
~ :-:e graphics. Each text box is 3.5 inches x 2.5 inches.
: If you are using Microsoft Word 2003 or 97. use the file - ---- -- ---- ----~-

-:::.: Toy Barn.doc. Toy FI..Moire E n2ine


ol,..oiMin

IOIJ pil.o:o O! ' ''~ '

"- -"0 ""''"""' -------------- "'

;;.._~ Many Pixels to Render


--:r :he highest quality output with the most efficient file size, we need to determine the correct size to
--:r-::er the image. As a general rule, do not scale up bitmap images. This causes loss of definition. images
-c: be scaled down, but the origina l file will be larger than necessary. The general rule is not t o scale
~e than 20 percent either up or down.
268 Chapter 10

Dpi versus Ppi


Dots per inch {dpi) and pixels per inch {pp i) are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are actuc.
different. Dots per inch are the number of dots printed per linear inch. Pixels per inch measures thE
resolution of an image projected on a display.

Calculating Correct Number of Pixels


Question: How do you calculate t he number of pixels to render for the fina l output?
Answer: Work backwards from the output.
For general reference:
Web images use a resolution of either 72 ppi or 96 ppi.
Newspapers use resolutions from 125 dpi to 170 dpi.
High-quality brochures and magazines use resolut ions from 200 dpi to 400 dpi. If you don't knov.:
the industry rule of thumb of 300 dpi.
For books. the range is generally from 175 dpi to 350 dpi.
If the output is a laser printer. use 200 dpi.
If the output will be an ink jet printer. 150 to 360 pixels per inch is generally high enough even if-
printer lists its resolution as 600 or 1200 dots per inch. Printers generally only have three colors, C':!:"
magenta. and yellow, with which to produce the millions of colors that can be rendered. They may -2
to place many ink dots to reproduce the color of a single rendered pixel.

Output Image Size Output Image Settlngs


When you render to a file, you select the number of pixels for the height and [ ~ DynMlic he~

width of the image. Photo View 360 has several predefined image size and
!
OoJtput im4Qe size:
!:
L800X600 (4:3)
aspect ratios for easy selection, but you can also choose to use the SolidWorks I 6 :soo
view from the graphics area or define your own size. iil:tJ:lljli!i f!!;J:: l =zJni-i.
_IIC!:II:li J : :

[0 600
~:o:p:m~
1.33: I
c " FIXod aspect rabo

llMge fcnnat

(I; ]
jl'fndowsBII'P
. DefaUti!Mge P<lth:
C:'j.Jsors\Ml'Pictu'e<
~... '
Output 269

:=e::: Ratio
~ : . onto setting the number of pixels. Photo View 360 has predefined size and 6'!0X360 (16:9)
6'10X'l80 (4:3)
~ -atios for the most common image and video formats. There are three 720X5'10 (4:3)
800)(600 (4:3)
__..e- -:ed aspect ratios that correspond t o standard monitors {4:3). wide screen
1024X763 (4:3)
1280X720 (16:9)
1280X1024 (5:4)
-:-s (16:9). and paper photography (5:4). 1920X1030 (16:9)
Use SolidWorks V!e\'1
~
:~oose to input a custom size. the rendered image is based on the height and
- ;clues you enter. The height is the controlling dimension which means that the height of the work
, will be rendered t o the size ent ered for height. The width will then be adjusted based on the
:!: the widt h dimension.
~-... e the Image
"=-st image we will render will be placed in t he middle box. It will be the toy tractor. rendered with
::-rect resolution for the output.

J pen the toy tractor assembly.


: : 3Works, open the assembly Toy Tractor found in the Chapter l 0 \ Case Study\ Toy Tractor

Set the viewpoint.


~_s the space bar and double-click the view Camera l.

Jetermine the number of pixels to render.


t: :::!aceholder boxin the brochure is 3.50 inches x 2.50 inches. We are going to render the images for
--r :1ochure at 300 ppi.
_ ::plying the size of the box by the desired dpi of 300 ppi gives 1050 x 750 pixels.

Set the output size. Outputlmage Settings ::::


: <Options on the Render Tools toolbar. D Dynamic help
J Output io'Mge size:

: ..,oa;- Fixed aspect


ratio and Use Background Aspect Ratio, t hen type 1050 for '1 ~- 3
--=Image width and 750 for the Image height. a .~~~I!~I !J i i!pl>l1f;j
[[J 750 -
-E ::ct Windows BMP for t he Image format. Hilt ! I tJfi)i i t])11;1rit
1.'10: 1
=-:- Final Render Quality, select Best . ~ Axed as:~ct ratio

, u.. ~cx.nd Aspect


! J Ratio
.e Setting the Image format to Windows BMP does not actually save the
Image format:
: -:de red image to that fo rmat. it only makes it t he defau lt setting whe n we save [wroowsBI.P =::J
-e image from the Final Render window. Default mage palh:
(;;;;] C:~s\limlpicbses
I Browse... J
270 Chapter 10

7 Render the assembly. ;.nsert tf


The assembly must be rendered before we -- .....
.... ""- -~
.... ;::::
can save the image file.

Click Final Render.

8 Save the image.


For good print copy, this image will be - := e.:: z--.e -=-c:
saved as a BMP fi le. This will result in a : =..x 5-:----:;--
la rge file but with excellent definition.

Click Save Image in the Final Render


window.

Set the Save in directory to the Chapter 10\ Case Study folder.

Windows BMP (*.BMP) should already be selected fo r the file type because we selected it in the
PhotoView options.

Name the file Toy Tractor.bmp. Click Save.

~ Save Image ~ ~!f.ng Up


@ Q 9jJ,. Chapter 9 ' Case Study T~~! Sear<h CoseStud\' .P I
Org >niZe T New f older j;: T (@
... - --- -------- .. ~ -- -----
..,.. Product V1 sualtzation_o ld ~
Nam e
.,~r ProductVisualization Ciean
..). Complete
Open the
.,;~~ Chapter 2
., Micrometer :::- ::o ~-e ~
_ Chapter4
Ji, Render Scheduler -""'be 3::-..:dy -
-' Chapter 5
_ Chapter6 J -A Toy Car
.....,:~ Toy Fnetruck
---
--= -Cr
j,: Chapter 7
~ Toy Tractor
- ChapterS .Jeten nim
- Chapter9
Case Study
..., Complete T
~ =--==-~=-.,_j '
Fifenam~ Toy Tractor T
Sove as type: ~s BMP (".BMP) Tl Set the oo
. Hid e Fofders: I Sa\ll!
lI Cancel
I
_ Options :::

--2!" fixed asp


~ OK
Output 271

Insert the image into the brochure.


::h to the Word document.
-. the middle text box. I ~ The Toy Barn I
_,the Insert menu, click Picture. Toy Cm
~MIH4rl!l
11b!HtylS&:bo
Ln::t ~m.- u ua
ill the Toy Tractor.brnp in the Chapter 10\
.::..sa Study fo lder and click Insert.
--
~-
~~ --~ ....
= The commands to insert a picture into a Word Toy Tractor
a....,.. .,)ot t,~
~~:nent

IlL
may beslightly different depending on the JUack'f1H~
Nt llltl~tl

:: :::m of Microsoft Word that you are using.


'

Toy Fire En~ ne


- - ~-.r
..........
~)( f ......-
l:l).&oi.I)!'"1 ):I.1
fi:utt. I'D

-~-- . - .

::C::ling Up
.e-.::ering to a small image size will result in a small image file size. lf the image is scaled up. however,
e-e isn't enough information in the file for a quality output.

Open the Toy Fire Engine.


::h to the SolidWorks application, and open the Toy Fire Engine from the Chapter 10\
:,.:s.o Study\ Toy Fire Engine folder. Like the Toy Tractor, this model is already set up for
=ering.
Determine number of pixels to render.
- e second example we will intentionally render to a file that is t oo small for our needs. The
a:eholder for t his image is the same size as for t he last image: 3.50 inches x 2.50 inches. We will render
iOO x 75 pixels and then scale up the image when we insert it into t he brochure.

Set the output size .


=< Options on the Render Tools toolbar.
~=- Fixed aspect ratio and then type 100 for the Image width and 75 for t he Image height.

=< OK.
272 Chapter 10

13 Render the assembly. :.:a: :1g Do,.T.


Click Final Render. :..::. 5 co..~:::
'P.?:s -e :::-::
We can see in the Final Render window that this
~:::ge- =s
is a very small file. :----;;:.-c ,...._,:or -
- -.s~ . . . _c...
14 Save the image.
- 5...-itch b.:
Click Save Image in the Final Render window.
Set the Save in directory to the ---= s ":; / -:::
Chapt e r 10\Case Study folder.
Select Windows BMP (*.BMP) for the Format.
C!lec:k the
Name the file Toy Fire Engine. bm p.

15 Insert the image into the brochure.


Switch back to the Word document. Set the ot
In the text box to the right of the caption Toy Fire Engine, insert the image Toy Fire Engine.bmp.
: = Options :::
-s -zge ,,
16 Scale the image.
- aspect
Scale the image to fit the image box.
Egewidth c-
Depending on the version of Microsoft you are using. the scaling procedure may be slightly differen:.
: .: OK.
Generally, you can either drag a corner of t he image or right-click on the image and select Size and
Position. This will allow a numerical input for the image size. ~ender
th
:-- Final Ren
When the image is scaled up, each pixel must be repeated for the printer to cover larger areas. The
resu lting degradation in print quality becomes readily apparent as the image is very blurry. Save the i
: ::: Save I~
5= -~e Save in
Toy Fire Engine
Loss of ruolurion 3e=:: Windo .
R<ndered as
100 pixels by 75 pixels
File siz.e - 29KB

- ' nsert the


: :::- 8c:c~ :::::
-e :ext b:::x
Output 273

3caling Down
....: .;,g down does not cause a loss of quality because t he image file will have more information t han it
-:c:;. The problem with scaling down is that the image file is larger than necessary. With t he large size
-:age files in general, routinely rendering too many pixels can easily exhaust t he space on your
-:-age media.

Switch back to SolidWorks.


- :::a11 swit ch to the last open program or document by 1xessing A!t+ Tab. You can cycle through open
-:ows by holding down t he Alt key and repeatedly pressing the Tab key.
~::~1 the Red_Toy Car assembly from the Chapter 10\Case Study\Red Toy Car fold er.

Check the preview render.


--s model should already be set up for
~::ering.

Set the output size.


__.-
- ---- - :.< Options on the Render Tools too!bar.
--3 image will be rendered fo r 600 dpi. Clear
~ aspect ratio and then type 2100 for the
-.cge width and 1500 fo r the Image height
- --
I - --=.~

~< OK.
x::::? a:-=

Render the assembly.


: :.< Final Render.
r::c=
Save the image.
:< Save Image in the Final Render window.
i=: ~he Save in directory to the Chapter 10\Case Study folder.
~;e :-::::t Windows BMP (*.BMP) for the Format.
.::-:e the file Toy Car.bmp.
: Insert the image into the brochure.
~ :ch back to the Word document.
:-e text box to the right of the caption Toy Car, insert the image Toy Car.bmp.
274 Chapter 10

23 Print. Screen Pre~


Click File, Print. ::e frequently
:~ a projectio
Select the local color printer and click OK.

24 Examine the printout. .eb pages a-e


~ ppi but COL
Notice that the 300 and 600 dpi images are the same quality. Going from 300 to 600 dpi quadrupled
the file size as there are four times more pixels to render. However, the extra file size and rendering timE .~onitorand
are usually not wort h the effort. The quality of image of the Toy Fire Engine model is unacceptable. Tr s = ou are gal..-
would have to be rendered again at t he correct resolution. =: owing are ~
.'GA - Vide:J
SVGA - S~.;p;

~ The Toy Barn


I(GA - Exte...,
5XGA - Su::>:
..)XGA - Ultr<
~XGA- Quae
Toy C ar :lSXGA - Q~
Ral.tdt600 4f;li
3 5i:c_'loa~~5 i:~
Ur:tfiluizt - U liB :s: of these :
--.e ,.idescree..,
- :-e- projectc-
.es:: XGA resn
TO)' TIacto1
Ra.c!t:red. t JCO lpi
35 !~.- ~~ ~y2 s i:.C'l.to
filr,.sizt - llm
- :::er. they a

T oy F ire En~ine
Lonofrael.U.u
Rft!trt4&J
lOJ~ '!ly .,5 ;.inh
Filtm.t- 2fEB

25 Close Microsoft Word.


Do not close SolidWorks as we will use the Toy Car in the next case study.
Output 275

Screen Presentations
2 frequently need to incorporate rendered output into web pages or presentat ions given with the aid
-~a projection syst em.

:~ pages are norma lly format ted for 72 or 96 pixels per inch. PowerPoint presentations are normally
!?3': -~
=c ppi but could also be 72. If you are not sure about the projection system, use 96 ppi.
&=n-:g "onitor and Projector Resolution
a:.~~
J .. ::Ju are going to use a computer monitor or projector, it is important to know its capabilit ies. The
"': ZJwing are the standar d r esolutions:

.'GA - Video Graphics Array. Resolution 640 x 480 pixels


SVGA - Super Video Graphics Array. Resolution 800 x 600 pixels
i...GA- Extended Graphics Array. Resolution 1024 x 768 pixels
SXGA- Super Extended Graphics Array. Resolution 1280 x 1024 pixels
...;XGA- Ultra Extended Graphics Array. Resolution 1600 x 1200 pixels
J.XGA - Quad eXtended Graphics Array. Resolut ion 2048 x 1536
~SXG A- Quad Super Extended Graphics Array. Resolution 2560 x 2048

est of these standards also have a widescreen version t hat starts with "W' As an example, WSXGA is
-= Nidescreen version of SXGA with a resolution of 1440 x goo.
: ==~ proj ectors are genera lly capable of SVGA resolution. Most current proj ectors are capable of at
==s: XGA resolution.

e:-y of t he lower resolut ions have disappeared from the capabilities of current comput er monitors;
- 2ver, t hey are now used in many handheld mobile devices.
276 Chapter 10

Case Study: PowerPoint


Adding gra phics to a PowerPointpresent ation can be very repetitive. so we will only create one sl :=.

Start PowerPoint.
Click Start, All Programs, Microsoft Office, Microsoft PowerPoint.

2 Open presentation.
Click File, Open. and select The Toy
Barn. ppt or The Toy Barn. pptx
depending on your version of PowerPoint.
The files are found in the
Chapter 10\ Case Study folder.

3 Determine the image size.


How big do we want the image to be? Click
View, Ruler. With the rulers visible, we can
see that the slide is 7.5 inches x 10 inches.
We want a reasonably big image to make
it easier to see, so we will make it
5.5 inches x 4.25 inches. This is very
subjective, so you may want to experiment with other sizes.
4 Render the image.
Switch to the SolidWorks application.
Change to the Red_Toy Car model.
Now all we have to do is render the image to a file at the correct size.
Set the render size in the PhotoView 360 Options.
Set the width to 528 pixels (5.5 inches x 96 ppi) and the height to 408 pixels (4.25 inches x 96 pp
5 Render the image.
Click Final Render.

6 Save the image.


Save the image as a BMP file.
Name the new file Lego Car-ppt.bmp. The approximate file size will be 841 KB.
Output 277

Insert picture into PowerPoint.


e ~- .tch to the PowerPoint application. On the Insert menu, select Picture.
=.-=.vse to the Chapter 10\Case Study folder and select Lego Car-ppt.bmp.
: :k Insert.

Position the image.


- -e image is already selected. Drag it to a position as shown below and resize it.
:.._ can add an image border and drop shadow if you desire.

View the slide.


: :..-< View, Slide Show. This makes the slide fill the entire screen. With only 96 pixels per inch resolution,
':.?_can see that this quality is good for viewing on a screen with a very small file size.

~~~fltl

L@flifftJ.
-~ 1!!/J~ ~~~
~
. ll'l!'

Exit the slide show.


=""...S Esc
........ on t he keyboard to end the slide show.
~2 PowerPoint open because we will use it again.
278 Chapter 10

Post-processing Images
Images are frequently post-processed. They may have their color pallet changed, be composited "" - - ....
_, I; _ ..

other images, have artwork or text added, or may be cropped, rotated, or mirrored. The point is that--.
rendered image may not be the final product, but rather just one element of the final product. Pos:-
processing of images will be discussed further in Chapter 16, Advanced Output.

Alpha Channels
Alpha channels are masks that allow part of an image to be transparent in much the same way as ~
masks we used to apply decals. By masking parts of our image, we can better composite different
images to create the final product.
The alpha channel is an 8-bit channel. which means it has 2S6levels of gray from 0 (black) to 2SS (w;---?
The level of gray in the alpha channel determines the level of transparency. For example, so percent 5?
allows for so percent transparency. TARGA and TIFF file formats support the alpha channel. In add::_
Portable Network Graphics (PNG), while it does not support the alpha channel, does support
transparency.
To save an image with alpha channel information, you must have either a plain or gradient backgrc_
or no background.
When the Photo View 360 output will be combined with other images in a high-end graphics prograr.
can save the rendering with alpha channel information. For example, if you want to use a high-end
graphics program such as Adobe PhotoShop to creat e composite images, you should choose a file
format that has alpha channel support for transparency. When Photo View 360 images are render~:.
the proper file fo rmat alpha channel information is captured and stored in the file automatically.
An alpha channel image can also be stored separately by changing the final output option in the F-
Render window.
Output 279

:ase Study: Alpha Channel


- s case study, we will create an image with an alpha channel so t hat when the Lego car image is
::ted into the PowerPoint slide, only the car and its shadow will show and the background will be
---- of the underlying slide.
-edure
Tu rn on shadow. rmuwwu ~
-=model of the Red_Toy Car, locat e the light Directionall in the View ~ )( !%)

~e. Lights, and Cameras tab of the DisplayManager. Right-click


~
- ..:"eCtionall and click Edit Directional Light.
~!
l!!ptoview Controls
.:Z On in PhotoV"oew
~:t t hePhoto View tab and then select Shadows. This will turn on the shadow I
i ang,~n=
" ..:st this one light. 1wfsrmA2 1:-
I
i
~ '!!11
1
uII 1[11 II I"'''"'" j
- . OK.
(21 Shadows ) ~
Shadow softne:!:s:
' O.OOdeg
~
Shadow QUOioty:

Examine the preview. ~ Red_Toy Car.SLDASM- Photoview 360 2011 spl.O


"F e is now a well-defined shadow from light PCI.:S:e
::....~tionall .
Render.
e- .::er the model using t he existing settings.
Save the image.
~ : the rendering as a TIFF image named
...eg::> Car-ppt. t if.

:: Make sure you save the file as Tagged


-~ge Format File TIFF (''.tif) and not one of the
3-: .t TIFF formats.
280 Chapter 10

5 Insert the image into PowerPoint.


Insert this image into the second slide and size it appropriately. Because the image was a TIF file
contains an alpha channel that makes the background transparent, the car opaque, and the shad!:
partially transparent.

If we were to open this TIFF image in Adobe PhotoShop, we would see that
the alpha channel is part of the image. -=
6 Save the alpha channel.
In SolidWorks, open the Final Render window if it is not open. If you closed
the Final Render window ,click Recall Last Render ~ on the Render Tools
toolbar.
Select Alpha Output from the list. Examine the image and we can see that the area of the car ~:::
which allows the car to be fully opaque. The background is black which means fully transparen~
shadow area is several shades of gray indicating various levels of transparency.
Output 281

Save Image and save the f ile as Lego Car Alpha Image.BMP.
=.xamine the image .
...:- : 11is new image in Microsof t Paint or any other image software. It wi ll look as it did above in the
- ={ender window.

age can now be used as a mask in image editing software, just like we used masks f or decals.

Layered Image
= alt ernative t o saving the image and alpha channel separat ely, you can save them both together
-!; Save Layered Image.

-=layered Image will save either one or two files depending on the file type chos en. If there is only
~ =e, the alpha channel is in the file, and if t here are two files, one cont ains t he f ull image and one
~ ...,s just the alpha channel information. There are only five file types available when saving layered
~5:
c:-
e=: _: :;-ed PSD [*psd]
-->fi le PNG Layers [*.pngl Layered Open EXR Half 16-bit [* .exrl
__:~-fi le PN G 16-bit Layers [* .pngl Layered Open EXR Float 32-bit [*.exrl
282 Chapter 10

8 Save layered image.


In SolidWorks. open the Final Render window if it is not open. If you closed the Final Render window c
Recall Last Render ~ on the Render Tools toolbar.
Click Save Layered Image.

Select Multi-file PNG Layers (*.png) for the file type and name the file Lego Car-layered. Save~
file to the Case Study folder.
Click Save.

9 Examine the resulting files. ~


Use Windows Explorer to locate the Case Study directory. There will be --
two new files:
Lego lege
Carlayered.Aiph Cor I~
Lego Car-layered.Final Color Output.png a Output.png Colr:r
Lego Car-layered.Alpha Out put.png 0~
Output 283

~e two fi les in Paint. We now have two separate PNG files that can be used in other image editing
-. ::re.

Save and close all files.

m
::c:11 is an effect used to add a glow around bright objects in an image. This effect is only calculated
-e final rendering and not in the preview.

2-e to Find It
:lflotoView 360 Options, Bloom
=inal Render Window, Bloom

--e-e are only two cont rols to bloom:


~

3loom Setpoint identifies t he level of brightness or emissiveness to which bloom effect is applied.
- , e smaller the percentage, the more items the effect is applied to. At 100 percent, bloom will not be
=:;Jplied to any item. The percentage is based on 100 percent being the hottest specular highlight
3loom Extent controls the distance from the item t hat the bloom radiates. The larger the distance,
:--:e more the effect.

: cedure
Open the part.
:::a1 the Bulb.sldprt from the Case Study folder. This is a basic light bulb that already has
.:r:-:earances applied.
284 Chapter 10

2 Render.
Render the model just to see the initial state
before we apply bloom.
The light bulb has a White LED appearance
applied to the glass. The LED appearance is
lighting the surface under the bulb.

3 Add bloom.
In the Image Processing tab of the Final Render window,
select Bloom. We wi ll use initial settings that might not be
appropriate for most renderings, but will better illustrate
the functions of the controls.
Set the Bloom Setpoint to 50 and Bloom Extent to 40.

4 Examine the image.


The Bloom Setpoint of 50 will set the threshold to
the midrange point. This means that anything with
a white level above 50 percent will have bloom
applied. The Bloom Extent of 40 will create a
large bloom area around the object.
Output 285

.;djust bloom.
,c-:ase the Bloom Setpoint to 0 and leave the
.::L... I Extent at 40.

-:ensity of the bloom is greater because all


: 1alues are now contributing to the bloom
~The distance from surface that the bloom
==s has not changed because the Bloom
~ ..a.t has not changed.

:: that it is not just the white part of t he bulb


- -as the bloom effe ct, but also the highlight
=:s ::~f the base of t he bulb and the tip.
Adjust bloom.
:::se the Bloom Setpoint to 100 and render.
- :ne setpoint at 100, t here are no white values
.e=.::er than the setpoint, so there is no bloom
~::.

.s s the same result we got when bloom was


--E::l off.
286 Chapter 10

7 Adjust bloom.
The previous values used for bloom were extremes just to help understand the controls.
For a more realistic rendering, set the Bloom Setpoint to 50 and Bloom Extent to 10.

Th is is more realistic than the rendering without bloom.

8 Save and close the file.


Output 287

~ Bloom
- .-can also be used to brighten an image and give it more impact. Examine the two images below.
" -age on t he left has no bloom and the image on the right does. By adding just a little bloom, the
:o: stands out a little more from t he background.
isplay States and
onfigurations

_: on successful completion of this chapter,


_.J will be able to:
--:ply appearances to part and assembly display states.
_se display states to show variat ions of a product.
_:;e configurations to create different rendering scenes.
':Jdify appearance properties.
290 Chapter 11

Rendering Using Display States and Configurations


In this chapter we will render both parts and assemblies with different display states and configu:
Appearances will be applied directly to assemblies. subassemblies and parts. and t o different--
states of both. Configurations will be used to establish different rendering environments such~
scenes and lighting.
There are different options available when dealing with assemblies as to where appearances s'--
applied and you must understand the appearance hierarchy discussed in Chapters.

Display States
Display states are the visual settings counterpart to configurat ions. Display states set the vis:=
color, texture. display mode, and t rans parency of components at bot h the part and assemb ly I!? _
display state is often associated with a specific configuration, but can also be independent of a:;:;
configuration.
You can create assembly display states by changing the visual properties in the assembly or IT
specifying t he display state of each component. Each instance of a component can use a diffe?
display state.
Creating Display States
To create a display state, right-click in any open area of the ConfigurationManager and click Add-
State.

Stored Display States


The display states are stored separately from the configurations
under t he Configuration Manager tab. Every configuration has at least
one display state. Display states can either be associated with a
specific configuration or be used with any configuration.

Configurations
Configurations allow you to represent more than one version of the
part or assembly in the same file.

Display States or Configurations?


Where do we apply appearances when there are severa l variations of
a product? The most common method is to apply appearances to
various display states so that they can be used with different configurations. Configurat ions a:
to show different physica l changes to the components or to set up different re ndering envirc--.
Display states offer the advantage of not having to rebuild t he model when you change betwee-:::.
stat es. With configurations, the model must be rebuilt when changing between configurations.\',~
be much slower.
Display States and Configurations 291

: Sl!ay States versus Configurations


~ ay states capt ure changes in t he appearance of components. Configurat ions create alternate
:;1s of assemblies by suppression, positioning. and differences in mate values.

:.:rnigurations Display States


>:::Jress/ Resolve components Hide/Show components
~-:rj)on ent positioning No equivalent
~ e::t part material properties Assembly-based appearances
.; :::t part configurations Select part display state
=~u iva l ent Display mode (HLR. Shade)
2::juiva lent Assembly-based transparency
::e- ~umeric values (mat es) No equivalent

=.ay Pane
sc:tings can be controlled and visualized through the ~ 10':~: ~ 1 MJ (j ~
.,...<f Pane of the FeatureManager design tree. Clicking ('if~ -- -- ")
~ Suppo<t_Frame (Pianks-~<D:splay state2 ~)
~E ::on in t he row with the component name brings up a
@] Sensors
-:::::change it. lt can change a component at any level of it) rn Annotations
::55embly. ~ Frcr1t Piane ~
~ TopP\aM <&
<& RiQht Plane <&
t Origin t
ll ~ (f) Support_Leg <1> (Lon~ ArmLOOQ Arm: ~ G) .LJ
.LJ
IB ~ 8race_Cross_8ar <1 > (Pia!nPia!n>_Displa ~ (;J
w '% Brcce_Corner <1> (DefaLk<<Defaub_Di>P' ~ ~ .LI
1, ~ Slwort_Leg <2> (Long fll mLoog Arm>-~ ~ ~ .LJ
00 ~ Brace_Corner <2> (Defa.l<<DefaUI:>_Dill! ~ GJ .LJ
1iJ ~ P~k <I> (6!ue 81ue>_DisplayState I>) '%13 .LJ
292 Chapter 11

The column options include:

Option Icon Description

Hide and Show A toggle t hat can be set to Hide or Show a


component.
Display Mode The display mode sets the display of the
individual component to:
Wireframe ~
a Hidden Lines Visible [ID
Hidden Lines Removed ~
Shaded With Edges ~
Shaded ~
i;j Default Display ~ (of the assembly)

Appearances Sets the color and appearance using


Appearances.

Transparency A toggle that turns component


Transparency on or off.

Tip Setting these visibility options can be done through the Display Pane, the Assembly toolbar, or b
clicking a component. Regardless of how the setting is created, it is shown in the Display Pane.

Display Pane Icons


The icons used in the Display Pane are used as both a visual display of the r Compo-g-
current state and as a method of changing the setting. Most are recognizable ~ appea;.,. ...
icons, but appearances are not. These options use one or two triangles to
represent, for example, the Part appearance (lower) and the Component
appearance (upper) or override. If the icons appear faded, the appearances are
\_Part
e, appea=--
owned by subassembly models.
. ~ Appec?
Tip If there is only a single (lower) triangle, the Part appearance is used as the ownec. _
subassa-
assembly appearance.
Display States and Configurations 293

:~es in the Process


.:: .r. ey stages in the rendering process for this chapter are given in the following list:
-: eate part and assembly display states.
~:e display states based on the different appea rances in the product line. The dimensions of each
,.... are the same in each configuration, only the appearances change .
....,;Jply appearance to part display states.
--:: at t he part level. Appearances applied at the assembly level will override part-level appearances.
~ ing appearances at the part level also keeps the appearance associated with t he part for use in
.:- assemblies.
-..:lply appearance to subassemblies.
: appearances that are unique to the entire subassembly.
-..:Jply appearance to top-level assembly.
: only appearances that affect the entire assembly because these override all a ppeara nces applied
':'lier levels .

. earance Hierarchy in an Assembly


'CE2rances can be assigned at either the part or the assembly level. Appearances assigned in an
-=bly override the appearance assigned in the part. Contrast this to how appearances applied to a
=:.verride the appearance applied to a feature. which in turn overrides the appearance applied to the
~o review the appearance hierarchy. see Hierarchy of Appearances on page 97.

_t:arances applied in an assembly can only be applied to the whole part. not t o features or faces.
294 Chapter 11

Case Study: Assembly Configurations-The Locking Pin


In this case study, we will add appearances t o different display st ates of parts and then use the-
assembly to show off a product line.

Model ~ourtesy of Fixtureworks Workholding Technologies

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Multiple Locking P ins from the Chapter ll \Case Study\ Locking ?
folder.
Display States and Configurations 295

Jpen a subassembly.
::me of the TACH-18-050 subassemblies.
- s case study, we are focusing on applying appearances to display states. Appearances have already
::;>plied to the spring clip, balls, shaft, and collar because the appearance will be the same in all
~ &-~rations.

_ ::ssembly will have three display states:


~2.ck Handle - Blue Button
::-ange Handle - Green Button
~:"iow Handle - Red Button

- ;:o:r names indicate, the differences between the display states will be the color of t he handle
..::...:3:-18-050-HATA-31 -Mach) and button {TACH-18-050_BUTA-18 ). We will add the
:e::ances at the part level.

Jpen the part.


f: :he handle part TACH-18-050-HATA-31 -Mach in its own window.

=.xamine the part.


""-= is only the default configuration and display state.

;dd a display state.


....--::lick the default display state and click Add Display State. J l :J
c.-.e this display state to Black. @5 <Default>_Display State l

[ J lhk Display States to Configurations

.-.dd appearance to the part. r Display States


o J:hisdisplaystate ......._ _
- ~
s and hold the Alt key and double-click the appearance PW-MTll 0 l 0 AI display states
~ ::,e Plastic, Textured folder. ~fy &spay state

g ... -~ =>ropertyManager under Display States, make sure that This display
~O- -J
l- .~
_z..: .s se lected because only this display state will be black.
Ill -=- ,
OK.
296 Chapter 11

7 Add appearance to the text.


Select the three faces that fo rm the tops of the letters.
Press and hold t he Alt key and double-dick the --:--==
appearance chromium plate.

In t he PropertyManager. select All display states because we want t he letters Display st>Jtes

to have the chrome appearance regardless of the color of the plastic. <,!
Ills display staU,
~display states .............._ _
~display staU,
Click OK.
l[i-11 ~
8 Examine the DisplayManager. ~ ... - : --
The PW-MTllOlO plastic is attached to the part and the chromium Sort order. !LHi_tsto....!
ry_ _

plate is attached to the three faces. -' ~ PW Ml11010


. % TACH-18.050JiAT~
a ~ chromtum plate
0 Face
[ ] Face<2>
D Face<3>

9 Add a display state.


Right-dick in t he Display States editor and click Add Display State.
Rename the new display state to Orange.
10 Add appearance.
Press and hold the Alt key and double-dick the appearance PW-MTllOlO from the Plastic,
Textured folder.
In the PropertyManager under Display States, make sure t hat This display state is selected becaLs:
only this display state will be orange.
Display States and Configurations 297

Change color. Color


_-c_-:ge the color to orange. Double-click the Basiccoloor
..;2nt color in the PropertyManager. o r 1:1 o r ro
r oou
: -< Define Custom Colors.
o
a
1
: -c-:ge the color t o Red: 232, Green: 113, Blue: 8 .
::-< OK to close the Color Editor and OK again c r r
' Cuslom colors
::::.ply the appearance.
orrrr r rr
rrrrrrrr

I
~.noow<tom(;ol.:.rs

I OK II Cancel I

Add a Yellow display state.


.=.::eat the above procedure to apply the PW-MTllOlO appearance to t his configurat ion only and
-.c-ge the color to yellow with the following settings: Red: 192, Green: 192, Blue: 0.
Examine the DisplayManager.
=::h the OisplayManager as you change between the four display states. Only the appearances used
:..e active display state will be shown.

~ ~ry 3 [ffiStory ~] IHistol}' ~ [Htstol}' ~]

_r.'t~pt~, St.stt' 1

::e::
298 Chapter 11

14 Check the model.


Check your work using the preview window or integrated preview. a.:-

---
....':' ___.__

15 Open the button part.


Open the button part TACH- 18-050~BUTA-18 in its own window.
16 Add appearances.
Using the same procedure we used for the handle, apply blue, green, and red high gloss plastic tot-=
appropriate display state. The steps were:
1. Make the appropriate display state active.
2. Press and hold the Alt key while double-clicking the appearance.
3. Select This display state.
4. Click OK.
17 Check your work.
We could check our work with a preview test render at this point to check our work. but with eithe-
RealView or OpenGL, we can see that the appropriate appearance is attached to each display sta;::
Display States and Configurations 299

Return to the assembly.


,;. e the locking pin assembly TACH-1 8-050 window active.
::ate three new display states called:
3:.a.ck Handle - Blue Button
-:::-ellow Handle - Red Button
::2ange Handle - Green Button
Match display states. Co mpon<nt Properties
'2.e the Orange Handle - Green Generol properties
_=:.on display state act ive. Component Name: :li-18-()SO_BUTA-18_& tnstance ld: 1 FtJ1 Name : TACH-18-()SO_BUTI

component Rererence:
-;: Feature Manager design tree, click Co<rc>onent Desa1>tion: TACH-18-()SO_BUTA-18_&
- ght-click the button part (TACH- Model Doa.ment Path: C:\SoidWorks Step-by-Step Gtides'frociJct VtSUalzation<lean~ter
::-050_BUTA-l8) and click (~>lease use Fie/Replace amnand to replace model of lh< compon<nt(s))
- - ponent Properties ~ Display State specific properties
[ ]tid< Component
E E:t Green for the Referenced Rt~enced Display State

~
-.o:tlay State.
Red" - - - - --
:. OK.
Chanoe dsplay properties n : IThis display state-=::J
rtepeat. Configu-ation specific properties
Referenced configuration SUppressk>n state
2:2at this procedure to make the SUppressed
Default

_I
::-.::W.ge display state active for the ~ Rosolved
li!,tltwe;gl1t
::-::.e part (TACH - l 8 -050_HATA-
- --~ach). !:ave as
->R9<1
F:e~
Repeat.
: ] ExWde from bil
.:::at t he above procedure for the Chanoe properties in: of11111terials

- ::--:".{ Handle - Blue Button and the


~ Ccancd] ~
-.:Jw Handle - Red Button display
~= s.

;: -.ow have four display st ates for t he TACH-18-050 assembly, the three we created plus t he
~ -:al Default display state which uses the default color appearance on t he handle and button.
300 Chapter 11

22 Test.
Double-click each display state in turn and you should have the results like the images shown bel:;
Notice that the appearances change almost instantaneously because there is no need to rebuild:-:::
assembly.

23 Perform the final assembly.


Make the window with the Multiple Locking Pins assembly the active window.
There are t hree instances of the TACH-18-050 assembly in this assembly. All t hree instances arE_
the same Default display state of TACH-18-050 .
Use the same procedure as above to change the active display state fo r each of the instances t::
different display states so that each instance is different.
Display States and Configurations 301

Render the model.


--sis our final rendering showing all three of our product configurations in t he same assembly.
302 Chapter 11

Case Study: Watches


In this case study. we will use a watch t hat already has t wo display st ates and set up two differe;-
rende ring environments. The two environments will be used so that the images can be used for diffr-
purposes s uch as an advertising campaign or for a product catalog.

While the display states control t he appearance of t he watch itself. configurations will be used to
t he other settings needed for the different renderings.

Procedure
1 Open the watch assembly.
Open the file Watch Assembly. sldasm from the Chapter ll \ Case Study\ Watch folder.

2 Examine the assembly.


This assembly already has appearances applied. There are two display st ates to show the watch v
gold fi nish and a silver finish. The display states are not linked to configurations.

Watch model provided and used by permission of Ed Hawkins. lnnova Systems. Cambridge. UK
Display States and Configurations 303

.-::----::- - - .
Add a camera. *

~
Camera Type '- Camera Position ~

::;;;: a camera and rename it Product Shot. G. Ained at target ! [_] Position by ~oction;
Aoaling l IArc l@Sketrn 2
::. _st the camera location and settings as shown. ./] Show nuneric controls ! Spherical
./ Led< comero position except Cartesian
J v.ren eating

~Target Point ~

l JTorget by selection:
<;Ode<;j
J.
-
IPolnttC>Qrigi'o
Q sodeg
~ -25nvn
. : l__
,-
Cameret Rotation
)--

~
~l -7()lvn ---~:..
tjN !l!Jf! jj! I I lt d1:til'' S<!t rol by selection:

~ 22mm t: .
l
I J , , , I II ' I I !! I I! ' 1 J;:ttl.ai i ~ ll~g

~
Foeld of View ~

[./j Perspecti: I~ Depth of field ~


f
~
r-: e---~. r--d-rf1
. a lr. ~ ill
I ...

ln Angl~ l !'l] FoaJs by selection:


9 30.5'1deg . j Edge < l >@Watrn Body~
2 As camera positions are very subjective. you can 1 ~so
1
=-the settings as desired. e r l'l!Tvn .
, 3i I! I !J l [ _l!_! i , i?'cuut
/r. SOSmm
I!Jt t i!I J( li J !tJf,T:f1ijnf

Aspect ra bo (v.'!dth : heqlt):


4: 3

1
~ Drag Aspect Ratio
304 Chapter 11

4 Add a second camera.


Add another camera and name it Catalog Shot.
Use the settings shown at right.

@ 7deg
Target b y election:
J --
Q ' 6 2deg

Camera RotatiQn
1
wt-r ~uu80nvn
il 11 II J II 11 II I
~:-
ifMfisaC Set rol by selection:

\i;) z 56mm
~ L........ _ _ _ _ _, .

~
I .I
rn1tDJTIJT( I I II iJaf n wf ~ -l6deg
1
. = 1'
~~========-
T

ReldofV'oew
.Perspective rc Depth of F>eld

~1
8 16.tdeg I I
We now have two display states and two cameras. J......c-- d 328.'l8nvn

h n;;;;;- --- >:


CJ! tf!! t! It Iii 1l !JVI"II'
Aspect rotio (VIidth : height):
11: s.s

I
....~ Drag Aspect Ratio

5 Create configurations.
Create a second configuration and name it Product Shot.
Rename the Default configuration to Catalog Shot.
As the assembly model is the same in bot h configurations. we want to be able to use both display sta:~
with either configuration. Make sure that Link Display States to Configuration is cleared.

6 Set the scene and lighting.


Make the configuration Product Shot active.
Press and hold t he Alt key and drag the scene 3 Poin t Beige into the graphics area from the Task Pc:~
Under Configurations, select Specify configurations and select Product Shot.

Click OK.
Note We could also have selected This configuration.
Display States and Configurations 305

Change configurations.
2-:e the configurat ion Cat alog Sh ot active.
-e DisplayManager, right-click Scene and click Edit Scene.
-=:r Configurations, select Specify configurations and select Catalog Shot.

lt is a good idea to specify t he configuration before making any changes. If you make a change to the
:c:re first. it is an easy mistake to click OK before you specify the configuration. Doing so can undo your
~~ se ttings.

Change the background.


:-c..,ge the scene to Grey with Overhead Light.
~ :ct Gradient for t he Background. Make the top
~
= dark gray and t he bottom color a med ium gray.
::1

: : =-< OK.

Cu:ltomct>lors

r oc
r rrrrr
I Define Cu:ltom Colors. j
I OK II ~ I

51!: ,::
306 Chapter 11

9 Preview renderings.
Check each of the four setups we have created to see that they are close to the desired result.

Product Shot- Gold

Fine-Tuning
While these renderings are pretty good, they could be better. While default settings will give you a ~
result. fine-tuning can make the rendered images even better. What is still needed is to adjust the see-
and lighting for bett er results. Before applying adjustments, we need to evaluate each image.
Display States and Configurations 307

~.age Evaluation
:!'5....- ~:c1 image should be evaluated to det ermine if there are elements that do not look right and how it can
- ....,proved. Some things that do not look right at this point are:
:atalog Shot
The top of the watch is too dark because the outer ring is dark and does not stand out.
The shadow on t he background makes t he watch look like it is upside down.
There are dark shadows between the wat ch body and the band.
:>roduct Shot
The shadow under the watch does not meet the band in the back as if the watch is not resting on
the floor.
A floor reflection would make the watch look like it were resting on a shiny surface.
The light on the watchband next to t he watch body is t oo strong.

-..:justments
--= exact effect of each setting and the relationships between settings cannot be taught in any
::::sonable amount of time. It takes practice and experimentation to be able to quickly fine-t une t he
...c:-:~:ings. Understanding this cause and effect relationship is key to creating top quality rendered
-~ge s.

:: e:ommended settings are provided in the fo llowing steps but you should also experiment with the
:c:tings to see the result of each adjustment.

: Edit the lighting.


=.:::h configuration can have different light settings, both in the scene light ing and the direct lights.

--e direct lights can be used to add specular highlights to the model.
~<e the Product Shot configuration active and change the view to t he Product Shot camera.
=.:.t t he 3 Point Beige scene and select the Basic tab.

F-
Y.i :: 15
. ;-:-..:X:_ S:~ect both Floor reflections and Floor shadows. This will give the model the
3::3earance of sitting on a surface.
rr
- [.lj Aoor refledions
['J] Floor shadows
R

Alogn floor >\1th:


-_- Align floor with, select Selected Plane and select PLANE4 from the
I(1J[i'.lected Plane =---:J
=e::tureManager design tree. Because the model is oriented based on the model
~:om etry, PLANE4 was created tangent to edges that the watch wou ld rest on
IPlM4 I
Floor offset:
= t were on a table. Floor offset should be o mm so that the model rests on the (,. I~ -~:-
L:!Jm, !] I J l!! It I I 11 t<lil'ttPiJ
-:or.
308 Chapter 11

Select the Advanced tab. The floor is aut osized so the width and depth cannot be f Floor Sizec/Rotal:ioo
changed. Rotat e the environment to 72 deg. This will move the environment al i [j Axed aspect"*
!l] Autoske floor
lights around the model to create better highlights.
Widtll
,..., ~

0 446.881mm
lliit1J]!j!!J ':' ---::zw
Depth
[0 +l6.881mm
ltJtttljfJ I! ill -
Aspect ratio: 1.00
Rotation
~ il<l"9
--
1~

Environment Rota De.

72deg
. j . '

Select the Illumination tab. Set the Background brightness to 0.9 w/srmA2, PhotoView Illumina~

Rendering brightness to 0.8 w/srmA2, and t he Scene reflectivity t o 1.0 w/srmA2_ Bod<grO!Nld brightness:
ro:-90ow/srmA2-
Again, t hese settings are very subjective and you should experiment with each
one in turn to see t he effect on the rendered output

Click OK.

11 Edit the lighting.


To add an additional specular highlight, we will use the directional light from t he
scene. In t he DisplayManager, select View Scene, Lights, and Cameras.

Right-dick Dir ect ionall and click Edit Directional Light. Select t he Photo View bPhotoview Controls
tab. ~ ~ On i1 PholoVI<!W
Brightness

Select On In PhotoView so this light is used in the rendering and adjust the
L j:-~'~7~~ II'' '
Brightness to 1 wfsrmA2_
jk\ shad.ows
IShadow softness:
Select Shadows to allow this direct ional light to cast shadows in the rendering. 0
2.00deg
Adjust the Shadow softness to 2.0deg and Shadow quality to 16. . - j..'
IShadow quality:
'i6 .
Click OK.

12 Check your work.


Examine a preview render to make sure the model looks the way you like. If not, continue to adjt:~
you see fit

Remember t hat all of these sett ings have only affected the Produ ct Shot configurat ion. We will ~=
the Cat alog Sh ot configuration separately.
Display States and Configurations 309

Change configurations.
!C e the Catalog Shot configuration active and change the view to the Catalog Shot camera.

Edit the lighting.


::-.:.~ :he Grey with Overhead Light scene and select the Basic tab.

: '==- both Floor reflections and Floor shadows. Without the f loor reflection and
Aoorr~~
-.=:ows. the model will appear to float in space.
~ Floor shadcw.'S
Aig1 floor "fth:
-::- Align floor with, select XY.
(?JE - :J
Floor offset:
~ lmn ;
I ,, " I I I II I II 1 I ' I I t1 ,,,,..

:t the Advanced tab. Floor SiZe/Rotation A


r:J Fixed aspect ratio
- -e =toor is autosized so the width and de pth cannot be changed. [{] Autosize floor

IYtdth
-:::::e the environment to 183deg. a 4%.S3!mm
iR,J I \"f fn:fJ!I!IT!l..:f?jll.

Depth
ro 416.sa 1mm ~ :
!Jill t r f[lJTIIT1Tt '11!10'1 I

Aspect ratio: 1.00 : I

Rotaban

lQ ~
~ EA~nment Rotation
I l83deg
. Ai
I
.1- -

-.c : :t the Illumination tab. RhotoVteW Jllumina tion *


BadqO<Xld brigltnoss:
::!'t :he Background brightness to 1.0 wfsrm"'2. Rendering brightness to ; 1.000 wfs'm"l ~;
19::f t (l l I! JjJ i! J I I I! lj :t-'.'!IJiN
.::. H/ srm"'2, and the Scene reflectivity to 1.7 w/srm"'2. These settings are very rRondemg brig1tneso:
........... ... .....
..:::. ective, and you should experiment with each one in turn to see the effect on LOOO wfsrm"2 t:
ilUJ ' I i_j! ! I ! I l ' j J 1tI l_!rlpIMI.
-e -endered output. Scene reflectivity:
!. 700 w/s'm " 2 ,.;
- ::.- OK. unJ 11.0 11r 1J1 111 1 11 1tiiJi1"

: -:s:

3::
310 Chapter 11

15 Add a directional light. ' : .-


In the OisplayManager. select View Scene, Lights, and Cameras.

Right-click Directionall and click Edit Directional Light ~


Select the PhotoView tab.
!
Photoview Conbols
[./]On in Pho!DI'lew
l!<igltness
Select On In PhotoView so this light is used in t he rendering and adjust the
Brightness to 1 w/srm/\2.
GtJ. Shadowl;
Select Shadows to allow this directional light to cast shadows in t he rendering. Shadow softness:
Adjust the Shadow softness to 2.0deg and Shadow quality to 16. 2.00deg
I J
Shadow quality:
Click OK.
16
L_ _ _

16 Change PhotoView 360 Options. Cd Bioom


AMI render orly
Photo View 360 Options are global. which means that they are not file-or
Bloom setpoot:
configuration-specific.

Select Bloom and set the Bloom setpoint to 80 and the Bloom extent to 4-
Display States and Configurations 311

- View the final result.


=can now quickly change between the two watch finishes, camera views, and rendering environment.
--,=e are eight possible renderings that we could do by different comb inations of configuration,
-=-;era, and display state; however, we are only interested in four.

Product Shot - Go ld

Product Shot - Silver

_ Close all open files.


~Reflective
and Transparent
Appearances

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand how reflections and refractions are rendered.
Understand how the environment is used with reflections.
Control t he number of reflect ions and refract ions.
314 Chapter 12

Reflections
To create a scene with reflective surfaces requires a bit more than just applying an appearance ;,
reflective properties. The basic principle is that you know a surface is reflective only if you ca n s2=
reflection in it. In other words, we need some other object s in the scene or a backdro p.
A second problem is that in a software rendering environment, there is nothing behind the vi ewe- -
reflect. If we made a flat plate reflective and looked normal to it, we would have a mirror. In a ren::?
environment, we can't see ourselves in the mirror, because we aren't part of the rendering space.
SolidWorks and Photo View 360 solve this problem wit h the addition of environments. These ares.:::.
elements that can complete ly enclose the rendering space. Environments were discussed in Cha:=:
As discussed, environments are spherical. There are two primary things we use the environments
One is to add environmental {image-based) lighting and the other is to provide the world arounc :x.
model for reflect ions.

Environments
Environments establish a virtual surface to apply an image. The environment is always large e nc_~
surround the model. We apply a single image to t he entire environment that can be seen in t he ref..:==-
surfaces of our model. Just like appearances where every surface has an appearance assigned, r.:.-
are never without a scene.
Image Requirements
The spherical environment is designed to use 360 degree x 180 degree panoramic images. We cc.~
control t he mapping of t he image, so the image must tile seamlessly. Images should be created c.- :o
level as the camera position will fall on the equator of t he environmental sphere.
Most environment images are High Dynamic Range {HDR), which give us a lot of capability for ir.~
based lighting.

Where to Find It
Menu: PhotoView 360, Edit Scene, Basic tab
Render Tools Toolbar: Edit Scene ~
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 315

:ase Study: Environments


C:= -:- is case study we will use just a simple sphere to view the --- .............
~o nme n t. /

-"'dure
Open the Chrome Sphere part.
~,s :Jart has the appearance chromium plate applied. This
--::arance acts as a mirror. The scene is Plain White which
cs the Kitch en image as an environment.

Examine the model.


-_, off RealView.

=- ":'1 though this is a highly reflective surface, it just appears


::..._ gray in OpenGL because reflections are not supported in
: ::enGL.

Turn on RealView.

----,
Change the environment. Environment ~

:=::t the scene and select the Basic tab. ~ C: 'Pr09"am Files\SolidWO<ks 2011\SoidWorks\Pata\jmages\textures\background\'<itdlen.hdr

_-:der Environment we can see the image Browse~

..sed, which is Kitchen.hdr. We will change


- s to a different image.
316 Chapter 12

5 Open the environment image.


Using any available image viewing program, open the image PhotoStudio.jpg found in the
Chapter 12\Case St udy folder.

This is a 360 degree panoramic photo of a photographer's studio. lt is similar to a Mercat or projec:
in that there is increased distortion as we get near the top and bottom of the image.

Note Th is is a very large image file. It is 4800 x 2400 pixe ls and 7.2 MB.

6 Close the image file.

7 Use a different image file.


Under Environment, click Browse.

Locate and select t he image PhotoStudio.jpg found in the Chapter 12\ Case St udy folder.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 317

=.xamine the image.


.:: 1 age is viewed in the Isometric view which positions us
'2 are looking down on the sphere.

~:ning the Front, Right, Back, and Left views gives us


-;~p ress ion of having t he sphere in the center of the room
-::: ualking around it. You will see the walls behind you
=:ted in the surface.
318 Chapter 12

The Bottom view gives us a fish-eye view of the ent ire room.
Note With this method of using the spherical environment, we
had no mapping controls over the image other than being able
to rotate it about the ce ntral axis as we did in the Monitor case
study. All other control is with the original image.

9 Select a predefined environment. Appe<!ran<:es, Scenes, and Deal< .1

Each predefined scene has an environment in its definition.


[, .., Apparncos(color}
ln the Task Pane, select the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals t ab and then <:: ~Scenes
expand the Scenes folder. Q Basic Scnes
~ Stud io Scenes
q
Presentation Scenes
Select Basic Scenes and then press and hold Alt while dragging ~ Custo m Scenes
Courtyard into the graphics area. ['!' ~ Decal5

Courtyard
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 319

-=xamine the model.


.E :an see that the background looks like a gradient
~=. but the reflections from the environment are
::::'the image used for the environment

E ::~pened
the two images shown in the
Front View
= E-tyManager we would see the fo llowing:

Courtyard Daytime

[hange the scenery.


-.;; Task Pane, select the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab and then expand the Scenes folder.
.:-:: Presentation Scenes and hold f!Sa;ckg.round
... 1ile dragging Courtyard
::::-.ground into the graphics area. fnv'ironment ~

~ C:'frog<omFi!es\Solid\'lorks 2011\Solid"Works\datajmages\text.Jres\jJad<ground\daytime.hdr
a-me the Basic t ab. With presentation ror.:se..
.::es, the Background is set to use the
: -:::ilment image.
320 Chapter 12

12 Examine the model.


Now the reflections from the environment match the
background scene.

13 Close the file.


Reflective and Transparent Appearances 321

2se Study: Kitchen Scene


- 5case study we will examine reflections and refraction from both the environment and other
e:ts within the scene.
;-z~ine the image below. There are many reflections in t his scene that come either from other objects
- e scene, or the environment. If we look closely at the toaster and coffee pot, we can see reflect ions
:-the environmental image which makes us believe there is a room behind us. We also see the
.:::tions of the coffee cups, glasses, plate, and bagel.
-= :::ountertop shows double reflections from the environmental lights to the coffee pot and toaster
- e counterto p itself.
322 Chapter 12

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the Kitchen assembly found in the
Chapter 1 2\Case Stu dy\Kit chen folder.

The individual parts have been put into an assembly that


has a countertop t hat we will use as a piece of scenery.
Appearances have been added to all parts and a kit chen
environment has been added.

2 Change the viewpoint.


Press the spacebar and double-click Cameral. This will be the view we will use for our fi nal renc=r

3 Open the PhotoView Options.


Open the PhotoView Options and set the Preview render quality to Good.

4 View in OpenGL.
View the scene in OpenGL. There
are no reflections or refractions
as these properties are not
supported in OpenGL. The scene
looks dull without any reflections
and the lack of refractions makes
the glasses only somewhat
transparent.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 323
------------------- --------- ---- ----- ------ -----------
View in RealView.
-_, on RealView. We now see
=~ ection s from the environment.
:...: not from the other models in
--= scene. If you look closely at the
-::2ster and kettle, you cannot see
--=other models. You cannot even
?.:: t he reflection of the

=,_.1tertop on which these items


--=resting because it too is a
-del and not part of the
ronment.

Preview the rendered


:-.age.
-- sis just to see the progression
...= -eflections and refractions
-:1 OpenGL to rendered image
.:.F:::~re we begin to make changes.

- =~ can see the milk glass


:-:ection in t he t oaster and
_=::,e. as well as reflections from
-.e other cups and plate. The
-55 is now transparent, but
-Fe is a black area in t he middle
....;::1e glasses. We will discuss the
~se of this and eliminate it with
..:::. ..:stments.
324 Chapter 12

7 Change cameras.
Change the view to Camera2.
This allows us to see the toaster,
kettle and glasses a little better.
Note that in the reflections on
the toaster [1], we can see the
kettle but it is not reflective, it is
just gray. The milk glass
reflection [2] is clear but we
cannot see through all of it.
There are three glasses in the
middle of t he scene. We can see
through a single glass; however,
when there is more than one
glass, it turns black.
We also see similar results on the kettle [4].

Reflection and Refraction Options


The number of reflections and refractions that will be rendered is det ermined by render quality sE-
As the quality settings are increased, the number of reflections and refractions increases. ThesE
are set internally in Photo View 360.

Good Better Best Maximum


Number of
4 8 10
Reflections
Number of 11
Refractions 5 9 9
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 325

3econdary Reflections
~en we change render quality. the number of reflections changes according to the table above. To
_-3w how this works. we will look at a simple example.

-en the rendering ray from the camera encounters


=-::;netry, it must determine if the appearance is reflective
efractive. If it is reflective. another ray is cast from the
.:: 1t on the geometry, based on the rule that the angle of
--:::.dence equals the angle of reflection.
-~e reflected ray strikes geometry that is also reflective.
"E -ay can be reflected again if the number of reflections is
c;. to more than one. In the rendering above, only the first
:='ection was calculated. because the render preview
_...cClity was set to Good. That is why the reflected objects in
~ above image just appear to be gray. Rendering
Ray
--_s does not make the image very realistic because in the
~ sical world there would be multiple reflections. It would
--::: be practical. however. to have the rendering engine
_.::--: inue to calculate the reflections without limit. This could
~ into an infinite loop for situations where two reflective planar surfaces face each other.

-=.:a.y Tracing Depth


e changed the render quality to Better, Photo View 360
-:;....d calculate four reflections. With fo ur reflections. there
_-.::d be three additional rays cast from the reflective
....:aces. They are shown in blue.

a The illustration shows the angles of incidence and


:=ection with reasonable precision. It is not meant to be
e-""ectly accurate. It is on ly meant to illustrate the concept
- ::dditional rays when ray t racing depth is used.

-.: see this a little more clearly, we will use a simple setup
--some props that are already in our assembly.
326 Chapter 12

8 Change configurations.
Change to the Reflector configuration and change the viewpoint to the Camera3.
We are now looking at a corner of the counter that has a chrome version of the travel mug sitting i- -
of two mirrored surfaces.

9 Preview the render.


With the number of reflections set at one (render
quality-Good), we can see the travel mug in the
mirrors, but each is dull because the ray stops
tracing after the first bounce.

10 Add reflections.
Change the render quality to Better. This increases
the number of reflections to four. Now we have
additional reflections where we are seeing the
reflection of a reflection.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 327

-.dd more reflections.


_?;e the render quality to Best . This increases
-_mber of reflections to eight.
:::1 now see multiple reflections as the rays now
-..: : eight t imes. Look closely at the areas
:::ed by the arrows to see the multiple
=-::ions of the travel mug.

'""hange to Maximum reflections.


~_ge t he render quality to Maximum. This
:ases the number of reflections to ten. While
~:-ing time went up significantly, the effect on
"-:9ections is almost unnoticeable because t he
-: -eflections are so small.

Change configuration.
a-ge back to the Default configurat ion and change the viewpoint t o Camera2.
- ge t he render quality back to Good.
328 Chapter 12

Refractions
The t able showed t hat the number of refractions goes from five to 11 as we increase render qua tit. -
good to maximum. The res ult of having t oo few refract ions wilt be a black area in the transpare-;:
appearance because the tight rays cannot go any further. Refraction increments are normally in
multiples of two because when light passing through a transparent object is refract ed both at tr:
surface and the back surface of the object.
Looking at t he Top view of the kitchen, we can 1 2 3
see several rays from the camera going through
the scene. c
Tracing each of the rays:
Ray 1 goes through just glass A. It must
t herefore go thro ugh two layers of glass, the
front and back side of a single glass. This
means that it is refracted four times as it is
refracted going in and out of a layer of glass.
Ray 2 goes through all t hree glasses and must
b
be refracted 12 times.
Ray 3 goes through two of the glasses {Band C)
so it must refract eight t imes.
Camera

14 Select good quality.


To see the difference, if we took at just the t hree
glasses and start with a render quality of Good,
we witt see several black areas.
Where ray 1 passes t hrough the single glass we
can see t hro ugh to the background because with
the Good setting we have five refractions, which is
all t hat we need. Rays 2 and 3 cannot go all t he
way through, result ing in the black areas.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 329

Increase quality.
~ease the render quality to Better. We now
'?nine refractions, so ray 3 can also go through
-..,e glass. Ray 2 needs more refractions so it is
.Jiackc

~ ections are now set to fou r and the


::=- ect ions in the toaster now show the other
~c - ?-cts more clearly.

------#
~ Increase quality.
~:::-ease the render quality to Best. Because the
~oe r of refractions is still nine, there is no
;-z..,ge in the rendering.
=also do not see an improvement in the
;
:: ..,ections as four was enough for the scene.
330 Chapter 12

17 Increase quality.
Increase t he render quality to Maximum. The
number of refract ions is now the maximum
available of 11. Because we need 12 refractions to
get through the three glasses, we still have a black
area even though we have two additional
refractions.

Custom Render Settings


The number of reflections and refractions can be
set to values independent of the render quality.
Using the custom settings, both reflections and
refractions can be adjusted from one up to 32.

Note Setting the number of reflections or refractions to values above what is needed in the scFo:
just increase rendering time wit hout any noticeable change in the quality of the output.

Where to Find It
Photo View 360 Options: Custom render settings

18 Increase the number of refractions.


In the Photo View 360 Options, select Custom render settings. Change the
number of refractions to 12. This will provide just enough refractions fo r all the Final render quality:
glass surfaces. !Good
RJ custx>m render sel:fn,;5
Change the number of reflections to 4. This is the same number as we had with Numbero fre~

4
a render quality of Better, which we saw was enough for this scene. i&IIT i)QJ 1 '- .....
Number ofrerracbcnl:
Change the render quality to Better. We do not have a need to increase the 12
IIDNJ_lj! t tl'
quality above this point as all the other render settings were good enough at
the Better setting. Pushing the quality higher would increase the render t ime without any notic::3..
improvement in the rendered output.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 331

Preview the render.


-- preview shows that the black has been
- - inated and the preview time is much less than
as when the quality was set at Maximum.
332 Chapter 12

20 View the final render.


With everything set up, we can now do a Better quality rendering to complete the case study. We c.=
using Better quality because we saw that with the exception of refractions, neither Best nor Maxi~
quality improved the rendering but took much longer to render.

Alternate Choice
An alternative to changing the render settings is to just change t he model slight ly, either by moving -;:~
positions of the glasses or moving the camera.
21 Change settings.
Clear Custom re nder settings and set the render quality to Better.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 333

:.: Move a glass .


.'ake a slight adj ustment to the posit ion of glass
.:: 'JY moving it to the right.

:3 Preview the render.


--e problem is solved and t he dark spots have
:een eliminated by reducing the number of
s..:faces a light ray must pass through.

:- Save and close all open files.


334 Chapter 12

Liquids
In the previous case study, one of the glasses had a liquid inside the glass. There are two requirerr.e-
to show a liquid in a container.
First, the liquid must be created as a separate part or body to insure that it can have its own appearc
Second, you must also make sure that the liquid does not sha re a surface with the containe r bec.::.:x
SolidWorks shows shared surfaces with streaks. One easy solution is to create the liquid such tha:
fills the container to the desired level. Then apply a scale featu re to just the liquid part or body to
enlarge it by a small amount. A scale factor of 1.05 is usually sufficient to overlap the bodies and pre ?
the streaking.
In the following images, the image on the left does not have an overlap between the liquid and conta ~....
The resulting image shows a lot of streaking artifacts at the liquid/glass interface. In the right imcE-:;.
the liquid has been scaled to 1.03 to overlap the su rfaces .

Important! Both of these previews were done at Better quality because there are six refractions
required to have the rays go through the front and back glass and the liquid. If you were to use Gooc.
the liquid would be opaque.

The glass part has been provided in the Case Study folder of this chapter.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 335

:C::ustics
.2....stics are the condition where light emitted from a light source goes through one or more specular
=- ections or transmissions, hits a diffuse surface, and then is diffusely reflected to the eye.
--e ;ocusing of light from the diamond, the light patterns on the bottom of a swimming pool. and t he
e= ection from a cylindric surface are some examples of caustics.

-:pes of Caustics
--Ere are four types of caustics that can be calculated in a rendering:
Indirect caustics
1direct caustics are based on the sources of indirect illumination. This would be from the image-
:Jased lighting.
Direct caustics
Jirect caustics are calculated based on direct lights. either spot or point lights.
Refractive caustics
=tefractive caustics are the result of light being refracted through transparent objects.
Reflective caustics
~eflective caustics are the result of light reflect ing off of reflective surfaces.

:=the four combinations that can be created with indirect/direct and refractive/reflective, there are
~:Tleconsiderations:
Indirect-Refractive
Indirect-refractive caustics are always calculated in Photo View 360 and require no user input.
Indirect-Reflective
Indirect-reflective caustics are currently not calculated in Photo View 360.
336 Chapter 12

Direct-Refractive and Direct-Reflective


Direct caustics must be selected in the PhotoView options to be calculated.
The effects are only seen in the final render and are not processed in the preview windov.
There must be at least one direct spot or point light enabled for direct caustics to be calc
A real floor appearance is required because caustics will not calculate to a shadow f loor.
Where to Find It
Photo View 360 Options: Direct Caustics

Caustic Settings
Once direct caustics are enab led, t here are only two settings fo r the amount and quality of the E'
Direct caustics are controlled by the amount of photons coming from the direct light sources.

Caustic Amount
Caustic Amount sets the number of photons used in the scene. The caustic amount sets the i"'~
of photons which is then divided by the number of direct lights that are on in Photo View 36C -
number is proportioned between the lights based on their power so t hat if there were two c -E~
lights with one light at twice the power of the other. the more powerful light would get twice-
number of photons apportioned to it.
The range of Caustic Amount is from 100,000 to 10,000,000.
Caustic Quality
Caustic Quality controls the number of photons sampled at each pixel. Smaller va lues result - _
grainier caustic effect and higher values produce a sharper effect.
The range of Caustic Quality is from 32 to 256.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 337

:ase Study: Caustics


- .s case study, we will use caustics to create the bright areas arou nd t wo glasses. These bright areas
be caused by the focusing of light as it is reflected or refracted by t he glass.
....... j

:tedure
Open the assembly.
':E:1 t he file Ca ustics assembly.sldasm found in the Chapter 12\ Case Study\ Caustics folder.

-~s assembly has two glasses placed on a flat surface. Several lights have been added but they are
- =ntly turned off.

ate appearances.
--= c;Jpearance laminate floor2 has been applied to the part Board for caustics.

--2 appearances clear glass and brown glass have been applied to the two glasses.
338 Chapter 12
---- -- ------------------ ------- - -------------------- --
3 Note lighting.
The direct light for t his assembly is a point light.
located behind and above the model simulating a
light over the counter on which the glasses are
sitting. The remaining light comes from the
environment.

4 Check PhotoView 360 Options.


In t he Photo View 360 Options, make sure that Direct Caustics is cleared.

5 Render the model.


As direct caust ics are only visible in the final
render, we cannot use the preview window, so all
images are from the final render.
We can see the shadows from the point light, and
the shadows are uniformly dark. There is no
focusing of light coming through the glass.

6 Enable caustics.
In the PhotoView 360 Options select Direct Caustics.
Set Caustic Amount t o 100000 and Caustic Quality to 32.
Click OK.
Reflective and Transparent Appearances 339

~ender the model.


2.1 see some focusing of light around the
- - :::f the clear glass and t he shadows are no
~-uniform. The focusing. however. is minimal.
-:Jrove t his, we will increase the amount of
..cs.

::hange settings.
Caustic Amount to 10,000,000 but leave
~c Quality at 32. This is the maximum value
::.austic Amount.

~ender the model.


s ::u-ne the caust ic highlights are much brighter.
: r -nore focusing is evident at the bases of the
~=s and there is a focused ring around the
""::..,_ ;:r edge of the shadow for the smaller glass.

=:2ustic highlights are very blotchy at this


-: ~ecause the Caustic Quality setting is at
- :.~m. To see the effect of t he quality setting,
. increase it to maximum.

rhange settings.
- :: Caustic Amount at 10,000,000 and cha nge
..:o..:stic Quality to 256.

~en derthe model.


!E: s now less grainy in the shadow areas.
340 Chapter 12

12 Compare results.
In the Final Render window, you can switch between the different results. On the left is the irr::.:,-
without direct caustics and on the right is the image with direct caustics at maximum settings

13 Save and close the file.


dvanced Appearances

~~o nsuccessful completion of this chapter,


Ju will be able to:
Create custom appearances .
.;djust texture mapping for different surfaces.
J nderstand the different surface finish options.
Jownload appearances from Luxo logy.
J se Modo appearances.
342 Chapter 13

Advanced Appearances
While many good appearances are provided with SolidWorks. some users have requirements ~c
appearances that are not provided. In this section, we will explore methods to obtain and/or c-;:.,.
additional appearances.
Appearance Files
It is important to understand where appearance data is stored and how to mod ify it. As in mos: =
of SolidWorks. files and databases supplied with SolidWorks cannot be modified. This is done pL--:.
to prevent users from losing custom files when new versions of SolidWorks are installed. The -_
most used for custom appearances is to start with one of the supplied appeara nces. modify it. a-c
save it as a new custom appearance.
When appearances are applied to an assembly, part, body, feature, or face, t hat appearance is sa
the assembly or part file. Any modifications to t he applied appearance only affect that specific
of the appearance.
Things that are part of an appearance file:
What does it look like?
In a procedura l appearance. this is the mathematically defined pattern. In a texture. this is a s;::.
image file.
How is it mapped?
With procedura l appearances, you do not have control of this. For a textu re, we have differe-
mapping controls.

How does it react to light?


These are the illumination controls.

Special effects
A displacement map is a special effect as it changes the physica l characteristics of t he geo-..--
bump map is an effect to make the surface look like something it is not.

Image Files
When an appearance, decal. or scene is saved wit h a part or assembly. all the appearance data E
in the part or assembly file with one exception: the image file. As a general rule, image files C":
saved in *.p2m or *.p2s files because of their size. This leaves t he image file as a linked refe-t:r"
While this method reduces the file size of the part or assemb ly. it also red uces the porta bilil ~
must remember to send the image file(s) when sending the part or assembly to someone e[s=
Advanced Appearances 343

-=<eep everything together. the image files can also be embedded with the rest of the appearance,
:--=:al or scene dat a by selecting the option to Store appearance, decal, and scene data in model file
- ::-te SolidWorks Options.

2 t o Find It
:-::ions: Document Syst= Options J Doa.ment Properties L

1perties, Model D...fttng Standard Model/ reab.J'e oolors


ttl Annotations
:..splay ~ Dimemion!f Shacing
Virtual Sharps Hidden
Bend
00 Tables Boss
Dl!tiling Ca\oity
Grid/ Snap Chamfer
cut Ad:.3!1~erl ...
Units CuHoft
t::::eum
Mate:rial Properties
CUtStrl>ce
lcutS\o\'eeQ ----l ICUrvab.J'e... j
Image Quality [ Reset Colors To DefaUts ::-J
Shel!t Ml!tal n Apply same color to ..-reframe, ~and sNded
Plane Display C IIIOOfe feature colors
DimXpert
Size: Dimension Go To System Colors
l ocation Dimension
Ch;,in Dimension [;l]Store appearance, decal, and scene cklto in model file (Note: w~ inaease file size
Geometric To[erance ltJAutomoticaly scn1e appearance Wxt>..res, surf= Mishes, and decals to the model size
Chamfer Controls
Display Options
344 Chapter 13

Overview
There are t imes when the existing appearances supplied with SolidWorks do not meet our rer:.=.
needs. In these cases we can get appearances from a variety of sources and add them into ou-
SolidWorks. To catalog these new appearances, we can add custom folders to the Task Pane.

Case Study: The Chess Set


We will render the chess set provided in the Case Study folde r of this chapter. Where appearc-
not provided with SolidWorks. we will import from other sources or make our own.

Stages in the Process


The key stages in the rendering process for this chapt er are given in the following list:

Create appearance
Any image file of the types supported by SolidWorks can be used as a texture ap pearance.
Advanced Appearances 345

::stem appearance folders


:=:e user-defined appearance folders to organize the new appearances .

irE .:just illumination


::::arances have multiple controls to affect the way they interact with light. These adjustments can
:-:une t he look of the rendering.

:pearance Library
:.Vorks organizes appearances in a library consisting of folders. Each appearance is a separate f ile
_-.::.. :1e *.p2m extension. The directory is located in the SolidWorks installation folder
:solidworks \ data\ graphics\ materials .

..s:;;--defined Appearance Folders


_ z--::!efined folders can be created to st ore special appearances t hat we define, keep appearances of
--g.e project togethe r for consistency, or reduce the number of open folders necessary for a big
- -::t.
~::n appearances can be stored in any location you choose; however, good file management practice
: 5ave all custom f\les outside the SolidWorks installation path to avoid losing them if SolidWorks is
~:ailed or upgraded. One solution is to create a directory called SolidWorks Common with sub-
': :-::ories for appearances, scenes, and lights.

-a:i Images
~=s used for texture appea rances are normally tiled. This means that a single image is repeated and
2d t ogether to form a larger, repeating pattern.

"E s:Ze of these f iles is usually small, generally 100 to 200 pixels on a s ide, but may be as large as 4096
e :: s on a side. They do not have to be square.
346 Chapter 13

If they are to create a seamless pattern. the image must have a right side that fits smoothly agains:
left side. The top and bottom must fit as well.

Seamless t ile pattern

Nonseamless tile pattern

Pattern breaks
Advanced Appearances 347

::c.rrces of Additional Appearances


-""E-e are numerous sources for additional appearances .
.'odify an existing appearance, either procedural or texture
:-eate an appearance in an image editing program, such as Microsoft Paint, Adobe Photoshop, Jasc
:!oint Shop Pro. or CorelDRAW
Scan an image and edit it with image editing software
:::~wnload an image from t he web
::;ownload Modomaterials from t he SolidWorks Asset Sharing site

2 Modo materials are the equivalent of SolidWorks appearances. but are not equivalent t o
J'Works materials as they do not carry any of the physical properties of the materials.

:tedure
-= .'lill start with the chess board. There are three different appearances to add: one fo r the board, one
:'le border around the squares, and finally the checkerboard pattern itself.

Open the part named Chess Set Board.


-- s board is 460 mm square. We want to put a checkerboard pattern composed of SO mm squares in
t:: ::enter plus an 8 mm border around the pattern.

Find an appearance for the Board.


-= looking through all the folders in the Appearances folder. we are not satisfied with any of the
-c :es. so we go to the web and search fo r textures. At one of the sites we find a few that are
- ::--esting. We right-click the individual images and select Save Picture As.
,;: -ave saved several files to the Chapter 13\ Case Study\Downloaded Image Files folder as
-:::images. We can save them as either JPG or BMP files.
348 Chapter 13

3 View the image files. _==:.:;


Use Windows Explorer to examine the image files.
Look in the Ch apter 13 \ Case Study\ Downloadedlmage Files fo lder.

[ +t Jl s~"rrh Dcwn!oodt::llmage F:es


File Edit View Tools Help

Orgamze ...,. Jd Preview "' Share with Shdeshow Prmt Email Burn New fold er :s
~ Photoreari~ic Rendering
... Chapter2
Chapt<r 4
_.. ChapterS
_. Chapter6
-' Chapter7
ChapterS

I~
,.o Chapter9
ChapterlO
Chapterll
- Chapt.r12
.,. Chapt<r13
Case Study
Chess Set
_. Completed
Downloaded Image Files
marblOl.bmp Marble metaKJOl.bmp
...., Chapter14 lmage.bmp

Marble Jmage.bmp State: ~ Sha red Dunen!i10ns: 160 x 120


B1tmap 1mage Date mo d1f1ed: 3/ 10/200811:07 AM S1ze: 563 KB

4 Close Windows Explorer.

Creating Appearance Folders


The appearance folder structure is similar to the standard Windows file structure. Appearance folc~
can be created in Windows Explorer and function the same as library feat ure fo lders in SolidWorks
Folders are color-coded in the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of t he Task Pane:
Yellow 1!:7 = predefined appearance folders
Blue (!7 = custom appearance fold ers
Advanced Appearances 349

:reate Custom Folders


:::Jstom folders can be creat ed to st ore all appearances fo r a project together or as a place to keep
:-..:stom appearances t ogether. Depending on our workflow, we can create custom folders before
=-eating custom appearances, or we can do it as we create the new appearance.
- :J create a custom folder:

Creat e a new folder using Windows Explorer. Set the path to the folder in SolidWorks Options,
System Options, File Locations.
Click New Folder e'} on the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab of the Task Pane.
Specify a new folder and path when creating a new appearance.

_
-.ccessing Custom Appearances Syst= Options [ Docunent Properties!

-=have the custom appearances available, the path General Show folders fur:
Draw ings ...............
-::the location of your files should be specified in Display Style
[Document. Tetl1)1ares ~

-e SolidWorks Options. Area Hatch/Ftll


color swotches
Costing Repo<tTetr4lfate Folder
l.:.
Colors Costing templates
Custom - Appearances
Sketch CUstom - Decals
::reate Appearance R<!lations/ Snaps Custom - Sce11es "
Custom Property Files
-::;use an image fi le as an appearance, we will st art Display/S~Iection Design Checker Files
Perform ance Desig1 Jotrnal Template I
.th an existing ap pearance and modify it. We can Assemblies Design Library
I
Dimension/Annotation Favorites
:=this by applying an appearance to a model External Referenc es
Default Tem plates
DimXpert Callout Format FHe
Drcflin!l Standards
Function Builder Seg:nent Type Definitions
: ement and t hen editing and saving t he File locat,ons:
Hole CaMout Format File
FeatureManager Holt. Table Templates "'
==?earance to a new name. Spi n Box Incremen ts Hole Wizard Favorites Database
Line Style Definitions
View Macros
.e can also copy and paste an existing appearance, Backup/ Recover Macro Feture Files
::.,.. Touch ~1aterial Databases
- en edit the copy. H.ole Wizard/Toolbo.x
Punch Table Template
Revision Tab:e Templates
Fire Explorer Search Paths
Sheet Formats
Jeleting Appearances or Folders Search
Sheet Metal Bend Line Note File
Collaboration Sheet Metal Bend Tables
-::;Jearances or folders can be re moved from the Messages/ Errorsf\!Varning s: Sheet Metal Gauge Tab!e
Speling R>lders
.::1ary by selecting the appearance or folder and: Sus!ainability ReportTemplate Folder
~Te~~e~ . ___ . f .
<eyboard: Press Delete
Shortcut menu: Right-click, Delete
350 Chapter 13

Appearances Folder Location


When we create custom files for use in SolidWorks. it is generally a good idea to locate the folce:-
outside of the SolidWorks installat ion directory. One approach is to create a directory named
SolidWorks Common with subdirectories for each type of custom file such as appearances. sc:
decals.
The advantages to locating the custom files outside the SolidWorks installation directory are:
Prevent loss
When you do a clean installation of SolidWorks. all files in the SolidWorks directory may be c?
If all the customized files are stored outside t his directory they will not be deleted and still.;:;:
available for use in the new installation.
Ease of movement
When you change computers. it is much easier to copy all the customized files if they are in C"'=

5 Create directories. SolldWorks ( om;:;w'<


Using Windows Explorer. create a directory named SolidWorks Common . Custom AFr:c=a==
Custom Decals
Create subdirectories: Custom Scenes

Cu st om Appearan ces
Cu stom Scenes
Custom Decals
6 Set file locations.
Click Tools, Options. Select System Options and t hen File Locations. Add t he path to each of ~
folders to the appropriate folder type.

7 Try alternate method.


Another way to set the file location is direct ly from the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals tab in::--
Pane.
On the Appearances, Scenes, and Decals t ab select the Scenes folder.
Click Add File Location e; from t he Task Pane toolbar.
Choose the Custom Scenes folder you creat ed in step 5 and click OK.
If you examine the File Locat ion for Custom Decals in SolidWorks Options. you will see that th::
has been added.
Advanced Appearances 351

Examine the Task Pane. Appearances. Scenes. and Decals

cw --e:: ew custom folders are now listed on the Appearances, Scenes, and ffJ ~
o=:: :e:a1s tab. The folders are blue because they are custom folders. <::! e Appeanoncos(color)
+ ~ Plastic

'" We did not specify the path to the Custom Appearances folder