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IPA Symbols Comparing English, Italian, Latin, French and German

IPA

English

Italian

Latin

French

German

 

Vowels

       

[i]

meet, key

Chi

Filio

qui, cygne

liebe, ihn, wir

[e]

-

venti

-

parlé, nez,parler, parlerai

Seele, geben

[I]

mitt, hit

-

-

-

mit, sitzen

[e…]

chaotic

vero

-

 

Tränen

[”]

bed

bello

requim

belle, avait, mai, tête

Bett hätte

[”)]

-

-

-

sein.pain, fin,faim,thym

-

[a]

-

-

-

voila, la salade

-

[A]

father

alma

mala

âme

Vater, Mahler

[A)]

-

-

-

enfant, champ, Jean, paon

-

[O]

jaw

morte

Domine

sortir

Dorn

[Á]

foot

-

-

-

Mutter

[o]

rowing

nome

-

rose, ôter, pot, peau, faut, écho

Rose, tot, froh

[o)]

-

-

-

fond, ombre

-

[u]

moon

luna

unum

fou

Uhr, Buch, tun

[y]

-

-

-

tu, flûte, (eût ( A voi r))

früh, Tür

[Y]

-

-

-

-

Glück

[„]

-

-

-

peu, berceuse

schön

[Œ]

-

-

-

coeur, fleur

können

[

]

-

-

-

parfum, défunt

-

[E]

Rita, oven

-

-

je, faisant, parlent

Lieben, lebe

[œ]

cat

-

-

-

-

[

]

first

-

-

-

-

[Ø]

cup

-

-

-

-

 

Glides

Diphthongs

Triphthongs

   

[j]

yes

ieri

ejus

bien, moyen

Jahr

[w]

west

guarda

qui, linguis

oui

-

[y]

-

-

-

nuit

über

[¥]

lute

gl’occhi

-

-

-

[aI]

mine, high

   

-

mein, Hain

[A…i]

 

mai

     

[aj]

-

-

-

corail

-

[e…i]

-

sei

mei

-

-

[”j]

-

-

-

soleil

-

[Œj]

-

-

-

deuil

-

[uj]

-

-

-

Fenouil,

-

 

Consonants:

Plosives

     

[p]

pepper

papa

peccata

papa, absent

Paar, lieb

[b]

bow

bada

beata

bas

Bett

[t]

tent

tutto

terra, catholicam

tantot

Tante, Grund

[d]

dead

doppio

Domine

dindon

decken

[k]

cat, chorus

come, ecco

credo, braccio

comment, qui, choeur

Kunst, Qual

[g]

give

gamba,

gaudebit

gauche, grande

geben, General

grande

[f]

father, physic

fuoir

fecit

fou, phare

Vater,

Phantasie

[v]

visit

vecchio

vestrum

vent, wagon

Weg

[ S ]

shine

lascia

sciote

charme

schön, Stadt

[Z]

Asia

-

-

je, givre

-

[s]

simple,

seno, questo

salutare

soixant, cent, leçon, jasmin

essen, Fenster,

receive

Haus

[z]

roses, zoo

rosa, sdegno

-

rose, azure

Seele, unser,

Rose

[T]

three

-

-

-

-

[D]

this

vado

-

-

-

[C]

human

-

-

 

ich, recht

[x]

-

-

-

-

Nacht, doch

[h]

house, who

-

-

-

Haus, lebhaft

 

Consonants:

Nasals

     

[m]

mother

mamma

mortus

maman

Mutter, nahm

[n]

nose

naso

nescio

nez

nein, Nase

]

[

onion

ognuno

agnus

oignon, agneau

-

[N]

ring, thank

sangue,

-

-

Ring, Dank

anche

 

Consonants:

Lateral and

Trilled

   

[l]

liquid

largo, alto

alleluia

large, faral

links, alte, also

[r]

three

rosa, orrore

rex

roucoule

Retter, irre

 

Consonants:

Affricates

     

[tS ]

cheer, pitch

cielo, cenere

cibo, coelo,

-

plätschert

caeca

[dZ]

joy, George

gioia, gemo

pange, regina

-

-

[ts]

cats

zio, senza

gratias, justitia

-

Zimmer, Spitz

[dz]

leads

azzuro,

azymis

-

-

bonzo

IPA Symbols

Classification of Vowels

1. Pure vowel

a. The sound can be sustained without movement of the articulators or quality of sound until the air flow ceases.

2. Diphthong

a. It is conprised of two vowel sounds. One vowel sound is started and migrates to a second.

Forward vowels

Back Vowels

[i]

 

as in beet

 

[u]

as in boot

[I]

 

as in bit

[Á]

as in book

[eI]

 

as in bait

[o]

as in pillow

[”]

 

as in bet

[oÁ]

as in boat

[œ]

 

as in bat

[O]

as in awe

[a]

 

as in Boston

[A]

as in father

 

Central Vowels

 

[Ø] [E]

 

The sound of uh as in up and in appeal

[ ±] [E±]

 

as in burr and butter

 

[

]

 

The

"r-less" "r" bird [b d]

 
 

Diphthongs

[aI]

as in high

[aÁ]

as house

[OI]

as in boy

[ju]

as in abuse

 

Consonants

Stop – Plosives

Cognates

(Consonant sounds in which the air flow is completely stopped and then suddenly released. ) (Paired consonants which have the same manner and place of articulation but one is voiced and the other is not.

 

Unvoiced

 

Voiced

[p]

as in pet

[b]

as in bet

[t]

as in ten

[d]

as in den

[k]

as in kit

[g]

as in give

Nasal Consonants

(The oral passageway is blocked at some point and the soft palate is lowered to allow air to flow through the nasal passageway. )

[m]

as in me

[n]

as in neat

[N]

as in hung

Fricative Consonants

Continuants

(The air flow is partially interrupted as it passes through the vocal tract, thus producing a noisy sound) (Consonants which can be sustained)

 

Unvoiced

 

Voiced

 

[f]

as in feet

 

[v]

as in vain

[T]

as in think

 

[D]

as in then

[s]

as in sea

 

[z]

as in zip

[S]

as in she

 

[Z]

as in azure

[h]

as in heat

   
 

Lateral Consonant

(a consonant in which the sides of the tongue are lowered, not touching the upper molars)

[l]

Glides

(characterized by a movement of the articulators from one position to another may also be called semi - vowel s or semi -co nsonant s. )

[r]

as in rose, red ram

[j]

as in yes, you , yesterday

[w]

as in were

[hw]

as in when

 

Combination Consonants

(Also called af f ri cat i ves , combine two consonant sounds into a single speech unit)

[tS]

as in cheek

 

[dZ]

as in jeer or gin

Fall 2007