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Grounding Impedance by Means of Pspice

Jose Osvaldo Saldanha Paulino Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG)

Wallace do Couto Boaventura Belo Horizonte - Brazil

Department of Electrical Engineering mauris@cemig.com.br

Federal University of Minas Gerais

Belo Horizonte - Brazil

l

alexlima@cpdee.ufmg.br

calculating the tower-footing grounding impedance of a

relative simplicity the computational deployment may be quite

laborious in some cases. Thus, the use of a model in a

transmission line. The grounding is comprised by four simulation computational environment that contains the entire

counterpoises and the proposed method considers the mutual mathematical basis necessary for calculations makes the task

effects between electrodes. The simulations are carried out in simpler. This paper presents a simple method to calculate the

PSPICE program and implementing naturally becomes a simple tower-footing grounding impedance in the time and in the

task. The electrode length and soil resistivity vary for different frequency domain using PSPICE. This computer simulation

values. The simulation results are obtained in the frequency environment has a library that contains a model well suited to

domain and in the time domain showing important features of

modeling this one. The results are obtained in the frequency

the grounding response when subject to an impulsive current.

and in the time domain and non-linear effects (ionization) have

not been included in the next analysis.

modeling.

II. PROPOSED METHOD

The modeling of a transmission line grounding system towers is shown in Figure 1. It consists of four counterpoises

contains considerable complexity because of the diversity of cables and the pair of cables 1-2 and 3-4 are spaced by d

parameters that need to be considered. On the whole, it appears meters.

that the studies aimed at modeling the grounds adopt empirical,

analytical or numerical solutions which are clearly conditioned

to the evolution of computer processing capability experienced

. . . t

in recent decades. Also, despite the large number of existing

1

studies, in all cases the models are based on electromagnetic

field theory

theory [5-7].

[1-2], circuit theory [3-4] or transmission lines

2

...;

----'

;.. ). . ;,,

e ' _________

41d

+

The models based on electromagnetic field theory (EMF)

have minimum simplifications due to its rigor in mathematical

Right of way

development. However, depending on grounding

admeasurements, the computational processing time can be

Figure 1. Arrangement of the grounding system.

quite high compromising the simplicity and practicality in

obtaining results, characteristics which are desirable in

A very simple model to calculate the grounding impedance

engineering solutions. This is the case of transmission line

of this arrangement is presented in detail in [10]. In this model,

towers grounding systems that have counterpoise length

the lightning current passing through the counterpoises and the

typically ranging between 20m and 90m. To overcome this

mutual couplings are evaluated using a method based on

condition, this work takes advantage of that situations in which

transmission lines theory. The results are compared with those

the results obtained by EMF models and those based on the

obtained by EMF models and it showed excellent agreement.

transmission lines theory (TLT) show excellent agreement [8],

The impedance of this arrangement is defined as the sum of the

[9]. This is the case when soil resistivity is high. These models

input impedances of two lines, one related to the self

are attractive because of the relatively simple mathematical

impedance, Zs, and the other one related to mutual impedance,

modeling and small computer processing time to produce

Zm, weighted by a factor 0.25, as shown in (1).

results. However, it is worth mentioning that despite the

Scientific and Technological Development), FAPEMTG (Minas Gerais State

Research Foundation), CEMIG (Energetic Company of Minas Gerais) and

ANEEL (Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency).

978-1-4673-1897-6/12/$31.00 20121EEE

(1) The proposed method using PSPICE is applied to

determine the overvoltage developed at the current input point

and the grounding harmonic impedance. The results are

Equation (1) clearly shows that the impedance is calculated

compared to those obtained directly by transmission line

simply by self and mutual impedance of the electrodes that

theory, since the considered values of soil resistivity are

comprise the grounding. In this case, the self-impedance refers

relatively high. Thus, the transient problem is first solved by a

to a single grounding electrode whatever it is, since all

formulation in the frequency domain given by [12], [13]:

counterpoises have the same geometric characteristics. The

.

mutual impedance is calculated by any pair of electrodes, 1-2 jmL'

or 3-4, as this arrangement has spatial symmetry [10]. Zo (J'm)-

- (3a)

G'+JmC"

The PSPICE computational simulation environment has a

transmission line model that considers the losses, TLOSSY,

which is well suited to modeling this grounding. Despite the r(Jm)= jmL(G'+ jmC') , (3b)

.

existence of models in PSPICE's library that consider mutual

couplings between the system elements, these are related only

Z(Jm)= Zo . coth (r f!. ) , (3c)

to inductance and capacitance. Models that have mutual

resistive coupling are not available. However, it does not pose

a problem. Observing equation (1) it is clear that it is only where, Zo is the characteristic impedance, y is the propagation

necessary to know the self-impedance of one counterpoise and constant,Z is the input impedance of the line, is the angular 0)

the mutual impedance between two parallel counterpoises in frequency, f!. is the line length and j is H . It is worth noting

order to define the grounding impedance of the system. Thus, that RLC parameters in (3) are per-unit-Iength, hence

the self and mutual impedances are obtained from two

L'= LI f!., C'= elf!. e G' = 1/ (Rf!.) .

TLOSSY line models and the grounding impedance, Zg, is

obtained by combining the individual responses of each line, as The frequency range of interest depends mainly on the

shown in Figure 2. current front wave and the frequency components are defmed

using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The time domain

Figure 2. Self and mutual impedances calculated individually by two

response is then obtained by applying the inverse Fourier

transform:

transmission lines and the combination of both defining the grounding Here vet) is the response to an arbitrary excitation i(t), Z(jO))

impedance, Zg. is the impedance to ground, 3 and 3-1 are Fourier and inverse

Fourier transform, respectively.

The electrical parameters of the lines, RLC, are calculated

using the equations proposed by Sunde [11], where: The circuit used in PSPICE is show in Figure 3, where the

far end opposite to the current input point is considered an open

line [14], being represented by a high value resistor.

R=

Jrf!.

[ (

ln

.J2rh

)- ] I ' (2a)

C= pc' (2b)

R

(2c)

permittivity of the soil and 11 is the magnetic permeability of

the soil. With respect to the electrode, f!. is the length, r is the

radius and h is the depth which is buried. The calculation of

line parameters for modeling the mutual coupling is done by

replacing in (2) the radius r by distance d between the Figure 3. Transmission lines associated with self and mutual parameters.

electrodes and the depth h by average depth of the electrodes

[11]. The self and mutual parameters are calculated by (2) and

the results are presented in Table I and Table II, where the RLC

per-unit-Iength parameters are calculated considering: I>r = 15;

h = 0.5m; r = 2.5mm and p = 2400Q.m. The electrode length 0

varies from 30 m to 90 m and the distance between them varies

from 20 m to 50 m. 6{1

30m

TABLE I. R 'L C SELF-PARAMETERS CALCULATED CONSIDERING 50

sr = 15, h = 0.5m, r = 2.5mm, p = 2400Qm.

' '

a

40

e d L' G' C'

N S On:!

(rn) (rn) (J,lH/rn) (J,lS/rn) (pF/rn)

30

30 20 1.82 214.94 68.51 Om

50 30 1.92 198.31 63.21

20 90m

70 40 1.98 188.69 60.14

90 50 2.04 182.09 58.04

10

101 10' 104 lOS

Fr' eq u e ncy (H z)

TABLE II. R 'L 'C' MUTUAL-PARAMETERS CALCULATED CONSIDERING

sr = 15, h = 0.5m, r = 2.5mm, p = 2400Qm. Figure 4. Grounding impedance absolute value, sr = 15, h = 0.5m,

r = 2.5mm, p = 2400Qm.

e d L' G' C'

(rn) (rn) (J,lH/rn) (J,lS/rn) (pF/rn)

The overvoltage is obtained in a similar way to that used in

30 20 0.01972 819.93 261.35 defming harmonic impedance. Thus, it is also defmed by (5)

50 30 0.04080 687.29 219.08 and the RLC parameters are calculated by (2). Figure 5 and

70 40 0.05055 624.16 198.95 Figure 6 show the voltages when a fast current wave (1.2/20f..ls)

90 50 0.05619 585.17 186.52 is injected in the grounding electrodes buried in soils of

1000Qm e 2000Qm. As expected, the resistivity increase also

leads to an overvoltage increase. It is also possible to estimate

The grounding response due to an impulsive current the effective length of the electrodes, since there is a length

considering the self and the mutual effects is obtained from which the maximum overvoltage shows no significant

separately by two lines, T1 and T2, as shown in Figure 3. Thus, reduction in maximum values.

the hannonic impedance, Z(jro), and the dynamic impedance,

z(t), is defmed by the combination of both according to (I).

Variables of this equation are replaced by corresponding

PSPICE variables where:

calculation the PSPICE source is set to lAo Thus, the measured

voltages at marked points corresponds to the impedance as in 50m

this case Z=V, although this is not essentially required.

III. RESULTS

knowing the grounding characteristics readily. Figure 4 shows o 1 2 3 5

the magnitude of Zg(jro). It is notorious the existence of two Ti m e ()

distinct regions that characterize the grounding response, one

associated with lower frequencies and another one with higher Figure 5. Overvoltage at the grounding entry point when subjected to a fast

frequencies. Although it is not possible to define an exact current wave (1.2/20J,ls), p = 1000Qm.

frequency for the transition from low to high, one can assume

that this is in the range between 50-kHz to 100-kHz. It is

noteworthy that in the PSPICE each curve is obtained by

response combination of two lines, one associated with self

effects and the other one to the mutual effects.

[9] L. Grcev, "Modeling of grounding electrodes under lightning currents, "

IEEE Transactions on Eletrocmagnetic Compatibility, vol. 51, no. 3, pp.

559-571, aug. 2009.

[10]AB. Lima, J.O.S. Paulino, U.S. Lopes, and I.e. Dias, "Modelo para

Malhas de Aterramento de Torres de Linhas de Transmissao Submetidas

a Descargas Atmosfericas, " IEEE Power and Energy Society - T&D

2010 Latin America, Nov. 2010.

[11]E. D. Sunde, Earth conduction effects in transmission systems. New

York: Dover Publications, 1968.

[12]Jonh Daniel KRAUS and Daniel Fleisch, Electromagnetics, 5th ed.:

McGraw Hill Higher Education, 1999.

[13]Clayton R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd ed.

Hoboken: Woley, 2006.

[14]] L. Grcev and M. Popov, "On High-Frequency Circuit Equivalents

of a Vertical Ground Rod, " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol.

5 20, no. 2, pp. 1598-1603, abr. 2005.

TimeC.us )

current wave (1.2/20s), p = 2000Qm.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

grounding impedance including the mutual couplings is

implemented in PSPICE. The analyses in the time and in the

frequency domain with relatively low computational resources

show the versatility of the proposed method. Important

grounding features as overvoltage, time delay and wave

reflections are easily obtained. Moreover, extending the

applicability of this method it is possible using this computer

simulation program to evaluate the overvoltage developed

under insulators strings. It is particularly important in lightning

performance of transmission lines studies.

REFERENCES

grounding systems., " IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 5, no. 11, pp.

1773-1781, nov. 1990.

[2] S. Visacro and A Soares Jr, "HEM: a model for simulation of lightning

related engineering problems, " IEEE Transactions on Power delivery,

vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1206-1208, Apr. 2005.

[3] AD. Papalexopoulos and AP. Meliopoulos, "Frequency Dependent

Characteristics of Grounding Systems, " IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery, vol. PWRD-2, no. 4, pp. 1073-1081, out. 1987.

[4] D. Mukhedkar, M. Ramamoorty, M.M. Babu Narayanan, and S.

Parameswaran, "Transient performance of grounding grids, " IEEE

Transactions on power delivery, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 2053-2059, out. 1989.

[5] R. Velazquez and D. Mukhedkar, "Analytical modelling of grounding

electrodes transient behavior, " IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, vol. v.PAS-I03, no. 6, pp. p.1314-1322, jun. 1984.

[6] Y. Liu, M. Zitnik, and R. Thottappillil, "An improved transmission-line

model of grounding system, " IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compatibility,

vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 348-355, Aug. 2001.

[7] M.l. Lorentzou, N.D. Hatziargyriou, and B.e. Papadias, "Time domain

analysis of grounding electrodes impulse response, " IEEE Transactions

on Power Delivery, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 517-524, abr. 2003.

[8] L. Grcev and V. Amautovski, "Comparison between simulation and

measurement of frequency dependent and transient characteristics of

power transmission line grounding, " Proceedings of 24th International

Conference on Lightning protection (TCLP'98), pp. v.l, p.524-529, set.

1998.

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