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Sandip S. Shevale.et.al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

Seismic Behaviour of Multi-Storied Building by Using Tuned


Mass Damper and Base Isolation: A Review
Sandip S. Shevale1, S. S. Kadam 2, Dr. C. P. Pise3, Y. P. Pawar2,
C. M. Deshmukh2, D. D. Mohite2.
P.G. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, SKNSCOE, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India1
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SKNSCOE, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India 2
Head of Department of Civil Engineering, SKNSCOE, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India 3

ABSTRACT
Earthquakes create vibrations on the ground that are translated into dynamic loads which cause the ground and
anything attached to it to vibrate in a complex manner and cause damage to buildings and other structures. Civil
engineering is continuously improving ways to cope with this inherent phenomenon. Conventional strategies of
strengthening the system consume more materials and energy. Moreover, higher masses lead to higher seismic
forces. Alternative strategies such as passive control systems are found to be effective in reducing the seismic
and other dynamic effects on civil engineering structures. A Tuned mass damper (TMD) is a device consisting
of a mass, and spring that is attached to a structure in order to reduce the dynamic response of the structure.
Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) has been found to be most effective for controlling the structural responses for
harmonic and wind excitations. Base isolation is nowadays widely considered as an effective strategy to protect
structures subject to seismic excitations. The performance of linear base isolation system along with tuned mass
damper to mitigate seismic response of structures is investigated.
Keywords: Tuned mass damper (TMD), Base Isolation (BI), Multistoried building, and Seismic behaviour.

I. INTRODUCTION Energy is dissipated by the damper inertia force


Earthquakes are occasional forces on acting on the structure. Base isolation (BI) is a
structures that may occur during the lifetime of well-established application of the passive control
buildings. As seismic waves move through the approach. A building mounted on a material with
ground, they create a series of vibrations. These low lateral stiffness, such as rubber, achieves a
movements are translated into dynamic loads or flexible base. During the earthquake, the flexible
inertial forces that cause the ground and anything base is able to filter out high frequencies from the
attached to it to vibrate in a complex manner. These ground motion and to prevent the building from
inertial forces cause damage to buildings and other being damaged or collapsing.
structures. In regions where seismicity is
insignificant, the conventional design approach aims II. EARLIER RESEARCH
at the design of structural members in such a way INVESTIGATION
that static (gravitational) and dynamic loads (such as There are many researches have been
wind load) are withstood elastically. However, if this carried out to know seismic behaviour of flat slab
design approach was to be followed in cases where building. This section summarizes some previous
seismic excitation had to be taken into account, this studies carried out on flat slab building.
might lead to energy inefficient and economically To observe the influence of several
unacceptable design solutions. Moreover, this parameters like, damping ratio of structures,
strategy leads to higher masses and hence higher intensity of earthquake load, mass ratio, and
seismic forces. Earthquake loads are to be carefully damping ratio of base isolator, on the effectiveness
modeled so as to assess the real behaviour of of combined system in comparison with BI system.
structure with a clear understanding that damage is A numerical study demonstrates that combined
expected but it should be regulated. A tuned mass system is more effective to mitigating the seismic
damper (TMD) is a device consisting of a mass, a response of the primary structure compare with only
spring, and a damper that is attached to a BI system [1].
structure in order to reduce the dynamic On the performance evaluation of a few
response of the structure. The frequency of the passive control systems such as base isolation
damper is tuned to a particular structural frequency systems and tuned mass dampers in the vibration
so that when that frequency is excited, the damper control of a linear multi storied structure under
will resonate out of phase with the structural motion. harmonic and earthquake base motions. Base

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Sandip S. Shevale.et.al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com
ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

isolators such as Lead Rubber Bearing (LRB) proposed method. The variation of the optimum
system and Friction Pendulum System (FPS); and, a solution versus structural and input characteristics is
tuned mass damper (TMD) are designed for a ten analysed for the unconstrained and constrained
storied reinforced concrete building. The building is optimization problems. A sensitivity analysis is
modelled as 10 degrees of freedom shear building carried out, and results are presented useful for the
model and Bouc Wen model is used to describe the first design of the vibrations control strategy [6].
hysteretic behaviour of base isolators. The The optimisation of TMDs is firstly carried
performance of LRB system, FPS and TMD are out within a range of earthquakes and primary frame
evaluated numerically and compared. The frequency structures, in order to achieve the ideal optimum
response characteristics of the systems are also setting for each considered case. Then, the outcomes
studied. From the study Base isolators and TMD are of the investigation are gathered and analysed all
found to be effective in the neighbourhood of the together, to outline general trends and
fundamental resonant frequency of the structure [2]. characteristics, towards possible effective design of
Shear walls and Tuned Mass Dampers are TMDs in the seismic context. The output of this
assigned in the structure alternatively. Various paper should enrich the current knowledge on this
arrangements of Tuned Mass Dampers in this 30 topic towards potential extensive applications of
storey building are studied and the best arrangement TMDs in the field of earthquake engineering [7].
among these is applied in a 50 storey building to Base isolation techniques is special
study the effectiveness in controlling vibration. And emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed
also the characteristic of this 50 storey building is world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the
studied by applying Time History Analysis of El- structures. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base
Centro earthquake. The application of TMDs in 50 isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of
storey building also proved to be safe. The Base base isolation on structures located on soft soils and
shear, Storey displacements, joint accelerations and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case
frequency of the structure are very less [3]. study on natural base isolation using naturally
The effectiveness of TMD in controlling available soils is presented. Also, the future areas of
the seismic response of structures and the influence research are indicated. This study also seeks to
of various ground motion parameters on the seismic evaluate the effects of additional damping on the
effectiveness of TMD have been investigated. The seismic response when compared with structures
structure considered is an idealized single-degree-of- without additional damping for the different ground
freedom (SDOF) structure characterized by its motions [8].
natural period of vibration and damping ratio. The comparative performance of three
Various structures subjected to different actual proposed schemes of coupled building control
recorded earthquake ground motions and artificially involving Magneto rheological (MR) damper and
generated ground motions are considered. It is elastomeric base isolation, named as, Semi active,
observed that TMD is effective in controlling Hybrid 1 and Hybrid 2. The results of numerical
earthquake response of lightly damped structures, study showed that Hybrid controls are more
both for actual recorded and artificially generated effective in controlling the response as compared to
earthquake ground motions [4]. semi active control. Further, influence of device
A series of geotechnical centrifuge tests parameters on control performance has been
was conducted to investigate the effects of TMDs on investigated through a parametric study [9].
the response of a multiple storey sway frame The tuned mass damper technique is
structure undergoing dynamic soil structure enhancing the drift, acceleration, and force response
interaction (SSI). Structural responses were recorded of buildings to wind and earthquakes. The response
for a wide range of input motion characteristics, of buildings to wind and earthquakes was observed
damper configurations and soil profiles [5]. to be more enhanced by increasing the story-mass
The single linear tuned mass dampers ratios and the number of floor utilized as TMDs
problem is treated and it is assumed that earthquake [10].
can be represented by a stationary filtered stochastic The MTMD with the optimal parameters
process. Minimize the maximum of the can actually flatten the transfer functions of building
dimensionless peak of displacement of the protected responses. Numerical verifications show that the
system with respect to the unprotected system. increase of heightbase ratio of an irregular building
Moreover, the constrained optimization problem is and the decrease of relative stiffness of soil to
also analysed, in which a limitation of tuned structure generally amplify both SSI and MTMD
probability of failure is imposed, where failure is detuning effect, especially for a building with highly
related to threshold crossing probability by the torsionally coupled effect. With appropriately
maximum displacement over an admissible value. enlarging the frequency spacing of the optimal
Examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the MTMDs, the detuning effect can be reduced.

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Sandip S. Shevale.et.al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com
ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

Moreover, the results of numerical investigations produced by adding damping in the isolation layer
also show that the MTMD is more effective than [16].
single TMD as the SSI effect is significant [11]. The situation of earthquake protective
TMDs are beneficial devices in reducing systems used in Turkey, this technique is not yet
wind-induced vibrations of tall buildings. In very common, but a number of research activities
particular, they are more effective for the higher soil are going on in order to investigate the behaviour of
stiffness. This study will help researchers better the isolated buildings. Civil engineers, architects,
understand mechanisms of wind-induced responses constructors and owners have great responsibilities
for a building with a TMD when SSI is taken into concerning applications of these systems, but
account. It will also improve the understanding of especially the users have sanction, therefore widely
wind-resistant designs for high-rise buildings [12]. use of the earthquake protective systems will be
A benchmark structure in which the non- provided by the users awareness [17].
linear response of isolation devices (elastomeric and The applicability of an innovative seismic
friction pendulum) is explicitly considered has been isolation system (called SPI) form perspective views
recently defined. By using this model, they of any further advantages to other existing systems,
investigate the non-linear behaviour of the its effectiveness against various types of earthquakes
benchmark isolated structure when a mass damping through energy analysis, and its cost effective
system is applied on the isolation layer, in order to performance. For this purpose, results of a multi-
study the effectiveness of this strategy in reducing purpose experimental model have been examined.
the seismic response of the isolation layer [13]. Results of a case study for 5, 10 and 20 story
Analysis of symmetrical moment resistance moment resistant frame buildings show that
frame (MRF) 10th,12th,14th,16th,18th, and 21th utilization of the SPI system is economically
storey three dimensional model with tuned mass comparable with conventional design, while
damper and without tuned mass damper by using providing the required level of safety [18].
software ETABS, moment resistance frames are The use of TMD enhances the ability of the
column and girder plane frames with fixed or semi structures to store larger amounts of energy inside
rigid connections. They can be constructed from the TMD that will be released at a later time in the
concrete, steel or composite material. Moment form of damping energy when the response is not at
resistance frames can be sufficient for a building up a critical state, thereby increasing the damping
to 20 storeys. A tuned mass damper (TMD) is placed energy dissipation while reducing the plastic energy
on its top and through it to study its effects on dissipation. This reduction of plastic energy
structural response due to time history analysis with dissipation relates directly to the reduction of
and without the tuned mass damper (TMD) in an damage in the structure [19].
ETABS. The result obtained from software analysis Damping of the structure and absorber
of 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th, and 21th storey installed on top of it is represented by frequency
building with and without tuned mass damper and independent one on the base of equivalent visco-
from this we have to conclude that for the regular elastic model that allows the structure with absorber
building frame, 5% TMD is found to effectively to be described as a system with non-proportional
reduce top storey displacement [14]. internal friction. A ground movement is modelled by
The successful implementation of a tuned- an actuator that produces vibration with changeable
mass damping system to reduce the steady-state amplitude and frequency. To determine the optimum
vibrations of the long span, cantilevered, composite absorber parameters, an optimization problem, that
floor system at the Terrace on the Park Building in is a minmax one, was solved by using nonlinear
New York City. The experience with this programming technique (the Hooke-Jeves method)
implementation suggests that tuned mass dampers [20].
(TMDs) can be successfully employed to control The technique for reducing building
steady-state vibration problems of other composite response motion is based on extending Den Hartog
floor systems [15]. work from a single degree of freedom to multiple
The BI technique applies an open-loop degrees of freedom. Simplified linear mathematical
control law and that TMD uses as closed-loop models were excited by 1940 El Centro earthquake
control law. Seismic performance of combined and significant motion reduction was achieved using
system are summarised showing numerical response the design technique [21].
tests of models subject to some recorded seismic The response reduction by using DTMD
excitation in linear and nonlinear range and to and the efficiency of DTMD is evaluated from the
stationary Gaussian random processes. Control analytical results it was concurred that although
effectiveness of TMD in reducing seismic vibration DTMDs are more efficient than single mass TMDs
of base isolated systems is compared with that in the range of total mass ratios, they are only

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Sandip S. Shevale.et.al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com
ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

slightly more efficient than TMDs in the practical of this study demonstrate that the use of the TMD in
range of mass ratios (0.01-0.05) [22]. this building is materially effective in reducing the
A laminated rubber bearing isolator has wind-induced vibrations. However, it is not as
been designed and the properties of the isolator are effective in mitigating remote seismic vibrations
obtained. Then the dynamic analysis of the structure responses [26].
has been carried out and the performance of the Finite Element Analysis can be effectively
building with and without isolator is studied. The used to model dynamic systems and its response,
results can be used in the implementation of a real hence possible solutions could also be sought. The
time structure to improve its seismic performance adaptability of the current tuned mass absorber
[23]. system when subjected to varying external
Firstly, in order to meet with the objectives frequencies is a new feature of the design [27].
of the study, a theoretical four-story plane frame is Structures exposed to strong winds are
selected without any passive energy dissipation considered. Excitation forces, which are functions of
system. Secondly, the structure is assumed to be wind velocity fluctuations, are treated as random
base isolated using high damping laminated rubber forces. The spectral density functions of wind
pads. Thirdly, the viscoelastic dampers are velocity fluctuations are assumed as proposed by
diagonally installed at each floor level of the frame Davenport. The correlation theory of random
and the seismic analyses are repeated with and vibration is used and the root mean squares of
without base isolation. In each scenario, the displacements and accelerations are determined.
calculations have been carried out using both the Several remarks, concerning the effectiveness of
equivalent seismic load method and also the linear multiple tuned or mass dampers, are formulated
time history analyses. Linear time history analyses from the results of calculation [28].
have been based on two different earthquake Tuned mass damper systems as vibration
records, with T1 = 0.13 sec and T2 = 1.43 sec controller in multistoried building is studied, and
predominant spectral periods. The N-S component study about its analyze the effectiveness of their use
of the earthquake ground motion recorded at the in large structures, in order to preserve structural
Tofa automobile factory in Bursa, during the integrity. The idea behind a tuned mass damper is
August 17, 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, is taken as a that if a multiple-degree-of-freedom system has a
basis. In each case the maximum ground smaller mass attached to it, and the parameters of the
acceleration has been raised to 0.40g. The results for smaller mass are tuned precisely, then the oscillation
these two different earthquakes, which represent the of the system can be reduced by the smaller mass
hard and soft soil conditions, respectively, have been [29].
compared by each other [24]. The effect of superstructure damping,
The effectiveness of TMDs on reducing the isolation damping, TMD damping, mass ratio,
response of the same structure during different tuning frequency ratio, superstructure time period
earthquakes, or of different structures during the isolation period on the response of base isolated
same earthquake is significantly different; some structure with tuned mass dampers is investigated.
cases give good performance and some have little or The response of base isolated structure with tuned
even no effect. This implies that there is a mass dampers is found to be less in comparison to
dependency of the attained reduction in response on the corresponding response without tuned mass
the characteristics of the ground motion that excites dampers, implying that the TMD is effective in
the structure. This response reduction is large for reducing acceleration, forces and displacement in the
resonant ground motions and diminishes as the system. It is also found that the superstructure
dominant frequency of the ground motion gets damping, isolation damping, TMD damping, mass
further away from the structure's natural frequency ratio, tuning frequency ratio, superstructure time
to which the TMD is tuned. Also, TMDs are of period and isolation period have considerable
limited effectiveness under pulse-like seismic influence on the response of a base isolated structure
loading [25]. with tuned mass dampers [30].
The optimal parameters of the TMD in It is demonstrated that by minor
Taipei 101 Tower are first determined. Then a finite modifications of the spectral density integrals very
element model of this high-rise building, equipped accurate explicit results can be obtained for the
with a TMD system, is established. A detailed variance of the response to wide band random
dynamic analysis is conducted accordingly, to excitation. It is found that the design can be based on
evaluate the behavior of the structure-TMD system. the classic frequency tuning, leading to equal
The simulation results obtained are compared with damping ratio for the two modes, and an accurate
the wind tunnel test data and the recorded field explic it approximation is found for the optimal
measurements. The accuracy of the established damping parameter of the absorber and the resulting
computational frameworks is then verified. Findings damping ratio for the response [31].

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

A five storey building as a case study has [4]. Dr. Mohan M. Murudi, Mr. Sharadchandra
been taken into consideration through simulated M. Mane Seismic effectiveness of tuned
analysis for both, with and without base isolation mass damper (TMD) for different ground
systems. Numerical analyses are applied in order to motion parameters 13thWorld Conference
observe dynamic behaviour of such structures under on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver,
seismic loads. Brief review of the economy and B.C., Canada, P.No 2325, [2004].
practical effectiveness of base-isolation systems is [5]. R.N. Jabary, S.P.G.Madabhushi Tuned
reported for completeness [32]. mass damper effects on the response of
The main advantage of performance based multi-storied structures observed in
design is the predictable seismic performance with geotechnical centrifuge tests Soil
uniform risk. The reliability of this approach may Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
ultimately depends on the development of explisit (ELSEVIER), pp 373-380, 2015.
and quantifiable performance criteria that can be [6]. Giuseppe Carlo Marano, Rita Greco,
related to the calculated response parameters such as Francesco Trentadue, Bernardino Chiaia
stress, strain, displacement, acceleration [33]. Constrained reliability-based optimization
of linear tuned mass dampers for seismic
III. CONCLUSIONS control International Journal of Solids and
It is very evident that with certain drawbacks, Structures 44 (ELSEVIER), pp 7370-7388,
1) TMD and BI can be successfully used to control 2007.
vibration of the structure and are very effective [7]. Jonathan Salvi, Egidio Rizzi, Michele
tool to protect the structures from various lateral Gavazzeni Analysis on the optimum
forces, like Wind loads, Seismic effects. performance of Tuned Mass Damper
2) Although TMD is more effective in reducing the devices in the context of earthquake
displacement responses of structures with low engineering 9th International Conference
damping ratios, it is less effective for structures on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN, pp
with high damping ratios. 1729-1736, 2014.
3) Base isolators are found to be superior in [8]. J. Jothi Earthquake Analysis of Structure
controlling the acceleration response. by Base Isolation Technique in SAP Int.
4) Current trends in construction industry demands Journal of Engineering Research and
taller and lighter structures, which are also more Applications ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue
flexible and having quite low damping value. 6 (Version 5), pp. 296-305, June 2014.
5) This increases failure possibilities and also, [9]. M.K. Shrimali, S.D. Bharti, S.M. Dumne
problems from serviceability point of view. Seismic response analysis of coupled
6) Several techniques are available today to building involving MR damper and
minimize the vibration of the structure, out of elastomeric base isolation Ain Shams
which concept of using of TMD and BI is the Engineering Journal, pp 457-470, 2014.
one among them. [10]. Tharwat A. Sakr Vibration control of
buildings by using partial floor loads as
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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 10, ( Part -5) October 2016, pp.01-06

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