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Anal. Chem.

1998, 70, 179R-208R

Chemical Sensors
Jir Janata* and Mira Josowicz

School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400

Petr Vanysek

Department of Chemistry, Nothern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115

D. Michael DeVaney

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,1 Richland, Washington 99352

Review Contents Table 1

Thermal Sensors 181R average
Mass Sensors 182R topic 1985-1989 1990-1991 1992-1993 1994-1997 % change
Electrochemical Sensors 182R reviews 78 145 347 453 22 +30
Potentiometric Sensors 183R thermal 6 15 12 64 3 +435
Amperometric Sensors 190R mass 21 40 126 182 9 +44
potentiometric 419 309 260 374 18 +44
Conductometric Sensors 192R amperometric 96 210 208 356 17 +71
Optical Sensors 195R conductometric 66 101 123 275 13 +123
Conclusions 197R optical 62 142 312 364 18 +16
References 198R totals/year 668 962 1391 2070 +49

In this review we are trying to cover the four-year gap in this shows the cumulative totals, percentage representation of the
series (A1). In this period, over 8278 references (in English only) individual types of sensors, and the change since the 1994 review.
have been retrieved from the Institute of Scientific Information The cutoff dates of this review period were 1 December 1993 until
database by the same search routine that was used previously. It 30 November 1997.
represents 49% increase in the total. This relative increase alone The review is structured similarly to the previous reviews in
attests to the vitality of the chemical sensing field. However, the this series; i.e., it is divided by the transduction principles to
absolute figures are somewhat distorted by the fact that many thermal, mass, potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric, and
papers using term sensors really describe a sensing system (i.e., optical sensors. The Introduction contains books and reviews.
a chemical assay). Moreover, the trend to publish the same data Also included in the Introduction are the papers discussing
several times, under a slightly modified title, has become a subjects of general interest that transcend the dividing boundaries
common practice in all fields of science, and chemical sensors given by the individual transduction principles, such as data
are not an exception. As much as possible, we tried to use only reduction, fabrication, selectivity issues, etc. The selection rules
one article from such multiple clusters. With this amount of for this section are slightly different from the rest. Here we have
information, it is only possible to scan the titles of the individual included reviews regardless of the language and only those
papers and then to select only approximately 10% for the final containing 50 or more references. The reviews dealing with a
review. We hope that our colleagues whose paper is not cited specific transduction principle are included in the Introduction to
understand that the decision to include or not to include a paper that particular section. The entire sensing database from which
does not imply our judgment of the quality of that paper.
review is written is available on the Web. The address is http:/
It is interesting to see where are most chemical sensor papers
published. From the papers included in this review, 17% appeared
Books and General Reviews. The maturity of the chemical
in Sensors and Actuators, B, 11% in Analytical Chemistry, 6% in
sensor field is reflected in a large number of books devoted to
Analytical Chimica Acta, 4% in Electroanalysis, and 3% in The
sensors in general (A2-A4), biosensors (A5-A10), and gas
Analyst. The remaining 60% is scattered throughout the literature.
sensors (A11, A12). Whenever possible, we tried to exclude
This surprisingly high figure indicates that the subject of chemical
bound proceedings of sensor conferences because they usually
sensors is not a hobby of a few specialists but draws from a broad
contain material that had been published in regular journals or is
scientific and engineering base.
otherwise unpublishable.
Our aim has been to provide a critical assessment of the new
Selectivity. The quest for better selectivity remains the
trends, features, and distribution of effort in the entire chemical
cornerstone of the chemical sensing research. It follows two
sensor field. This information is summarized in Table 1, which
different routes: biologically derived selectivity, i.e., biosensors
1 Pacific Northwest Laboratory is operated by the Battelle Memorial Institute and synthesized selective materials containing specific binding
for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. sites, or selective matrixes, i.e., chemical sensors.
S0003-2700(98)00010-9 CCC: $15.00 1998 American Chemical Society Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 179R
Published on Web 05/19/1998
Biosensing in general has been the most reviewed topic both tion by supramolecular materials (A57, A58) has been proposed
in the article (A13-A15) and in the book form. Several general for potentiometric (A59) and mass sensors (A60) for gases, vapors
discussions of enzyme sensors have been published (A16, A17). (A61), and liquid media (A62). Molecular recognition of analytes
Peroxidase-modified (A18, A19) and NAD dehydrogenase-modi- is a hot and controversial topic (A63). Thus, the reality of specific
fied (A20, A21) electrodes offer selectivity and a common recognition of vapors by cavitands has been shown to be wrongly
transduction principle for amperometric sensing of many oxidiz- interpreted (A64). Phthalocyanines have been used as selective
able substrates, such as neurotransmitters (A22). Conducting materials in all types of chemical sensors (A65). On the other
polymers (A23-A25) and redox hydrogels (A26) provide a hand, tunable selectivity of phenanthroline complexes has been
convenient matrix for enzymes requiring electron transfer. On demonstrated for electrochemical sensors (A66). Calixarenes
the other hand, enzymes immobilized in inorganic supports have have been used as specific binding sites in sensors based on
been reviewed (A27). Synthesis of polymeric microcapsule array different transduction principles (A67-A69).
containing enzymes has been described (A28). Metalloproteins Molecular imprinting (A70-A72) is an idea that was intro-
are closely related to enzymes in their application in chemical duced in mid-1950s by Linus Pauling and that has now attracted
sensors (A29). Hydrophobic enzymes working in nonaqueous the attention of researchers developing selective layers for
solvents (A30) have been suggested for optical sensors (A31). chemical sensors. Its true value in chemical sensing remains to
Direct electron transfer in electrochemical enzyme sensors has be seen. Imprinted polyurethanes have been used for construction
been discussed (A32). Epoxies containing graphite particles with of optical sensors (A73). A review containing over 700 references
immobilized enzymes have been used as sensing layers in covers the subject of fluorescence modulation by recognition
amperometric biosensors (A33). events. Composite materials used for optical (A74) and electro-
Immunochemically derived selectivity receives continuing chemical (A75) sensing have been reviewed.
attention (A34) despite the obvious problems with the reversibility Self-assembly became a popular method of creating selective
and kinetic nature (A35-A37) of the antibody-antigen reaction. layers for chemical sensors from, for example, phthalocyanines
The structure-binding relationship in antibody-antigen complex (A76) or lanthanides (A77). The thiol-gold system dominates
formation and the role of orientation of immobilized immu- this type of materials (A78). One of the oldest forms of
noreagents (A38) have been examined (A39). A general strategy self-assembly is formation of free-standing and supported black
for immobilization has been suggested (A40). Another class of lipid membranes (A79, A80). Membrane proteins promote natural
related recognition sites is catalytic antibodies, which combine self-assembly and can increase the mechanical stability of sensing
enzymatic and immunochemical functions in chemical sensors membranes (A81, A82). A 3-D self-assembly on the millimeter
(A41). Odorant-binding proteins have been suggested for con- scale has been demonstrated (A83). Self-assembled multilayers
struction of odor-discriminating biosensors (A42, A43). The (A84) and immunochemical layers (A85) have been described.
general issue of protein-ligand recognition (A44) and molecular The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique offers a better control
modeling of host-guest inclusion (A45) has been discussed in of creating thin films than the self-assembly although it is more
the context of chemical sensing. expensive and more difficult to use. Selective layers based on
Principles, manufacturing, and applications of immunochemical LB films have been reviewed (A86) and the electron transfer and
internal reflectance biosensors have been reviewed (A46). The mechanism of redox reaction in these systems have been
potential for clinical application of immunosensors remains high, discussed (A87).
but the only sensors that have found some commercial application The selectivity can be also derived from the matrix not
so far are optical immunosensors (A47). Nevertheless, electro- containing any bona fide binding sites. In that respect, various
chemical immunosensing has been reviewed (A48). A combined polymers remain the key building blocks of many chemical
immunochemical-enzyme approach to selectivity has been de- sensors (A88). Organic polymeric membranes (A89) with cata-
scribed (A49). lytic properties can be used in different types of chemical sensors.
Introduction of DNA to the direct chemical sensing area did Electroactive polymers are a class of materials that can be
not have to wait too long, and biosensors utilizing DNA as the conveniently used in many types of chemical sensors (A90-A92)
recognition element (A50) have been given a new names and biosensors (A93). Immobilization of metalloporphyrins in
genosensors (A51). The irreversibility of this highly selective these materials provides specific binding sites (A94).
binding places the DNA-based devices among detectors or assays, Semiconducting metal oxide sensors (A95, A96), particularly
rather than among conventional sensors (A52). A comparison tin dioxide sensors (A97, A98), remain the most popular type for
has been made between biosensors based on enzymatic, immu- automotive application. A bismuth oxide sensor (A99) is claimed
nochemical, and DNA recognition principles (A53). to offer some advantages over zirconium oxide sensors. Gas
A new type of glucose sensing based on an old principle has sensors based on sulfate electrolytes (A100) and solid-state
been investigated. It involves formation of complexes between electrolytes for chemical sensors (A101) have been reviewed.
boronic acid and various saccharides (A54). The use of glucose Ceramic materials are the heart of many gas sensors (A102). The
oxidase in glucose sensors is an old subject, and the review of assessment of the status of gas sensors and prediction of future
this topic is included here only as an update (A55). Definitions trends in this field have been presented (A103). There are several
and official nomenclature for biosensors have been recommended reviews of proton-conducting materials for chemical sensing
by the IUPAC (A56). (A104, A105). Matrixes created by the sol-gel process have
Synthetic as opposed to biologically derived selectivity in many become a popular medium for immobilization of biological
cases tries to mimic biochemical interactions. Molecular recogni- molecules (A106-A108).
180R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
Sensing Arrays and Higher-Order Sensors. Relatively new fabrication of an integrated pO2, pCO2, and pH sensing array
and probably the most important trend in the chemical sensors (A146). Atomic force and fluorescence microscopies have been
today are higher-order sensors and chemical sensing arrays. used for characterization of patterned sensor surfaces (A147).
Higher order means that more than one transduction principle Photocurable polymers (A148) such as poly(vinyl alcohols)
is applied to the same selective layer. For example, a selective (A149) are interesting for fabrication of sensing arrays. The
layer on a surface acoustic wave sensor can be simultaneously biocompatibility of polyurethanes used in construction of chemical
interrogated as a chemiresistor or optically. On the other hand, sensors has been critically evaluated (A150). Immobilization and
an array of different selective layers used in the same transduction patterning of bacterial surface layers, so-called S-layers, on
principle forms a sensor array of zero order. Both the order and biosensors (A151, A152) is a new addition to the library of
the number of sensing layers in the array increase the number of selective materials. The ability to immobilize biomolecules
data acquisition channels and thus the information content (A109). photochemically opens a possibility for patterning sensing arrays
It is essential that the different layers and higher-order sensors (A153-A155). An oriented immobilization of cell adhesion
are orthogonal in their response. protein onto the chemical sensor surface is an interesting design
Rules for calibration of chemical sensing arrays have been tool (A156).
discussed (A110, A111). The use of neural nets for evaluation Applications. Specialized reviews describe the use of bio-
of response from sensing arrays has been described (A112- sensors in pharmaceutical (A157-A160), food (A161), clinical
A114). A new name has been coined for the neural nets for (A162), and gas analysis (A163). Different principles can be
chemical sensorssChemNets (A115). The public domain software employed for sensing of oxygen in biomedical applications (A164).
PLSToolbox is a useful tool for chemometric evaluation of Environmental sensing and monitoring is a subject of several
response from sensing arrays (A116). A self-diagnostic feature general reviews and covers both gas (A165) and liquid (A166)
of a gas sensing array has been described (A117). applications.
Progress in the sensor arrays has been summarized (A118). The changing geopolitical situation impacts the sensor and
It has been shown that the electrodes can be conveniently sensing systems applications as well. There is a growth of
arranged as interdigitated array of microelectrodes (A119). An literature describing sensors for security and defense applications
array of microhot plates has been described for detection of gases aimed mainly at the detection and prevention of terrorist activities
(A120). A sensor array for tracking gradients of vapors and gases and detection of illicit substances in general (A167, A168). A
(chemotaxic sensors) has been described (A121, A122). comprehensive review of detection of explosives (A169) and
Machine olfaction became a hot topic in the recent years organophosphorus compounds (A170) has been prepared. Many
(A123-A125) and quickly became known as an electronic nose. of these sensors are based on inhibition of cholinesterase activity
An electronic nose for detection of pollen has been described (A171).
(A126), but the electronic feature for suppression of hay fever THERMAL SENSORS
has not been mentioned. Mimicking of taste sensing using Reviews of thermal sensors in general (B1), sensing arrays
chemiresistor arrays of phospholipid membranes has been dem- based on tin dioxide (B2), pyroelectric sensors (B3,-B5) and flow-
onstrated (A127). Surprisingly, it has not yet been advertised as through enzymatic reactors with thermistor detection, so-called
the electronic tongue. enzyme thermistors (B6), have been published.
Another new trend has emergedsselectivity derived from the It has been shown that ac modulation of thin-film pyroelectric
dynamic behavior of the sensors. Thus, information contained transducer (B7) or a Si-planar pellistor (B8) improves the response
in the kinetic, as opposed to the steady state, part of the response to natural gas and methane. Similarly, a 20-Hz vibration of enzyme
has been a focus of several reviews (A128) and articles (A129- thermistor improves the thermal noise rejection of this sensor
A132). Neural nets have been used for dynamic signal processing (B9).
(A133). Noise from the chemiresistor has been used as the Several new ideas and applications have emerged in the
source of information in gas sensing (A134), and the chaotic thermosensing of gases. A solid-state catharometer with some
behavior of a biosensor has been analyzed (A135). selectivity for different gases (B10), a pellistor array based on
Description of a simple classroom experiment of monitoring Si-planar technology (B11), and a thick-film pellistor array (B11)
urea (A136) is an encouraging sign of the recognition of the have been reported (B12). Detection of gases and organic vapors
chemical sensors as an integral part of the academic curriculum. by the photopyroelectric effect has been demonstrated (B13-
Fabrication. An important aspect of fabrication of sensing B15). A pyroelectric structure useful for sensing was prepared
arrays is the ability to deposit multiple selective layers in defined using the LB method (B16). Change in the thermionic emission
areas of the chemical sensor. This requirement presents both due to the chemical modulation of work function appears to be a
materials and processing challenges, which increase with the new sensing principle (B17). The Seebeck effect has been used
diminishing feature size of the sensor. In that context, the ultimate as the transduction principle for sensing of combustible gases
limits of miniaturization of chemical sensors have been discussed (B18). A thermopile was used for measurement of heat absorp-
(A137). Dry (A138), ion beam (A139), electron beam (A140), tion upon inclusion of organic vapors in various clathrates (B19)
electrochemical (A141), and laser (A142) patterning of selective and free-standing membranes (B20).
layers has been described. A laser-assisted deposition has been New materials for fabrication of pyroelectric sensors based on
used for fabrication of biosensors, molecular electronic devices perovskites (B21) and new copolymer materials (B22) have been
(A143), and Nasicon and similar thin films (A144, A145). A introduced. Correlation between porosity of the pellistor and its
spatially controlled membrane deposition has been used in response has been observed (B23).
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 181R
MASS SENSORS electrochemical/mass detection is claimed to be the basis of a
A large number of papers and reviews in this category attest new immunosensor (C43). The effect of immobilization of DNA
to the popularity of sensors based on mass detection. Application on QCM has been examined (C44-C46).
of acoustic wave sensors for liquid and gas sensing has been Effects Related to Mass Change. Mass sensors are more
reviewed (C1, C2). Mass sensors have been used for environ- than just an analytical tool. Diverse effects have been studied
mental applications (C3). Figures of merit for different types of that rely on coupling of the chemical layer to the electromechani-
mass sensors have been critically compared (C4), and mass cal device through interfacial effects such as adhesion, wetting,
sensitivity of the Rayleigh and the Love waves have been and microviscosity. The acoustoelectric effect on QCM operated
compared (C5, C6).
in liquids has been studied (C47). The feasibility of using SAWs
Impedance Analysis. Analysis of the complete admittance
to determine adhesion of polyimide films to quartz has been
curve has become a more refined approach for obtaining informa-
examined (C48). The effects of temperature and humidity on the
tion from both the quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) (C7-
response of polymer-coated acoustic wave sensor arrays for gas
C9) and other mass transducers, such as surface acoustic wave
sensing has been evaluated (C49). Closely related are the
(SAW) devices (C10), and flexural plate (FP) devices (C11). This
dewetting effects observed with polymer-coated SAW devices
analysis is necessary for the use of piezoelectric oscillators in
(C50). The well-known temperature sensitivity of QCM has been
liquids (C12, C13) or with bioselective layers (C14-C16). A
employed for calorimetric/mass measurements (C51). Simulta-
theoretical model of energy transfer between the oscillating crystal
neous measurement of mass and viscosity (C52) and phase
and the surrounding medium (C17) and the analysis of electrode-
separated piezoelectric sensors have been developed (C18). The transitions in lipid multilayers (C53) have been described. The
dynamic response of a QCM (C19) or SAW device (C20) is use of QCM for determination of potential of zero charge has been
another approach that can be used to enhance the chemical described (C54), and chemical effects induced by the acoustic
selectivity for mass sensors. waves have been described (C55).
There are several papers in which arrays of CMS for detection Simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters (i.e., higher-
of organic vapors and gases are described (C21, C22). Increasing order sensors), such as mass and resistivity changes of polypyrrole
the number of selective elements in an array does not necessarily (C56) has been described. Grazing angle spectroelectrochemistry
lead to a more powerful information acquisition. The procedure was combined with QCM as a powerful tool for electrochemical
for determining the optimum type and number of selective layers studies (C57). Assessment of the electrochemical quartz crystal
in an array has been discussed (C23). microbalance (EQCM) as a sensor and electrochemical tool has
Selective Layers. A rational as opposed to a random selection been published (C58).
of selective materials is the preferred approach for optimal design Design and Fabrication. New design features extend the
of mass sensors and sensor arrays. A good correlation between potential usability of mass sensors to some challenging applica-
the vapor sorption and linear solvation energy for fullerenes has tions. An acoustic wave sensor integrated with IC electronics has
been obtained (C24). Semiempirical molecular orbital theory was been designed (C59). A probe consisting of two independently
used to predict gas/polymer interactions and the resulting oscillating and electrically isolated crystals has been used for liquid
response of the QCM (C25, C26). Films containing modified and gas sensing (C60). It has been shown that by vibrating the
calixarenes (C27-C29) and cyclodextrins (C30) have been used entire QCM the adverse effects of coupling of the shear-mode
for selective sensing of organic compounds with SAWs. Paracy- energy to the surrounding liquid can be mitigated (C61). Piezo-
clophanes were found to act as specific layers for detection of electric layers prepared by thick-film technology have been used
aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons (C31). Dendrimers (C32) as substrates for mass sensors (C62). Resonating microcantile-
are a class of compounds that offer a range of designed selectivity vers have been used as mass sensors for detection of vapors
for use with mass sensors. Self-assembled monolayers (C33), (C63). It has been shown that 10-m-thick tensioned polymer
electrodeposited phospholipid films (C34), polythiophene LB films films can be used as oscillators for mass sensing (C64).
(C35), and zeolites (C36) have been used as selective layers for A partial casting on water (C65) and a multiple-droplet selective
QCM. A complete admittance analysis was required to interpret layer casting (C66) were used to build a SAW array sensor.
response of QCM coated with a clay selective layer (C37). The
degree of penetration of vapors of branched and linear hydrocar-
bons into fluorinated polyimide film has been studied in detail ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS
using SAW (C38). Chirality is another aspect of chemical A comprehensive review of electrochemical sensors is included
selectivity that can be probed by mass sensors (C39, C40). in a book on solid-state electrochemistry (D1). There is a large
Selective intercalation of inorganic gases into metal phosphonates number of reviews of biosensors based exclusively on electro-
offers a high degree of selectivity (C41). chemical principles (D2-D4). Different types of chemical sensors
Coupling selectivity of immunochemical and DNA interactions have been used for electrochemical sensing of gases of medical
with mass detection is a relatively old hope. The analysis of the interest (D5).
complete resonant curve or the use of different modes of vibration A review honoring the work of the late Professor W. Simon is
has been examined as the possible means of avoiding the usual a fitting tribute to one of the leading scientists in the field of ion-
pitfalls associated with the interfacial energy transfer in such selective electrodes (ISE) (D6). Specialized reviews dealing with
systems. Thus, performance of an immunosensor based on perfluorinated ion-exchange membranes (D7), conductive epoxies
horizontal polarized-SAW (C42) has been studied, and combined (D8), potentiometric sensors for pharmaceutical applications (D9),
182R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
intracellular ISEs (D10), and NMR techniques for investigation membrane resistance and Warburg impedance (D35). Measure-
of glass membranes (D11) have been published. The issue of ments of diffusion coefficients of the neutral ionophores in
selectivity and detection limits of ISE has been revisited (D12- plasticized PVC membranes using small-amplitude ac/dc tech-
D14). Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) and other niques were shown to be possible (D36). The ac impedance
miniaturized ion sensors are the subject of another recent review characteristics of an ISE|insulator|semiconductor (MIS) structure
(D15). The performance of ISEs and ISFETs in flow systems has designed for chemical sensing applications were modeled quan-
been critically evaluated (D16). A review containing over 300 titatively for a frequency range from approximately 5 Hz to 40
references of synthetic ionophores for the lithium ion (D17) and kHz. The bulk resistance of the membrane contributed signifi-
detection of surfactants by electrochemical sensors (D18) has cantly to the equivalent capacitance at <1 kHz. Experiment and
been published. Preconcentration of analytes into the bulk of the theory show that sensors based on ac or impedance measure-
selective layer in amperometric sensors is one way to achieve ments of changes in the Si space charge will be subject to
lower detection limits (D19). Nanostructuring of gold electrodes significant errors if the membrane resistance is also a function of
has been used as the means of fabricating an electrochemical array the solution conditions (D37).
(D20). Modified carbon paste electrodes (D21-D24) receive Telemetric ISEs were developed for in vivo applications, and
continuing attention as selective amperometric probes for organic the sensor response was found to be nearly Nernstian and
(A22) and inorganic species (D25, D26). reproducible from sensor to sensor (D38).
ISE characterization carried out with a mathematical and
POTENTIOMETRIC SENSORS computational program demonstrated its use for (1) the determi-
(1) General Introduction. The IUPAC Commission on nation of detection limit, selectivity constants, and extrapolation
Electroanalytical Chemistry critically elaborated procedures for of selectivity coefficients of various interferent ions from one buffer
calibration of ISE and limitations of new approaches for determi- medium to another (D39); for (2) the calculation of multiple
nation of selectivity coefficients. Calibrations by metal ion buffers, equilibria between different ligands and metal ions (D40); and
serial dilution, and flow procedures were discussed and compared. for (3) evaluation and graphical representation of the potentio-
Comments on activity standards, concentration standards, and metric selectivity coefficients of ISE (D41). The use of SPICE
ionic strength were made (D27). The critical evaluation of (D42), and BIOSPICE (D43) programs for simulating perfor-
limitations of the Nicholsky-Eisenman (N-E) equation for the mance of chemically sensitive field effect transistors was demon-
detection of potentiometric selectivity coefficients, KA,Bpot, ions of strated. Nonlinear curve fitting using Microsoft Excel Solver was
unequal charge, non-Nernstian behavior of interfering ions, and evaluated for solving nonlinear equations used for modeling data
activity dependence of KA,Bpot resulted in recommendation of obtained in ISE response characteristics (D44). The membrane/
methods for reporting KA,Bpot values (D28). solution interface of liquid membrane ISEs with neutral carrier
IUPAC recommendations have been also made about terminol- was modeled and evaluated in view of Nernstian response, cation
ogy and conventions for ISFET devices (D29). The terms gate and anion interference, detection limit, and effect of lipophilic salt
voltage, drain current, and gate bias potential were defined, additives (D45). Calculation of the thermodynamic characteristics
experimental techniques for measurements with ISFETs were of the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions carried out
summarized, and the appropriate graphical representation of the by a statistical thermodynamic approach using the lattice model
output signal was presented. was found suitable to describe, at least qualitatively, some of the
Thermodynamic interpretation of EMF of polyionic membrane most important characteristics of liquid membrane ISEs (D46).
cells in terms of mixed activities was proposed for the detection Water distribution in poly(vinyl chloride) based on ISE
of transfer numbers of ions and solvent across membrane and membranes (D47) and the behavior of lipophilic derivatives of
for the detection of selectivities of membranes to be used in ISEs benzo- and naphtho-12-crown-4 in the membrane of ISEs were
(D30). A measuring technique suitable for the prediction of the studied (D48). Carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation studies of the
electroanalytical equilibrium signal of a potentiometric sensor effect of water on ISE membranes were reported for plasticization
based on the evaluation of asymptotes of the response of the cell levels ranging from 25 to 100% plasticizer (D49). A dual-sorption
and the confidence interval from the signals measured in the so- model for uptake of water in poly(vinyl chloride)-based ISE
called information dominant section of the response was proposed membranes at equilibrium and during the initial stages of water
(D31). uptake (D50) as well as a spatial image distribution of water in
Three new principles for discrimination of organic guests by the membrane and the effect of additives was elaborated (D47).
the membrane potential change, which are based on the host- Immobilization of a novel photoresponsive ionophoric calix[4]-
guest recognition of charged groups, hydrogen-bonding groups, arene in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes provided new
or steric shapes of nonpolar moieties, are described (D32). switch-functionalized ion-selective electrodes (SISEs) which allow
A cation permselectivity at the phase boundary of ionophore- detection of two metal ions with one electrode (D51).
incorporated solvent polymeric membranes has been studied by The light-addressable potentiometric (LAP) sensor was intro-
optical second harmonic generation (SHG) using the space charge duced for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of whole cells
separation model (D33, D34). and spores (D52), for monitoring enzyme activity (D53, D54), as
Impedance spectroscopy of plasticized PVC membranes con- a gas sensor (for detection of hydrogen and oxygen) (D55-D57),
taining neutral ion carriers carried out under steady-state currents to visualize the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of redox
showed that changes in ionic concentration profiles of neutral potential in chemical reaction systems (D58), and to study the
carriers and ionic species were associated with an increase in bulk relationship between extracellular acidification and cell viability
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 183R
of mammalian cells (D59). A differential measurement method gases, and electrolytes, has developed specific recommendations
based on a time-sharing technique, which makes it possible to to minimize the undesirable effects of preanalytical variables
achieve a very sensitive and highly stabilized response due to the (D74). The committee has included pertinent guidelines and
noise compensation effect for a LAPS, has been developed and suggestions on important aspects of specimen collection proce-
applied to fabricate an integrated taste sensor with artificial lipid dures including patient status and special precautions during
membranes as the ion-sensitive material (D60). Comparison specimen collection (D75) and recommended on mean molar
between a LAPS and a FET-based sensor for various applications, activity coefficients and single-ion activity coefficients of solutions
such as enzymatic and immunological activity detection and cell- for calibration of ISE (D76).
metabolism detection, was carried out (D61). Planar microsensors for in vivo myocardial pH measurements
ISE array analysis using variable step-size, generalized, simu- based on tri-n-dodecylamine (TDDA) or ETH 5294 proton neutral
lated, annealing (VSGSA) can be used to detect model parameters carriers, in aminated PVC matrix, were evaluated (D77). Direct
of ions in mixed solutions without any a priori information about measurement of nitric oxide release from vascular endothelial cells
the analytical system under study, overcoming the disadvantage applying a NO-selective electrode was demonstrated (D78).
of simplex method (D62). The electrochemical sensor for heparin measurement based
A computer-controlled instrument for the simultaneous deter- on a conventional ISE membrane doped with tridodecylmethyl-
mination of pH and redox potential called the potentiometric ammonium chloride (TDMAC) as the heparin complexing agent
alternating biosensor, which drives an array of light sources, was able to measure heparin in small discrete samples of undiluted
allowing 2-D signal acquisition and processing, was presented whole blood (D79, D80). A tetrachloroferrate(III)-selective liquid
(D63). membrane electrode based on crystal violet was reliably applied
A new potentiometric instrument was described which could to detect Fe in human blood, hematite, and mineralized vitamin
measure picomole quantities of sodium without the need for syrup (D81).
special processing and permit the measurements to be made in It was demonstrated that the analysis of both lactate and
real time (D64). ammonium ion in sweat is an effective, noninvasive, and conve-
A monolithic sensor array of 400 individually addressable Pt nient method for estimation of physical condition (D82).
microelectrodes, which can be used in potentiometric mode as Voltammetric lithium ISEs based on ion transfer at the oil/
well as in amperometric mode for redundant measurements with water interface facilitated by neutral ionophores, when tested using
signal averaging, multianalyte measurements, and imaging of artificial serum, showed that the interference from a large amount
analyte distributions, was fabricated (D65). (140 mM) of Na+ in blood can be easily avoided by detecting
The approach of using electrically conducting polymers in the the Na+ concentration simultaneously with the same electrode
development of an artificial neural network polymer pH sensor (D83).
showed much better reproducibility in detecting pH of different A simplified dual-lumen catheter design for simultaneous
acidic and basic media over the conventional polymeric pH potentiometric monitoring of carbon dioxide and pH with relatively
detectors (D66). high stability in flowing blood yields continuously measured values
A comparison of sample handling and analytical methods for in good agreement with those obtained on discrete samples with
determination of acid-volatile sulfides in sediment was carried out a commercial blood gas analyzer (D84).
(D67). (2) Symmetrical Devices. These are classical ion-selective
A new design of gas sensors with extremely fast response times electrodes in which the membrane is placed between two
to CO2, O2, and NO gases with a direct gas contact to the triple solutions. The theory of the transient potential response of ISE
points at the intersection of the ambient electrode, the porous electrodes based on a polarizable liquid | liquid interface predicts
electrode, and the electrolyte was reported (D68). Dependence the effect of the ion concentrations, the ion-transfer kinetics and
of the analytical characteristics of biospecific and gas sensors on the differential capacity of the interface on the response time of
the type of potentiometric transducer was reviewed (D69). ISE (D85), and the effect of the concentration of a neutral carrier,
Reference Electrodes. An improvement in the liquid junction which depends on the reaction mechanism of the carrier-assisted
between an electrochemical sensor containing no liquid electrolyte ion transfer across the interface (D86).
and a classical reference electrode of the second kind was A general expression for interference effects exhibited by ion-
discussed (D70). The use of an internal redox reference electrode selective membrane was derived (D87). The selectivity coefficient
in connection with a fluoride-selective electrode was demonstrated of ISE based on charged carriers was described as a function of
to minimize the electrode drift immediately after assembly (D71). the ionic site concentration which can be achieved by the
Evaluation of a new solid-state reference electrode junction incorporation of a defined amount of the appropriate sites into
material based on solid poly(vinyl acetate) that contains a very the membrane phase (D88). Radiotracer experiments were used
large loading of KCl (1:1 w/w KCl/PVA) (D72) was conducted. to study the selectivity of ion-exchange processes of plasticized
A nonequilibrium approach to development of reference electrodes poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based ISE membranes doped with
and oxygen sensors for high-temperature aqueous systems based neutral carrier as the active material (D89).
on a Pd electrode polarized continuously by cathodic current A self-consistent model describing the potentiometric response
below the H exchange current was shown to behave as a quasi- in mixed-ion solutions of different charges based on ion extraction
reversible H electrode (QRHE) (D73). equilibrium at the sample/membrane interface was discussed
Biomedical Applications. The International Federation of (D90). The measurement of ion activity coefficients in aqueous
Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), through its committee on pH, blood solutions of mixed electrolyte with a common ion can be
184R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
considered as a corollary of the ion/ion and ion/solvent interac- The dependence of the electrical properties of glasses on their
tions (D91). Tuning of the electrochemical recognition of composition and ion mobilities in the surface layers was discussed
substrates as a function of the proton concentration in solution (D111).
using pH-responsive redox-active receptor molecules was dem- Cations. A new procedure for detection of the selectivity
onstrated (D92). coefficient of neutral carrier-based cation-selective electrodes was
Voltammetric investigation of the response mechanism of the established that avoids exposure to the preferred ion prior to the
ISEs based on polymer modified with poly(oxyethylene) deriva- measurement of discriminated ions (D112).
tives in acetonitrile was discussed (D93). The ion selectivity of Teflon film, Si rubber film, Teflon powder,
Ion pairing and acid dissociation constants, as well as limiting and poly(vinyl fluoride) powder electrodes toward H ion, alkali
conductances, have been estimated in ISE membranes based on metal, alkali earth metal, transition metal, and group III metal ions
a 33 wt % PVC/66 wt % dioctyl adipate matrix using the Fuoss was studied (D113).
equation of conductance for weakly dissociable species (D94). The performance of an ISE for potassium, employing valino-
Potentiometric responses of polypyrrole films doped with mycin as carrier in a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane and a poly-
potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), LiCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (vinylferrocene) solid contact between the membrane and the
were grouped into three major classes: ionic (sensitivity to metallic substrate, was compared to electrodes in the coated-wire
changes of ion concentration), pH-metric (sensitivity to the configuration and the conventional electrode with an aqueous
changes of pH of the solution), and redox (sensitivity to the redox internal reference electrolyte (D114). All-solid-state potassium-
potential of the solution) (D95). selective electrodes, which were constructed on a Pt disk electrode
The construction and performance characteristics of an ion- using a double-layer film of electropolymerized polypyrrole/poly-
selective PVC matrix based on the ion-pair complexes for selective (4-styrenesulfonate) (PPy/PSS) composite covered with a plasti-
determination of various drugs in aqueous solutions have been cized PVC membrane containing valinomycin, showed no over-
shoot and lower drift of the standard potential than both a single
described (D96-D99). The criteria for the selection of a suitable
PVC-coated electrode and a double-layer electrode using polypyr-
plasticizer for calix[n]arene-based ISEs were discussed in great
role doped with ClO4- (D115). Cubane diester crown ethers
detail (D100).
tested as K+ neutral carriers in PVC membranes showed the
When novel ISEs based on acidic ionophores are being
highest selectivity for potassium relative to sodium, lithium,
developed, both cationic and anionic additives as well as plasticiz-
calcium, and magnesium ions using potassium tetrakis(p-chlo-
ers of high and low dielectric constant should be tested since
rophenyl)borate as a resistance modifier and nitrophenyloctyl
completely different selectivity behavior could be obtained due
ether (NPOE) as a plasticizer (D116).
to the charged and neutral forms of the carrier in the organic
The study of the behavior of cation-selective solvent polymeric
phase (D101).
membrane electrodes based on acidic ionophores by determining
The behavior of codeine reineckate and codeine tetraphenylbo-
the selectivity coefficients as a function of cationic or anionic
rate PVC membrane electrodes shows a Nernstian response for
additive concentration was pointed out as a possibility for
9.3 10-5-1.3 10-3 mol/L codeine sulfate solutions with a
discrimination between neutral and charged carrier-related mech-
satisfactory selectivity toward sugars, amines, amino acids, cations,
anisms (D101).
and some pharmaceutical compounds (D102). The dynamic
The influence of structure and lipophilicity of dicyclohexyl-
characteristics of ISEs based on ion-exchange materials (quater-
amide ionophores for the lithium selectivity in membrane elec-
nary ammonium salts) were measured upon stepwise changes in trodes was discussed in terms of the form the ligand adopted in
concentration of the potential-determining ion (D103). The the complex conformation (D117). Excellent Li+-selective iono-
response of ion-selective PVC membrane electrodes with calix- phores were obtained by introducing a bulky block subunit into
arene ionophores toward primary amines and amino acid esters the ethano-bridge section of the base crown ring, which effectively
was elaborated to be in agreement with the concept of H-bonding prevents the formation of a 2:1 or 3:1 sandwich-type complex
in the host-guest complex (D104, D105). Molecular designs of consisting of the crown ether and cations larger than Li+ (D118).
calix[4]arene-based sodium-selective electrodes with a short-(CH2- Lithium ISE based on THF-based 16-crown-4 derivatives were
CH2O)2CH2CH2-crown loop on the lower rim with remarkably high evaluated (D119).
105.0-105.3 sodium/potassium selectivity were developed (D106) Uranyl ISEs based on crown ethers in PVC matrix membrane
and electrochemically characterized (D107). A formaldehyde- have been prepared (D120, D121). The performance of a silver-
selective electrode based on the host-guest interaction between selective membrane electrode using acyclic dithia benzene deriva-
p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraester and lipophilic hydrazone gener- tives as neutral carriers has been compared with related macro-
ated in situ from formaldehyde and a modified Girards reagent cyclic compounds (D122).
has a long working lifetime and can be used for the microdetection It was found that rubidium ISEs based on indanopyrazolo[1,5-
of formaldehyde (D108). a]pyrimidines acting as a novel class of neutral carriers exhibits
Multicomponent analyses of heavy metal cations and inorganic good selectivity toward rubidium with respect to alkali, alkali earth,
anions in liquids by a nonselective chalcogenide glass sensor array and some other metal ions (D123).
were discussed (D109). Neutral carrier-type ion sensing mem- Macrocyclic oxamides used as ionophores in solvent polymeric
branes based on sol-gel-derived glass, when incorporated in the membrane electrodes for lead-selective membrane electrodes
ion sensors, showed high sensitivity, high selectivities, and fast showed a pronounced preference for lead detection over other
potential response (D110). divalent and some monovalent cations (D124). Lead-selective
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 185R
PVC membranes based on cation-exchanger diphenylmethyl-N- ference obtained for alkali, alkali earth, and other cations (D143).
phenylhydroxamic acid (PMPHA) provided selectivity to lead ions Ion-selective polymeric membranes sensitive to cationic sur-
in the presence of Cu2+, Hg2+, and Ag+ (D125). factants were fabricated using benzyldimethylhexadecylammo-
The performance of the symmetrical, unsymmetrical, and nium reineckate, dodecyltrimethylammonium reineckate, or hexa-
bridged calix[4]arene derivatives as neutral carrier ionophores decylpyridinium phosphotungstate as exchangers, dispersed in
in PVC membrane for sodium (D126) and lead was evaluated the PVC matrix (D144). An ISE membrane (plasticized PVC-
(D127). A lead-selective membrane electrode based on diben- based) based on phosphoryl-containing pendands of the alkylpy-
zopyrydino-18-crown-6, which exhibits a Nernstian response for ridinium series for the direct potentiometric detection of cationic
Pb2+ ions over a wide concentration range and comparatively good surfactants in water was developed and tested (D145).
selectivities with respect to alkali, alkali earth, and some transition The electrochemically polymerized o-methoxyaniline and o-
and heavy metal ions, was developed (D128). A PbOH+-selective methylaniline on platinum electrodes showed an apparent Nerns-
membrane electrode based on crown ethers was discussed tian response in the 1-12 pH range with a slope of 63.8 mV/
(D129). decade, while the linear range of the electrode prepared with
PVC-based membrane with incorporated chelating ion-ex- poly(o-methoxyaniline) exhibited a linear relation in the 2-11 pH
change resin (1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldoxime-formaldehyde poly- range with a slope of 62.0 mV/decade (D146). Polypyrrole and
mer) containing nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms behaves as a poly(N-methylpyrrole) films on platinum or pyrolytic graphite
Ni2+-selective electrode with the Nernstian response over a wide electrodes prepared by anodic polymerization from acetonitrile-
concentration range (D130). water mixtures containing naphthalenesulfonates and methylben-
An ionophore based on N-hydroxylamide derivatives was used zenesulfonate electrolyte salts show H+, alkali, and alkali earth
for a mercury-selective electrode (D131). Also, a polystyrene- metal ion sensitivities which are a function of solvent composition
based heterogeneous solid membrane of cerium(IV) selenite has and dopant molecular structure (D147, D148).
been shown to be suitable for Hg(II) ion detection (D132). A
Electroanalytical and biocompatibility studies on microfabri-
PVC membrane sensor for mercury(II) ions based on hexathia-
cated array sensors based on pH, potassium and calcium ion-
18-crown-6-tetraone as membrane carrier was prepared (D133).
selective membranes immobilized in high molecular weight
The examination of the conformational influence of different
carboxylated PVC (D149) or in aliphatic polyurethane (Tecoflex)
amide substituents on ionophore applied for the preparation of
matrixes with normal and reduced amounts of plasticizers, were
the magnesium-selective electrode showed that the addition of
carried out (D150).
bulky substituents increased the ionophore selectivity of Mg
Anions. A robust and sensitive chloride ISE with suppressed
sensitivity toward surfactants can be prepared by modifying the
A universal approach for the realization of tailor-made ion-
surface of an iodide-selective electrode using a chemical reaction
selective membranes by overcoming a problem of high membrane
with mercuric chloride in an oxidizing medium (D151).
resistance has been demonstrated for calcium, potassium, and
The high selectivity of the cyclic polyamine, 3-decyl-1,5,8-
nitrate polysiloxane-sensitive ISFETs (D135) or by a proper choice
triazacyclodecane-2,4-dione (N3-cyclic amine), used as the iono-
of lipophilic salts (D136).
phore for a dibasic phosphate-selective electrode was postulated
Electrochemical and thermal behavior in connection with ac
to be a function of the size and charge of the N3-cyclic amine
impedance and FT-IR analysis of calcium-selective membranes
relative to the size and charge of HPO42- ions (D152).
based on a polyimide polymeric matrix plasticized with diethylene
glycol dibenzoate and containing calcium synthetic ionophores Anion selectivities of membranes based on uranyl salophen
was studied (D137). derivatives with substituents at the 4-position were applied to
The ion-selectivity features of the novel Ca2+ and Mg2+ design a nitrite-selective ISE which shows linear response in the
ionophores prepared from the double-armed diazacrown ethers, range 1-3 of pNO2- with a slope of 56.2 mV/decade (D153). The
which have a base diazacrown ether ring with two diamide-type nitrite anion electrodes based on polymer membrane formulated
side chains, supply important structural information about the with a palladium organophosphine complex (benzylbis(triphen-
design of host molecules for alkali earth metal cations (D138). ylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride) do not exhibit proton/
Macrocyclic polyether dioxatetralactams were evaluated as neutral hydroxide response in the range of pH 3.5-12 and do exhibit a
carriers for Ca2+- and Mg2+-selective electrodes in PVC mem- non-Hofmeister selectivity pattern which represents a potential
branes (D139). advantage over previously reported nitrite electrodes prepared
Evaluation of a macrotetrolide nonactin-based ammonium with Co(III) corrins and porphyrin complexes (D154). A PVC
ionophore for use in PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes, in membrane electrode, using bis(tribenzyltin) oxide as the carrier,
the presence of plasticizing solvent mediators, was carried out displayed selective response to phosphate with anti-Hofmeister
(D140). A substitution of monomeric by polymeric plasticizers behavior (D155).
lowers the tendency of migration of the membrane components, Novel neutral anion ionophores based on fluorinated (poly)-
leading to long life (D141). ether compounds have been synthesized and applied for an anion-
Potassium ion-selective PVC membrane electrodes based on selective electrode (D156). Statistical and nonstatistical detection
bis(crown ether) show selectivity coefficients that are better than limits of a fluoride-selective electrode were discussed (D157). A
those of an electrode based on natural valinomycin (D142). novel potentiometric selective detection method for H2S (HS-)
Potassium ion-selective electrodes based on alkyl thiophosphate by an electropolymerized membrane electrode based on a neutral
derivatives as electroactive substances show no significant inter- anion carrier, binaphthyl-20-crown-6, was developed (D158).
186R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
A polymeric membrane based on lipophilic metalloporphyrin inner layer and a hydrophilic outer layer, fabricated by a
derivatives containing electron-donating or -withdrawing groups photolithographic process on the performance of field effect
(D159, D160), or metallocenes or palladium organophosphine transistor potassium-sensitive sensor has been tested (D178). A
complex (benzylbis(triphenylphosphinepalladium(II) chloride) simple and fully IC-compatible microelectronic technology was
(D161) used as anion carriers, showed improved selectivity developed for the fabrication of backside-contacted (BSC) ISFETs
characteristics. based on commercially available bond and etch-back Si on
Construction and evaluation of tetraphenylborate anion-selec- insulator (BESOI) wafers (D179). Application of nickel electroless
tive electrodes and their application in determination of alkaloids plating to the fabrication of low-cost backside contact ISFETs was
in pharmaceutical products were discussed (D162). presented (D180).
The dynamic properties of ISEs based on phosphoryl-contain- A highly automatic ISFET packaging at the wafer level is
ing podands were examined as a function of the structure and possible by applying a lift-off method of common thermocurable
concentration of the podands and the concentration and nature encapsulants as well as direct photopolymerization of UV-curable
of the potential-determining metal cation and its counterion encapsulant compounds containing either epoxy acrylate or
(D163). polyurethane acrylate oligomers together with monomers and
The redox interferences of poly(pyrrole)-based perchlorate- photoinitiators (D181). Characterization and testing of polymer-
selective electrodes were studied in both perchlorate and redox oxide adhesion to improve the packaging reliability of ISFETs was
buffer media (D164). carried out by long-term C-V measurements and CO2 and NH3
The effect of film thickness, various pre- and postconditioning, response measurements (D182). Selective polymeric membranes
and lifetime were examined for the iodide ion sensor polymer sensitive to inorganic analytes of biomedical interest (e.g., H+,
electrode based on the entrapment of iodide/I/triiodide into a K+) were fabricated on a flexible polyimide (Kapton DuPont)
poly(3-methylthiophene) conducting polymer (D165). PVC mem- substrate, using a combination of thin-film, thick-film, and packag-
brane iodide-selective electrodes based on the Ag complex of a
ing technologies, and encapsulated with a biocompatible polymeric
novel thiocarbamoylimine dithioether as an anion carrier were
material such as poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA)
developed (D166).
The characteristics of electrodes with pseudoliquid membranes
Coated Wire and Hybrid Electrodes. A solid membrane
selective for phthalic acid isomers were presented (D167). An
sensor which incorporates stannic oxide as an electroactive phase
anion sensor, in which a dinuclear macrocyclic metal complex,
and polystyrene as binder electrode possesses a high level of
which is shape-selective, was constructed as a cyanide-selective
selectivity for vanadate over many other ions in the pH range 4-10
electrode (D168).
(D184). Using the Ag/AgCl solid-state electrode as the substrate
(3) Asymmetrical Devices. In asymmetrical devices, one
and the chlorpheniramine tetraphenylborate ion-pair complex as
side of the membrane is in contact with a solid phase while the
the active component, a new type of solid-state chlorpheniramine
other is exposed to the measured solution. Screen printing can
ISE was constructed (D185).
be used to divide the fabrication into two distinct sequences:
An all-solid-state membrane electrode based on a conventional
semiconductor processing and sensor-specific steps, which makes
mobile carrier sensitive to H ion and with no internal liquid contact
the batch fabrication of integrated chemical sensor arrays com-
shows a sensitivity of 54-55 mV/decade within a linear range of
parable to that of conventional liquid junction ion-selective
pH 3.5-10.5 (D186). The construction was described of ISEs,
electrodes (D169). Microfabrication methods of silicon chips
make it possible to produce biosensor arrays coated with specific with a mobile carrier sensor, for anionic species of saturated
ionophores or enzymes, in large volumes, with a high degree of monocarboxylates such as propionate, acetate, formate, monochlo-
reliability, and at a low cost (D170, D171). roacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate, in which the
A new type of hybrid chemical sensor has been produced by sensor consists of a 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether solution of the
matching the technology of ISFET production with ISE using a responsive tetradodecylammonium salts (D187).
graphite-loaded Araldite layer to cover the gate opening of Two new types of metal oxide pH sensors (samarium-
encapsulated ISFETs (D172). A new class of modified sol-gel substituted ceria ceramic membrane and single crystals of several
C composite electrodes, based on the encapsulation of complexing molybdenum oxide bronzes) with a direct solid-state contact were
ligands, was described (D173). developed and tested (D188). Solid-state electrodes, containing
Photocurable polymer matrixes for potassium-sensitive ISE phase of vanadium oxide bronze Na2V12O30 as an ionophore,
membranes based on urethane and bisphenol A (epoxy) diacry- exhibited selectivity for aluminum in sulfuric acid solutions
lates have been made (D174). Characterization of photopoly- (D189).
merized decyl methacrylate as a membrane matrix for ISEs that A rubidium-selective electrode developed by coating a graphite
has been cross-linked with hexanediol dimethacrylate was de- rod with a PVC membrane containing decylidene bis(4-benzo-
scribed (D175). 15-crown-5) ether, which was used as a neutral carrier, exhibited
Methods of the integration of ion-sensitive membrane based a near-Nernstian response to rubidium in the broad concentration
on different disposition of the membrane (D176) or based on range (D190).
acrylates deposited into pyramidal containments produced on The tungsten/tungsten oxide electrode was investigated as a
silicon by an anisotropic etching technique have been developed pH sensor over a wide range of pH at 200-300 C and was
and applied for nitrate- and ammonium-sensitive sensors (D177). compared with the yttria-stabilized zirconia membrane electrode
The effect of membrane structure, composed of a hydrophobic (D191).
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 187R
Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFET). Oxynitride based on various styles of immobilizing enzyme in membranes
ISFET using a new encapsulation technique and a new geometry used in association with a nonactin-based PVC matrix membrane
was developed and its operation for pH detection in a differential on NH4+-cation-selective electrode were investigated (D210).
mode was demonstrated (D192). Two types of surface sites Carboxylated PVC membrane matrix with tridodecylamine as a
(namely, silanol sites and amine sites) and their ratio on the hydrogen ionophore allowed covalent enzyme binding to its
characteristics of an Si3N4 gate pH-ISFET were discussed (D193). surface for urea detection within an extended lifetime (2 month)
The behavior of solid-state ion sensors, in which the interface (D211).
between the ion-selective liquid membrane and the silver/silver Modeling of the transduction mechanisms from biological
chloride electrode is modified with a hydrophilic intermediate membranes to silicon sensors by computer simulations for steady
layer containing various concentrations and various kinds of and transient conditions was considered (D212).
electrolyte salts, was described (D194). A potentiometric sensor for ATP anions with the selectivity
Operation of a probe-type n-channel depletion-mode Si3N4 order ATP > UTP, GTP > was constructed based on a planar
ISFET with the substrate in direct contact with solution was bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) embedded with Na+,K+-ATPase
discussed (D195). A Si3N4 ISFET with integrated signal- (Na+ pump) (D213, D214). A method to construct enzyme-based
conditioning electronics, expressly designed for on-line detection biosensors, where the enzyme is entrapped in a lipid matrix, was
of microorganisms in waters, is employed as an H+ sensor (D196). presented (D215).
On-line determination of the degradation of ISFET can be assessed Potentiometric responses of solvent polymeric membrane
if structures sensitive to the variations of dielectrical and packaging electrodes for nucleotides based on neutral derivatives of cytosine
quality are fabricated together with the ISFET (D197). and thymine represent the first cases of ISEs with reported
Ca, Mg, and K ion-selective membranes were prepared by Nernstian slopes in which potentiometric selectivities are due to
immobilization of octadecyl monophosphonate, octadecyl diphos- the formation of hydrogen bonds between a neutral ionophore
phonate, or dibenzo-18-crown-6 ionophores into cationic polymer and a neutral moiety of the analyte. No explanation of the
gels on ISFETs working in a differential mode (D198). An NH4+ mechanism is given (D216).
ISFET sensor based on PVC membrane with improved long-term Bienzymic potentiometric electrodes for creatine and L-arginine
stability was accomplished using a lipophilic type of plasticizer determination using an ammonium-selective electrodes as internal
and a graphite-epoxy layer as an internal reference between the sensor have been described (D217). PVC membrane containing
gate area and the PVC membrane (D199). lipophilic alkylated cyclodextrins as hosts was used for detection
The development of polysiloxane-based chemically modified of subpicomolar levels of acetylcholine (D218) and for detection
field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions was of onium ions in clinical, pharmaceutical, and forensic analysis
discussed (D200). Low-drift and high-sensitivity pH-ISFET with (D219).
Ta2O5 as a sensing membrane was obtained after heat treatment Functionalized, lipophilic (R-, -, and -cyclodextrins were
carried out at various temperatures (D201). A ISFET combination synthesized and their suitability as onium ion-selective, potentio-
pH/pF for the fast determination of very low fluoride concentra- metric sensors studied (D220, D221).
tions in acid solutions was presented (D202). Correlation between (4) Potentiometric Gas Sensors. Theoretical analysis of the
the electrical charge of polymeric membranes and the character- electromotive force of a high-temperature solid-state galvanic cell
istics of ion field effect transistors or penicillinase-based enzymatic incorporating a composition gradient solid electrolyte was carried
field effect transistors was studied (D203). out (D222).
Biosensors. A biosensor based on direct detection of The potential-type sensor using the battery systems M1/MnOx/
membrane potential induced by immobilized hydrolytic enzymes M2 as the sensing elements, where M1/M2 are two electrodes of
which do not require the specific introduction of an internal different metals, and MnOx samples act as the solid electrolyte
reference system has been made (D204). was demonstrated for a systems consisting MnO2 electrolytes with
The use of enzyme chronopotentiometry as a new approach Pt/Cu electrodes, which is most favorable for obtaining high
to overcome inherent problems of steady-state potentiometric electrical potentials in a high ambient humidity (D223). Direct
processes was presented for the example of a glucose oxidase energy conversion by nonsymmetrical electrodes on an oxide
(GOx) electrode (D205). electrolyte electrochemical cell and its applications in multi-gas
The performance of two simple biosensor designs, based on sensing were demonstrated with several gas mixtures (D224).
potentiometric and conductometric transduction modes, has been The theoretical behavior of concentration cells based on ABO3
compared for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides perovskite materials with protonic and oxygen ion conduction was
(D206). described (D225).
FET-based sensors with robust photosensitive polymer mem- A ZrO2 solid-electrolyte sensor for the detection of oxidizable
branes for detection of ammonium ions and urea were fabricated gases which uses the generation of a non-Nernstian electrode
and tested (D207). Protein sensors based on the potentiometric potential was developed (D226). A low-temperature zirconia
photoresponse of polymer membranes doped with photochromic oxygen gauge, based on new Bi3Ru3O11-ZrO2 as electrode
spiropyran were discussed in terms of response time, selectivity, material instead of other ruthenium oxides, hardly deteriorates
and reusability (D208). Enzyme biosensors for urea determina- during the test period of 90 days (D227).
tion based on an ionophore-free pH membrane electrode show A highly sensitive (10 ppb-1 ppm) O3 sensor using In2O3 as
high sensitivity, long lifetime (over 1 month), and short response sensing film was developed (D228). O2 sensors based on Y2O3-
time (2-5 min for steady state) (D209). Urea-sensitive electrodes stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) can be protected by dense filters with high
188R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
electrochemical permeability to ensure longer lifetime (D229). sensor based on EMF measurement exhibited the highest level
The response of the solid-state potentiometric CO2 sensors with of conductivity and sensitivity to H2 at temperatures from 400 to
anion conductor (LaF3) and metal carbonate (Li2CO3) follows the 723 K and a response within 30-100 s (D247).
Nernst equation for the two-electron reduction of CO2 in the A hybrid metal-free phthalocyanine/silicon FET sensor for
concentration range 40-2000 ppm at 400 and 450 C (D230). reversible detection of NO2 has been demonstrated (D248).
Development and testing of a miniature carbon dioxide solid-state Application of iodine-doped poly(cyclophosphazene) film for
electrochemical gas sensor was described (D231). Nasicon potentiometric detection of tributyl phosphate vapor using a Kelvin
prepared by the sol-gel method has been used as a solid probe was described (D249).
electrolyte for carbon dioxide detection (D232). Catalytic metal gate-SiO2-SiC (MOSiC) capacitors operating
A solid-state sensor based on two platinum electrodes that at 800 C were used as high-temperature H or H-containing gas
differ in their true-to-geometrical surface area ratios and that are sensor devices (D250).
in contact with Nafion 117 was tested as a hydrogen sensor A novel hybrid technique for manufacturing gas sensing field
(D233). Operating characteristics and modeling of a solid-state effect structures (GasFETs) with an air gap is reported (D251).
hydrogen sensor fabricated by covering one of the planar Pt Gas sensing results of charge flow transistors incorporating
electrodes with an oxide catalyst mixture containing CuO/ZnO/ polyaniline films to very low concentration of NOx and SO2 have
Al2O3 were described (D234). A high-temperature hydrogen been obtained via an operation mode similar to that used for the
sensor based on stabilized zirconia and a metal oxide electrode conventional MOSFET (D252). Fabrication advantages of a new
showed fairly good sensing characteristics and excellent selectivity chemical sensor based on a MOS transistor with rear contacts
to H2 in the presence of NO, NO2, CH4, CO2, and H2O, as well as and two flat surfaces based on some initial results from the
good long-term stability (D235). development of this technology have been reported (D253). In
The possibility for a potentiometric humidity sensor of com- situ modification of the NOx sensitivity of thin discontinuous
posite membranes prepared from anion-exchange membranes and
platinum films as gates of chemical sensors was discussed (D254).
polypyrrole was presented (D236).
H2 gas sensing devices based on a porous platinum metal oxide-
NOx determination with galvanic zirconia solid electrolyte cells
semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) were fabricated
used for O2 detection was discussed (D237).
(D255). The mechanism of hydrogen adsorption effects on
A potentiometric gas sensor capable of monitoring gaseous
diamond-based MIS hydrogen sensors has been analyzed (D256).
sulfur and/or hydrogen sulfide based on silver -alumina solid
The catalytic effect of the Pd metal gate structure of the MOS
electrolyte (Ag|Ag -alumina|Ag2S, MoSx, S2, N2, Au) was designed
can be modulated by applying a cyclic treatment (HCT) which
and tested in oxygen-free atmospheres at temperatures between
modifies the structure of the palladium film evaporated on the
908 and 1043 K (D238).
silicon dioxide (D257). Langmuir analysis on hydrogen gas
The carbon dioxide sensing characteristics of solid-state
response from 1 to 10 000 ppm of palladium gate FET was carried
electrochemical sensors based on sodium ionic conductors, Na3-
out (D258). The optimization, characterization, and analytical
Zr2Si2PO12, operated from 370 to 520 C were presented (D239).
performance of a suspended gate field effect transistor (SGFET),
The effect of yttria addition to Na2CO3/BaCO3 composites for
with a selective polyaniline/Hg layer, for monitoring low levels
potentiometric CO2 sensors was studied in respect to ionic
of HCN in air were described (D259).
conductor, microstructure, and sensing properties (D240). The
The use of semiconductor sensors for detection of H2 in nuclear
EMF and the sensitivity of ceramic CO2 sensors with thin- and
thick-film electrodes with Na-R-Al2O3 and Nasicon were evaluated reactor installations was discussed (D260).
(D241). Two-dimensional numerical simulation for gas chemisorption
The analysis of the response of a zirconia sensor to multicom- on metal oxide layers and their implementation in the work
ponent gas mixtures providing insight and design guidance in function change on the sensitive layer of a suspended-gate field-
optimizing sensor operation for specific applications was per- effect transistor and the current modulation in a ZnO layer were
formed (D242). described (D261).
Detection of hydrocarbons in air and purification of exhaust A probe consisting of a water-cooled metal support, an Y2O3-
gas under lean-burn conditions using solid electrolytes has been stabilized ZrO2 reference electrode, and an Al2O3 indicator
demonstrated (D243). A high-temperature (973 K) ceramic electrode was developed for measuring O activity in molten glass
sensor for detection of gaseous hydrocarbons was constructed (D262). Development of a long-term oxygen sensor in molten
using CaZr0.9In0.1O3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia as the proton and copper using a MgO-PSZ electrolyte tube was discussed (D263).
O2 conductors, respectively, with a Pt/La0.6Ba0.4CoO3 and an Au Several types of solid reference electrodes for potentiometric gas
electrode (D244). sensors based on solid sodium ion conductors (e.g., Na+/(-
Improvement of the thermal shock resistance of R-Al2O3 alumina or Nasicon) were described and the observed experi-
ceramics for sensor applications has been achieved by incorpora- mental results are discussed in view of theoretical predictions
tion fibers of Al2O3 and ZrO2 into R-Al2O3 (D245). (D264).
A perovskite-type oxide of LaGaO3 doped with Sr and Mg With Bi2Ru2O7 and Bi3Ru3O11 as electrode materials, the
exhibits a high oxide ion conduction over a wide range of oxygen zirconia sensor can be used at a temperature as low as 450 K
partial pressures (D246). (D265).
A hydrogen sensor based on ammonium tantalum tungsten The role of formation of charge-transfer complexes in work
oxide as a proton-conductive solid electrolyte for a hydrogen function gas sensors has been discussed (D266).
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 189R
AMPEROMETRIC SENSORS Interdigitated array, thin-film noble metal microelectrodes
(1) General Introduction. Molecular recognition at mem- deposited with different geometries were fabricated by photoli-
brane surfaces was investigated by exploiting three different thography and electron beam lithography on silicon substrates
principles of signal transduction, i.e., (1) active transport, (2) ion (D290).
channel function, and (3) membrane potential change (D267). A radio frequency plasma-polymerized perfluoroallylphospho-
Ultrathin porous carbon films employed as transducers for nic acid film was prepared for use in amperometric biomedical
amperometric detection couple the advantages of high enzyme sensors (D291). Application of excimer laser micromachining for
loadings and large microscopic area with a small geometric area the fabrication of disk microelectrodes in a composite membrane
which greatly enhances sensitivity (D268). The application of or thin laminate arrangement has been demonstrated (D292).
dispersed palladium microparticle films in conducting polymer to (2) Modified Electrodes. A nonlinear reaction/diffusion
biosensors has been investigated (D269). equation with Michaelis-Menten kinetics in electroactive polymer
The influence that various experimental parameters have on films was formulated, and approximate analytical solutions for the
the electrochemical response of zeolite-modified electrodes was substrate concentration profiles and corresponding current re-
studied using ion-exchange voltammetry (D270). Four potential sponses were developed (D293). A theoretical analysis describing
step in a single-pulse sequence mode, which tends to eliminate the transient current response of a conducting polymer-based
the charging current, is recommended for amperometric sensors amperometric chemical sensor to a concentration step was found
(D271). The concept of combination of an Ag6I4WO4 pellet with to be in a good agreement with that obtained experimentally for
a UV decomposition unit as an amperometric sensor for detecting the detection of ascorbate at polypyrrole electrodes (D294). A
hydrocarbons in the ppm range was presented (D272). polyaniline-dispersed mercury electrode for the detection of
Fabrication. Nanometer-sized glass-sealed metal ultramicro- monochloramine and dichloramine was made (D295).
electrodes (Umps) with effective electrode radii of 2-500 nm were A novel photoelectrochemical sensor, the microoptical ring
made (D273). Binder paste as a new composite material for electrode (MORE), based on a thin-ring microelectrode and a
biosensors and electrochemical bioreactors was reported (D274). fiber-optic light guide as the insulating material acting as an
It was found that electrochemically generated cresole film interior to the ring, is capable of delivering light directly to the
mixtures protect glassy carbon surfaces from poisoning when used region of electrochemical measurement. It can be used to conduct
for detection of different phenolic materials (D275). A new class microelectrochemical studies of systems with complex photo-
of composite electrodes made of sol-gel-derived C-SiO2 materials chemistry and to conduct detection of photogenerated species
can serve as an indicator electrode in amperometric sensing and (D296).
biosensing applications that offer higher stability than carbon paste Chemically modified carbon paste electrodes containing Fe-
electrodes and are more amenable to chemical modification than (III)Y zeolite (D297) or zeolite molecular sieves (D298) were
monolithic and composite carbon electrodes (D276). applied for detection of ascorbic acid or copper trace in aqueous
A printed microelectrode array of some 1000-3000 electrodes solution, respectively. Polycrystalline platinum electrodes modi-
and an amperometric sensor, which consists of an amperometric fied with Nafion and cellulose acetate were investigated for the
transducer in combination with an adjacent Ag ink reference detection of nitric oxide based on its oxidation (D299). A
electrode, was fabricated for the detection of heavy metal traces ruthenium(II) complex/Nafion-modified electrode combined with
for environmental field analysis (D277). The performance of a carbon dioxide sensor was used for selective determination of
microsensor arrays with 1024 individually addressable ampero- oxalate (D300).
metric cells which were realized in silicon planar technology (10 A preliminary examination of a simple and rapid screening
mm 10 mm and 30 mm 30 mm substrates) with separated method for quantifying the range of toxic organohalides directly
hydrogel membranes was presented for two-dimensional oxygen in aqueous solution with a metalloporphyrin catalyst was described
concentration mapping (D278). Polyhydroxy cellulose enzyme (D301).
electrodes for the water-free organic phase have been fabricated A sensor with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane
and tested (D279, D280). (10% voids) and a porous carbon felt electrode was fabricated for
To decrease the mass-transfer resistance of oxygen permeation the detection of residual ozone in water (D302).
and to improve the response of the enzyme electrode, a series of A gold electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of
amphiphilic poly(vinyl cinnamate) membranes were prepared by thiols was examined as an electrochemical detector for ionic
using photosensitive PVC (D281). surfactants (D303). Gold ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) modified
Enzyme-entrapping membranes for biosensors were obtained with a thioctic acid monolayer show selectivity for electroinactive
by radiation-induced polymerization (D282), deposition of en- electrolyte anions, which participate indirectly in the electrode
zymes using electrochemical aided adsorption in the presence of reaction (D304).
glutaraldehyde (D283, D284), electrochemical deposition of A mixed-valent ruthenium oxide-ruthenium cyanide film on
enzyme in a conducting polymer (D285, D286), or using screen glassy carbon electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity
printing of the enzyme from the carbon ink (D287). Spatially toward oxidation of simple aliphatic alcohols and polyhydric
controlled on-wafer and on-chip enzyme immobilization using compounds in acidic media (D305).
photochemical and electrochemical techniques (D288) as well as (3) Gas Sensors. The detection of volatile compounds with
polyacrylamide polysiloxane membrane depositions (A146) was chemical gas sensors is of increasing interest in the nondestructive
reported. Specific examples of microencapsulation of enzyme detection of food quality (D306). The development of a new
layer in ex vivo biosensors have been presented (D289). microelectrode gas sensor for the simultaneous measurement of
190R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
O2 and CO2 was described (D307, D308). Low detection limits ceramic-carbon oxygen sensors composed of a hydrophobically
for AsH3, SiH4, and organic vapors were reported with a thin gold modified silicate network and a dispersion of carbon powder and
film electrode ion-plated on a gas-permeable membrane (D309). inert or cobalt porphyrin catalyst modifier provide a fast dynamic
A study of the rapid detection of CO in air employing protonic response (D331). Results have been presented for the simulta-
conductor/Pt interfaces shows that electrochemical oxidation of neous measurement of the concentrations of the inhalation
CO is controlled by the formation of the precursor OHad radicals anesthetic halothane and oxygen in gas streams with compounds
which react rapidly with CO (D310). A planar type of limiting in a clinically important range (D332).
current oxygen sensor with Pt electrodes on only one side of the (4) Biosensors. The effects of both electrode material and
zirconia disk was fabricated and parameters affecting the sensor polymer configuration on the performance of the electrochemical
characteristics were investigated (D311). Hydrogen sensing with sensor based on immobilized enzyme electrode have been studied
a solid-state H sensor fabricated with a 9% YSZ disk sandwiched on surfaces of glassy carbon, platinum, and gold rotating-disk
between two Pt films covered by a catalyst was examined under electrodes (D333). A study of electrical double-layer effects in
limiting current conditions (D312). The possibility for CO2 the pretreatment of two-electrode cells for enzyme electrodes was
detection in N2/CO2 gas mixtures by a zirconia (solid-electrolyte) described for a two-electrode cell (D334). Studies of the elec-
electrolysis cell operating in a limiting-current mode was demon- trochemical characteristics of H2O2 microarray electrodes, and as
strated (D313, D314). A novel amperometric ZrO2 gas sensor the building elements for biosensors, were conducted (D335).
for measurement of air/fuel ratio on either side of the air/fuel Bilayer electrodes, where the H2O2-producing enzyme and the
stoichiometry was described (D315). A new technique was redox-epoxy-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) network are not
proposed to study the kinetics and the surface reactions of high- electrically connected, extend the range of amperometric biosen-
temperature zirconia electrode reactions (D316). sors based on directly redox-epoxy-wired enzymes to enzymes
The measurement of D2O concentration in a mixture of H2O that are difficult to connect electrically to redox polymer networks
and D2O was studied using CaZr0.9In0.1O3- as a high-temperature and whose preferred or only cosubstrate is oxygen (D336). Local
protonic conductor (D317). An amperometric solid-state sensor detection of photoelectrochemically produced H2O2 with a wired
for NO and NO2, based on protonic conduction of (zirconium HRP microsensor was demonstrated (D337). A novel chronopo-
phosphate with titanium hydride as reference and Au as counter tentiometric detection method based on the correlation of the
electrode, was able to operate at room temperature (D318). potential change in the selected section of the relaxation curve
Factors that influence the open-circuit potential of a Pt/solid with the concentration of the species to be measured was
polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrode in air containing low concen- developed with NADH as a model compound (D338).
trations of H2 were studied (D319). The electrochemical response Permeation of solutes through an electropolymerized ultrathin
to H2, O2, CO2, and NH3 of a solid-state cell based on a cation- or poly(o-phenylenediamine) film used as an enzyme-entrapping
anion-exchange membrane serving as a solid polymer electrolyte, membrane was studied by cyclic and rotating-disk electrode
with response time in the order of 1 min, was determined (D320). voltammetry (D339). It was shown that the sensitivity of multi-
The response behavior of electrodes for solid electrolyte Nernstian layer enzyme electrodes can be controlled by the number of
CO2 gas sensors was characterized using the pressure modulation enzyme layers assembled onto the electrode (D340).
technique (D321). A hydrogen sensor with a ppm-range sensitiv- Artificial electron donors for nitrate and nitrite reductases
ity was accomplished by using poly(vinyl alcohol)-phosphoric usable as mediators have been selected and characterized by
acid as the solid electrolyte sandwiched between two palladium electrochemical methods (D341). The detection of cyanide,
films (D322). chlorophenols, atrazine, dithiocarbamate, and carbamate pesti-
Monitoring of hydrogen at high-temperature, high-pressure cides was described, utilizing an amperometric biosensor con-
aqueous solutions has been demonstrated (D323). A hydrogen structed by the electropolymerization of a pyrrole amphiphilic
probe equipped with strontium cerium oxide, SrCeO3-based proton monomer-tyrosinase coating (D342). Characterization results
conductor, and calcium/calcium hydride reference electrode of mediated and nonmediated oxidase enzyme-based glassy
generated a stable cell potential within 5 min after immersion in carbon electrodes compared favorably with the classical platinum-
molten Al or Mo (D324). enzyme probe (D343).
A galvanic sensor without applied external voltage was de- Chemically modified electrodes incorporating biological com-
scribed for the trace detection of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous ponents, such as enzymes, in a polymer-modified matrix that
media (D325). A semiconductor gas sensor based on In2O3 was couples a bioreaction with electrochemical detection were exten-
exploited for detecting ethyl acetate (D326). A method for sively discussed (D344). The suitability of catalytic materials
correcting short-term fatigue in an electrochemical fuel cell sensor (catalytic carbon powders, platinized materials), membranes, and
provides a reliable means of detecting the concentration of the fabrication technologies for the construction of amperometric
range of gases in a variety of gas mixtures (D327). Ambient biosensors was elaborated (D345).
temperature oxygen sensors based on insulating material- Signal stability of amperometric biosensors for long-term
dispersed PbSnF4 layers in a cell, Ag|Ag6I4WO4|PbSnF4|, were measurements such as consumption of substrate in the bulk
discussed (D328). The electrochemical properties of metallopor- solution and for the release of electrochemically active products
phyrin-clay complex-modified electrode systems were investi- from the enzyme layer was studied (D346).
gated as oxygen sensors (D329). A high-temperature oxygen Immobilization of enzymes into Nafion membranes by sus-
sensor (YSZ) with a porous Pt layer on the cathode operates on pending the enzyme in a water-ethanol mixture with a high
the principle of an electrochemical pump (D330). Fuel cell-type (>90%) ethanol content, followed by mixing with the dissolved
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 191R
polyelectrolyte, was proposed (D347). Highly selective electro- The rate of electron transfer from the substrate-reduced
chemical detection of dopamine using interdigitated array elec- enzyme to the redox polyelectrolyte depends on the tightness
trodes modified with Nafion/polyester ionomer layered film was of the complex (D367).
reported (D348). Direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrode
Preliminary investigation of a bioelectrochemical sensor for surface was demonstrated for monolayer-immobilized enzymes
the detection of phenol vapors that is based on ionically conducting catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 (D368, D369).
films incorporating a biological redox catalyst was reported The electron pathway, which has a maximum electron coupling
(D349). between the active site and the surface of the enzyme, was verified
Amperometric glutathione electrodes based on hydrogen experimentally (D370).
peroxide or Clark-type oxygen electrodes, coupled with a novel A new, highly sensitive enzyme sensor was developed for the
enzyme glutathione oxidase, have been assembled and analytically detection of inorganic phosphate using maltose phosphorylase,
evaluated (D350). acid phosphatase, glucose oxidase, and mutarotase enzymes
coimmobilized on a regenerated cellulose (D371).
Bienzymic electrodes for maltose were evaluated (D351).
The detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides
Needle-type biosensors for rapid measurement and detection of
using amperometric biosensors based on immobilized cholinest-
sugars in fruits with low detection limits were fabricated and
erases (ChE) was investigated (D372). Tungsten sensor that does
combined with a conventional three-electrode system (D352).
not amalgamate with Hg found an application for indirect detection
An enzyme microsensor with osmium complex and porous
of organic thiols and proteins in buffered solutions (D373).
carbon was developed for measuring uric acid (D353).
An amperometric internal enzyme gas sensing probe arrange-
The use of recombinantory DNA technology in the design of
ment provides an excellent selectivity for hydrogen peroxide over
a highly specific heroin sensor has been described (D354).The
ionic species in solution that cannot penetrate the gas-permeable
use of bacterial luciferase enables specific detection of heroin, barrier (D374). Electrical communication between electrodes and
which opens a possibility for the development of a biosensor for enzymes mediated by redox hydrogels has been discussed in
illicit drugs (D355). A fully active monolayer enzyme electrode terms of different redox mediators covalently attached to the
derivatized by antigen-antibody attachment was described and polymer backbone (D375). A nonleaking amperometric biosensor
tested (D356). The concept and first results for a multivalent based on high molecular ferrocene derivatives has been claimed
amperometric immunosensor system that is based on silicon (D376, D377). The application of ferrocene-containing dendrim-
technology and focuses on site-specific immobilization of strepta- ers as mediators in amperometric biosensors shows that these
vidin on silica and reduction of nonspecific binding of proteins sensors respond rapidly to the addition of glucose (D378).
were shown (D357). Benzoic acid determination through competitive inhibition of
Steady-state kinetics of the functioning of organometallic mediated bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen was described (D379). A
amperometric membrane biosensors has been modeled (D358). prototype amperometric fructose biosensor based on membrane-
A model describing aspects of the transient and steady-state bound fructose dehydrogenase and the coenzyme ubiquinone-6
behavior of toxicity monitoring biosensors, which incorporate immobilized in a membrane mimetic layer on a gold electrode
living microbial cells immobilized in a thin layer between an has been constructed and tested (D380).
amperometric electrode and a porous membrane, was presented Correlation between permselectivity and chemical structure
(D359). The electrochemical properties of carbon fiber micro- of overoxidized polypyrrole membranes used in electroproduced
electrodes were investigated in view of their application for the enzyme biosensors was determined (D381).
construction of amperometric biosensors based on oxidase Data acquisition, signal processing, and modeling using an
enzymes (D360). Preparation and amperometric response of integrated artificial neural network applied to amperometric
carbon and platinum dual-cylinder microelectrodes were evaluated detection of the polypyrrole formate biosensor were examined
(D361). (D382). An electrochemically stimulated release of ATP from a
The detection of hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzymatic poly(pyrrole ATP) film-modified Pt electrode was presented
reaction of ATP with glycerol and the subsequent oxidation of
glycerol 3-phosphate was carried out with a platinum-dispersed
carbon paste electrode (D362). A hydrogen peroxide sensing Sensors in this group rely on changes of electric conductivity
electrode prepared by incorporating cobalt(II) octaethoxyphtha- of a film or a bulk material, whose conductivity is affected by the
locyanine [CoPc(OEt)8] into a carbon paste oxidizes hydrogen analyte presence. On a few occasions, the sensor measures the
peroxide at lower potentials than a CP electrode with unsubstituted analyte conductivity directly. The most predominant materials
cobalt phthalocyanine (D363). Peroxidase-incorporated conduct- used in these sensors will be examined first. The methods of
ing polymer electrodes were examined as hydrogen peroxide numerical processing of the analytical signal will be next, followed
sensors in acetonitrile (D364). The behavior of HRP in different by certain phenomena or properties which lend themselves for
reversed micellar systems has been studied (D365). the purpose of sensing. Specific analytes or purposes are not
The application of redox enzymes as biocatalysts for ampero- treated systematically here. Only an eclectic choice of examples
metric sensing of antigen-antibody interactions at the electrode is given, mentioning either the very prevalent or the quite unusual.
surface makes the electrode insensitive to microscopic pinhole Selective Materials. Thin films are used mostly as gas
defects in the monolayer assembly (D366). sensors due to their surface conductivity change following surface
192R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
chemisorption. They can be tailored for specific purposes (D384, during evaporation of a gold film. Openings left after liftoff of
D385). The films are thin to achieve sufficient sensitivity and the spheres were suitable in size to immobilize antibodies or
response time. Due to oxygen chemisorption, CdS thin films can enzymes which can act as specific recognition elements (D20).
be used as oxygen sensors (D386). Surface adsorption on SnO2 Polymers, either conductive themselves or with a modifier, are
film deposited on alumina resulted in a highly sensitive and also often used. A WO3-impregnated thin poly(vinyl alcohol) film
selective H2S gas sensor (D387, D388). Pure Au thin metal film across two closely spaced microelectrodes was employed as a CO2
can sense H2S because its resistivity changes dramatically upon sensor (D426). Some conducting polymers can be prepared with
exposure (D389). Catalytically active Pt, Pd, and Ru are often high sensitivity, e.g., polypyrrole toluenesulfonate-doped film
used to dope metal oxides to prepare sensors for H2 (D390). (D427). Micrometer tower structures of polypyrrole can be
Thick-film sensors rely on the bulk resistance of their active grown, perhaps providing sensor material with new properties
material. For example a film (40 m) of porous MnWO4 works (D428). Polypyrrole can detect volatile amines (D429), or when
as a humidity sensor (D391). Pd films (D392) or oriented MoS2 doped with ClO4- and tosylate, it can be made into a sensor for
(D393) were used to sense hydrogen, BaTiO3 can sense CO2 NH3 (D430). A novel sensing format for the detection of toxic
(D394), tin oxide can detect CO at room temperature (D395), vapors uses thin films of polypyrrole or polyaniline coated onto
and gallium oxide can sense reducing gases (D396). The effect poly(ethylene terephthalate) or nylon threads woven into a fabric
of thickness on H2 sensitivity of SnO2 nanoparticle-based thick mesh. The resistivity of these materials responds to several toxic
film was studied (D397). gases including dimethyl methylphosphonate, NH3, and NO2
Zeolites (D398) were used, for example, as a coating of planar (D431).
interdigital capacitive sensor for hydrocarbons (D399). Diamond New sensing materials can be prepared through LB films. A
films are very attractive for their high-temperature stability. They low-conducting LB film, based on tetracyanoquinodimethane
were used to prepare hydrogen (D256, D400) or NO2, HCl, and (TCNQ) and tetrathiofulvalene (TTF) derivatives exhibits sensitiv-
O3 sensors (D401). A fullerene (C60) was used to construct a
ity toward nitrogen dioxide (D432). Other such films were
sensor for monitoring hydrogen and humidity (D402) or NH3,
developed to sense methanol and ethanol (D433), odors (D434),
amines, and organic vapors (D403). Oxides doped with copper
Cl2 (D435), or toluene (D433). Electrochromic LB films of
or copper oxide are very sensitive to gas containing H2S (D404-
lutetium bisphthalocyanine were sensitive to electron donor and
D406). For room-temperature operation, copper phthalocyanine
electron acceptor gases and to tobacco smoke (D437). Self-
(Pc) was employed to detect sulfur compounds in diesel exhaust
assembled bilayer lipid membranes on a metal support with
gas (D407) or NO2 (D408-D410). A metalloporphyrin-clay
hemoglobin allow rapid detection of carbon dioxide in aqueous
complex with cobalt produced an oxygen sensor (D329). A
solutions (D438). A charge-transfer system can be used as an
hydrogen sensor based Cu-Pc with palladium admixture was
active component of conductive sensors. Tetrathiafulvalene salts
prepared (D411). Polymer composite films can change conductiv-
and oxanol dye have been investigated for use as gas sensors for
ity upon exposure to vapors, an effect that is typically used in
SO2, H2S, NO2, Cl2, CH4, and O2 (D439). Versatile devices can
humidity sensors (D412).
be constructed by micromachining, for example, by integrating
Semiconducting Ga2O3 thin film can detect CH4 (D413).
heating on a single lithographic chip (D440) for CO (D441).
p-Type semiconducting cuprates of Tm or Yb formulated as Ln2-
Integration of a sensor and attendant electronics is desirable and
Cu2O5 (Ln ) Tm, Yb) respond to NO2, while the n-type cuprate
is in some cases possible (D442).
of Tb does not (D414). A p-type semiconductor sensor based on
Cr2-yTiyO3+x reacted to hydrogen sulfide (D415). A Pd/ZnO/p- Measurement Methods. Resistance measured from dc
Si heterojunction was the essence of a hydrogen sensor (D416). current is typical. Often the measurement is done with ac current
Similarly, a film of SnO2 doped with Pd was used (D417). A (impedance), which also allows one to obtain changes in capacitive
Schottky barrier diode based on a planar polymer (poly(3- impedance (reactance) (D443). Zeolite layers change capacitance
octylthiophene)) was used to sense nitric oxide and ammonia in response to the presence of combustion gases (D398-D444).
(D418). A double Schottky diode gas sensor with two films, Au A pH detector based on capacitive structure was designed (D445).
and Pd, in parallel was reported for phosphine and hydrogen Changes in permittivity of oxide mixtures was used in a sensor
(D419). Illumination can enhance the sensitivity of some of the for various gases, such as NOx (D446, D447), H2S (D406), CO2
sensor materials because many are semiconductive (D420). Films (D448), SO2 (D449), butane or ammonia (D444), other organic
illuminated with UV light may become sensitive to oxygen and combustible gases (D450), or aroma sensing in meats (D451).
reducing gases such as CO (D421). Solid solutions based on the Discrimination between conductivity and capacitance through
rutile structure offer the possibility of independently varying the impedance can extend the use of sensing materials. Conducting
cation composition and dopant density, e.g., for CO (D422). The polymer poly(N-(2-pyridyl)pyrrole) (D452) or zeolites (D444)
best known protonic solid electrolyte HUO2PO44H2O prepared demonstrated the possibility to discriminate between capacitance,
from uranyl nitrate and H3PO4 was used as a hydrogen sensor conductance, resistance, and dissipation factor as a function of
(D423). Polymetallorotaxanes have been proposed as possible frequency. A frequency spectrum technique proved useful in
sensor material for transition metal ions, e.g., Zn2+ (D424). monitoring the cure level of polymers (D443). A capacitive
A new structure can be also created by patterning. Silica immunosensor, consisting of an antibody layer fixed onto the top
overlayer over tin oxide has sieving properties. It was prepared of an oxide was also described (D453). Capacitance and resis-
by CVD on a template of preadsorbed benzoate anion (D425). tance changes of interdigitated electrodes were used to character-
Latex spheres (60-nm diameter) were used as a masking material ize directly some liquids (D454).
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 193R
Frequency spectrum analysis of impedance can be used to Conductive polyethylene as a sensitive layer for gas detection
measure capacitance (vide supra), but it is also used to follow reversible (CO2, O2), nonreversible (NO2), or partially reversible
noncapacitive properties such as ionic, electronic, contact, or to humidity was reported (D482). Conductivity caused by wetness
diffusional (Warburg) impedance (D443, D455). Impedance was used to detect moisture in food starch (D483). A humidity
sensors were described for NO2 and tobacco smoke (D456), odor sensor was prepared using potassium hexagonal tungsten bronze
detection (D434) or determination of water in an oil-in-water synthesized from peroxopolytungstic acid and its resistivity change
emulsion (D457). A Li-doped ZnO film responds to humidity by mechanism was investigated (D484).
change of dielectric relaxation (D458). CuO/ZnO semiconductor Reports on development of a multichannel aroma sensor are
heterocontact gave a distinct ac response to CO and H2 when a quite frequent. They can be based on LB films (D434), conduct-
different dc bias was superimposed (D459). In other work, CO ing polymers, or metal oxides. A simple semiconductor system
and H2 were distinguished using CuO/ZnO/Zn with Na-added was used to evaluate the efficiency of deodorants by sensing
pn heterocontact. Each gas shows minimum reactance at a ammonia, acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and methylmercaptan
different frequency (D460), and the selectivity can be improved (D485). A significant issue is monitoring freshness of meat
by dc bias (D461). Epoxy cure can be monitored by a method (D486, D487). For example, ethyl acetate, which appears in the
known as frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) first stages of bacterial putrefaction (D326), trimethylamine,
(D462). Hall coefficient measurements for doped sensors based dimethylamine, and NH3 (D471, D472) are all being detected.
on tin dioxide were used to sense a reducing or an oxidizing Similarly, a multigas sensor detection of boar taint, an unpleasant
atmosphere (D463). cooking odor exhibited by heating pork and mainly due to
Intelligent materials are a frequent theme (D464). Gas sensing androstenone and skatol, was introduced (D488), as well as
using an integrated sensor pair based on semiconducting oxide devices monitoring quality and ripeness of fruit (D489-D491).
with narrow and wide gaps allows some differentiation (D465). Consomme` soup alone received three references, sensing acetone
Heterocontacts of La2CuO4/ZnO are usable as humidity sensors. (D492), capronaldehyde (D492), and 2-methylpyrazine (D493).
Their response is dependent on the tuning bias potential. They Arrays of several (six and more) aroma detectors able to
also have a self-cleaning mechanism (D466). Intelligent materials characterize more complex smells are called electronic noses
for humidity are Au/ZnO Schottky barriers, sol-gel processed (D494). Often the results are enhanced by such algorithmic
TiO2/K, or ceramic La2CuO4/ZnO p-n heterocontacts. The methods as narrow-band filtering (D495), the use of neural
intelligent functions of these systems are based on the multiphase network processing (D471, D472, D496), or evaluation of inten-
interaction of materials having different properties, such as p-type/ tionally induced nonlinear response by fast Fourier transformation
n-type semiconducting oxides, metal/ceramic, and conductor/ (D474).
insulator (D467). A selective sensor based on temperature A convenient way to monitor the curing of an epoxy or a
switching was designed. At 700 C, the sensitivity toward other thermoset is very desirable in the plastics industry. Conductivity
reducing gases and H2O diminishes, whereas conductance sen- sensing is one of the means (D497, D498); another is capacitance
sitivity due to CH4 increases (D468). A similar idea using doped (D443) or impedance (D462).
SnO2 film distinguishes between CO and CH4 (D469). Sinusoidal Thermodynamically justified measurement of pH is done
voltage was applied to the heater of a SnO2 semiconductor gas potentiometrically. Some detectors using conductivity respond
sensor. Nonlinear response ensued which was evaluated by FFT to acidity, although not directly to the proton activity. Hydrogels,
and analysis for smart sensing (D470). Numerical procedures which swell and change conductivity, were used as pH sensors
became practical with the advent of omnipresent computers. A (D499), as were liquid membranes and polymers (D500) or the
thin-film sensor in conjunction with a neural network pattern was conducting polymer polypyrrole (D501). A capacitive pH detector
used for recognition of trimethylamine and dimethylamine gases was also described (D445). Resistance of a proton-conducting
as an indicator of food quality (D471, D472) or as gas sensor for electrolyte such as HUO2PO44H2O and PVA-H3PO4 changes with
CH3SH, (CH3)3N, C2H5OH, and CO (D473). Odor sensing of H+ (D502), and at fixed H+ it also senses H2 pressure (D423).
sulfur compounds for stomatological purposes was reported Some sensors require high temperature for operation and may
(D474). Tin oxide is good material for combustible gases and therefore be suitable for applications in metallurgy or glass
an artificial neural network (ANN) can improve selectivity (D475). making. An example is an oxygen sensor based on Y2O3-stabilized
Frequency analysis is used in the nonlinear response from the zirconia used in glass melts (D503) or a sensor based on sodium-
sinusoidal temperature change of a SnO2 gas sensor. FFT allows alumina used to monitor the sodium level in Al alloys (D504).
discrimination between hydrocarbon gases and aromatic vapors Direct detection of antibody-antigen binding on silicon dioxide
(D474, D476)). Fuzzy logic can handle the temperature depen- or silicon nitride substrate plated with thin layer of platinum was
dence of gas sensors to counteract nonlinearities in responses reported (D505). A conductive polyaniline antigen immunosensor
(D477). was also described (D506). A process to structure gold electrodes
Examples of Measured Analytes. Humidity is very often a with nanometer-sized dimensions for biosensor applications has
parameter for which mixed oxides conductivity sensors are used been developed. Impedance measurements at various frequencies
(D478, D479) although it can also be an unwanted interference. allow one to detect antibody-antigen binding (D507, D508).
A gas sensor for ethanol and acetone vapors, insensitive to Immunosensing for methamphetamine in human urine was
humidity, can be based on sintered bismuth tungstate (D480). A reported (D509). A urease biosensor for heavy metal ions was
humidity sensor was constructed using a composite film derived developed based on their toxicity toward urease. The enzyme
from poly(o-phenylenediamine) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (D481). can be reactivated by EDTA (D510). Another system uses urease
194R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
immobilized in porous glass. It relies on conductivity resulting which spectroscopic analysis of the throughput gives information
from hydrolysis of urea to charged products (D511, D512). about the surface refractive index (SPR). Texas Instruments
Ethanol was detected using a whole yeast cell-based conducto- introduced a compact single-chip design with polychromatic light
metric sensor (D513). source and angle deflection measured by a solid-state detector
A simple conductivity sensor can measure solution resistance array. The device available as TISPR-1 has the dimensions of a
in a gap between two electrodes. In others, chemical principles true sensor.
are involved. Zinc oxide or tin oxide, doped with platinum A more or less constant incident angle can be achieved if a
microcrystals, was useful for determining traces of hydrogen in segment of an optical guide coated with thin metal film is used.
liquid hydrocarbons, e.g., transformer oil (D514). Aqueous ozone The spectrum of the light exiting the fiber can provide the
can be measured by an In2O3 thin-film semiconductor ozone gas analytical signal related to the refractive index of the fiber surface.
sensor (D515). Polymer benzo[15]crown-5 complexes as sensor With recent miniaturization of spectrometers built on a board that
materials were used to detect benzene in air and ethanol and fits into a PC, the method enters the sensor arena. Therefore,
dichloromethane in water (D516). sensors based on optical fibers have appeared. Organic solvents
A possible thick-film sensor distinguishing chirality based on were detected (E28, E29), and a humidity sensor constructed with
Cd2Sb2O6.8 was reported. An unusual feature is its stereoselective a coating of Nafion fluoropolymer was reported (E30-E32). The
response to limonene (orange oil) and pinene (pine oil) (D517). shape of the fibers (e.g., U-shaped (E33)) is crucial for proper
performance, and tapered (E34) or conical fibers are the key to
OPTICAL SENSORS improved performance. The gradual change in the taper cross
Reviews. General fiber-optic sensors (E1, E2), Raman fiber- section results in distributed phase matching between the fiber
optic probes (E3), and integrated optical sensors (E4) have been mode and the surface plasmon wave, permitting the plasmon wave
reviewed. An extensive review containing over 700 references to be excited over a wide spectral range (E35).
covers the subject of fluorescence modulation by recognition Holography. The concept of using a hologram as the
events. Optical sensors have found many applications in the interactive element in a biosensor was presented. A reflection
biomedical (E5) and environmental (E6-E9) fields. Plasmon hologram in gelatin has been applied to the detection of the
resonance is often included among optical sensors although it is enzyme trypsin (E36). Swelling due to water in solvent was the
predominantly a benchtop optical technique. For the reviews of basis of a holographic gelatin grating sensor (E37). An ellipsom-
this subject see refs E10 and E11. Quantitative optical spectros- eter from an optical fiber was constructed for applications in thin-
copy of tissues lies on the fringe of this review of direct chemical film sensor systems (E38).
sensors (E12). Apparently, the term optical nose does not have Interferometry. A two-wave interferometer sensor was real-
the same appeal as the electronic nose but the idea is the same ized in integrated optics. Spatially distributed interference fringes
(E13-E15)sa chemometric evaluation of multiple signal from the give complete images of light absorption and phase variation in
optical sensing array. Optodes for heavy metal ions, their the interferometer (E39). Intensity modulation can be used in
performance, and applications have been reviewed (E16). As with the Mach-Zender interferometer in which coherent light passing
every sensing device, the two most interesting factors are the along two paths is compared. In sensor application, the propaga-
sensing principle or phenomenon and the cleverness to choose a tion in one channel is influenced by analyte interacting with the
modifier, which renders a particular property to the sensor. A surface of the light guide (E40, E41). Several such devices were
separate issue is the type of analytes detectable. Unless they are used as sensors for atrazine and other pesticides (E42-E44).
for some reason unusual, this chapter does not mention them. Another use was in immunosensing (E45). A novel type of
Various Measurement Modes. Surface plasmon resonance interferometric fiber-optic sensor based on a curved section of a
is a technique that has found its way into a number of applications buffered single mode optical fiber was described (E46). Interfer-
in sensors. The plasmon resonance concept is sometimes ence occurs between the core guided mode and the whispering
confused with evanescent waves. Distinction is given in ref E17. gallery mode guided within the fiber buffer. The fiber buffer
The bulk sensor, which relies on a metal-coated Kretschmann coating thus serves as the sensing element.
prism, has the needed geometry to allow the surface plasmon to Capillary optical sensors are promising because in addition to
interact with the analyte on the opposite side of the metal film. the properties of the optical fiber they can serve as a sample cavity
For example, detection for NO2 (E18), hydrogen via a palladium of well-defined volume and are suitable for direct sampling (E47).
film (E19), morphine (E20), or biological systems in which an Sensors are often conveniently integrated in one device, e.g., for
immunological principle is involved (E21, E22) have been measuring pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The pH and the CO2
reported. More convenient experimentally but less well tuned sensor can be based on the color change of a pH-sensitive dye
for the surface plasmon generation are planar waveguides (E23- and the oxygen sensor on fluorescence quenching (E48).
E27). The surface plasmon resonance depends on three experi- Artificial Neural Network. The response range of an optical
mental variables: the incident beam angle, the incident beam fiber such as a pH sensor can be sometimes enhanced algorith-
wavelength, and the refractive index near the surface along which mically, by the use of ANN (E49). ANN was used to handle the
plasmons propagate. The latter parameter is usually the analytical output from a multilayer pH sensor at several wavelengths (E50),
signal. The Kretschmann prism arrangement and monochromatic and water pollutants were characterized by fluorescent sensors
light give the best SPR results, but it typically mandates a bulky with the help of neural network and pattern recognition schemes
mechanical arrangement to measure the resonance angle. Poly- (E51). An algorithmic approach to signal processing was used
chromatic light at a fixed angle is an alternative arrangement, in to extend the linear operational range of an optical-fiber humidity
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 195R
sensor (E52). A multichannel optically based chemosensor using Swelling was a basis for some optical sensors (E86). Swelling
ANN was constructed for odor sensing (E13). of a polymer over a mirror system was used as a new principle
Birefringence as an optical phenomenon was also used in for measuring ionic strength (E87). A fiber optical sensor for
sensor construction (E53). The pockel cell is a device in which water in organic solvents used a bead of an anion-exchange resin,
an applied electric field causes birefringence. Bismuth germanate which swelled continuously with the activity of water. The bead
(Bi4Ge3O12) is one such electrooptical material (E54). The size changes were coupled to movement of a reflecting diaphragm
possibility to use ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu luminophores was also (E88, E89). Reflectance changes due to aminated polymer
presented (E55). The glucose sensor, a polarimeter of a kind, swelling were used to measure pH changes (E90).
was developed with this device, based on its optical rotation (E56). Raman. An etched silver foil was used as an effective sensor
Reflectance. An optical-fiber reflectance sensor for pH was for surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of acridine,
described (E57). A reflectance sensor based on a micromirror 9-aminoacridine, and quinacrine (E91). Another use was to follow
with a palladium layer was constructed for hydrogen. The the progress of polymer resin curing (E92).
mechanism consists of reversible microblistering of the film and Selective Materials. Calixarene derivatives are an example
its changes in optical constants upon hydriding (E58). A of a new material useful in optical sensing. They are used to build
reflectance probe for uranyl was constructed by immobilizing supramolecular structures (E93-E95). Such structures can be
Arsenazo III on a cotton substrate (E59). tailored to be ion or molecule selective and carry a chromophore.
The resonant mirror biosensor uses the evanescent wave A primary amine-selective optode membrane based on a lipophilic
associated with a dielectric resonant structure to detect reactions hexaester of calix[6]arene was constructed (E96). A sodium-
occurring in a sensing layer, deposited within a few hundred selective optode was made based on calix[4]arene (E97, E98). A
nanometers of the device surface (E60). A resonant photoacoustic uranyl ion-sensitive chromoionophore based in calix[6]arene was
spectrophone was used for elemental carbon mass monitoring made (E99) as well as a pH luminescent sensor (E100). Lipophilic
(E61), and photoacoustic detection of trace gases with an optical calixarene ionophores were used in the design of sodium-selective
microphone was reported (E62). A sensor based on second- optode membranes (E101). Calix[4]arenes with anthracene
harmonic generation at the surface of an ionophore-incorporating moieties are sensitive to Li+, Na+, and K+ (E102, E103). In
poly(vinyl chloride) liquid membrane has been described (E63). general, any type of supramolecular structure may be useful for
Fluorescent photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) sensors sensor development (E104). For example, molecular imprinting
were described in a few instances (E64): a saccharide sensor with exactly adapted cavities in polyurethane film was used for
based on the interaction of boronic acid and amine (E65), a pH solvent vapor sensing (E105) or sarin and soman were detected
on-off sensor with pyridine (E66) or anthracene (E67) recep- by luminescence of Eu3+ embedded in a functionality-imprinted
tors, or a calcium sensor (E68). Direct fluorescence and lumi- copolymer (E106).
nescence for sensing are quite common. A Ru(bpy)32+ lumines- Sol-gels are excellent matrixes for entrapment of optical
cent probe incorporated into Nafion film was described as an probes. Not only are the dyes kept in place but often they better
oxygen sensor (E69), and a calcium probe using hydrophobically resist photobleaching (E107-E111). For example, proteins, such
associated calcein was reported (E70). The total internal reflection as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, cytochrome c, myoglobin,
fluorescence (TIRF) immunosensor was also described (E71). Hb, and bacteriorhodopsin, were encapsulated (E112). Another
Immunosensors are often based on fluorescence (E72). Chemi- useful class of compounds are the property sensitive dyes. They
cally generated luminescence using tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthe- usually change fluorescence as a function of potential (potential
nium(III) was also used for sensing hydrazine (E73). Cyclodiene sensitive dyes, PSD), lipophilicity, etc. A membrane responsive
insecticides (chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, etc.) can be sensed to nitrite was developed with the PSD rhodamine B octadecyl ester
fluorometrically through fluorescein derivative-bovine serum perchlorate. On exposure to nitrite its fluorescence intensity
albumin conjugates (E74). Some fluorescent or luminescent increases (E113). A smilar idea was used in building a membrane
sensors use the decay time measurements as the sensing containing valinomycin, sensitive to K+ (E114). PSD are valuable
technique. The concept is to take a single fluorophore with a in both anion- and cation-sensitive polymer membranes. In
suitably long fluorescence decay time as the basic building block particular, nitrate-, nitrite-, K-, and Hg-sensitive membranes were
for various sensors. Recognition can be performed by different developed (E115).
functional groups that are necessary for selective interaction with Optical methods allow chiral discrimination. Results were
the analyte (E75, E76). For example, NH3 (E77), Zn(II) (E78), reported for odor perception distinguishing between enantiomers
Cu(II) (E79), other 3d metal ions (E80) as well as organics of, limonene (E116). Chiral discrimination of D- and L-monosac-
(methanol) (E81) can be detected. Concentration of an analyte charides using a designed receptor molecule that acts as a sensor
can be also deduced from its ability to quench fluorescence of a by virtue of its fluorescent response to binding of the guest species
fluorophore. Herbicide was detected by quenching a chlorophyll was described (E117). A film of (N,N-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsali-
fluorescence biosensor (E82), and plant tissue was used as a cylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine)manganese(III) chloride ad-
pyruvate sensor (E83). Oxygen sensors based on luminescence sorbed onto an n-type CdSe single-crystal substrate is stereose-
quenching using interactions of pyrene with polymer support were lective, coupling the complexation chemistry of the film to the
described (E84). The widely used polar plasticizer NPOE is found band gap photoluminescence intensity of the underlying semi-
to act itself as a dynamic quencher of the luminescence of certain conductor (E118).
indicators, and thus, 2-cyanophenyl alkyl ethers are more suitable Examples of Optical Sensing. Humidity. A fiber-optic
to use with fluorescent indicators in sensor manufacture (E85). humidity sensor was based on the reversible pink/blue color
196R Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998
change of CoCl2 during hydration and dehydration (E119). operate in the write-only mode, which results in unnecessary
Another type was a luminescence lifetime-based sensor that replication of effort. It is also clear that the number of papers
utilizes the Langmuir-Blodgett technique of depositing Pt- and describing sensing of individual species far exceeds the number
Pd-porphyrins (E120). of the species themselves. This is true not only for glucose,
Aroma. Odor sensing is in the forefront of analytical interest, hydrogen, pH, and other all-time favorites but even for more exotic
and several optical sensors were also described. A chemilumi- analytes. The reason lies in the variety of applications that impose
nescence gas sensor made of Al2O3 emits luminescence during specific and unique requirements on the figures of merit (or
catalytic oxidation of a combustible odor vapor (E121). Novel performance characteristics) of the individual sensors. From this
types are based upon the immobilization of a chemiluminescent point of view, it is imperative to publish the performance limita-
reagent between a miniature photomultiplier tube and a Teflon tions as well as the salient features of every new sensor.
diffusion membrane (E122). Taste and flavor monitoring was The relative distribution of different types of chemical sensors
done with a fluorescent optical probe detecting certain sulfur-
(by transduction principles) is about the same as it was when we
containing compounds in the vapors from the hams (E123).
wrote the 1994 review. The electrochemical sensors again
Polymer Cure. Precise monitoring of the state of cure of
represent the largest group (49%) by far (Table 1) followed by
polymers is in significant industrial demand. A fiber-optic sensor
optical and mass sensors. Although still the smallest group (3%
based on the principle of Fresnel reflection was built for intelligent
of total), the large relative increase of papers dealing with thermal
control of composite manufacturing (E124). In situ core monitor-
sensors (+435%) is interesting. It is due to the renewed interest
ing of diamine cured epoxy by fiber-optic fluorometry using
in pellistors and in new pyroelectric materials.
extrinsic reactive fluorophore was reported (E125, E126). Often
This table, however, does not reflect some very important new
refractive index changes are used for such a task (E127, E128),
trends that have emerged. More and more authors extract other
but even Raman spectroscopy was used (E92).
Acidity. Optical acidity sensors convey the pH changes of physical and chemical parameters from these devices than just a
their environment, although the true H+ activity measurement calibration curve or a response. Thus, frequently, chemical
must be done potentiometrically. Immobilized dyes are excellent sensors become an integral tool of diverse scientific studies. This
colorimetric sensors (E129, E130), often embedded in sol-gel may account for the large fraction of sensor papers being
(E131, E132). The silica sol-gel system can handle high (1-11 published in the journals not dedicated to sensors or even
mol/L) acidity (E133) and so can Nafion film, which coated with analytical chemistry. Another major development is the increasing
cresol red served as a HNO3 sensor in the 0.1-10 mol/L range emphasis on multivariate analysis, i.e., extraction of data from
(E134). Other possibility is to use fluorescence (E135, E136) or sensor arrays and higher order chemical sensors. The higher-
even reflectance caused by swelling of aminated polymers (E90). order (multiparameter) sensing somewhat complicates the sta-
Acidity sensing can be also used indirectly, for example, for CO2 tistics because a paper dealing with, for example, combined
(E137). Ion-radical sensors are rare. One for hydroxyl radical sensing using optical and mass transduction is counted in both
using nitrophenol as the sensitive-reagent phase was described optical and mass categories.
(E138). Some new selective materials figure prominently in this review,
Biosensor. A biosensor built upon Escherichia coli, genetically e.g., calixarenes, DNA, cyclodextrins, dendrimers, and other
engineered with a mercury(II)-sensitive promoter was used for supramolecular materials. There are even hints of using the
the detection of mercury (E139, E140). A fluorescent oxacyanine combinatorial chemistry approach in design and optimization of
dye (DiOC16(3)) as an optical transducer was used for the same selective materials for sensing arrays. Materials problems related
purpose (E141). Mercury(II) and cadmium(II) were detected to packaging of chemical sensors are also being rationally
through a complexing porphyrin derivative (E142), and Cd(II) addressed but not as much as would be needed. In our opinion,
was detected with a sensor constructed via the incorporation of these two materials issues will experience the above average
8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid into silica films prepared by the growth. Many new exciting sensors have appeared on the market.
sol-gel method (E143). A fiber-optic biosensor array is described
for the simultaneous analysis of multiple DNA sequences (E144).
Jir Janata received his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from the Charles
University, Prague, in 1965. After postdoctoral studies at the University
CONCLUSIONS of Michigan he joined the Corporate Laboratory of ICI in England and
in 1976 moved to the University of Utah where he was in the Department
The vitality of the chemical sensing field can be seen from of Bioengineering and in the Department of Materials Science and
the growing number of published papers. Even if we allow for Engineering, respectively. In 1991 he joined the Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory as Associate Director of Environmental Molecular
mislabeling of sensing systems (assays) for true chemical sensors Sciences Laboratory. He left in 1997 for Georgia Institute of Technology
where he now holds Eminent Scholar Chair in the School of Chemistry
and for duplicated reporting of results, the growth is overwhelm- and Biochemistry. His main interests include chemical sensors, elec-
ing. So much so that the future reviews in this series should focus troanalytical and interfacial chemistry, and environmental chemistry.
entirely on the reviews of reviews and thus become a mother Mira Josowicz received her Ph.D. in electrochemistry from the
of all reviews. The fact that data can be retrieved from the Technical University, Munich, in 1978. She was a Research Fellow at
University of Bundeswehr, Munich, until 1983 and then an Alexander
commercially available sensor databases quite readily makes a von Humboldt Feodor Lynnen Fellow at the University of Utah until 1986.
She returned to University of Bundeswehr, Munich, where she remained
detail review of such a broad field almost redundant. until 1992, when she became staff scientist in the Materials Sciences
It is relevant to ask the question, why this apparently unbridled Department of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Since 1997
she has held a position of Senior Research Specialist in the School of
growth? The partial answer lies in the fact that many authors Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 12, June 15, 1998 197R
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