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HEAT EXCHANGERS

Functions of heat exchangers


A heat exchanger is a device that is used to
transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between
two or more fluids, between a solid surface
and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a
fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal
contact. In heat exchangers, there are usually
no external heat and work interactions.
There are two main types of heat exchangers:

The first type of a heat exchanger is called the


recuperative type, in which heat are exchanged on
either side of a dividing wall by fluids;
The second type is regenerative type, in which hot
and cold fluids are in the same space which contain
a matrix of materials which work alternately as
source for heat flow.
In intercoolers, boilers, pre-heaters and
condensers inside power plants as well as
other engineering processes,
heat exchangers are utilized for controlling
heat energy.
Heat exchangers are devices that regulate
efficient heat transfer from one fluid to
another.
Applications of heat
exchangers

automobile radiators
Condensers
evaporators
air preheaters
oil coolers.
Applications of heat
exchangers
Process liquid or gas cooling.
Process or refrigerant vapor or steam
condensing.
Process liquid, steam or refrigerant
evaporation.
Process heat removal and preheating of
feedwater.
Thermal energy conservation efforts and heat
recovery.
Heat Transfer in heat
exchangers
Heat Transfer In Heat
Exchangers
Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction

Convection

Radiation
Heat Transfer In Heat
Exchangers
Conduction
Parameters affecting the rate of conductive
heat transfer
1- Temperature difference
2- Surface area
3- Thermal conductivity of material
Thermal Conductivities
Material k (Btu/hr. ft. F)
Fiber Insulating Board 0.028
Maple or Oak Wood 0.096
Building Brick 0.4
Window Glass 0.45
Concrete 0.79
1% Carbon Steel 25
1% Chrome Steel 35
Aluminum 118
Copper 223
Silver 235
Sat Steam ( 600 E F) 0.030
Liquid Water (at 600 E F) 0.3
Heat Transfer In Heat
Exchangers
Convection
Natural Convection

Forced Convection

Boiling

Condensation
Heat Transfer In Heat
Exchangers
Radiation heat transfer
Factors affecting the radiative heat
transfer
1- Temperature.
2- Surface area.
3- Emissivity
4- Configuration
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Fluid U [Btu/ft2.hr.F]
Organics to Organics 10-60
Steam to:
Aqueous Solutions 100-600
Fuel Oil, Heavy 10-30
Light 30-60
Gases 5-50
Water 175-600
Water to:
Alcohol 50-150
Brine 100-200
Compressed Air 10-30
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Fluid U [Btu/ft2.hr.F]
Condensing Alcohol 45-120
Condensing Ammonia 150-250
Condensing Freon-12 80-150
Condensing Oil 40-100
Gasoline 60-90
Lubricating Oil 20-60
Organic Solvents 50-150
Water 150-300
Classification of heat
exchangers
Classification of heat
exchangers
industrial heat exchangers have been
classified according to
(1) Construction
(2) transfer processes
(3) degrees of surface compactness
(4) flow arrangements
(5) pass arrangements
(6) phase of the process fluids
(7) heat-transfer mechanisms.
Classification
According
to Construction

Extended surface
Tubular heat Plate heat
heat
exchangers exchangers
exchangers
Tubular Heat Exchanger
Double Pipe Exchangers
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
spiral plate heat exchanger
Extended Surface Exchangers
(a) continuous plain; (b) cut and twisted;
(c) perforated; (d) internal and external longitudinal fins.
Classification
According
to Transfer
Process

Indirect Contact Direct Transfer


Heat Exchangers Type Exchangers
Indirect-Contact Heat Exchangers:

In an indirect-contact heat exchanger, the


fluid streams remain separate and the heat
transfers continuously through an impervious
dividing wall or into and out of a wall in a
transient manner.
Storage Type Exchangers:

In a storage type exchanger, both fluids flow


alternatively through the same flow passages, and
hence heat transfer is intermittent. The heat
transfer surface (or flow passages) is generally
cellular in structure and is referred to as a matrix or
it is a permeable (porous) solid material, referred to
as a packed bed.
Direct-Contact Heat Exchangers:

In a direct-contact exchanger, two fluid streams come into direct


contact, exchange heat, and are then separated.

Common applications of a direct-contact exchanger involve mass


transfer in addition to heat transfer, such as in evaporative cooling
and rectification; applications involving only sensible heat transfer
are rare

Common examples are desuperheaters and open feed water heaters


(also known as deaerators) in power plants and cooling tower.
Classification
According
to Surface
Compactness

Compact Non-compact
Classification
According
to Flow
Arrangement

Parallel flow Counter flow Cross flow


Parallel Flow
Parallel Flow
Cross flow
Classification
According
to Pass
Arrangement

Single pass Multi-pass


Classification
According
to Phase
of Fluids

Gas-liquid Liquid-liquid Gas-gas


Classification
According
to Heat-Transfer
Mechanisms

two-phase
single phase Combined
convection
convection convection
(condensation or
forced or free and radiation
evaporation)
SELECTION OF HEAT
EXCHANGERS
Selection Criteria
1.Materials of construction
2. Operating pressure and temperature,
temperature program, and temperature driving
force
3.Flow rates
4. Flow arrangements
5.Performance parameters-thermal effectiveness
and pressure drops
6. Fouling tendencies
7. Types and phases of fluids
Selection Criteria
8. Maintenance, inspection, cleaning,
extension, and repair possibilities
9. Overall economy
10. Fabrication techniques
11. Intended applications
REQUIREMENTS OF
HEAT EXCHANGERS
1. High thermal effectiveness
2. Pressure drop as low as possible
3. Reliability and life expectancy
4. High-quality product and safe operation
5. Material compatibility with the process fluids
6. Convenient size, easy for installation, reliable in use
7. Easy for maintenance and servicing
8. Light in weight but strong in construction to withstand the
operational pressures
9. Simplicity of manufacture
10.Low cost
11. Possibility of effecting repair to maintenance problems
Shell and tube heat
exchangers
Types and Standards of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Association) are Small design : is the design from 2 in. to
around 24 in. in shell diameter. Shell is made of pipe of low cost
welded steel, brazed pipe, cast end bonnets and copper tubing
rolled or brazed to the tube sheet.
Major design : is of shell diameter from 24 in. to over 100 in.
Above 24 in., manufactures There are different designs of shell
and tube heat exchangers, based on shell diameter.

use rolled and welded steel plates for shells, which is more
costly and not rounded well.

Special design: is of shell diameter over 100 in.

A typical shell and tube heat exchanger configurations (TEMA,


Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers :
Shell and tube heat exchanger
1. tube bundle
2. shell
3. tube
4. baffle
5. vent nozzle
6. inlet tubeside
7. Tubesheet
8. drain nozzle
9. shellside
Shell and tube heat exchanger
TEMA classes

TEMA C - General Service


TEMA B - Chemical Service
TEMA R - Refinery Service
TEMA Shell Types and Standards
TUBES
Tubes should be able to withstand the following:
Operating temperature and pressure on both
sides.
2. Thermal stresses due to the differential
thermal expansion between the shell and the
tube bundle.
3. Corrosive nature of both the shell-side and
the tube-side fluids.
TUBES
There are two types of tubes: straight
tubes and U-tubes.
The tubes are further classified as
1. Plain tubes
2. Finned tubes
3. Duplex or bimetallic tubes
4. Enhanced surface tubes
TUBES
Tubing that is generally used in TEMA
sizes is made from low carbon steel,
copper, Copper-Nickel, stainless steel,
titanium and a few others.
It is common to use tubing from in to 2
in in these designs
Tube Wall Thickness
The wall thickness is selected on these
bases:
(1) providing an adequate margin against corrosion
(2) fretting and wear due to flow induced vibration,
(3) axial strength, particularly in fixed tube-sheet
exchangers
(4) standardized dimensions
(5) cost.
Number of Tubes

The number of tubes depends upon the fluid flow rate


and the available pressure drop.
The number of tubes is selected such that the tube-side
velocity for water and similar liquids range from 3 to 8 ft/s
(0.9-2.4 m/s) and the shell-side velocity from 2 to 5 ft/s
(0.6-1.5 m/s) .
Tube layout patterns
Tube layout patterns
For identical tube pitch and flow rates, the
tube layouts in decreasing order of shell-
side heat-transfer coefficient and pressure
drop are 30, 45",60, and 90".
Thus the 90" layout will have the lowest
heat-transfer coefficient and pressure
drop.
Tube layout patterns
The selection of the tube layout pattern depends
on the following parameters, which influence the
shell-side performance and hence the overall
performance:
1. Compactness
2. Heat transfer
3. Pressure drop
4. Accessibility for mechanical cleaning
5. Phase change if any on the shell side
Tube layout patterns
A triangular layout is limited to clean
shellside services.
For dirty shellside services, a square
layout is typically employed.
when the shellside Reynolds number is
low (< 2,000), it is usually advantageous to
employ a rotated square pattern because
this produces much higher turbulence
Tube pitch
The selection of tube pitch is a compromise
between a close pitch for increased shell-side
heat transfer and surface compactness, and a
larger pitch for decreased shell-side pressure
drop and fouling, and ease in cleaning.
Tube pitch
For a triangular pattern, TEMA specifies a
minimum tube pitch of 1.25 times the tube
O.D.
For square patterns, TEMA additionally
recommends a minimum cleaning lane of
1/4 in. (or 6 mm) between adjacent tubes.
Tube-sheets
Tube-sheets are usually made from a round flat piece of metal.

Tube holes are drilled in a precise location and pattern.

The tubesheet is in contact with both fluids and so must have


corrosion resistance appropriate for the fluids and velocities.

Tubes are attached to the tube sheet by pneumatic or hydraulic


pressure or by roller expansion.

The tube hole pattern or pitch varies the distance from one tube to
the other and angle of the tubes relative to each other and to the
direction of flow.

This allows the manipulation of fluid velocities and pressure drop,


and provides the maximum amount of turbulence and tube surface
contact for effective heat transfer.
Tube holes can be drilled and can be machined with one or more
grooves to increase the strength of the tube joint.

Tubesheet and tube fixation assembly


Fixed Tubesheet
U-tube
Floating head
Selection of TEMA Heat Exchangers for Different Applications:
TEMA E shell type is the E shell it is most suitable for most
industrial process cooling applications.
TEMA-F shell provides for a longitudinal flow plate to be installed
inside the tube bundle assembly.

TEMA G and H shell designs are most suitable for phase change
applications where the bypass around the longitudinal plate and counter-
current flow is 1ess important than even flow distribution.
TEMA J Shells are typically specified for phase change duties where
significantly reduced shell side pressure drops are required
The TEMA K shell, also termed a kettle reboiler is specified when the
shell side stream will undergo vaporization. The liquid level of a K shell
design should just cover the tube bundle, which fills the smaller diameter
end of the shell.
The TEMA X shell, or cross flow shell is most commonly used in vapor
TEMA Shell Types and Standards
TEMA Shell and tube heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat exchanger

c) two-tube pass, two shell pass


Fixed tube-sheet, 2 pass heat
exchanger
Baffles used in shell and tube heat exchangers

Baffles serve the following functions.


To support the tubes during assembly and operation
To prevent vibration from flow induced eddies
to direct the shell side fluid back and forth across the
tube bundle to provide effective velocity and heat
transfer rates.
Baffle Spacing
The TEMA standards specify the minimum
baffle spacing as one-fifth of the shell
inside diameter or 2 in., whichever is
greater
Baffle Cut
Baffle cut can vary between 15% and 45%
of the shell inside diameter.
Reducing baffle cut below 20% to increase
the shellside heat-transfer coefficient or
increasing the baffle cut beyond 35% to
decrease the shellside pressure drop
usually lead to poor designs.
For single-phase fluids on the shellside, a
horizontal baffle cut is recommended,
because this minimizes accumulation of
deposits at the bottom of the shell.
In the case of a two-pass shell (TEMA F),
a vertical cut is preferred for ease of
fabrication and bundle assembly.
Horizontal cut segmental baffles

.
Vertical cut segmental baffles.
Fluid Stream Allocations
1. The higher-pressure fluid normally flows through the
tube side.
2. If it is necessary to put the higher-pressure stream in
the shell, it should be placed in a smaller diameter
and longer shell.
3. Place corrosive fluids in the tubes. Epoxy coated
tube side can resist corrosion.
4. Flow the higher fouling fluids through the tubes.
Tubes are easier to clean using mechanical
methods.
5. It is best to place fluids requiring low pressure drops
in the shell circuit.
6. The fluid with the lower heat transfer coefficient
normally goes in the shell circuit. This allows the
use of externally finned tubes to enhance the heat
transfer rate.
TEMA classes

TEMA C - General Service


TEMA B - Chemical Service
TEMA R - Refinery Service
Fouling
Fouling
Fouling is defined as the formation on heat
transfer surfaces of undesired deposits,
which impede the heat transfer and
increase the resistance to fluid flow,
resulting in higher pressure drop.
EFFECT OF FOULING ON THE
THERMOHYDRAULIC
PERFORMANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
1- Increase the overall thermal resistance.
2. There is an increase of the surface
roughness, thus increasing frictional
resistance to flow, and fouling blocks flow
passages; due to these effects, the
pressure drop across the heat exchanger
increases.
EFFECT OF FOULING ON THE
THERMOHYDRAULIC
PERFORMANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
EFFECT OF FOULING ON THE
THERMOHYDRAULIC
PERFORMANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
3. Fouling may create a localized environment
where corrosion is promoted.
4. Fouling will reduce the thermal effectiveness of
heat exchangers, which in turn affect the
subsequent processes or will increase the
thermal load on the system.
5. An additional goal become prevention of
contamination of a process fluid or product.
Heat Transfer In Heat
Exchangers
COSTS OF HEAT EXCHANGER
FOULING
1. Increased capital expenditure due to
oversizing.
2. Energy losses associated with poor
performance of the equipment.
3. Treatment cost to lessen corrosion and
fouling.
4. Lost production due to maintenance
schedules.
PARAMETERS THAT INFLUENCE
FOULING RESISTANCES
1. Properties of fluids and their propensity for
fouling
2. Surface temperature
3. Velocity and hydrodynamic effects
4. Tube material
5. Fluid purity and freedom from contamination
6. Surface roughness
7. Suspended solids
8. Placing the more fouling fluid on the tube side
PARAMETERS THAT INFLUENCE
FOULING RESISTANCES
9. Shell-side flow
10. Type of heat exchanger
11. Heat exchanger geometry and orientation
12. Equipment design
13. Seasonal temperate changes
14. Heat-transfer processes like sensible heating,
cooling, condensation, vaporization, etc.
Fouling Mechanisms
1. Particulate fouling
2. Reaction fouling
3. Corrosion fouling
4. Precipitation fouling
5. Biological fouling
6. Solidification fouling
TEMA FOULING RESISTANCE
VALUES
Reducing Fouling

1- fouling fluid would be placed in the tube side.


2- the tube side velocity has to increase according to
the fouling factor.
3- cooler tube wall temperature in reboilers make for
reduced fouling.
Flow-Induced Vibration in A Heat Exchanger

Vibration is usually caused by the shedding of vortices from the


downstream side of a tube.

As a vortex is shed, the flow pattern (and therefore the pressure


distribution) changes, resulting in oscillations in the magnitude
and direction of the fluid pressure forces acting on the tube.

If the frequency of vortex shedding approaches the tube's natural


frequency, the tube will vibrate with large amplitude, resonance,
and it will fail.
Flow-Induced Vibration
Mechanisms
1. Vortex shedding or flow periodicity
2. Turbulent buffeting
3. Fluid elastic instability (FEI)
4. Acoustic resonance
Vibration control
To prevent the vibration the following guidelines are suggested:

1) Flow considerations
For liquids, the Reynolds number should probably be in the
range 300-50,000. If the velocity head is high (pV2/9,266 >0.5
psi), the force in the streamwise direction may be sufficient to
cause damage.

For gases or vapors, follow the same guidelines as for


liquids, if the Reynolds number is below 300,000.
2) Design Considerations:

Design the shell side such that:


1. avoid large baffle cuts (greater than 35%) and
small (less than 15%), because both conditions
provide poor velocity distribution.
2. block any bypass flow paths between the bundle
and the shell, high local velocities in these areas
can cause local damage.
3. use triple-segmental baffles, which provide a flow
that is primarily parallel to the tubes.
4. decrease the tubes' unsupported span, or
enhance the method of fixing the ends of the
unsupported spans.
2) Design Considerations

5. Installing an impingement plate to reduce the inlet


nozzle-velocity. In more severe cases, a distribution belt
may be required.
6. Installing a tube-support baffle directly under the nozzle.
This puts the exciting force at a node, and significantly
diminishes the amplitude of the vibration that can be
produced in the other spans.
7. Rolling the tubes into the first baffle in the vicinity of the
nozzle. Such rolling partially isolates the exciting force
from the rest of the tube, and reduces the amplitude of
the vibration.
8. Extra-thick baffles reduce the rate of wear and its close
fit reduce the natural frequency. But this close fit may
result in assembly difficulties.
Number of Tubes
The number of tubes depends upon the
fluid flow rate and the available pressure
drop.
The number of tubes is selected such that
the tube-side velocity for water and similar
liquids range from 3 to 8 ft/s (0.9-2.4 m/s)
and the shell-side velocity from 2 to 5 ft/s
(0.6-1.5 m/s)
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Provide sufficient clearance at the
channel or bonnet end of the unit to
permit removal of tube bundles from
shells.
On the floating head end, a space of 3
or 4 feet should be provided to permit
the removal of the floating head.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Foundations must be adequate so that
exchangers will not settle and cause
piping strains.
Foundation bolts should be set to allow
for setting inaccuracies.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Provide valves and by-passes in the
piping system so that both the shell
and tube bundle may be by-passed to
permit cutting out the unit for
inspection or repairs.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Provide thermometer wells and
pressure gage connections in all
piping to and from the unit, as near
the unit as possible.
Provide necessary air vent cocks so
that the unit can be purged to prevent
or relieve vapor or gas binding of
either the tube bundle or the shell.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Loosen foundation bolts at one end of
the unit to allow free expansion of
shell. Oval holes in foundation
brackets are provided for this
purpose.
Set exchangers level so that pipe
connections may be made without
forcing.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Inspect all openings in the heat
exchanger for foreign material.
Be sure entire system is clean before
starting operation to prevent plugging
of tubes or shell side passages with
sand or refuse. The use of strainers
or settling tanks in pipelines leading to
the heat exchanger is recommended.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Installation
Drain connections should not be piped
to a common closed manifold.

To guard against pulsation of the


fluids caused by reciprocating pumps,
compressors or other equipment a
surge drum should be installed.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Operation
When placing a unit in operation,
open the vent connections and start to
circulate the cold medium only.
Start operation gradually.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Operation
In shutting down, flow of hot medium
should be shut off first. If it is
necessary to stop circulation of
cooling medium, the circulation of hot
medium should also be stopped by
by-passing or otherwise.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Operation
Do not operate equipment under
conditions in excess of those specified
on nameplate.

In all installations, there should be no


pulsation of fluids since this causes
vibration and strain with resulting
leaks.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Operation
All gasketed joints should be
rechecked for tightness after the unit
has been heated to prevent leaks and
blowing out gaskets.
Units with packing rings may require
adjustment from time to time to
eliminate slight leakage. As joint
containing packing rings requires only
a small amount of bolting pressure to
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Operation
Be sure that all parts of the system are clean
and in proper operating condition. An
exchanger cannot perform properly unless all
connected equipment is functioning properly,
yet, the exchanger is frequently blamed for non
performance when the actual trouble is
elsewhere in the system
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Maintenance
1-Provide convenient means for frequent cleaning of heat
exchangers as suggested below:
a-Circulating hot wash oil or light distillate through tubes or
shell at a good velocity will usually effectively remove
sludge or similar soft deposits.
b-Soft salt deposits may be washed out by circulating hot
fresh water.
C- Some commercial cleaning compounds may be effective
in removing more stubborn deposits. Use in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions.
D- If none of the above described methods are effective for
the removal of hard scale or coke a mechanical means
may be used.
Instructions for Shell and tube Heat
Exchanger Maintenance
2-Frequently and at regular intervals,
observe interior and exterior condition of
all tubes and keep them clean.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Maintenance
3-.Do not attempt to clean tubes by blowing steam
through individual tubes. This overheats the tube
and results in severe expansion strains and
leaking tube-to-tube-sheet joints.

4-Do not blow out heat exchanger with air when


fluids normally handled are of an inflammable
nature.

5-Do not open heads until all pressure is off


equipment and the unit is drained.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Maintenance
6-Do not tighten bolts until gasket is positioned
properly. This precaution will eliminate one
cause for taking down units because of leaks
7- Exchangers subject to fouling or scaling should
be cleaned periodically.
8-To clean or inspect inside of tubes, remove
channel covers (or bonnets). Do not remove
channels
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Maintenance
9-. To locate leaking joints between tube and tube sheet or a split
tube, proceed as follows:
Channel Type
(a) Remove channel covers
(b) Apply hydraulic pressure in shell
Bonnet Type
(a) Remove bonnets
(b) Bolt test rings in place with gaskets and packing
(c) Apply hydraulic pressure in shell
Use only cold water for hydrostatic test. The point where the water
escapes indicates the defective tube or joint.
Instructions for Shell and tube
Heat Exchanger Maintenance
10- when removing tube bundles from exchangers
for inspection or cleaning, care should be
exercised to avoid damage by improper
handling.
11- In cleaning a tube bundle, tubes should not be
hammered on with any metallic tool. In case it is
necessary to use scrapers, care should be
exercised to see that the scraper is not sharp
enough to cut the metal of the tubes.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
To effectively troubleshoot poorly performing heat exchanger
systems, follow these steps:
1- Clearly define the problem based on observations and accumulated
information.
2- Review available historical system operation data and fluid condition
analyses.
3- Identify and obtain any additional information and analysis that may
be required.
4- Identify and list potential root causes and consider each.
5- Deduce the root cause based on the accumulated information.
6- Execute corrective action.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
Fluid Monitoring
A complete fluid monitoring program should
involve regular analysis of

1- The fluid's total acid number (TAN)


2- viscosity
3- simulated distillation (GCD),
4- flashpoint
5- solids metals and water.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
Some Frequent Causes of Problems
1- using a heat transfer fluid well beyond its
condemning limits
2- subjecting the fluid to temperatures that exceed
the recommended maximums.
3- inadequate cleaning.
4- extraneous contamination
5- water used during cleaning that is not removed
during startup.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
Insufficient Heat At User.
1- Fouled Heat Transfer Surfaces.

2- Low Fluid Flow.

3-Low Fluid Temperature from the Heat Source.

4- Increased Viscosity.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
High Fluid Losses/Make-Up Rate.
1- Leaks from Fittings and Connections.
2- Vibration
3- thermal stress
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
Short Fluid Life.

1- Oxidation.
2- Thermal Degradation.
3- Contamination.
Heat Exchanger
Troubleshooting
Frequent Filter Plugging.

1-Polymerization.
2-Fouling After Cleaning.
3- Unsaturated Components
4- Increased Pressure Drop in the System.
GUIDE TO FREE
TROUBLESHOOTING
Avoiding leakage

1- using u-bend exchangers or Floating head.


2- a minimum thickness of tube tube-sheet should be of 1
in.
3-two grooves are specified for all tube sheet leak.
GUIDE TO FREE
TROUBLESHOOTING
Reducing Fouling
1- fouling fluid would be placed in the tube side.
2- the tube side velocity has to increase according to
the fouling factor.
3-Inlet and outlet of connection should be located at the
top and the bottom of the shell side and tube side.
4- cooler tube wall temperature in reboilers make for
reduced fouling.
5- using spiral tube heat exchanger.
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air Versus Water Cooling

(1) cooler location


(2) space for cooling system
(3) effect of weather
(4) design pressure and temperature
(5) danger of contamination
(6) fouling, cleaning, maintenance
(7) capital costs
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air cooling has the following disadvantages

1. Air coolers require large surfaces because of their low


heat-transfer coefficient on the air side and the low
specific heat of air. Water coolers require much less heat-
transfer surface.
2. Air coolers cannot be located next to large obstructions if
air recirculation is to be avoided.
3. Because of airs low specific heat, and dependence on the
dry-bulb temperature, air cannot usually cool a process
fluid to low temperatures. Water can usually cool a
process fluid from 10F to 5F lower than air, and recycled
water can be cooled to near the wet-bulb temperature of
the site in a cooling tower.
4. The seasonal variation in air temperatures can affect
performance and make temperature control more difficult.
Low winter temperatures may cause process fluids to
freeze.
5. Air coolers are affected by hailstorms and may be affected
by cyclonic winds.
6. Noise is a factor with air coolers.
Values of the correction factor
for altitude and air temperature
Tube Bundle Fin Geometry

. The tubes are usually 1 in (25.4 mm)


diameter;
fin density varies from 7 to 16 fins/in (276-
630 fins/m),
fin height from to 2 in (9.53-15.88 mm)
fin thickness from 0.012 to 0.02 in (0.3-0.51
mm).
The tubes are arranged in standard bundles
ranging from 4 to 40 ft (1.22-12.20 m) long
and from 4 to 20 ft (1.22-6.10 m) wide, but
usually limited to 9.90-10.8 ft (3.2-3.5 m).
Forced Draft Versus Induced Draft

Forced Draft
Requiring smaller volumes of air
and less horsepower
They generally offer better
arrangements for maintenance and
they are easily accessible.
Forced draft fans afford a higher
heat-transfer coefficient relative to
induced draft
Forced Draft Versus Induced Draft
Induced Draft
1. Easier to shop assemble, ship, and install.
2. The hoods offer protection from weather and hailstone
protection.
3. Easier to clean the underside when covered with lint,
bugs, and debris.
4. Better air distribution over the tube bundle.
5. Less likely to be affected by hot air recirculation.
The disadvantages of induced draft design are:
1. More difficult to remove bundles for maintenance.
2. High-temperature service limited due to effect of hot
air on the fans.
3. More difficult to work on the fan assembly, due to heat
from the bundle and due to their location.
Air Velocity

Face velocity is usually in the range of


1.5-4 m/s.
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Plate Heat Exchanger
.
Plate Heat Exchanger
.
Plate Heat Exchanger
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER-DETAILED
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES

.
Flow Patterns and Pass
Arrangement
.

Series flow arrangement


Flow Patterns and Pass
Arrangement
.

Z-arrangement
U-arrangement

Single-pass looped arrangement


Flow Patterns and Pass
Arrangement
.

Multi-pass with equal passes


Flow Patterns and Pass
Arrangement
.

Multi-pass with unequal pass


BENEFITS OFFERED BY
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS
1. High Turbulence and High Heat-
Transfer Performance.
2. Reduced Fouling.
3. Cross-Contamination Eliminated.
BENEFITS OFFERED BY
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS
4- True Counteflow.
5-Close Approach Temperature
6- Multiple Duties With a Single Unit
BENEFITS OFFERED BY
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS
7- Easy to Inspect and Clean, and Less
Maintenance.
8- Lightweight.
9- High- Viscosity Applications,
10- Saves Space and Servicing Time.
11- Less Operational Problems.
12-Lower Cost.
13- Quick Process Control.
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER-DETAILED
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES

Plate
Plate thickness as low as 0.6 mm (0.024
in) can therefore be used for working
pressures as high as 230 psig
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER-DETAILED
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES

Types of Plate Corrugation


1- Intermating troughs or wash-board
2- The chevron or herringbone pattern.
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER-DETAILED
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES

.
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER-DETAILED
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES

.
Fired Heaters
Fired Heaters Applications
Common applications of indirect heaters
1- Heating the gas from the well to prevent hydrocarbon
hydrate formation.
2- Crude oil preheat between head and pipeline.
3- Crude oil preheat to Separators or Desalters.
5- Fuel gas dew-point control systems associated with
gas turbine power plants.
6-Heating high-pressure hydrocarbon gas streams at
pressure reduction stations.
7- Liquid-gas vaporization. The Indirect Heater operates
as a vaporizer/superheated.
8- Reboiler and stabilizer medium fluid heater.
Fired Heaters
Types of Fired Heaters

The choice depends on fuel cost, thermal efficiency, temperatures


desired, size of the heal load and the fluid being heated.

A wide variety of models and heating configurations are employed


as:

Horizontal Tube Fired heaters

Vertical Tube Fired heaters


Fired Heaters
1- Horizontal tube cabin.
The radiant-section tube coils of these heaters are
arranged horizontally

The convection-section tube coil is positioned as a


horizontal bank of tubes

Normally the tubes are fired vertically from the floor.

Duties run about 3-30 MW, (10 to 100 million Btu/h).


Horizontal tube Fired Heaters
Capacity ranges: Horizontal Tubes
Cabin :
Duties ranged from 3 to 30 MW, (10 to 100 million Btu/h).

Cabin with bridgewall


Duties ranging from 6-30 MW
Two-cell horizontal tube box.
Duties ranging from 30-75 MW , (100 to 250 million Btu/h).
End fired box
Duties ranging from 1-15 MW
End fired box with side mounted convection section
Duties ranging from 15-60 MW
Single row double fired (one or more cells)
Duties ranging from 6-15 MW
Horizontal tube Fired Heaters
Horizontal tube cabin heaters
Vertical tube fired heaters

3- Vertical-cylindrical, with cross flow convection

The radiant-section tube coil is disposed in a vertical


arrangement along the walls of the combustion chamber

These heaters, also fired vertically from the floor

The convection section tube is a horizontal bank of tubes

This configuration provides an economical, high-efficiency


design.

Typical duty range is up to 3-60 MW (10 to 200 million Btu/h.)


Vertical tube Fired Heaters
Vertical tube Fired Heaters
Vertical Tubes Fired Heaters:
Vertical- cylindrical, All radiant
Normal duty range from 0.1 to 6 MW

Vertical- cylindrical, with cross flow convection


Normal duty range from 3 to 60 MW

- Vertical- cylindrical, helical coil.


Normal duty range from 0.1 to 6 MW

Vertical- cylindrical, with integral convection


Normal duty range from 3 to 30 MW

Vertical- cylindrical, Single row double fired


Normal duty range from 6 to 35 MW
Vertical tube fired heaters
Fired Heaters
4- Vertical- cylindrical, helical coil.

In these units, the coil is


arranged helical along the walls
of the combustion chamber

Firing is vertical from the floor.


Fired Heaters: Radiant section
The bulk of the heat transfer in a fired heater occurs in
the radiant section about 2/3 of total heat transferred.
The actual radiant heat transfer depends on the
temperature and emissivity of the gas, tube layout and
spacing.
In addition the higher tube wall temperatures raise the
potential for coke deposition (hot spots) and product
degradation.
Typical radiant heat fluxes for heaters in E and P
operations range from 30-40 kW/m2 (10000- 12000
Btu/hr-ft2).
Fired Heaters: Convection section

The surface area required in the convection section is


controlled by film resistance of the flue-gas side.
Extended-surface used to increase the convection
transfer rate.
Typical heat fluxes in the convection section with
plain tubes are 60-80 kW/m2 (20000-24000Btu/ft2 hr).
Process fluid Flow in fired heaters

Countercurrent flow is used except for some special


services.

The process fluid normally enters the convection tubes


and flows downward through one or more parallel
sections.

From the convection section it flows through the shock


tubes, and the roof tubes, and the sidewall tubes for final
heating before it leaves the heater.
Fired Heaters: BURNERS
BURNERS:
The fundamental criteria for selecting a burner
include:
1) the ability to handle fuels having a reasonable
variation in calorific value,
2) provision for safe ignition and easy maintenance
3) a reasonable turndown ratio between maximum
and minimum firing rates,
4) predictable flame patterns for all fuels and firing
rates.
Fired Heaters: BURNERS
Gas-Fired Burners:
Gaseous fuel Burners are classified into two basic categories:
1) Premix inspirating
2) Rawgas burning.

1) Premix inspirating.

The premix burner relies on the kinetic energy made available by


the expansion of the fuel gas through an orifice to inspirate
and mix combustion air prior to ignition

Approximately 50 to 60% of the combustion air is inspirated as


primary air into the burner ahead of the ignition point.
Fired Heaters: BURNERS
Some of the advantages of this type of burner are:
Operating flexibility is good over a range of conditions.
Requires only limited adjustment of secondary (noinspirated)
combustion air.
Premix burners can operate at low excess-air rates and are not
significantly affected by changes in wind velocity and direction.
Flame length is short, and name pattern sharply defined at high heat-
release rates.
Burner orifices or spuds are fairly large, and, since they are located in
a cold zone, are less subject to plugging than the smaller openings on
noninspirating gas burners.
Some of the: disadvantages of inspirating
burners are:
Relatively high gas pressures must be available. Below
a gas pressure of 10 psig at the burner, the percentage
of inspirated air falls rapidly and flexibility is greatly
reduced.
Flashback of the flame from the burner tip to the mixing
orifice may occur at low gas pressures, or when the
fraction of gases having high flame-propagation
velocities, such as hydrogen, becomes too high.
The noise level of premix inspirating burners is higher
than that of noninspirating types.
Fired Heaters: BURNERS
2) Raw-gas burning:
The raw-gas burner receives fuel gas from the gas manifold
without any premixing of combustion air.
The gas is then burned at a tip equipped with a series of small
ports.

Some of the advantages of this type of burner are:


It has the greatest available turndown ratio for any
combustion condition.
It can operate at very low gas pressures on a wide variety
of fuels and without flashback.
Noise level is reasonably low.
Some of the advantages of this type of
burner are:
It has the greatest available turndown ratio for
any given combustion condition.
It can operate at very low gas pressures on a
wide variety of fuels and without flashback.
Noise level is reasonably low
Some of the disadvantages of raw-gas burners are:
Flexibility is limited over its wide turndown range. Because the
combustion-air adjustments must me made over the full operating
range of the burner.
The drilling of the burner ports is very sensitive, and any
enlargement of the port opening will generally result in
unsatisfactory flame conditions.
Flames tend to lengthen, and flame conditions become
unsatisfactory as the burner is pushed beyond its design level.
The gas orifices or burner ports are exposed to the hot zone and
are subject to plugging at low velocities and high temperatures.
Fired Heaters: Stack Design
Stack design:
Stack is designed to:
1) produce draft sufficient to overcome all friction to
the flue gas.
2) induce the flow of combustion air into the heater.

A negative pressure system throughout.


Never should a heater be operated with positive
pressure at any point within the structure.
Positive pressure can create back fire.
Fired Heaters: Stack Design
Draft in Fired Heaters
Fired Heaters: Stack Design
Stack design:
It is recommended that the stack design be based
on a negative pressure of 1.3 mm, 0.05 in. H2O at
this entry point.

The use of lower pressure (i.e. more negative)


would tend to create leakage of air through various
apertures.
Radiant and convection Heat fluxes

Typical Radiant heat fluxes for heaters used in


E and P operations range from 30-40 kW/m2
(10000-12000 Btu/h-ft2)

and

Typical Convection heat fluxes for this heaters


range from 60-80 kW/m2 (20000-24000 Btu/h-
ft2)
Fired heaters
Heat Balance and Thermal Efficiency

The determination of thermal efficiencies involves a


number of factors:

1. The collection of data


2. The fuel gas and flue gas composition.
3. The significance and calculation of the "percent
excess air"
4. The net heat balance calculation
Fired heaters
Data required for thermal efficiency calculations include:

Fuel gas quantity, temperature, pressure, heating value,


H2O dew point, and fractional analysis.
Stack temperature of the flue gases
Atmospheric air data wet and dry bulb temperatures and
barometric pressure
For hydrocarbon fluid heaters temperature and pressure
at the inlet and outlet , and the composition.
Fired heaters
Calculation of The Heat Balance and Thermal Efficiency

To calculate the thermal efficiency of a heater an energy balance


around the system is made.
From the energy balance the efficiency can be calculated as follows:

Energy absorbed by process fluid



Net energy input to the burner
Fired Heaters: Troubleshooting
Some causes of troubles in fired heaters are:
1. Insufficient draft
2. Excessive draft
3. Insufficient combustion air
4. Oil burning
5. Hot tubes spots

Corrective Actions
Controlling air supply
Energy saving ideas
Expanding heat capacity
Fired Heaters

Insufficient draft
This may be due to:
Draft gauge plugging
Excess CO2 in flue gas
Fouled convection section
Leaks in furnace skin
Stuck stack diameter
Damage to furnace structure
Smoke leaks out of convection
Fired Heaters
Excessive draft
Excessive draft :
Wastes energy from the system.
Sucks cold air into convection section
Causes secondary combustion in the
convection section tubes
Fired Heaters
Insufficient combustion air
This may be due to:
Fire box looks hazy
Heater makes a thumping sound
Temperature drops with the increase in
the fuel
Fin-tubing damage
Sample fire box effluent not stack gas
Fired Heaters
Incomplete Oil burning
Oil pressure too high
Oil temperature too low
Plugged burner tips
Enlarged holes
Wet atomizing steam
Fired Heaters
Existence of hot spots in tubes
Cool tubes are dark to cherry red
Silver streaks are hot spots
Low flow cause coke lay down
Steam jet cools hot spot
Maximize flow through hot coil
Fired Heaters
Corrective Actions:
1) Controlling air supply
Maximize Primary air
Flame lifts off burner
Open secondary dampers to control yellow
flame
Cool box with excess air
Seal convection section doors
Burner flashback
Fired Heaters
Energy saving ideas
Onstream blasting of radiant tubes
Steam air decoking tubes
Onstream washing convection section tubes
Infrared thermograph survey
SO3 dew point limit
Minimize atomizing steam
Install soot blowers
Fired Heaters
Expanding heat capacity
Drill out burner tips
Draft limits
Pressure survey on flue gas side
Add convection tubes
Replace raw gas burners
Increase tube side mass velocity.
CORRECT DRAFT
CORRECT DRAFT
The stack draft pulls and when correctly balanced
the pressure at the bridgewall should be close to
zero or very slightly negative.
A process heater operating properly will have a
zero, or slightly negative draft, at the shield section
of zero to -0.5" wc (water column).
The firebox will be slightly positive (+0.5 to +2.0 "
wc) and the stack will have a range of -0.5 to -1.0"
wc.
EXCESSIVE DRAFT - POSITIVE
PRESSURE CREATED
The pressure is always greatest at the
firewall. In Figure, the air registers are wide
open and the damper mostly closed. This
generates a positive pressure which forces
flue gases outward through leaks in the
convection section leading to serious
structure damage, as well as heat loss.
EXCESSIVE DRAFT - NEGATIVE
PRESSURE CREATED
The air registers are mostly closed and the
stack damper is wide open (Figure) leading to
a high negative pressure in the convection
section. Cold ambient air is sucked in through
leaks in the convection section leading to
erroneous oxygen readings, as well as heat
loss; excessive draft causes tall flames that
can reach the tubes resulting in serious
damage.
USING OXYGEN AND PPM
COMBUSTIBLES
SUGGESTED MANUAL TRIM
OF A FIRED HEATER
1. Adjust primary air on the burner for proper flame
height and color at the operating fuel gas pressure.
2. Adjust the stack damper to the recommended -
0.1" wc draft at the entrance to the convection
section, with secondary air registers open.
3. Trim the secondary air registers to the lowest
excess oxygen level up to, but not exceeding, the
PPM combustibles operational limit as dictated by
plant personnel or experience.
SUGGESTED MANUAL TRIM
OF A FIRED HEATER
.4Readjust stack damper and secondary air
registers as necessary to maintain convection
section draft and minimal radiant section oxygen
with a safe level of combustibles.
.5Set up the heater using oxygen and
combustibles. The heater is now controlled on
oxygen, and the combustibles detector is used to
watch for process upsets and burner performance
over time. This is the window into the process.
.6A 100 ppm combustibles level can achieve
maximum fuel efficiency as well as minimizing
emissions, without sacrificing safety.