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Absolute Value

Absolute value makes a negative number positive. Positive numbers and 0 are left unchanged. The absolute value of x is written |x|.
We write |6| = 6 and |8| = 8.

Formally, the absolute value of a number is the distance between the number and the origin. This is a much more powerful definition
than the "makes a negative number positive" idea. It connects the notion of absolute value to the absolute value of a complex
number and the magnitude of a vector.

Base of an Isosceles Triangle

The side that is not a leg. That is, the non-congruent side of the triangle.

Complementary Angles

Two acute angles that add up to 90. For example, 40 and 50 are complementary. In the diagram below, angles 1 and 2 are


The set of values of the independent variable(s) for which a function or relation is defined. Typically, this is the set of x-values that
give rise to real y-values.

Equilateral Triangle

A triangle with three congruent sides.

Equilateral Triangle

s = length of a side

An expression used to calculate a desired result, such as a formula to find volume or a formula to count combinations. Formulas can
also be equations involving numbers and/or variables, such as Euler's formula.

Greatest Common Factor


The largest integer that divides evenly into each of a given set of numbers. Often abbreviated GCF or gcf. For example, 6 is the gcf of
30 and 18. Sometimes GCF is written using parentheses: (30, 18) = 6.


Perfectly flat and level. For example, the horizon is horizontal. So is the floor.

Independent Variable

A variable in an equation that may have its value freely chosen without considering values of any other variable. For equations such
as y = 3x 2, the independent variable is x. The variable y is not independent since it depends on the number chosen for x.

Linear Pair of Angles

A pair of adjacent angles formed by intersecting lines. Angles 1 and 2 below are a linear pair. So are angles 2 and 4, angles 3 and 4,
and angles 1 and 3. Linear pairs of angles are supplementary.

Median of a Set of Numbers

The median of a set of numbers is the value for which half the numbers are larger and half are smaller. If there are two middle
numbers, the median is the arithmetic mean of the two middle numbers.


The top part of a fraction. For , the numerator is 12.


A way of representing the likelihood of an event's occurrence. Odds is often short for oddsPerfect Square

Any number that is the square of a rational number. For example, 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, etc. are all perfect squares. So are and

A polygon with four sides.

Rational Equation
Fractional Equation

An equation which has a rational expression on one or both sides of the equal sign. Sometimes rational equations have extraneous

Line Segment

All points between two given points (including the given points themselves).


An assertion that can be proved true using the rules of logic. A theorem is proven from axioms, postulates, or other theorems already
known to be true.

Example: line segment

Union of Sets

Combining the elements of two or more sets. Union is indicated by the (cup) symbol.

A quantity that can change or that may take on different values. Variable also refers to a letter or symbol representing such a


The period of a sinusoid. Note: This term is not typically used in a mathematics setting.


A point at which a graph intersects the x-axis. The x-intercepts of a function must be real numbers, unlike roots and zeros.


A point at which a graph intersects the y-axis.

Zero Slope

The slope of a horizontal line. A horizontal line has slope 0 because all its points have the same y-coordinate. As a result,

the formula used for slope evaluates to 0.

Parallel Lines

Two distinct coplanar lines that do not intersect. Note: Parallel lines have the same slope.

Joint Variation
Jointly Proportional

When we say z is jointly proportional to a set of variables, it means that z is directly proportional to each variable taken one at a time.


A quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent sides that are congruent. Note that the diagonals of a kite are perpendicular.


d1 = long diagonal of kite

d2 = short diagonal of kite

Area = () d1d2