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Basic AGRI.



Agricultural engineering is the engineering discipline that

applies engineering science and technology to agricultural production and
processing. Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines
of mechanical, civil, electrical and chemical engineering principles with a
knowledge of agricultural principles.

Q No. 1: What is Tractor?

Tractor is a device which develops traction for the purpose of
pulling leads / implements. Traction is developed under rear wheels
when powered by an engine.
Q No. 2: What do you mean by farm mechanization?.
It is the process of using agricultural machinery to mechanize the
work of agriculture, massively increasing farm output and farm
worker productivity.
Replacement of human and animal power with the machines to
perform agricultural activities for higher output is called farm
Q No. 3: What do you meant by tractorization?.
Increasing in number of tractors only rather other agricultural
machines in the process of farm mechanization is known as
tractorization. Like in Pakistan, we are following tractorization
except of farm mechanization. Currently, total number of tractors in
the country is approximately 500000 (0.5 million).
Q No. 4: What are the major tractor companies in Pakistan?
Massy Ferguson (Millat Tractors Ltd.)
Case New Holland (Al-Ghazi Tractors Ltd.)
FORD tractors
Q No. 5: What are the available models of tractors and their hp?

Millat Tractors Ltd Al Ghazi Tractors Ltd

Tractor Model Horse Power (hp) Tractor Model Horse Power (hp)
MF-240 50 NH-480S 55
MF-250 55 Ghazi 65
MF-260 60 NH-640N 75
MF-265 65 NH-640S 85
MF-375 75 NH-55-56 55
MF-385 85 NH-60-56 65

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Q No. 6: Define Engine.

It is a mechanical device, which converts the chemicals energy of
fuel into mechanical energy.
Q No. 7: Describe engine terminologies.
The diameter of the engine cylinder is called bore.
A cylindrical plug that moves to and fro in the cylinder under the
pressure of combustion gases and transmit power to the crankshaft
through the connecting rod.
Top dead center
The top most part of cylinder up to which piston can travel.
Bottom dead center
The lower most part of the cylinder up to which a piston can travel.
The movement of piston from top dead center to bottom dead center
or from BDC to TDC is called one stroke.
Compression ratio (CR).
It is the volume of air when the piston is at bottom dead centre
divide by the volume of air when the piston is at, top dead centre.
Clearance volume (CV).
The volume of the cylinder when piston is at its top dead center is
called clearance volume.
Q No. 8: What do you meant by a four stroke engine and a two stroke
2- stroke cycle engine
When the process of power generation is being completed
in two strokes of piston or with one revolution of
crankshaft is require to complete an engine working cycle,
is called 2 stroke cycle engine.
4 stroke engine
When the process of power generation is being completed
in four strokes of piston or within the two revolution of
crankshaft, is called 4 stroke cycle engine.
Q No. 9: What is fuel?
Fuel is any material that stores energy that can later be extracted to
perform mechanical work in a controlled manner.
Q No. 10: Define the calorific value of the fuel.
The amount of heat produced during the combination of unit
volume of fuel is known as calorific value of that fuel.
Q No. 11: Define farm machinery.
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in the operation of an

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agricultural area or farm.

Q No. 12: What are classification of farm/agricultural machines?.
1. Manually-operated equipment
2. Animal-powered equipment
3. Machine-powered equipment
4. Land preparation machinery and equipment
5. Planting machinery machinery and equipment
6. Crop maintenance machinery and equipment
7. Crop harvesting machinery and equipment
8. Post-harvest machinery and Equipment
9. Livestock machinery and equipment
Q No. 13: What are the primary and secondary tillage implements?
Primary tillage refers to tillage after harvesting or on virgin piece
of land where soil is inverted and plant residues and sometimes
manure/ fertilizer is added. e.g. Disk plough, sub soiler,chisel
plough, Mold blow plough.
On the other hand, secondary tillage is done after primary tillage
and it involves breaking the soil particles into smaller pieces and
sometimes includes formation of rows for planting. e.g. Disk
harrow, cultivator.
Q No. 14: What are the intake and exhaust valves?
Intake valve
Such valve, which admits air or mixture into the
combustion chamber.
Exhaust valve
Such valve, which permits, burned gases to escape.
Q No. 15: What are water jackets?
These are the zig zag drilled holes in the cylinder block as well as in
the cylinder head to remove excess heat.
Q No. 16: What is meant by term Firing order (F.O)?
The sequence, through which power strokes take place in multi
cylinder engines is called firing order.
Q No. 17: What is Carborator?
It is device of petrol fuel system, which breaks down the petrol into
tiny particles and then mixes it with air.
Q No. 18: What is Clutch?
Te clutch is a device in tractor (also in all vehicle) used to connect
or disconnect the source of power to the rest for the transmission
Q No. 19: What is Gearbox?
The set of gears which is to increase or decrease the revolution
coming from engine to the revolution (speed) at which it is required
to drive the tractors wheals.

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Q No. 20: What is Differential?

The power from the engine is transmitted in a straight line from the
engine crankshaft through that gearbox. However the tractor wheel
axle is a right angle to the crankshaft. So power must also be
transmitted at right angles. So to differentiate the power to both the
wheels, a differential box is used. Turning of a vehicle is possible
only by this system.
Q No. 21: Define Horse power (HP) ?
Answer: Power is the rate at which work is done. The rate at which
the engine can do work is measured in horsepower.
One horsepower: 4500 kg-m/min.
One horsepower: 0.746 KW
Q No. 22: What is the power-Take-off horsepower.
The power, which is delivered by the tractor through its PTO shaft.
Q No. 23: What is Zero tillage?
No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct planting or pasture
cropping) is a way of growing crops from year to year without
disturbing the soil through tillage
Q No. 24: What is thresher?
Threshing machine (or thresher), a device that first separates the
head of a stalk of grain from the straw, and then further separates
the kernel from the rest of the head.
Q No. 25: What is combine harvester?
The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that
harvests grain crops. The name derives from the fact that it
combines three separate operations, reaping, threshing,
and winnowing, into a single process.
Q No. 26: What is draft power of an implement?
The power provided by some power source (tractor) which is
required by an implement for its designed working. Different
implement have different draft according to their nature of job and
Q No. 27: Which are the major sources of farm power?
The different sources of power available on the farm for doing
various mobile and stationary operations areas under:
Mobile Power
1. Human (men, women, children)
2. Draught animals (bullocks, buffaloes, camels, horses and ponies,
mules and donkeys)
3. Tractors
4. Power tillers
5. Self propelled machine (combine s, reapers, sprayers etc.)

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Stationary Power
1. Diesel/oil engines (for pump sets, threshers, sprayers and other
stationary operations)
2. Electric motors (for pump sets, threshers, sprayers and other
stationary operations
Q No. 28: What is a seed drill ?
A seed drill is a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the
soil, maintains row to row distance and then covers them. Drill does
not maintain seed to seed distance.
Q No. 29: What is a planter ?
A planter is a sowing device that precisely positions seeds at equal
distance in the soil, maintains row to row and plant to plant distance
and then covers them.
Q No. 30: What is field capacity of a farm machine?
The field capacity of a farm machine is the rate at which it performs
its primary function, i.e., the number of acres that can be cultivated
per hour (acre/hr) or the number of tons of wheat grains that can be
threshed per hour (ton/hr).
Q No. 31: What is Renewable energy ?
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural
resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat,
which are renewable (naturally replenished).
Q No. 32: What is Non Renewable energy?
Non renewable energy is that form of energy which is subject
to deletion. These non-renewable energies like coal, oil and gas are
getting scarce. Energy sources like oil, coal and gas are known
as fossil fuels.
Q No. 33: What is Conservation tillage?
Conservation tillage is a tillage system that creates a suitable soil
environment for growing a crop and that conserves soil, water and
energy resources mainly through the reduction in the intensity of
tillage, and retention of plant residues.
Q No. 34: Define energy conservation.
Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy
consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through
increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy
Q No. 35: What are post harvest losses?
The post harvest sector includes all points in the value chain from
production in the field to the food being placed on a plate for
consumption. Post harvest activities include: Harvesting,

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handling, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and

Q No. 36: What does AMRI stand for?.
Agricultural machinery research institute
Q No. 37: What are the common equipments/machines are being used
for different farm activities in Pakistan ?.

Soil Planting Fertilizing & Harvest & Post

conservation Pest control harvest
Cultivator Broadcast seeder Fertilizer spreader, Beet harvester
Chisel plow Planter (farm Liquid manure/slurry Cane harvester
implement) spreader
Harrow Potato planter Manure spreader Combine harvester
Spading machine Seed drill Sprayer Cotton picker
Subsoiler Precision drill Forage harvester
Rotavator Transplanter Potato
Ridger Rice huller
Roller Grain cleaner

Q No. 38: Define the farm waste.

Farm/Agricultural waste is waste produced as a result of various
agricultural operations.
Q No. 39: What is organic farming?
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques
such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest
control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm.
Q No. 40: What is Agricultural pollution ?
Agricultural pollution comprises wastes, emissions, and discharges
arising from farming activities. This includes runoff and leaching
of pesticides and fertilizers; pesticide drift and volatilization;
erosion and dust from cultivation; and improper disposal of animal
manure and carcasses.
Q No. 41: Define Fertilizer?
Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic
origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply
one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Q No. 42: What is the mean NPK.
NPK means Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium.
Q No. 43: Define surveying?
Surveying is the art of making such measurements as will determine
the relative positions of points on the surface of the earth in order

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that the shape and extent of any portion of earth s surface may be
ascertained and delineated on a map or plan. OR
It is essentially a process of determining position of points in a
horizontal plan.

Q No. 44: What is the Theodolite?

The Theodolite is the most intricate and accurate instrument used
for measurement of horizontal and vertical angle.
Q No. 45: Describe the plain table survey.
Plan Table surveying is a graphical method of surveying is which
the field works and plotting are done simultaneously.
Q No. 46: When do you recommend the plane tabling?
It is particularly recommended for small scale or medium scale
mapping in which great accuracy in detail in not required as for
topographical surveys.
Q No. 47: What is meant of benchmark?
A branch mark is a fixed reference point of known elevation.
Q No. 48: What is meant of back sight?.
A staff rod reading taken on a point of known elevation.
Q No. 49: What is meant of the height of instrument?
The height of instrument is the elevation of the plane of collimation
when the instrument is correctly leveled.
Q No. 50: How many systems are used to find out the reduced levels?
Two systems are working to find out the reduced level of point from
the staff rod reading taken in the field.
a) The collimation system b) The rise and fall system.
Q No. 51: What is the meant by contour?
Contour may be defined as the line of intersection of level surface
as the line of intersection of a level surface with the surface of
Q No. 52: What is the farm structure?
A structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less
permanently in one place.
Q No. 51: What is Farm management?
Farm management is the collective term for
various management strategies and methods that are employed to
keep a farm productive and profitable.
Q No. 52: What is Irrigation?
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application
of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing
of agricultural crops.
Q No. 53: What are the sources of irrigation?
Surface water, ground water, rain water, and glacier.

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Q No. 54: What is Indus basin irrigation system?

The Indus Basin Irrigation System comprises of three major
reservoirs, 16 barrages, 2 head-works, 2 siphons across major
rivers, 12 inter river link canals, 44 canal systems (23 in Punjab,
14 in Sindh, 5 in NWFP and 2 in Balochistan) and more than
107,000 water courses. The aggregate length of the canals is about
56,073 Km. In addition, the watercourses, farm channels and
field ditches cover another 1.6 million Km
Q No. 55: Define Dam.
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground
streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining
Q No. 56: How many number of Dams in Punjab Province?
Akhori Dam (planned)
Dhrabi Dam
Dohngi Dam
Ghabir Dam (under construction)
Kalabagh Dam (planned)
Khai Dam

chiniot dam {planned}

Q No. 57: Define Barrage

A type of dam which consists of a line of large gates that can be
opened or closed to control the amount of water passing the dam. Or
It is a hydraulic structure which not only used for the distribution of
water but as well as used for some storage of water.
Q No. 58: Enlist Barrages in Pakistan.
Rasul Barrage, Punjab
Tonsa Barrage , Punjab
Chashma Barrage, Punjab
Panjnad Barrage, Punjab
Guddu Barrage, Sindh
Shukkur Barrage, Sindh
Kotri Barrage, Sindh
Q No. 59: Define Head works
It is hydraulic structure which only used for the distribution of
Q No. 60: Define retaining wall.
A retaining wall is a structure desired to sustain the lateral pressure
of earth and other material.
Q No. 61: Define irrigation canal.

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A permanent irrigation conduit constructed to convey water from

the source of supply to one or more farms.
Q No. 62: Define water course.
A watercourse is any flowing body of water. These include rivers,
streams, anabranches, and so forth.
Q No. 63: What are the total annual water resources of Pakistan?.
Total anaual resources in Pakistan are as, Ground 50 MAF surface
144 MAF Rain fall 13-14maf
Q No. 64: What are the kinds of flow?.
Flow is classified into open channel flow and closed conduit flow.
Open channel flow conditions occur whenever the flowing stream
has a free or unconstrained surface that is open to the atmosphere.
In hydraulics, a pipe is any closed conduit that carries water under
Q No. 65: What are the common water measuring devices?.
(1) Weirs
(2) Flumes
(3) Orifices
(4) Venturi meters
(5) Runup measurement on a flat "weir stick"
Q No. 66: What are the flow totalization?.
Water is sold and measured in terms of total volume consumed; say
cubic feet, over some convenient time period, perhaps for billing
each month. Many flow meters have built in capability to sum or
totalize volume continually. Thus, the volume consumed is obtained
by taking the difference of two sequential monthly readings. This is
known as flow totalization.
Q No. 67: What are the flow totalization?.
Hydraulic radius, Rh, is defined as the area of the flow section
divided by the wetted perimeter, Pw,
Q No. 68: Define wetted perimeter?.
The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that
is "wet."
Q No. 69: Define weir?
A measuring weir is simply an overflow structure built
perpendicular to an open channel axis to measure the rate of flow of
Q No. 70: Define orifice?
An orifice is any opening, mouth, hole or vent, as of a pipe, plate,
or a body.
Q No. 71: Define flume?

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A flume is an open artificial water channel, in the form of a gravity

chute, that leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely
aside a natural flow.

Cut throat flume

Partial flume
Q No. 73: What is flow meter?.
A flow meter is an instrument used to measure linear, nonlinear,
mass or volumetric flow rate of a liquid or a gas.
Q No. 74: What is current meter?.
The current meter is a self-contained current measuring sensor
designed to measure the true magnitude and direction of horizontal
current motion in any water environment.
Q No. 75: What is discharge?.
Discharge is the volume rate of water flow which is transported
through a given cross-sectional area.
Q No. 76: What is micro irrigation?.
It is an irrigation method which saves water and fertilizer by
allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto
the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of
valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.
Q No. 77: What is irrigation scheduling?.
Irrigation scheduling is the process used by irrigation system
managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of
Q No. 78: Define permanent wilting point?.
Permanent wilting point (PWP) or wilting point (WP) is defined as
the minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt. If
moisture decreases to this or any lower point a plant wilts and can
no longer recover its turgidity when placed in a saturated
atmosphere for 12 hours.
Q No. 79: What is field capacity?.
Field capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held
in soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of
downward movement has materially decreased, which usually takes
place within 23 days after a rain or irrigation in pervious soils of
uniform structure and texture.
Q No. 80: Define pump?
A pump is a device used to move fluids, such
as liquids, gases or slurries.
Q No. 81: Define drainage?

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Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-

surface water from an area. Many agricultural soils need drainage to
improve production or to manage water supplies.
Q No. 82: what are the major rivers and their distributaries?
1. Indus Tarbela dam, Warsak dam (on the Kabul river near
theIndus), Kalabagh barrage (also named as Jinnah barrage)
atKalabagh, Chashma reservoir, Tausa barrage, Gudu barrage,
Sukkurbarrage, Kotri barrage.
2. Jhelum Mangla dam, Rasul barrage, Punjnad headworks.
3. Chenab Marala headworks, Khanki headworks,
4. Ravi Balloki barrage, Sidnai barrage.
5. Sutlej Sulemanki barrage, Islam barrage
Q No. 83: What are the units of measuring meter?.
Acre-inch (ac-in.): An acre-inch is the volume of water required to
cover an acre of land with one inch of water. One acre-inch equals
about 3,630 cubic feet or 27,154 gallons.

Acre-foot (ac-ft): An acre-foot is the volume of water required to

cover an acre of land with 1 foot of water. One acre-foot equals
about 43,560 cubic feet, 325,848 gallons or 12 acre-inches.

Cubic feet per second (cfs): One cubic foot per second is
equivalent to a stream of water in a ditch 1- foot wide and 1-foot
deep flowing at a velocity of 1 foot per second. It is also equal to
450 gallons per minute, or 40 miners-inches.

Gallons per minute (gpm): Gallons per minute is a measurement

of the amount of water being pumped, or flowing within a ditch or
coming out of a pipeline in one minute.
Q No. 84: Define water table?.
The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is
equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0).
Q No. 85: Define dry well?.

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A dry well is an underground structure that disposes of

unwanted water, most commonly storm water runoff, by dissipating
it into the ground, where it merges with the
local groundwater.CHAPTER NO. 1

Q.No.1. The mechanics of liquids and gases which is based on the same
fundamental principles that are employed in the mechanics of solids
is called:
(a) Soil mechanics (b) Fluid mechanics
(c) Mechanics of material (d) Engineering mechanics.
Q.No.2. The combining of classical hydrodynamics with the study of real
fluid is related to the science, called:
(a) Soil mechanics (b) Mechanics of material
(c) Fluid mechanics (d) Engineering mechanics.
Q.No.3. A gas having temperature and pressure very near to the liquid
(a) Steam (b) Vapour
(c) Compressed gas (d) Fluid.
Q.No.4. Specific weight of fluid is:
(a) Mass per unit volume (b) Weight per unit volume
(c) Density per unit weight (d) Weight per unit density.
Q.No.5. Specific weight () have unit
(a) N/m3 (b) Kg/m3
(c) m /N (d) N.S2/m4
Q.No.6. The compressibility of a liquid is _____ to its volume modulus of
(a) Inversely proportional (b) Directly proportional
(c) Equal (d) None of these.
Q.No.7. The typical value of modulus of elasticity of cold water at 0C o and
pressure 100 K Pa
(a) 2130MN/m2 (b) 2530 MN/m2
(c) 2830 MN/m (d) 2730 MN/m2
Q.No.8. An ideal fluid may be defined as an there is no ______
(a) Pressure (b) Volume
(c) Friction (d) Temperature
Q.No.9. The measure of fluid's resistance to sheer or angular deformation
(a) Normality (b) Viscosity
(c) Molarity (d) Compressibility
Q.No.10. Specific weight water at 20C (1013 m.bar, abs) with g = 9.8m/s2 is
(a) 10.1 KN/m3 (b) 9.81 KN/m3
(c) 8.5 KN/m (d) 9.1 KN/m3
Q.No.11. For air the value of gas constant R is
(a) 462 N. m / (Kg.k) (b) 287 N.m/ (Kg.k)

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(c) 728 N.m/(Kg.k) (d) None of these

Q.No.12. Specific weight of air (molecular weight =290) at 20C and 1013
mbar.abs) with g = 9.81 m/S2 is
(a) 0.012 kN/m3 (b) 10.1 KN/m3
(c) 9.81 kN/m (d) 8.5 {N/m3
Q.No.13. In SI unit pressure is expressed in
(a) Joule (b) N/m2
(c) N.m (d) N/m3
Q.No.14. The unit of viscosity is poise which is equal to
(a) 0.01 N.S./m2 (b) 0.01 m N.S/m2
(c) NS/m (d) All of these
Q. No.15. Kinematics viscosity is usually measured in cm2/S which is also
(a) Poise (b) Joule
(c) Pascal (d) Stoke
Q.No.16. A fluid for which the constant of proportionally (i.e. the viscosity)
does not change with rate of deformation is said to be a
(a) Real fluid (b) Ideal fluid
(c) Newtonian fluid (d) Compressional fluid
Q.No.17. Deferential manometers are used to measure
(a) Viscosity (b) Volume
(c) Temperature (d) Pressure
Q No.18. The buoyant force on any body is equal to of fluid displaced
(a) Mass (b) Weight
(c) Volume (d) b and c both.
Q.No.19. In the uniform flow remain same
(a) Depth (b) Velocity
(c) Temperature (d) Depth and velocity
Q.No.20. What is the formula of volume flow rate
(a) Q = AV (b) G = AV
(c) M = AV (d) N = AV
Q. No.21. Select the equations of continuity
(a) Q = A1.V1 = A2 V2 (b) 1A1V1 = 2A2V2 = M
(c) 1A1V1 = 2A2V2 = G (d) All of these
Q.No.22.Select the continuity equation that applies to in compressible
fluids for both steady and unsteady flow within fixed boundaries.
(a) Q = A1V1 = A2 V2 (b) M = 1A1V1 = 2A2A2
(c) G = 1A1V1 = 2A2 2 (d) None of these
Q.No.23. If the flow is such that all streamlines are plane curves and are
identical in a series of parallel planes is called
(a) Uniform flow (b) Uniform unsteady flow

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(c) Two dimensional flow (d) Laminar flow

Q No.24. If the flow is steady; the fluid may posses an acceleration by virtue
of a change in velocity with change in position this type of
acceleration is called
(a) Convective acceleration (b) Local acceleration
(c) Tangential acceleration (d) Normal acceleration.
Q.No.25. The sum of the pressure head, elevation head and velocity head is
(a) Volume flow rate (b) Weight flow rate
(c) Head (d) Mass flow rate
Q.No.26. Write the correct formula of the total head and Bernoullis theory.
(a) P/ + Z + V2/2g (b) P/2 + z/2 + V2/g
(c) P/2 + Z + V /2g (d) All of these
Q.No.27. The ratio of the area of the jet to the Area of the office or the
opening is called
(a) Cc (b) Cv (c) Co (d) None of these.

1:b, 2: c, 3:b, 4: b, 5: a, 6: a, 7:b, 8:c, 9:b, 10:b, 11:b, 11(A) : a 12:b, 13:a,
14:d, 15:c, 16:d, 17:d, 18:d 19:a, 20: d, 20A: a, 21: c, 22: a, 23:c, 24:a, 25:a

Q.No.26. The Geometric similarity, which means that the model and its
prototype be identical in shape but _________ only size.
(a) Same (b) Differ
(c) May be same or may be differ (d) Non of these.
Q.No.27. Scale ratio is equal to the
(a) Lp/ Lm (b) Lm/Lp
(c) Lp/Lr (d) Lm/
Q.No.28. Model ratio should be
(a) 1: 20 (b) 20:1
(c) 10:1 (d) 1: 10

Q.No.29. The ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces is called

(a) Mach number (b) Froude number
(c) Weber number (d) none of these
Q. No.30. Regnolds number R is equal to
(a) LV/ (b) V2/gL
(c) LV/V (d) V/C
Q. No.30. Square rates of the ratio of the inertial force to the gravity force is
(a) Froude number (b) Reynolds number

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(c) Mach number (d) Weber number

Q.No.31. Select the correct formula of Froude number
(a) Dv/ (b) Lv/
(c) V/gL (d) none of these
Q. No.32. If g is considered to be the same and F is also same so
(a) Qr = Lr5/2/1 (b) Qr = Lr1/2/1
(c) Qr = L /1 (d) Qr =1
Q.No.33. Square root of the ratio of the inertia to elastic forces
(a) Mach number (b) Froude number
(c) Reynolds number (d) Weber number
Q. No.34. For extremely high value of Mach number M the flow is
(a) Super sonic (b) Hyper sonic
(c) Sub sonic (d) Sonic
Q.No.35. The square root of the ratio of the inertial forces to surface tension
is called
(a) Weber number (b) Mach number
(c) Fraud number (d) Euler number.
Q.No.36. Select the correct formula of the Weber number
(a) W = V/ (b) V/C
(c) V/gL (d)V/2g(P/r)
Q.No.37. The square root of the ratio of the inertial forces to the pressure
forces is called
(a) Weber number (b) Mach number
(c) Euler number (d) Froude number
Q.No.38. What is the dimension of discharge?
(a) L2 T-1 (b) L2 T-2
3 -1
(c) L T (d) L3 T
Q.No.39. What is the dimension of power?
(a) MLT-2 (b) ML-1T-2
2 -3
(c) ML T (d) ML2T-2
Q.No.40. A mathematical technique making use of the study of dimensions.
(a) Dimensional analysis (b)Vector Analysis
(c) Calculus (d) Mechanics
Q.No.41. If there are n dimensional variables in a dimensionally
homogenous equation, described by m fundamental dimensions,
they may be grouped in n-m dimensionless groups.
(a) Rayleigh method (b) Buckingham Theorem
(c) Both a & b (d) None of these
Q.No.42. What is the hydraulic Radius?
(a) Rh = P/A (b) Rh = A/d,
(c) Rh = A/p (d) Rh= D/A
Q.No.43. Hydraulic radius for a full flowing circular pipe is
(a) Rh = D/4, (b) Rh = r/2

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(c) Rh = r2 /2r (d) all of these

(e) None of these

Q.No.44. hL = L/D V2/2g

This equation is known as
(a) Pipe friction equation (b) Darcy Weisbach equation
(c) Fanning equation (d) Bernoullis equation
(e) a,b
Q.No.45. If in pipe friction equation D is replaced by Hydraulic Radius R
then this equation is known as
(a) Darcy - Weisbach equation (b) Pipe friction equation
(c) Funning equation (d) none of these.
Q.No.46. V = 0.85 CHW Rh 0.63S 0.54
This above formula is called
(a) Manning formula (b) Hazen &Williamss formula
(c) Chazy formula (d) None of these.
Q.No.47. W hat is the Minning formula in MKS system.
(a) V = 0.85 CHW Rh0.63 S0.54 (b) V= 1/n Rh 2/3 S1/2
2/3 1/2
(c) V = 49/n Rh S (d) V=100/n Rh2/3 S1/2
Q. No.48. If pipes in series what would occur
(a) Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 Q1 = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
(b) hL = hL1+hL2+hL3+.. hL =hL1=hL2=hL3
(c) Q = hL Q2=h2 Q1 =h1 Q3 = h3
(d) None of these
Q. No.49. Flow rate through on orifice meter is commonly expressed as
(a) Q = KAO 2g[(P1/ + 21)-(P2/+Z2)]
(b) Q = CA2/1-(D2/D1)4 2g[(P1/ + z2)-(P2/+Z2)]
(c) Q = 1/1-(A2/A1)2 2g[(Z1+P1/)-(Z2+Pl/)]
(d) None of these.
Q. No.50. The discharge of an overflow spillway is given y the Weber
(a) Q = CWLH3/2 (b) Q = CWL3/2 H
(c) Q = CW LH (d) Q=CWL H-3/2
26:b, 27: , 28:a, 29:d, 30:a, 30A:a, 31:c, 32:a, 33:a, 34:b, 35:a, 36:a,
37:c, 38:c, 39:c, 40:a, 41:b, 42:c, 43:d, 44: e, 45:c, 46:b, 47:b, 48:a,
49:a, 50:a.


Q.No.51.The application of engineering principles to the solution of soil and

water management problem

Basics of Agriculture 317


(a) Fluid mechanics (b) Soil mechanics

(c) Soil & water conservation engineering.
(d) Engineering mechanics
Q. No.52. The engineering problems involved in soil and water conservation
may be divided in the------------- phases.
(a) six (b) Five
(c) Four (d) Two.
Q.No.53. The removal of excess water from wetland is called
(a) Irrigation (b) Drainage
(c) Vegetation (d) Moisture conservation.

Q.No.54.The application of water to land having a deficiency of moisture for

optimum crop growth is called
(a) Drainage (b) Irrigation
(c) Vegetation (d) Flood control
Q.No.55.The prevention of overflow on low land and the reduction of flow
in streams during and after heavy storms are called
(a) Erosion control (b) Drainage
(c) Irrigation (d) Flood control.
Q.NO.56.The application of modified tillage and crop management practices
including natural and artificial mulching techniques is called
(a) Erosion control (b) Flood control
(c) Moisture conservation (d)Water resource development.
Q. No.57.The collection and storage of surface water as well as the recharge
and orderly development of ground water supplies is called
(a) Moisture control (b) Water resource development
(c) Drainage (d) Moisture conservation.
Q.No.58.Drizzle consists of quite uniform precipitation with drops less
then-------- in diameter.
(a) 0.5 mm (b) 0.4 mm
(c) 0.6 mm (d) 0.3 mm.
Q.No.59.The movement of water through the soil profile is called
(a) Infiltration (b) Percolation
(c) Runoff (d) Transpiration.
Q.No.60.Infiltration rate is high; --------- water will pass through the soil
surface and erosion will--------
(a) Less, increase (b) More, reduce
(c) Less, reduce (d) More increase.
Q.No.61.The rate of evaporation has been found to--------with------in the salt
content of the water
(a) Increase, decrease (b) Decrease, increase
(c) Decrease, decrease (d) Increase, increase.
(e) a,b. (f) c,d

Basics of Agriculture 318


Q.No.62.To find the evaporation from reservoirs the calculated evaporation

should be multiplied
(a) 0.77 (b) 0.67
(c) 7.7 (d) 6.7
Q.No.63.The ratio of weight of water transpired to the weight of dry matter
in the plant is called
(a) Transportation ratio (b)Evapotranspiration ratio
(c) Infiltration ratio (d) None of those
Q. No.64. Uniform removal of soil in thin layer from sloping land
(a) Sheet erosion (b) Rill erosion
(c) Gully erosion (d) Stream channel erosion.
Q.No.65.Run off will occur only when the rate of ------exceeds the rate at
which water infiltrate in the soil
(a) Precipitation (b) Infiltration
(c) Evaporation (d) None of these.
Q.No.66.The ratio of the peak run off rate to the rainfall intensity is called
(a) Run of co-efficient (b) Intensity co-efficient
(c) Infiltration co-efficient (d) none of these.
Q.No.67. Select the formula which is used to determine the peak run off
(a) q = KAx (b) Q = KAx
(c) q = K A (d) None of these
Q.No.68.The removal of soil from the land by running water, including
runoff from melted snow and ice
(a) Soil erosion (b) Water erosion
(c) Wind erosion (d) None of these.
Q.No.69.The product of the K.E. of the storm and maximum 30-min
intensity is called
(a) Infiltration index (b) Rainfall index
(c) Run off index (d) Rainfall & runoff erositifity index
Q.No.70.The process by which moisture is returned to the air from liquid to
gaseous state
(a) Evaporation (b) Transpiration
(c) Evaporatranspiration (d) None of these.

51:c, 52:a , 53:b , 54:b, 55:d, 56:c , 57:b , 58:a , 59:b , 60:b , 61:e, 62:a ,
63:a, 64:a, 65:a, 66:a, 67:a, 68:b, 69:d, 70:a.


Q.No.1. The application of the laws of mechanics and hydraulics to

engineering problems dealing with sediments and other consolidated
accumulation of solid particles produced by mechanical and chemical

Basics of Agriculture 319


disintegration of rocks regardless of whether or not they contain and

admixture of organic constituents is called
(a) Fluid mechanics (b) Soil mechanics
(c) Soil Science (d) Engineering mechanics.
Q.No.2. The practice of engineering, which applies the principle of
soil mechanics to the design of engineering structures, is called
(a) Soil Science (b) Soil Engineering
(c) Engineering Mechanics (d) Fluid Mechanics.
Q. No.3. The ratio of the density of a given volume of soil solid to the
density of an equal volume of pure water is called
(a) Mass ratio (b) Specific gravity
(c) Specific weight (d) Void ratio
Q.No.4 Specific gravity of soil at +4oC is________________
(a) Gw 4/ Gw 20 (b) Gw 20/ Gw 4
Gw 4
(C) Gw 20 ------- (d)None
Gw 20

Q.No.5 The ratio of the volume of the void to total volume of the soil is
called _______
(a)Void ratio (b) Specific gravity
(c) Porosity (d) Soil moisture content

Q.No.6 Ratio of the volume of void to volume of solids is termed as ____

(a) Relative porosity (b) Porosity
(c) Void ratio (d) a,c
Q.No.7 When all voids in the soil are filled with full water
(a) Vv = n (b) Vv = e
(c)Vv = (d) None of these
Q.NO.8 The amount of water which is contained in the void of soil is called
(a) Soil moisture content (b) Moisture ratio
(c ) Porosity (d) None of these
(e) Degree of saturation
Q.No.9 The ratio of actual volume of voids filled with water to the total
volume of void is called________________
(a) Soil moisture content (b) Porosity
(c) Void ratio (d) Degree of saturation
Q.NO.10 When degree of saturation S = 1 then soil is a________________
(a) Two phase system (b) Three phase system
(c) Single phase system (d) None of these

Basics of Agriculture 320


Q No. 11: The spacing and mutual arrangement of soil particle within the
mass of soil is called
a) Packing b) Compaction
c) Consideration d) None of these.
Q No. 12:The ratio of the diameter of the particles which has 60 percent of
he sample finer than the size shown to the size which has 10% by
weight material finer then these size d10 is called.
a) Packing b) Coefficient
c) Coefficient of resistively d) Degree of saturation
Q No. 13: If coefficient of uniformity is greater than 15 then soil.
a) Uniform b) Medium uniform
c) Non uniform d) None of these

Q No. 14: Weight of soil per unit of its volume is called.

a) Specific weight b) Specific gravity
c) Unit gravity d) Unit weight
Q No. 15: In the British system of units, unit weight of water is.
a) 62.4 lb/ft3 b) 1000 lb/ft3
c) 1000 kg/m d) 1 t/m3
Q No.16: The increase in the dry density of soil by the dynamic load is
a) Packing b) Compaction
c) Consolidation d) Erosion
Q No. 17: The increase in the density of the soil by the static load is called.
a) Packing b) Compaction
c) Erosion d) Consolidation
Q No. 18: The ratio of the field density to the standard laboratory density of
the soil is called.
a) Unit weight b) Uniformity
c) Relative compaction d) Consolidation
Q No.19: The moisture content in percent of a soil by dry weight at the
maximum dry density of that soil. is called.
a) Soil moisture content b)Porosity
c)Void ratio d) Optimum moisture content
Q No.20: Compaction increases the density of the soil, this increasing its
_______________ and beary capacity.
a) Shear strength b) Permeability
c) Tendency d) None of these.
Q No.21: Ratio of actual decrease in volume of void in a soil to the
maximum decrease in volume of void is called.
a) Relative density b) relative compaction
c) Consolidation d) packing

Basics of Agriculture 321


Q No.22: We can measure the liquid limit by the method

a) Casagrancles Method b) Proctor sol compaction test
c) Pentrometer d) none of these
Q No.23: The degree of cohesion between the soil particles.
a) Degree of saturation b) Degree of compaction
c) Soil consistency d) None of these
Q No.24: The moisture content of the soil at which the soil transforms from
the semisolid to solid state is termed as.
a) Liquid limit b) Plastic limit
c) Shrinking limit d) Plastic state
Q No.25: The moisture content at which the plastic properties of the
cohesive soil are lost is termed as.
a) Liquid limit b) Plastic state
c) Plastic limit d) Shrinkage limit
Q No.26: The moisture content at which the cohesive soil mass become layer
and some what stiffer.
a) Liquid limit b) Shrinkage limit
c) Plastic limit d) Liquid state
Q No.27: The difference in moisture content or interval liquid and plastic
limits is termed as.
a) Plasticity index b) Shrinkage index
c) Liquidity index d) None of these.
Q No.28: The ratio of difference between the moisture content and P.L. to the
P.I. is called.
a) Consistency index b) Relative plasticity index
c) Liquidity index d) all of these
1: b 2: b 3: b 4: c
5: c 6: d 7: a 8: a
9: d 10: a 11: a 12: b
13: c 14: c 15; a 16: b
17: b 18: c 19: d 20: a
21: a 22: a 23: c 24: c
25: c 26: a 27: a 28: d

Chapter 5

Q No.1: Flow in an open channel is said to be ____________ if depth of flow

does not change during time internal under condition.
a) Steady flow b) uniform flow
c) Steady uniform flow d) unsteady flow

Basics of Agriculture 322


Q No.2: Flow in an open channel is said to be ____________ it depth of flow

changes during time interval under condition.
a) Steady flow b) uniform flow
c) Unsteady non-uniform flow d) Unsteady flow
Q No.3: Where the discharge of a steady flow is non-uniform along the
channel this type of flow is called.
a) Non uniform flow b) Unsteady flow
c) Spatially varied d) Discontinuous flow
(e) c,d
Q No.4: In open channel flow if depth of flow is same at every section of the
channel, the flow is called.
a) Steady section of the channel b) Uniform flow
c) Continuous flow d) Unsteady
Q No.5: The depth of flow remains constant during the time interval under
consideration this type of flow is called.
a) Steady b) Uniform
c) Steady uniform flow d) Unsteady uniform flow
Q No.6: In a flow when water fluctuate from time to time while remains
parallel to the channel bottom is called.
a) Steady non-uniform b) Unsteady uniform
c) Steady uniform d) Unsteady non-uniform
Q No.7:If depth changes abruptly over a comparatively short distance it is
termed as
a) Rapidly varied flow b) Rapidly steady flow
c) Gradually varied flow d) none of these.
Q No.8: If the viscous forces are so strong relative to inertial force than flow
will be.
a) Turbulent b) Transitional
c) Laminar d) None of these
Q No.9: If the viscous force is weed relative to the inertial forces, the flow is
termed as.
a) Turbulent b) Laminar
c) Transitional d) None of these
Q No.10: The effect of viscosity relative to inertial can be represented by.
a) Reynolds number b) Fraud number
c) Mach number c) Weber number
Q No.11: Crossectional areas of the water in the channel divide by the width
of free surface is called.
a) Diameter b) Hydraulic depth
c) Hydraulic area d) None of these
Q No.12: The effect of gravity upon the state of flow is repressed by the ratio
of inertial force to the gravity forces this ratio is termed as.
(a) Reynolds number (b) Fraud number

Basics of Agriculture 323


(c) Weber number (d) Mach number

Q No.13; when Froude number equal to unit the flow is said to be
a) Sub critical b) Critical
c) Supercritical d) None of these
Q No.14: When Froude number less than unit then flow termed as.
a) Sub critical b) Critical
c) Super critical d) None of these

Q No.15: When Froude number greater than unit then flow is termed as.
a) Sub critical b) Critical
c) Super critical d) hypersonic
Q No.16: A long and mild-sloped channel built in the grouped, which may be
unlined or lined, is called.
a) Flume b) Chute
c) Canal d) Culvert
Q No.17: A channel of wood, metal concrete, or masonry, usually supported
on or above the surface of the group to carry water across a
a) Canal b) Chute
c) Flume d) Open channel tunnel
Q No.18: A channel having steep slop called
a) Canal b) flume
c) Culvert d) Chute
Q No.19: A covered channel comparatively short length is called
a) Open channel tunnel b) Culvert
c) Chute d) Flume
Q No.20: A comparatively long covered carry water through a hill used to
obstruction on the ground.
a) Open channel tunnel b) Culvert
c) Flume c) Chute
Q No.21: A channel built with unvarying cross section and constant bottom
slope is called.
a) Culvert b) Prismatic
c) Erodible d) Non erodible channel
Q No.22: What is the area of the trapezoidal channel
a) by b) (b+zy) y
c) b+ 2y (1+z2 ) d) zy2
Q No.23 When water flows in a channel a force is developed that acts in the
direction of flow on the channel bed is termed as
a) Attractive force b) Specific force
b) Specific energy d) none of these.
Q No.24: A channel with a longitudinal slope angle, it can be seen that the
depth of flow is equal to be depth of flow section divided by

Basics of Agriculture 324


a) cos b)Sin
c) Tan d) Cot
Q No.25: Cross sectional area of the flow normal to the direction of flow is
a) Top width b) Wetted perimeter
c) Water area d) Hydraulic radius
Q No.26: The ratio the water area to the top width is called.
a) Hydraulic depth b) Hydraulic radius
c) Section factor d) Depth
Q No.27: The product of the water area and the square root of the hydraulic
depth is termed as.
a) the section for uniform-flow computation
b) the section for critical-flow computation
c) the hydraulic radius
d) none of these
Q No.28: The product of the water area and the two-third power of the
hydraulic radius.
a) The section factor uniform flow computation.
b) The section factor article flow computation/
c) The section factor ~on uniform flow computation
d) None of these
Q No.29: The measured maximum velocity in ordinary channels usually
appears to occur below the free surface at a distance of ______ to
________ of the depth.
a) 0.5 to 0.75 b) 0.05 to 0.25
c) 0.25 to 0.5 d) 0.05 to 0.5
Q No.30: Coriolis coefficients value varies from about to for fairly straights
prismatic channels.
a) 1.03 to 1.36 b) 1.01 to 1.12
c) 1.36 to 1.46 d) 1.03 to 1.12
Q No.31: The value of Bouzinesq coefficient or momentum coefficient for
fairly straight prismatic channels varies approximately from
_______ to_________.
a) 1.03 to 1.36 b) 1.01 to 1.12
c) 1.01 to 1.36 d) 1.03 to 1.02
Q No.32: The hydrostatic law of pressure distribution does not hold strictly
a) Uniform flow b) steady flow
c) Gradually varied flow c) rapid varied flow
Q No.33: The line representing the elevation of the total head of flow is
termed as.
a) Energy line b) hydraulic grade line
c) Datum line d) none of these

Basics of Agriculture 325


Q No.34: Energy per pound of water at any section of a channel measured

with respect to the channel bottom this is called.
a) Kinetic energy b) potential energy
c) energy d) none of these
Q No.35: Specific energy is equal to the sum of the depth of water and
a) Velocity head b) Elevation head
c) pressure head d) none of these
Q No.36: When the depth of flow is plotted against the specific energy for a
given channel section and discharge then a curve is obtained is
termed as
a) Specific energy curve b) specific force curve
c) Pressure curve d) velocity curve
Q No.37: When depth of flow is greater than critical depth, the velocity of
flow is __________ than the critical velocity for a given
discharge and flow is __________.
a) greater, sub critical c) greater super critical
b) less, super critical d) less, sub critical
Q No.38: When depth of flow is less than the critical depth, the velocity of
the flow is _______ than the critical and flow is _____________.
a) less, super critical b) less, sub critical
c) greater, super critical d) greater , sub critical
Q No.39: When the depth of flow is critical the velocity of the flow is _____
and flow is __________
a) Sub critical, critical b) critical, sub critical
c) Critical, critical d) sub critical, sub critical
Q No.40: At the critical state of flow the velocity head is equal to _______
the hydraulic depth.
a) Half of b) one-third
c) One-fourth d) none of these
Q No.41: At the critical state of flow the velocity head is equal to the one
half of the ___________.
a) Hydraulic drop b) hydraulic depth
c) Hydraulic radius d) none of these
Q No.42: The critical state of flow the specific energy is a _________ for the
given discharge.
a) Minimum b) Maximum
c) Equal to d) None of these
Q No.43: When the rapid change in the depth of flow is from low stage to a
high stage this phenomenon is termed as
a) Hydraulic crop b) Hydraulic Jump
c) Gradually varied flow d) none of these

Basics of Agriculture 326


Q No.44: the depth before the jump is always ________than depth after
a) Less b) greater
c) not less d) equal
Q No.45 Select the Chezy formula
a) v = c Rs b) v = 1/n R 2/3 S
c) V = c/n Rs d) V = C R 2/3 S
Q No.46: Relation ship between meaning formula and chezy formula is
a) c = 1.49/n R1/6 b) n = 1.49/c R 1/6
c) c/1.49=1/n R 1/6 d) all of these
e) None of these
Q No.47: To measure freeboard which of the following formula is used.
a) F =Cy b) F = cRS
c) F = cs d) F = cR
Q No.48: The conveyance of channel section--------- with----- in the
hydraulic radius.
a) increase, decrease b) Increase, increase,
c) decrease, increase d) None of these

Q No.49: For the rectangular channel the best hypaulic radius>

a) y b) 2y
c) y d) 2y 2.5

1: A, 2:D, 3:C, 4:B, 5:C, 6:B, 7: A, 8: C, 11: A, 10: A, 11: B, 12: B, 13:C,
14:A, 15:c, 16:C, 17:C, 18: D, 19: B, 20:A, 21: B, 22: B, 23:A, 24: A, 25: C,
26:A, 27: B, 28: A, 29: B, 30:A, 31: B, 32: D, 33:A, 34: C, 35: A, 36: A,
37:D, 38: C, 39: C, 40: A, 41:C, 42:A, 43:B, 48:A, 45:A, 46:D, 47:A, 48:B,


Q NO.1 The residue left after the sugar and water have been extracted from
the sugar cane in called.
a) Beryiosis (b) Bagesse
(c) Byssionosis (d) None as these.
Q No.2 : The kinds of pesticide aims at killing or repelling the birds.
a) Pesticide (b) Wide cide
(c) Avicide (d) Flexbircide
Q No.3: The region or area in which water gets collected and drains towards
lake is called.
a) Catchment area (b) Water Area

Basics of Agriculture 327


(c) Water log area (d) None of these

Q No.4: The weight of oxygen consumed by organic mater in a water sample
is called.
a) Chemical organ demand (b) Biochemical oxygen
(c) Non of these (d) All of these
Q NO.5: Decibel is the unit of
a) Viscosity of sound (b) Intensity of sound
(c) Density of sound (d)Volume of sound.
Q No.6: When salt of sediment deposition excess that of its removal then
_____ is formed.
a) Dam b) Delta
c) Aquiver d) Head
Q No.7: The term is used fore water liquids being discharged from industries
and sewage is called.
a) Effluent b) Waste water
c) Drainage water d) none of these
Q No.8: The physical, chemical and biological condition surrounding by
organisms is termed as
a) Ecosystem (b) Ecology
(c) Cyclone (d) Environment
Q No 9: Garbage wastes have a moisture content of about.
a) 25% (b) 70%
c) 5% (d) 85%
Q No.10: Requirement of the water per head per day is ____to ____liters>
a) 50 to 100 (b) 100 to 150
(c) 150 (d) 300 to 400
Q No.11: In the composition of air Nitrogen is present
a) 78% (b) 25%
(c) 50% (d) 12%
Q No.12:Which of the following fuel is the comparative environment
a) Petrol (b) Diesel
(c) Compressed natural gas (d) Coil
Q No.13: How much area in hectares is affected by wind erosion.
a) Two Million (b) 5 Million
(c) Ten Million (d) 2.1 Million hectors
Q No.14: How much area is water logged in arid zone?
a) 1.88 million hectare (b) 0.17 million hectare
(c) 0.05 million hectares (d) 2.1 million hectare
Q No.15: Standard Noise level for urban area
a) 75 db (b) 80 db
(c)55 db (d) 60 db.
Q No.16: Ozone gas is the form of oxygen---- with atoms.

Basics of Agriculture 328


(a) Five b) Four

(c) Two d) Three
Q No.17: Ozone is found in the stratosphere -----to------kilometer above the
earths surface.
a) 15 to 50 b) 50 to 100
c) 100 to 150 d) 150 to 200
Q No.18: Clinical waste can be categories in to ______-categories
` a) 5 b) 6
c) 7 d) 8
Q No.19: In the world _____million tons of pathological waste is produced
in the hospitals per annum
a) 50 b) 100
c) 20 d) 10
Q No.20: In Pakistan annual consumption of plastic is ____-tones.
a) 40,000 b) 50,000
c) 70,000 d) 100000

1: b 2: c 3: a 4: a 5: b 6: b 7: a 8: a 9: b
10: c 11: a 12: c 13: a 14: a 15: c 16: d 17: a 18: a
19: c 20: b


Q No.1: The ratio of the final and initial volumes of the gas is known as
a) Ration of expansion b) Expansion ration
c) Volume ration d) all of these
Q.No.2: When a gas is heated at constant temperature the pressure multiplied
by the volume remains constant. This is according to the
a) Boyles law b) Charles law.
c) Joules law d) Avogadros law.
Q N3: The change of internal energy is proportional to the change of
temperature. This is according to the
a) Boyles law b) Joules law
c) Daltons law of partial pressures d) Avogadros law.
Q No.4: All gases at the same temperature and pressure contain same
numbers of molecular per unit volume. The is stated according to the
a) Avogadros law b) Polsons law of partial pressure
c) Joules law d) Charless law
Q.NO.5: A cycle requiring two complete revolutions is know
a) Two stoke cycle b) Four stoke cycle
c) Three stoke cycle d) None of these

Basics of Agriculture 329


Q.No.6: A cycle requiring one revolution for its completion is known

a) Four stoke cycle b) Tow stoke cycle
c) Single stoke cycle d) None of these
Q.NO.7: The cycle consists of two constant line and two reversible adiabatic
lines this cycle is known as.
a) Joule cycle b)otto cycle
b) carnot cycle d) diesel cycle
Q.NO.8: A cycle consisting of two constant pressure processes and two
reversible adiabatic. This cycle is known as________________
a) Joule cycle b) Constant pressure cycle
c) Volume cycle d) a,b e) a,c
Q.NO.9: The cycle consists of two reversible adiabatic, one constant
pressure line and one constant volume line. This cycle is {known
a) Joules cycle b)Otto cycle
c) The Diesel cycle d)The Sterling cycle
Q.NO.10: In the Nozzle Velocity of steam at the throat is_______ for
maximum discharge.
a) Sonic b) Sub-sonic
c) Super-sonic d) Hyper sonic

Q.NO.11: The flow of steam in the Nozzle between inlet and throat
a) Sonic b)Subsonic
c) Super Sonic d)Hyper Sonic
Q.NO.12: What is the ratio of the fuel and air for an
a) 1:15 b)2:15
b) 1:20 d)1:10
Q.NO.13: The loss in the relative velocity of stream due to friction
a) 10 to 15 percent b)15-20 percent
c) 20 to 25 percent d)5 to 10 percent
Q.NO.14: The speed of the de-level turbine is________________
a) 40000 rev/min b)30000 rev/sec
c) 30000 rev/min d) 30000 rev/h
Q.NO.15: Orsat apparatus is used to Analyze________________
a) Air fuel ratio b) Flue gases
c) Speed of turbine d) All of these
Q.NO.16: If a propulsion unit contains its own oxygen supply for
combustion purposes the system is known as________________

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a) jet prolusion b)Rocket propulsion

c) Ram propulsion d)Jurbo propulsion
Q.NO.17: The cycle consists of two Isothermal processes and two constant
volume processes. This cycle is termed as________________
a) The sterling cycle b)Otto cycle
c) Diesel cycle d) Ducil combustion cycle
Q.NO.18: Efficiency is the Otto cycle can be written as________________
a) 1- ---
b) --- - 1

c) 1- rVr-1
d) rVr-1- 1
Q.NO.19: Entropy is a property of a material, which varies with its
absolute________________ and its state.
a) Volume b) Temperature
c) Density d) Mass

Q.NO.20: The ratio between the heat abstracted and work done by a
refrigerator is known as
a) Net refrigerating effect
b) Coefficient of performance
c) Relative coefficient of performance
d) All of these
Q.NO.21: The amount of heat required to raise unit weight of the substance
through one degree of temperature________________
a) Specific heat b) Specific temperature
c) Specific energy d) Specific work

ANSWERS;1:d 2:a 3:b 4:a 5:b 6:b 7:b 8:d 9:c 10:a 11:b 12:a 13:a
14:c 15:b 16:b 17:a 18:a 19:b 20:b 21:a


Q.NO.1. To determine the in place density of soil________________ is

a) Sand Displacement method
b) Proctor soil compaction test
c) Needle penetration test

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c) Casagrands method
Q.NO.2. The resistance to deformation by continuous shear displacement of
particle is called________________
a) Shear strength of soil b) In place density of soil
c) Strain shear strength of soil
Q.NO.3. The sheer strength of soil is usually determined experimentally by
a) Direct Shear test b) Triaxial compression test
c) Unconfined compression test d) All of these
e) None of those
Q.NO.4. What is the coulombs shear strength equation________________?
a) = neff tan + C
b) = neff tan + C
c) = neff cot + C
d) = neff ces + C
Q.NO.5. A Shear test where the shear resistance of the soil sample is
measured Immediately after the application of the normal load. This
test is know
a) The Quick test b) The consolidate Quick test
c) The consolidated slow test d)None of these
Q.NO.6. A structure designed to sustain the lateral pressure of earth and
other material is termed as________________
a) Retaing walls b)Dams
c )High way d)None of these
Q.NO.7. Lateral forces interacting between the earth retaining structure and
retainedearth mass are caused by________________
a) Lateral earth pressure b) Sheer force
c) Passive earth resistance
Q.NO.8. Pressure of backfill material on retaining wall is termed

a) Active earth pressure b) Passive earth pressure

c) Passive earth resistance
Q.NO.9. If the inner or back face of the retaining wall is dragged towards the
backfill then the pressure which is exerted on wall is
a) Active earth pressure b) Passive earth pressure
c) Passive earth resistance d)b,c
Q.NO.10. Additional load to backfill or dead backfill local is

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a) Active earth pressure b) Passive earth pressure

c) Surcharge
Q.NO.11. Hump is used to________________
a) Increase the velocity of water b) Dissipate the energy
c) Increase the discharge d) Increase the top width
e) a & b.
Q.NO.12. Traction means________________
a) The force developed by the attractive device.
b) The force which act n the tractor
c) The force developed by the moving water
d) None of these
e) a, b.
Q.NO.13. If fuel is brunt away from the engine cycling than it is called
a) Internal combustion engine
b) External combustion engine
c) Spark ignition Engine
d) Diesel type IC Engine
Q.NO.14. The part of engine which converts linear ~motion of the piston
into rotational motion of flywheel is treaded as________________
a) Crank shaft b) Cam shaft
c) Fly wheel d) Connecting rod
Q.NO.15. The horsepower available on the crankshaft is known
a) Brake Horse power b) SAE Horse power
c) Power take off
Q.NO.16. Resistance to motion between two bodies in contact with each
other is called________________
a) Viscosity b) Friction
c) Evaporation d) normality
Q.NO.17. It all points in a system move in parallel motion then that system
a) Rotary motion b) Linear motion
c) Planar motion d) Curvilinear motion
Q.NO.18. Temperature of the burning gases in the engine cylinder reaches
up to________________
a) 3500 oC to 4000 oC b) 1500 oC to 2000 oC
o o
c) 1000 C to 1500 C d) 1200 oC to 1400 oC
1: a 2: a 3: d 4: a 5: a 6:a 7: a 8: a 9: d
10: c 11: e 12: e 13: b 14: a 15: a 16: b 17: c 18: b

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Q No. 1: 1 degree angle is equal to

a) /180 radian b) 180/ radian
c) 2/180 radian d) 180/2 radian
Q No. 2: A chain which is 100 ft long and is divided into 100 links each one
foot in length this type of chain is called
a) Gunters chain b) Revenue chain
c) Engineers chain d) None of these
Q No. 3: Clinometers is usually used to measure
a) Angle of slope b) Length of slop
c) High d) Velocity of air.
Q No. 4: Plane table surveying is a _____method of surveying.
a) Mathematical b) Physical
c) Graphical d) Geometrical
Q No. 5: There are ____method of surveying with the plane table.
a) Five b) Four
c) Two d) Three
Q No. 6: To determine the areas of figures plotted to scale, the instrument is
a) Clinometers b) Anemometer
c) Planimeter d) Theodolite.
Q No. 7: Back sight is also called.
a) Negative sight b) Plus sight
c) Intimidate sight d) Upper sight.
Q No. 8: A fixed reference point of known elevation is called.
a) Back sight b) Foresight
c) Banch Mark d) Intermediate sight
Q No. 9: The science which deals with relation between forces acting on
rigid bodies is
a) Fluid mechanics b) Mechanics
c) Soil Mechanics d) Engineering medium
Q No. 10: Unit strength of a material is called
a) Stress b) Force
c) Power d) Strain
Q No: 11: Gradually applied load resulting in to equilibrium in a short

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a) Impact load b) Static load

c) Repeated load d) Sustained load.
Q No. 12: The graphical inter predation of equations for finding the
principals stresses and the maximum share stress at a point in a
stressed member is called.
a) Single stoke cycle b) Four stoke cycle
c) Mohrs cycle d) All of these
Q No. 13: total change in the dimension of a body is called.
a) Stress b) Strain
c) Deformation d) Shearing strain.
Q No. 14: Measurement of the intensity of deformation is called.
a) Stress b) Strain
c) Deformation d) Brakeage
Q No. 15: The load that acts over a considerable length is called
a) Concentrated load b) Distributed load
c) Variable load d) Gradually increasing load.
Q No. 16: There are ____type of conditions of equilibrium.
a) One b) Four
c) Three d) Two

1: a, 2: c, 3: a, 4: c, 5: b, 6: c, 7: b, 8: c, 9: b, 10: a, 11: b, 12: c, 13: c, 14: b,
15: b, 16: d,

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