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NyDareion Brittingham

English IV

Mrs. Battle

20 March 2017

Down Syndrome

A 36-year-old named Karen Gaffney will receive an honorary doctorate from Oregon's

University of Portland. What makes this so amazing is that Karen has Down syndrome. In fact,

University officials believe she may be the first person with Down syndrome to receive such a

degree. Down syndrome, known as Trisomy 21, is a Genetic Disorder (Resources for

Learners with Down Syndrome) Out of all the types of birth defects Down syndrome is one

of the most common (Down Syndrome) It occurs in about 1 in every 700-1,000 live births (

Down Syndrome) Older women have a higher rate of having children with down syndrome. In

fact, women over forty have a 1 in 100 to 1 in 30 chance, while younger women have

approximately a 1 in

1,000 chance. Although,

a woman who gives birth

to a child with down

syndrome only has a one

percent chance of having

another child with this

genetic disorder. Testing

can be done between the 11th and 14th week of pregnancy[to] detect most incidences of
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down syndrome (Down Syndrome) According to University Medical Center, Children born

with Down Syndrome may suffer from Certain Birth Defects, Learning Problems, and certain

facial features. (Down Syndrome) Some people who suffer from Down Syndrome may have

a life expectancy of 60 years but it depends on the individual. (Down Syndrome) Even though

children with down syndrome may have significant learning disabilities, they still can learn with

the right support.

Down Syndrome occurs when a child or Adult has an extra copy of the chromosome No.

21 (Down Syndrome). It may also be caused by Translocation Down Syndrome the only

form Down Syndrome that may be inherited from a parent.(Down Syndrome) Translocation

Down Syndrome doesnt affect the childs own health (Down Syndrome) In the case of

Mosaic Down Syndrome, it occurs when an error in cell division happens after the egg is

fertilized(Down Syndrome) As can be seen, there are multiple ways a child might end up with

Down syndrome.

Physical effects of Downs syndrome are consistent among those diagnosed. Most have

Decreased or poor muscle tone, Short neck, with excess skin at the back of the neck, Flattened

facial profile and nose,Small head, ears, and mouth, Upward slanting eyes, often with a skin fold

that comes out from the upper eyelid and covers the inner corner of the eye,White spots on the

colored part of the eye (called Brushfield spots), Wide, short hands with short fingers, A single,

deep, crease across the palm of the hand, A deep groove between the first and second toes

(What are common symptoms) Even though these physical features are common among all

Down syndrome children, these features do not have to hold them back from learning.
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The mental and emotional effects can vary individually; however, general anxiety,

repetitive and obsessive-compulsive behaviors; oppositional, impulsive, and inattentive

behaviors; sleep related difficulties; depression; autism spectrum conditions; and

neuropsychological problems characterized by progressive loss of cognitive skills are the most

common. (Mental Health Issues & Down Syndrome)

Learning can be impacted with a child with Down syndrome based on their cognitive and

emotional needs. Many students with Down syndrome are visual learners, so teachers should use

visual cues and representations whenever possible. Hands on learning is beneficial to all

learners but particularly for students with Down syndrome. Additionally, learning should be a

social environment where the students can work together to complete tasks. A teacher should

provide extra time to complete tasks and break all directions into smaller parts to make sure the

student learns. Just because Down syndrome students need certain modifications and supports to

help them to learn does not mean that one should lower expectations. Students should be held to

high standards to help them be driven to succeed. (Resources for Learners with Down


In the case of younger school aged children, one would see more impulsiveness and

disruptive behavior, similar to one with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Additionally, young students may exhibit behaviors of compulsion and not move to new tasks,

and often they seem stubborn. There may also be social related issues where a child has trouble

reading social cues of his or her peers. Sleep disorders may also be present and cause a child to

be tired and moody. (What Are the Major Mental Health Related Concerns in Persons With
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Down Syndrome?) In the case of older age children and teens with Down syndrome who have

better language and communication and cognitive skills, they are more vulnerable to depression,

isolation from others, anxiety, sleepiness during the day and sleeplessness at night (What Are

the Major Mental Health Related Concerns in Persons With Down Syndrome?). As can be

seen, children with Down syndrome have difficulties that impact their learning., but can still

learn with the right supports in place.

Children with Down syndrome are allowed to attend public schools with other students

with the Federal Laws which protect the rights of children with disabilities, including children

with Down syndrome, to receive a free, appropriate public education (Schooling from Preschool

to Age 21) Before this legislation, students with disabilities were routinely placed in often

inappropriate segregated educational settings, such as separate specialized schools or

institutions (Schooling from Preschool to Age 21)

Many people are surprised to learn of the dramatic improvements in health and quality of

life for a child diagnosed with Down Syndrome (Szabo). Many graduate high school. Some

take college classes. Some get married. About one in five has a job. Most people who have

down syndrome will live until about 55 years old. This is because they age quicker than peers

who do not have down syndrome. They develop conditions of a old age prematurely (Down

Syndrome) The post outlook turn out to be good for most/some down syndrome children. At

one time the outlook for a child with this diagnosis was to live only until the age of 25.The

outlook for this generation of young people diagnosed with Down syndrome is better than any

other time in history due to early interventions and diagnosis ( Szabo) Its important to
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remember that children and adults with Down syndrome are no different from us, and with the

right support student can succeed.

Works Cited

"Down Syndrome - Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Golisano Children's Hospital -

University of Rochester Medical Center." Down Syndrome - Developmental and

Behavioral Pediatrics - Golisano Children's Hospital - University of Rochester Medical

Center. Golisano Children's Hospital, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2017.

"Mental Health Issues and Down Syndrome." National Down Syndrome Society. National down

Syndrome Society, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2017.

"Resources for Learners with Down Syndrome in Full-Inclusion Classrooms." USC Rossier

Online. University of Southern California, 08 Oct. 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2017.

"Schooling from Preschool to Age 21." National Down Syndrome Society. National down

Syndrome Society, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2017.

Szabo, Liz. "Life with Down Syndrome Is Full of Possibilities." USA Today. Gannett Satellite

Information Network, 09 May 2013. Web. 06 Apr. 2017.

"What Are Common Symptoms of Down Syndrome." National Institutes of Health. U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2017.