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Nervous System Lab Report

Emmanuel Reyes
3-21-17
Ms. Lafferty 5th period
Anatomy & Physiology

This lab report is an overview of the nervous system. The nervous system is the part of a
body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.
The nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system, that contains the
brain and spinal cord. The second main part of the nervous system is the peripheral nervous
system, which mainly consists of nerves.
The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as
neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. Nerves are cylindrical bundles
of fibers that start at the brain and central cord and branch out to every part of the body head to
toe. Many diseases of the nervous system, like, epilepsy, MS, and Alzheimer disease all start
with a problem that originated in the nervous system that will ultimately affect every other
system such as muscular and even sometimes respiratory system in the long run. Chronic
disease can ultimately be treated and slowed down but not cured. There are many billion dollar
organizations that do research in finding cures and how they can be prevented and how they
are started because it is still a mystery on why it happens.
We as a class studied not only what is inside these two parts of the NS, but also what
makes up a nerve, axon and i.e. We also learned about the different types of neurons and the
function of each structure that made up the component.
There was 5 different types of neurotoxins that we made a table for. Each toxin came
from a venomous creature of some sort, whether they flew, swam and walked/slithered this
Earth, each one had one thing in common; their lethal venom. Each neurotoxin shown in Figure
1 had the effects of paralysis in common with each other.

Figure 1
Column A Column B
Toxin Effects

Maculotoxin Na+ channel blockage causing numbness,


weakness, paralysis (Venom Version of TTX)

-Latrotoxin Depolarizes neurons. Slight paralysis

-Bungarotoxin Acetylcholine receptor gets blocked causing


Myasthenia gravis

Tetrodotoxin Na+ channel blockage causing numbness,


weakness, paralysis

Apamin Blocks SK channels and impairs long-term


memory formation

Charybdotoxin Blocks motor nerve terminals and the control


of Acetylcholine

Conotoxin Modulate ion channels causing paralyzation

We next studied the sheep brain. We labeled each structure and learned about its function.
(See Figure 2A & 2B) Along with the brain structure, we learned about the cranial nerves.
(Figure 3A & 3B)

Figure 2A
Figure 2B

Functions of the brain structure


Cerebellum- it receives information from the sensory systems, spinal cord and parts of
the brain. It regulates motor movements and coordinates voluntary movements such as
speech and balance.
Lateral Ventricle-contains spinal fluid that provides cushioning for the brain while helping
circulate nutrients and remove waste.
Hypothalamus-regulates body temperature. Maintains homeostasis
Fourth Ventricle-contains spinal fluid that provides cushioning for the brain
Pineal Gland-produces melatonin and regulate reproductive hormones
Superior Colliculus-primary integrating center for eye movements
Corpus Collosum-integrate motor, sensory, and cognitive performances
Cerebrum-associated with higher brain function such as thought and action
Sulcus-increases the surface and allow the brain more access to fuel(glucose and
oxygen)
Medulla Oblongata-helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function. Center for
respiration and circulation.
Pons-serves as a message station between several areas of the brain
Longitudinal Cerebral Fissure-separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain
Gyri-increases the surface and allow the brain more access to fuel(glucose and oxygen)
Figure 3A

Figure3B

Cranial Nerve Assessment


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https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1aHnLnFn09aC1-WQBU_v2cu2BrzoKZKSiCldVt2uCx
Wk/edit#gid=0&range=A1:F13

Reflex Assessment Results


https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1X33a8kCUKNiD3exysZz2u7rqlVvCaGMskZUTPPWC
BTM/edit#gid=0&range=A1:E12

Sheep Eye