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# 204 5.

Circuit Theorems

## venin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Table 5.11-2 The

ORIGINAL CIRCUIT 
THEVENIN CIRCUIT NORTON EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

a Rt a a
Circuit Circuit + voc Circuit isc Rt Circuit
A B B B
b b b

PROBLEMS

## Problem available in WileyPLUS at instructors discretion.

8
Section 5.2 Source Transformations
3
P 5.2-1 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-1a has been
divided into two parts. The circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-1b was
ia
obtained by simplifying the part to the right of the terminals using 10 V
+
6 4
2A
source transformations. The part of the circuit to the left of the
terminals was not changed.
(a) Determine the values of Rt and vt in Figure P 5.2-1b. Figure P 5.2-2
(b) Determine the values of the current i and the voltage v in
Figure P 5.2-1b. The circuit in Figure P 5.2-1b is equiv- P 5.2-3 Find vo using source transformations if i 5=2 A
alent to the circuit in Figure P 5.2-1a. Consequently, in the circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-3.
the current i and the voltage v in Figure P 5.2-1a have
the same values as do the current i and the voltage v in Hint: Reduce the circuit to a single mesh that contains the
Figure P 5.2-1b. voltage source labeled vo.
(c) Determine the value of the current ia in Figure P 5.2-1a. Answer: vo 28 V
3A

i 2V
4 2

+ 6
+
+ 4 2 8V
9V
v 0.5 A
3 10

ia +

(a) 2A 16 12 7

v0
20 i
4
i Rt +

+
Figure P 5.2-3
+ +
9V
v

vt
ia P 5.2-4 Determine the value of the current ia in the circuit
shown in Figure P 5.2-4.
(b) 10 V
6 k 4 k 4 k
Figure P 5.2-1 +
ia
+
P 5.2-2 Consider the circuit of Figure P 5.2-2. Find ia by 12 V 3 k 4 k + 6V
simplifying the circuit (using source transformations) to a
single-loop circuit so that you need to write only one KVL
equation to nd ia. Figure P 5.2-4
Problems 205

i R
P 5.2-5 Use source transformations to nd the current ia in
the circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-5.
+ v
Answer: ia 1 A 24
4A

+ 12 V 18 2A 12
6V
6
+

12 V +
1A 3 24

ia
Figure P 5.2-8

Figure P 5.2-5 P 5.2-9 Determine the value of the power supplied by the
current source in the circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-9.
P 5.2-6 Use source transformations to nd the value of the
voltage va in Figure P 5.2-6. 15
Answer: va 7 V
100 8V
+
+ 24 V 2A 25
+
+
10 V va 100 100 30 mA
24

32 V + 12

Figure P 5.2-6
Figure P 5.2-9
P 5.2-7 The equivalent circuit in Figure P 5.2-7 is obtained from
the original circuit using source transformations and equivalent
resistances. (The lower case letters a and b identify the nodes of Section 5.3 Superposition
the capacitor in both the original and equivalent circuits.)
Determine the values of Ra, Va, Rb, and Ib in the equivalent circuit P 5.3-1 The inputs to the circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-1
are the voltage source voltages v1 and v2. The output of the
18 a C b circuit is the voltage vo. The output is related to the inputs by
18 vo av1 bv2
2.2 A 9 +
10 2.5 A 36 V where a and b are constants. Determine the values of a and b.
32 V

+

20 5
original circuit
+
+ +
C v1 20 vo v2
Ra a b

+ Rb Ib
Va Figure P 5.3-1

## P 5.3-2 A particular linear circuit has two inputs, v1 and v2,

and one output, vo. Three measurements are made. The rst
equivalent circuit
measurement shows that the output is vo 4 V when the inputs
Figure P 5.2-7 are v1 2 V and v2 0. The second measurement shows that the
output is vo 10 V when the inputs are v1 0 and v2 2.5 V.
P 5.2-8 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-8 contains an In the third measurement, the inputs are v1 3 V and v2 3 V.
unspecied resistance R. What is the value of the output in the third measurement?
(a) Determine the value of the current i when R 4 V. P 5.3-3 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-3 has two
(b) Determine the value of the voltage v when R 8 V. inputs, vs and is, and one output, io. The output is related to the
(c) Determine the value of R that will cause i 1 A. inputs by the equation
(d) Determine the value of R that will cause v 16 V. io ais bvs
206 5. Circuit Theorems

12+15 cos(8t ) V
Given the following two facts:
The output is io 0:45 A when the inputs are is 0:25 A +
+
and vs 15 V
10 40 v (t ) 1+ sin (5t ) A
and

The output is io 0:30 A when the inputs are is 0:50 A
and vs 0 V Figure P 5.3-7
Determine the values of the constants a and b and the values of
the resistances are R1 and R2. P 5.3-8 Use superposition to nd the value of the current
ix in Figure P 5.3-8.
Answers: a 0.6 A/A, b 0.02 A/V, R1 30 V, and R2 20 V.
Answer: ix 1=6 A

R1 io ix
+ R2 6 3
vs is

+ +
8V 2A 3ix

Figure P 5.3-3

## P 5.3-4 Use superposition to nd v for the circuit of Figure P 5.3-8

Figure P 5.3-4.
*P 5.3-9 The input to the circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-9 is the
voltage source voltage vs. The output is the voltage vo. The
10 9A 6A 15 current source current ia is used to adjust the relationship
20 between the input and output. Design the circuit so that input
+ v and output are related by the equation vo 2vs 9.

Figure P 5.3-4 A ix
6
+
P 5.3-5 Determine v(t), the voltage across the vertical resistor
ix +
in the circuit in Figure P 5.3-5. + ia vo
vs 12 12

40 10

+
+ + 12 cos(5t ) V
12 V 40 v (t )
Figure P 5.3-9

Hint: Determine the required values of A and ia.
Figure P 5.3-5
P 5.3-10 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-10 has three
P 5.3-6 Use superposition to nd i for the circuit of inputs: v1, v2, and i3. The output of the circuit is vo. The output
Figure P 5.3-6. is related to the inputs by
Answer: i 3.5 mA vo av1 bv2 ci3

## 15 mA where a, b, and c are constants. Determine the values of a, b, and c.

v2
8
15 V
4 k
+

+ +
+ i3
30 mA 12 k 6 k v1 40 10 vo
2 k
i

## Figure P 5.3-6 Figure P 5.3-10

P 5.3-7 Determine v(t), the voltage across the 40 resistor in P 5.3-11 Determine the voltage vo(t) for the circuit shown in
the circuit in Figure P 5.3-7. Figure P 5.3-11.
Problems 207

## 12 cos 2t V i1 avo bv2 ci3

+
4 ix where a, b, and c are constants. Determine the values of
10 a, b, and c.
+
20
+
40 2 V 10 ix 5 vo(t)

v1 + i2 12
Figure P 5.3-11 io

## P 5.3-12 Determine the value of the voltage vo in the

circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-12. 40

v3 10
+

96 32
20 V
0.3 A Figure P 5.3-15
+

120 30
+ P 5.3-16 Using the superposition principle, nd the value
vo
of the current measured by the ammeter in Figure P 5.3-16a.
Hint: Figure P 5.3-16b shows the circuit after the ideal
Figure P 5.3-12 ammeter has been replaced by the equivalent short circuit
and a label has been added to indicate the current measured
P 5.3-13 The input to the circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-13 by the ammeter, im.
is the current i1. The output is the voltage vo. The current i2 is 25 3
used to adjust the relationship between the input and output. Answer: im  5 53 2A
32 23
Determine values of the current i2 and the resistance R, that
cause the output to be related to the input by the equation
vo 0:5i1 4 25 V
+ Ammeter

a vo + b 5A 3
2
2
i1 i2
R 4 8 8 (a)

25 V
+
Figure P 5.3-13
5A 3 im
P 5.3-14 Determine values of the current ia and the 2
resistance R for the circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-14.
(b)
8V
Figure P 5.3-16 (a) A circuit containing two independent

+

ia sources. (b) The circuit after the ideal ammeter has been replaced
by the equivalent short circuit and a label has been added to
5 k 20 k indicate the current measured by the ammeter, im.
7 mA R

venins Theorem
Section 5.4 The
4 k
2 mA
P 5.4-1 Determine values of Rt and voc that cause the
circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-1b to be the Thevenin equivalent
Figure P 5.3-14 circuit of the circuit in Figure P 5.4-1a.

P 5.3-15 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.3-15 has three Hint: Use source transformations and equivalent resistances
inputs: v1, i2, and v3. The output of the circuit is the current io. to reduce the circuit in Figure P 5.4-1a until it is the circuit in
The output of the circuit is related to the inputs by Figure P 5.4-1b.
208 5. Circuit Theorems

## Answer: Rt 5 V and voc 2 V Answer: voc 2 V and Rt 8=3 V

3 3 Rt
a a 0.75va

+ +
12 V 6 3A
voc
8 a

b b
+ 6V va 4
(a) (b)
+ b
Figure P 5.4-1

P 5.4-2 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-2b is the Thevenin Figure P 5.4-5
equivalent circuit of the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-2a.
Find the value of the open-circuit voltage voc and Thevenin P 5.4-6 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit
resistance Rt. shown in Figure P 5.4-6.
Answer: voc 12 V and Rt 16 V
3 3 a
10 8 Rt
+
+
2va 6 va 3A

+

+ 15 V 40 voc b

Figure P 5.4-6
(a) (b)
P 5.4-7 The equivalent circuit in Figure P 5.4-7 is obtained by
Figure P 5.4-2 replacing part of the original circuit by its Thevenin equivalent
circuit. The values of the parameters of the Thevenin equivalent
P 5.4-3 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-3b is the Thevenin circuit are
equivalent circuit of the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-3a. Find the
value of the open-circuit voltage voc and Thevenin resistance Rt. voc 15 V and Rt 60V
Answer: voc 2 V and Rt 4 V
Determine the following:
12 V Rt (a) The values of Vs and Ra. (Four resistors in the original
+ circuit have equal resistance, Ra.)
+
(b) The value of Rb required to cause i 0.2 A.
1A 6 6
voc
(c) The value of Rb required to cause v 12 V.

Ra i
6

(a) (b) +
+ v
Figure P 5.4-3 Vs Ra Ra Rb

P 5.4-4 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit
shown in Figure P 5.4-4. Ra

12 original circuit

Rt
6 10 a

+ +
18 V 3 v oc Rb

b

Figure P 5.4-4
equivalent circuit
P 5.4-5 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit
Figure P 5.4-7
shown in Figure P 5.4-5.
Problems 209

P 5.4-8 A resistor, R, was connected to a circuit box as shown P 5.4-12 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-12 contains an
in Figure P 5.4-8. The voltage v was measured. The resistance was adjustable resistor. The resistance R can be set to any value in
changed, and the voltage was measured again. The results are the range 0
R
100 kV.
shown in the table. Determine the Thevenin equivalent of the (a) Determine the maximum value of the current ia that can be
circuit within the box and predict the voltage v when R 8 kV. obtained by adjusting R. Determine the corresponding
i value of R.
+ R v (b) Determine the maximum value of the voltage va that can be
Circuit v obtained by adjusting R. Determine the corresponding
R 2 k 6V

value of R.
4 k 2V
(c) Determine the maximum value of the power supplied to the
adjustable resistor that can be obtained by adjusting R.
Figure P 5.4-8 Determine the corresponding value of R.
ia
P 5.4-9 A resistor, R, was connected to a circuit box as R 12 k
shown in Figure P 5.4-9. The current i was measured. The
resistance was changed, and the current was measured again. + va
The results are shown in the table. + 12 V 2 mA 18 k

(a) Specify the value of R required to cause i 2 mA. 24 k
(b) Given that R > 0, determine the maximum possible value
of the current i.
Figure P 5.4-12
Hint: Use the data in the table to represent the circuit by a
Thevenin equivalent. P 5.4-13 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-13 consists of
i two parts, the source (to the left of the terminals) and the load.
R i
The load consists of a single adjustable resistor having resist-
+
ance 0
RL
20 V. The resistance R is xed but unspecied.
Circuit v R 2 k 4 mA
When RL 4 V, the load current is measured to be io 0.375 A.
4 k 3 mA
When RL 8 V, the value of the load current is io 0.300 A.
(a) Determine the value of the load current when RL 10 V.
Figure P 5.4-9 (b) Determine the value of R.
48
P 5.4-10 For the circuit of Figure P 5.4-10, specify the
resistance R that will cause current ib to be 2 mA. The current ia io
has units of amps. +
RL
24 V R
Hint: Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the circuit
connected to R. source load
2000ia
Figure P 5.4-13
6 k
+
P 5.4-14 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-14 contains an
12 V + 1 k ia ib R unspecied resistance, R. Determine the value of R in each of

the following two ways.
(a) Write and solve mesh equations.
Figure P 5.4-10 (b) Replace the part of the circuit connected to the resistor R by
a Thevenin equivalent circuit. Analyze the resulting circuit.
P 5.4-11 For the circuit of Figure P 5.4-11, specify the
value of the resistance RL that will cause current iL to be 2 A.
Answer: RL 12 V 20 40
4i
a R
+ +
40 V

10 A 2 iL RL 0.25 A
i
20 10
b

## Figure P 5.4-11 Figure P 5.4-14

210 5. Circuit Theorems

P 5.4-15 Consider the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-15. P 5.4-17 Given that 0
R
1 in the circuit shown in Figure
Replace the part of the circuit to the left of terminals ab by P 5.4-17, consider these two observations:
its Thevenin equivalent circuit. Determine the value of the Observation 1: When R 2 V then vR 4 V and iR 2 A.
current io.
a Observation 1: When R 6 V then vR 6 V and iR 1 A.
Determine the following:
96 32 io (a) The maximum value of iR and the value of R that causes iR
20 V to be maximal.
32 (b) The maximum value of vR and the value of R that causes vR
+

to be maximal.
+
(c) The maximum value of pR iR vR and the value of R that
120 30 vo
causes pR to be maximal.

ia 24 iR
b

Figure P 5.4-15 +
+ Bia R

vs 6
vR
P 5.4-16 An ideal voltmeter is modeled as an open circuit. A
more realistic model of a voltmeter is a large resistance. Figure
P 5.4-16a shows a circuit with a voltmeter that measures the
voltage vm. In Figure P 5.4-16b, the voltmeter is replaced by the Figure P 5.4-17
model of an ideal voltmeter, an open circuit. The voltmeter
P 5.4-18 Consider the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-18.
measures vmi, the ideal value of vm.
Determine
(a) The value of vR that occurs when R 9 V.
200 10
(b) The value of R that causes vR 5.4 V.
+ Voltmeter (c) The value of R that causes iR 300 mA.
+ 25 V 50 vm
iR
20 6

+
(a)
+ R
9V 300 mA 30 vR
200 10

+
+ 25 V
50 vmi
Figure P 5.4-18

P 5.4-19 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-19a can be reduced
(b)
to the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-19b using source transfor-
200 10 mations and equivalent resistances. Determine the values of the
+ source voltage voc and the resistance R.
+ 25 V Rm R
50 vm

42
(c) +
18 V 84 C

Figure P 5.4-16
As Rm ! 1, the voltmeter becomes an ideal voltmeter
(a)
and vm ! vmi. When Rm < 1, the voltmeter is not ideal and
vm > vmi. The difference between vm and vmi is a measurement
error caused by the fact that the voltmeter is not ideal. 46
+ v oc
C
(a) Determine the value of vmi.
(b) Express the measurement error that occurs when Rm
1000 V as a percentage of vmi.
(c) Determine the minimum value of Rm required to ensure (b)
that the measurement error is smaller than 2 percent of vmi. Figure P 5.4-19
Problems 211

i
P 5.4-20 The equivalent circuit in Figure P 5.4-20 is obtained 50

## by replacing part of the original circuit by its Thevenin

+
equivalent circuit. The values of the parameters of the Thevenin
equivalent circuit are 0.25 A 50 R1 v R2
vs

voc 15 V and Rt 60 V +

(a)
Determine the following:
i

## (a) The values of Vs and Ra. (Three resistors in the original +

circuit have equal resistance, Ra.)
isc Rt v R2
(b) The value of Rb required to cause i 0.2 A.
(c) The value of Rb required to cause v 5 V.

Ra Ra i
(b)
+ Figure P 5.5-1
+ v
Vs Ra Rb
P 5.5-2 Two black boxes are shown in Figure P 5.5-2. Box

A contains the Thevenin equivalent of some linear circuit, and
box B contains the Norton equivalent of the same circuit. With
access to just the outsides of the boxes and their terminals, how
original circuit
can you determine which is which, using only one shorting wire?
Rt
Box A Box B

1 a a
+
v oc Rb

1V +
1A 1

equivalent circuit b b

## P 5.5-3 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.5-3a can be reduced

to the circuit shown in Figure P 5.5-3b using source transfor-
Section 5.5 Nortons Equivalent Circuit mations and equivalent resistances. Determine the values of the
P 5.5-1 The part of the circuit shown in Figure P 5.5-1a source current isc and the resistance R.
to the left of the terminals can be reduced to its Norton
equivalent circuit using source transformations and equi- 160
valent resistance. The resulting Norton equivalent circuit, 80 4.8 A R L
shown in Figure P 5.5-1b, will be characterized by the
parameters:
(a)
isc 0:5 A and Rt 20 V

## (a) Determine the values of vS and R1.

i sc 48 L
(b) Given that 0
R2
1, determine the maximum values of
the voltage v and of the power p vi.

(b)
Answers: vs 37:5 V; R1 25 V; max v 10 V and max
p 1.25 W Figure P 5.5-3