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What is Stellite steel?

Stellite is a family of completely non-magnetic and corrosion-resistant cobalt alloys of


various compositions that have been optimised for different uses. Information is
available from the manufacturer, Kennametal Stellite, outlining the composition of a
number of Stellite alloys and their intended applications.

What is HF material?

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water. It is a precursor to


almost all fluorine compounds, including pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine (Prozac),
diverse materials such as PTFE (Teflon), and elemental fluorine itself.

What is Stellite made of?

There are a large number of Stellite alloys composed of various amounts of cobalt,
nickel, iron, aluminium, boron, carbon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum,
phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and titanium, in various proportions, most alloyscontaining
four to six of these elements.

What is the trim of a valve?

Body. The valve's body is the outer casing of most or all of the valve that contains the
internal parts or trim. The bonnet is the part of the encasing through which the stem
(see below) passes and that forms a guide and seal for the stem. The bonnet typically
screws into or is bolted to the valve body.

What is Stellite 6 material?

Their exceptional wear resistance is due mainly to the unique inherent characteristics of
the hard carbide phase dispersed in a CoCr alloy matrix. Stellite 6 is the most widely
used of the wear resistant cobalt based alloys and exhibits good all-round perfor-
mance.

What is Nimonic steel?

Nimonic is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family


of nickel-based high-temperature low creep superalloys. Nimonic alloys typically
consist of more than 50% nickel and 20% chromium with additives such as titanium and
aluminium.
What is Inconel metal?

These Inconel alloys or superalloys are nickel-based alloys that exhibit traits such as
high resistance to corrosion, oxidation, carburization, pitting, crevice, corrosion cracking,
and high temperature strength. Often, Inconel is referred to as Inco.

What is Inconel?

Alloy 625 is a nonmagnetic , corrosion - and oxidation-resistant, nickel-based alloy. Its


outstanding strength and toughness in the temperature range cryogenic to 2000F
(1093C) are derived primarily from the solid solution effects of the refractory metals,
columbium and molybdenum, in a nickel-chromium matrix.

What is a weld overlay?

Weld overlay, also known as cladding, hardfacing, weld cladding, or weld


overlaycladding, is a process where one or more metals are joined together
via welding to the surface of a base metal as a layer. This is normally done to improve
the material by adding either a corrosion resistant or hardfacing layer to it.

What is the meaning of hard facing?

Hardfacing is a metalworking process where harder or tougher material is applied to a


base metal. It is welded to the base material, and generally takes the form of
specialized electrodes for arc welding or filler rod for oxyacetylene and TIG welding.

Weld Overlay
SUMMARY

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Definition
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Weld overlay, also known as cladding, hardfacing, weld cladding, or weld overlay cladding,
is a process where one or more metals are joined together via welding to the surface of a
base metal as a layer. This is normally done to improve the material by adding either a
corrosion resistant or hardfacing layer to it. Surfaces prepared in this way can even be
highly customized by layering and alloying multiple different materials together.

There exist several different methods for weld overlay, each with their own unique
applications and uses. Deciding on a specific technique is dependant on the access,
welding position, alloy type, and dissolution rate of the component along with one's own
economic situation. The main methods of weld overlay are: shielded metal arc welding, CO2
welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding/Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, Submerged arc
welding, and Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) welding.

The most common of these is shielded metal arc welding, which is most commonly used
with ferrous materials and employs rods as weld material. For this method the core wire is
covered with a coating that adds special elements to weld metal and the weld metal is
protected by slag created during welding.

With CO2 welding, which is sometimes known as Metal Active Gas (MAG) or semi-
automatic welding, the CO2 shield gas atmosphere protects the material from oxidation. For
this process weld materials can consist of solid wire, metal-cored wire, and flux-cored wire.
Because welding wire is used for the weld material, continuous welding is possible.

Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, which is sometimes known as Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) or
simply insert gas welding, is largely the same as semi-automatic welding except that during
this process the area to be welded is shielded by an inert gas. It is primarily used with non-
ferrous materials.

The final method is Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) welding. Like TIG welding, an arc is
generated from a non-consumable tungsten electrode and welding is performed with flux
supplied externally into the arc. This method is possibly the most complex but it is capable
of overlaying of hard complex carbide alloys, something that is difficult to do with most of the
other methods. Since with PTA welding the weld material is a powder, these material
powders can be blended to create original flux for easy overlay welding as well.

Weld overlay is commonly used within the gas industry and can be used on components as
diverse as pipes, fittings, valves, and vessels. While most components have a certain
amount of corrosion allowance built in, wastage rates can still be excessive for certain
materials. Thus weld overlay provides surface protection while still allowing the internal
component enough strength to meet appropriate codes and standards.
Stellite 6 overlay on 316SS, TIG Process
What is the best Gas to use when doing a stellite overlay on 316SS?
Thanks

----------------------------------------------------

Argon is fine...and is probably the best choice.

an oversized tig cup will help things go better.

Stellite 6 welds pretty clean unless it gets oxidized and then the puddle gets sluggish...and
that usually makes the welder go hotter to make the puddle flow.

keeping it really clean every pass by shielding with an oversized tig cup and argon gas, will
help all passes to flow easier.

Presently our steam service valves (butterfly, gate and plug type valves)
have a %7E.040" thk layer of Stellite 6 layer GTAW welded to a chrome
alloy base (typically 4130, but we also use an ASTM A182, grade F22V
forging ). I have seen it suggested in a different media that when we
overhaul or repair our valves, that we should first apply an Inconel layer
(625 was recommended), then PWHT, then apply our Stellite 6 overlay. The
claim was that the combination would reduce crack susceptibility. I am
asking for other opinions on the above recipe, in particular hoping for
metallurgical explanations, bulletins or other references on why this is an
effective combination. My reason is that our pure Stellite 6 application is
very tricky and time consuming for us so we seek to develop an alternate
process that will provide more reliable result in production and inservice.
Thankyou very much for allowing me to post my question. Tom

Tom First : Doing repair welding on used Stellie 6 layer, either worn out or
with cracks, would give problems of repetitive cracking . Never attemp
this. For repair welding on used butterfly or gate valve discs - low alloy
steel variety of either AISI 4140 or ASTM A 182 F 22 V - you have to be
careful from the following considerations ; A 182 F 22 or 4140 variety is air
hardening grades with low hardenability and low impact strength. It will
be still worse if it is with F 22 V. When repair welding on used air
hardening low alloy grade materials (Cr-Mo or Cr-Mo-V grades), you have
to remove cracks totally, NDT inspect the edge prepared disc fully by
WFMPT, then only attempt repair welding For successful repair welding,
especially when Stellite 6 application is involved, you have no other go -
other than pre-heat to 250-280 deg cent (4550-500 o F) first before
welding. PWHT is also required to reduce tensile stresses as much as
possible for a hard facing Stellite 6 application. Never attempt without
PWHT on a welded low alloy steel with Stellite 6 application. Usually, on a
cracked or worn out valve disc with low alloy steel material grades, it is
preferable to give a buttressing layer of Inconel 625 or equivalent. A
buttressed non-ferritic grade (austenitic base alloy with buttressed
Inconel layer) will give better successful repair welding using Stellite 6 or
Stellite 21on low alloy vavle discs / tems. A buttressed layer - to be on the
safeside - is given usual pre-heat to 250 deg Cent and then also PWHT for
additional application of Stellite 6 alloy by GTAW process. This is a better
and more fool proof approach even for buttressed Inconel 625 layer
welding done before application of Stellite 6 or Stellite 21. Yes,
theoretically, with buttressed Inconel 625 welding layer on Low Alloy steel
(AISI 4140 or ASTM A 182 F 22 or F 22 V), you may not need PWHT. Still
from successful and long term use of Stellite 6 layer PWHT helps even a
buttressed weld layer of Inconel 625. over Alloy F 182 F 22 . It is tedious,
no doubt, for a maintenance person and for continuous repairs on valve
discs by grinding to remove all cracks in F 22 disc, pre heat, give a buffer
layer of Inconel 625, carry out PWHT before application of Stellite 6 hard
facing over lay. In a way to simplify, the PWHT on buttressed Inconel 625
can be by-passed after a thorough NDT Inspection by DP check and then
you could try either Stellite 6 or Stellite 21 hard facign. Stellite 21 is a
little softer hard facing alloy compared to Stellite 6 and may stand the
same duties (same steam service - without erosion - corrosion of disc or
failure of stems) and comparatively easier than Stellite 6. If your valve
orifice is narrow and the valve is throttled in service quite often, then
Stellite 6 would give a better long term option than Stellite 21 repaired
discs. It is a question of maintenance philosophy - whether you are
initially prepared to take a better and more long term application in mind
with successful repair on used low alloy steel disc or stem ( from long
term maintenance aspect) or take a short cut from simplifying welding
procedures and heat treatment conditions to get less longivity in repaired
discs by hard facing (especially in using Cobalt based alloys). Probably,
you can get away with PWHT with a buttressed Inconel 625 and with good
inspection of the buttressed disc and then do with proper pre-heat and
post heat needed for a good and successful Stellite 6 alloy or Stellite 21 -
whichever option you may decide from maintenance angle. Trust this helps
you for successful repair of used low alloy steel discs in steam service .
Best of luck in your attempts. C.V.Srinivasan Nishi Engineers Pvt Ltd India
March 24, 2007 E-mail: nishi@vsnl.com >Presently our steam service
valves (butterfly, gate and plug >type valves) have a %7E.040" thk layer
of Stellite 6 layer >GTAW welded to a chrome alloy base (typically 4130,
but we >also use an ASTM A182, grade F22V forging ). I have seen >it
suggested in a different media that when we overhaul or >repair our
valves, that we should first apply an Inconel >layer (625 was
recommended), then PWHT, then apply our >Stellite 6 overlay. The claim
was that the combination >would reduce crack susceptibility. > >I am
asking for other opinions on the above recipe, in >particular hoping for
metallurgical explanations, bulletins >or other references on why this is
an effective combination. > >My reason is that our pure Stellite 6
application is very >tricky and time consuming for us so we seek to
develop an >alternate process that will provide more reliable result in
>production and inservice. > >Thankyou very much for allowing me to
post my question. >tom.

Welding Overlay &


Cladding
Hard Facing (HF) with Stellite grades or Corrosion
Resistance Alloy (CRA) with Stainless Steel or Inconel
grades
Foto 2 di 6

Welding Overlay - Stellite Gr.21 - Buttefly Valves F53

Plating to ennoble materials...

This department is new entry in the family of Gotti. We shape and reinvent
ourselves as per our client needs.

Operations & Services:


Welding Overlay / Cladding: Hard Facing (HF) and
CorrosionResistanceAlloy (CRA) with Hot Wire,
Materials: HF with Stellite Gr.6-12-21, AISI 410, AISI 309 + CRA with
AISI316, Inconel 625, Inconel 825,
Authomatic & semi-automatic welding with MIG / MAG, covering sizes
from 2. For smaller sizes, manual welding. Automatic recording of welding
parameters,
WPS/PQR: more than 40 welding procedure, under development,
Additional Services: mechanical machining + NDT after overlay in order
to supply 100% finished piece

Production Reports:
Along with production we can supply Welding Book with

WPS / PQR (including new Qualification development),


Welders certification,
Welding certification (parameters monitored and recorded),
Filler materials certification,
Dimensional control declaration,
Visual weld inspection declaration,
Non-destructive testing certification,
Third Party certification (when required).