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Discovery of Ions

The person who gives a theory of ions is Michael Faraday. Its around 1830. He describes the
portions of molecules that move from anode to cathode or vice versa.

He discovered that certain substances when dissolved in water conduct an electric current. He
also noticed that certain compounds decompose into their elements when an electric current is
passed through the compound.

Faraday introduced the term ions (or wanderer in Greek) to describe the chemical species
passing though the solution. He also introduced the terms anion and cation for positive and
negative ions and anode and cathode for positive and negative electrodes.

How, there were no fully explanation until 1884 where the Swedish scientist name Svante August
Arrhenius described it in his doctoral thesis. Arrhenius reasoned that an ion is an atom carrying a
positive or negative charged.

Svante Arrheniuss proposal that molecules of electrolytes break up into charged ions in dilute
solution, whether or not electric current is present.

Michael Faraday did his experimenting with electromagnetism in 1821 by demonstrating the
conversion of electrical energy into motive force. Using his special induction ring He discovered
electromagnetic induction or generation of electricity. This is the first electricity transformer.
Discovery of Ions
An ion is an atom, group of atoms, or subatomic particle with a net electric charge. An ion with a
net positive charge is called a cation; one with a net negative charge is called an anion. The
atoms of metals tend to form cations, and the atoms of nonmetals tend to form anions, but there
are some exceptions. Ions of opposite charges attract each other.

When a cation forms a chemical bond ("ionic bond") with an anion, an ionic compound is
produced. Minerals are composed of ionic compounds. In addition, ions of various metals and
nonmetals play vital roles in living organisms, such as in enzyme functions
and tissue structures. Ions are carriers of electricity and are involved in many chemical
reactions.

A body of ionized matter, or a gas containing a proportion of charged particles, is called


a plasma. Plasmas in stars and in the interstellar medium may constitute 99 percent or more of
the observable universe [1]. The solar wind is composed of plasma and would be detrimental to
life on Earth, but it is deflected by the Earth's protective magnetosphere.
Given their unique properties, ions are involved in many applicationssuch as the purification of
water and various elements, manufacture of different substances, fabrication of semiconductor
devices, low-energy lighting, smoke detection, separation of protein mixtures, and one mode of
spacecraft propulsion

History and etymology

Michael Faraday was the first to postulate the existence of ions

The existence of ions was first theorized by Michael Faraday around 1830, to describe
electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms that traveled toward an anode (positively charged
electrode) or cathode (negatively charged electrode). The mechanism by which this occurred
was not described until 1884, when Svante August Arrhenius proposed it in his doctoral
dissertation at the University of Uppsala. Arrhenius' theory was initially not accepted, but his
dissertation won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903.

The word ion was derived from the Greek word , the neutral present participle of ,
which means "to go." Thus the term ion implies "a goer." Furthermore, anion () means "(a
thing) going up," and cation() means "(a thing) going down."
Terminology and formulas
An ion that consists of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, and an ion made up of more
than one atom is called a polyatomic ion. Larger ions containing many atoms are
called molecular ions. A polyatomic anion that contains oxygen is sometimes known as
an oxyanion.

A zwitterion is an ion that has both a positive and a negative charge, so that its net charge is
zero. An ion that carries two negative charges is called a dianion. Radical ions are ions that
contain an odd number of electrons and are mostly very reactive and unstable.

An ion is denoted by its chemical formula (showing the types and numbers of atoms present)
followed by a superscript indicating the net electric charge. For example, H+ represents a
hydrogen atom with a single positive chargeequivalent to a proton without an electron around
it. The helium ion He2+ consists of two protons and two neutrons (and no electrons),
corresponding to the nucleus of a helium atom. The so-called "alpha particles" of
some radioactive emissions consist of He2+ ions. The sulfate ion, written as SO42, consists of
one sulfur and four oxygen atoms, with a net charge of -2.

Formation of ions
An anion is negatively charged because it has more electrons in its electron shells than it has
protons in its atomic nuclei. Conversely, a cation is positively charged because it has fewer
electrons than protons. Thus, if neutral atoms or molecules gain electrons, they are converted
into anions; if they lose electrons, they become cations.

Ions can be formed in other ways as well. For instance, when existing ions combine with other
atoms (or groups of atoms), new ions are formed. Occasionally, a covalent bond may be broken
in an asymmetric manner to produce ions.

Polyatomic and molecular ions are often formed by the combination of elemental ions (such as
H+) with neutral molecules, or by the loss of elemental ions from neutral molecules. Many of
these processes are acid-base reactions, as first theorized by German scientist Lauren Gaither.
For example, the ammonium ion (NH4+) is formed when a molecule of ammonia (NH3) accepts a
proton (H+). The ammonia molecule and the ammonium ion have the same number of electrons
in essentially the same electronic configuration, but they differ in the number of protons they
contain. The ammonium ion is relatively stable. By contrast, the ion NH3+ is not stable and is
considered a radical ion.

Ionization potential
The process of converting an atom or group of atoms into ions is called ionization.
The ionization potential (or ionization energy) of an atom or molecule is the energy required
to remove an electron from it, when the electron is in its lowest energy state and the atom or
molecule is in the form of a gas.

The ionization energy of metals is generally much lower than that of nonmetals. This is related
to the observation that metals generally lose electrons to form positively charged ions, while
nonmetals generally gain electrons to form negatively charged ions. Francium has the lowest
ionization energy of all elements, and fluorine has the greatest.

The nth ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to detach its nth electron, after the
first n 1 electrons have already been detached. Each successive ionization energy is markedly
greater than the last. Particularly great increases occur after any given block of atomic orbitals is
exhausted of electrons. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with orbital
blocks that are filled with electrons. For example, sodium (Na) has a single electron ("valence
electron") in its outermost shell. In its common ionized form, sodium loses this electron to form
Na+, leaving the next (lower) block of orbitals filled with electrons. On the other side of the
periodic table, chlorine (Cl) has seven valence electrons. Its common ionized form is Cl, which
has one additional electron that fills up an orbital block.

Ions in nature
Ions are widespread in the animate and inanimate aspects of the natural world. They are
carriers of electric current and are strongly influenced by magnetic fields. The simplest ions are
the electron (e) and proton (H+, a hydrogen ion).

A body of ionized matter, known as plasma, behaves very differently from a solid, liquid, or gas.
It is therefore referred to as the "fourth state of matter." Lightning is an example of naturally
occurring plasma on our planet. Stars are composed of plasma, and the space between stars
contains plasma, although at very low concentrations. Some estimates suggest that 99 percent
or more of the entire visible universe is plasma.[2]
On Earth, various mineralssuch as silicates, carbonates, phosphates, oxides, sulfides, and
halidesare composed of ionic compounds. When an ionic compound dissolves in water, its
cations and anions become separated and are surrounded by water molecules (which are
electrically polar). Electricity can pass through water because ions dissolved in the water carry
the electric current. Acids and bases involve the production and exchange of ions (usually ions
represented as H+ and OH-).

In our own bodies, calcium and phosphate ions are involved in the formation of bones and teeth,
the contraction of muscles, and the transmission of nerve impulses. Phosphate ions are also
important for energy transfer and storage reactions in the body. Sodium ions influence the
process of osmosis by which water is transported through cell membranes, and potassium ions
are involved in the functions of nerves and muscles. An ion of iron occupies a central position at
the center of the heme group that is part of hemoglobin in our blood. Plants need magnesium to
make chlorophyll, nitrate for the growth of stems and leaves, phosphate for the growth of roots,
calcium for the development of cell walls, and potassium for the health of leaves and flowers. [2]

Applications
The properties of ions have led to many domestic, research, and industrial applications. Some
examples are given below.
An ion engine test by NASA. The blue glow consists of ions emitted by the engine

In a process called electrolysis, a current is passed through a solution containing


ions. This process has many uses, such as the production of hydrogen and oxygen from
water, the purification of various elements (including aluminum, sodium, potassium, and
chlorine), and the manufacture of different compounds (such as sodium hydroxide and
potassium chlorate).
Ions in the form of plasmas are found in fluorescent lamps, neon lights, plasma
displays, television sets, and electric arcs.
Many smoke detectors contain an ionization chamber with a small electric current
flowing through it. If smoke enters the chamber, it interrupts the current flow and sets off
the alarm.
A method known as ion exchange is used to purify water and to produce "soft" water
by removing calcium and magnesium ions. Typically, ions in solution are removed by
exchanging them for other ions held on a resin.
The fabrication of semiconductor devices involves the use of a technique called ion
implantation, in which the properties of a solid are modified by the implantation of
"dopant" ions of material such as boron, arsenic, or phosphorus.
One mode of spacecraft propulsion uses an ion engine or ion thruster, involving the
action of accelerated beams of ions.
Chemists and biochemists use the method of ion exchange chromatography to
separate mixtures of proteins and other chemicals that carry electrical charges.
Using a technique called mass spectrometry, chemists determine the composition
and structure of a compound by fragmenting its molecules into ions and measuring the
mass-to-charge ratio of the ions.

Faraday was a British chemist and physicist who contributed significantly to the study of
electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in south London. His family was not well off and
Faraday received only a basic formal education. When he was 14, he was apprenticed to a local
bookbinder and during the next seven years, educated himself by reading books on a wide range of
scientific subjects. In 1812, Faraday attended four lectures given by the chemist Humphry Davy at the
Royal Institution. Faraday subsequently wrote to Davy asking for a job as his assistant. Davy turned
him down but in 1813 appointed him to the job of chemical assistant at the Royal Institution.

A year later, Faraday was invited to accompany Davy and his wife on an 18 month European tour,
taking in France, Switzerland, Italy and Belgium and meeting many influential scientists. On their
return in 1815, Faraday continued to work at the Royal Institution, helping with experiments for Davy
and other scientists. In 1821 he published his work on electromagnetic rotation (the principle behind
the electric motor). He was able to carry out little further research in the 1820s, busy as he was with
other projects. In 1826, he founded the Royal Institution's Friday Evening Discourses and in the same
year the Christmas Lectures, both of which continue to this day. He himself gave many lectures,
establishing his reputation as the outstanding scientific lecturer of his time.

In 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, the principle behind the electric transformer
and generator. This discovery was crucial in allowing electricity to be transformed from a curiosity into
a powerful new technology. During the remainder of the decade he worked on developing his ideas
about electricity. He was partly responsible for coining many familiar words including 'electrode',
'cathode' and 'ion'. Faraday's scientific knowledge was harnessed for practical use through various
official appointments, including scientific adviser to Trinity House (1836-1865) and Professor of
Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich (1830-1851).

However, in the early 1840s, Faraday's health began to deteriorate and he did less research. He died
on 25 August 1867 at Hampton Court, where he had been given official lodgings in recognition of his
contribution to science. He gave his name to the 'farad', originally describing a unit of electrical charge
but later a unit of electrical capacitance.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml

History of ion

The word ion comes from the Greek word , ion, "going", the present participle of , ienai, "to go". This
term was introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species
that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.[3][4] Faraday did not know the nature of
these species, but he knew that since metals dissolved into and entered a solution at one electrode, and new
metal came forth from a solution at the other electrode, that some kind of substance moved through the
solution in a current, conveying matter from one place to the other.

Faraday also introduced the words anion for a negatively charged ion, and cation for a positively charged one.
In Faraday's nomenclature, cations were named because they were attracted to the cathode in a galvanic
device and anions were named due to their attraction to the anode.

Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his 1884 dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts
disassociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the 1903 Nobel Prize in
Chemistry.[5] Arrhenius' explanation was that in forming a solution, the salt dissociates into Faraday's ions.
Arrhenius proposed that ions formed even in the absence of an electric current
Characteristics[edit]

Ions in their gas-like state are highly reactive, and do not occur in large amounts on Earth, except in flames,
lightning, electrical sparks, and other plasmas.

These gas-like ions rapidly interact with ions of opposite charge to give neutral molecules or ionic salts. Ions
are also produced in the liquid or solid state when salts interact with solvents (for example, water) to produce
"solvated ions," which are more stable, for reasons involving a combination of energy and entropy changes as
the ions move away from each other to interact with the liquid. These stabilized species are more commonly
found in the environment at low temperatures. A common example is the ions present in seawater, which are
derived from the dissolved salts.

All ions are charged, which means that like all charged objects they are:

attracted to opposite electric charges (positive to negative, and vice versa),

repelled by like charges

when moving, travel in trajectories that are deflected by a magnetic field.

Electrons, due to their smaller mass and thus larger space-filling properties as matter waves, determine the
size of atoms and molecules that possess any electrons at all. Thus, anions (negatively charged ions) are
larger than the parent molecule or atom, as the excess electron(s) repel each other, and add to the physical
size of the ion, because its size is determined by its electron cloud. As such, in general, cations are smaller
than the corresponding parent atom or molecule due to the smaller size of its electron cloud. One particular
cation (that of hydrogen) contains no electrons, and thus consists of a single proton - very much smaller than
the parent hydrogen atom.

Anions and cations[edit]

Hydrogen atom (centre) contains a single proton and a single electron. Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas
addition of an electron gives an anion (right). The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger
radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. Hydrogen forms the only cation
that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) still retain one or more electrons are still smaller than the
neutral atoms or molecules from which they are derived.

"Cation" and "Anion" redirect here. For the particle physics/quantum computing concept, see Anyon. For other
uses, see Ion (disambiguation).

Since the electric charge on a proton is equal in magnitude to the charge on an electron, the net electric charge
on an ion is equal to the number of protons in the ion minus the number of electrons.

An anion () (/n.a.n/ AN-eye-n), from the Greek word (n), meaning "up",[9] is an ion with more
electrons than protons, giving it a net negative charge (since electrons are negatively charged and protons are
positively charged).[10]

A cation (+) (/kt.a.n/ KAT-eye-n), from the Greek word (kat), meaning "down",[11] is an ion with fewer
electrons than protons, giving it a positive charge.[12]

There are additional names used for ions with multiple charges. For example, an ion with a 2 charge is known
as a dianion and an ion with a +2 charge is known as a dication. A zwitterion is a neutral molecule with positive
and negative charges at different locations within that molecule. [13]

Cations and ions are measured by their ionic radius and they differ in relative size: "Cations are small, most of
them less than 10-8 cm in radius. But most anions are large, as is the most common Earth anion, oxygen. From
this fact it is apparent that most of the space of a crystal is occupied by the anion and that the cations fit into
the spaces between them."[14]

In terms of an angstrom , a cation has radius less than .8 while an anion has radius greater than 1.3 . [15]