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# Fast Diagramming Made Easy: Straightforward

## Presented at the 2013 AASHTO Value Engineering Peer

Exchange Workshop, Minneapolis, MN, July 10, 2013
By: Paul Johnson, CVS-Life
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Presentation Outline
Brief History of FAST
Introduction to FAST Diagramming
Examples of FAST Diagrams for Highway Projects
Lists of Common Functions
Higher Order
Basic
Secondary
All the Time
Fast Diagramming Tips from Paul
Tools: Yellow Stickies; Power Point; Visio
Drawing Tutorial
Q/A
History, and Introduction to FAST Diagramming
Brief History of FAST, as Part of VE

## 1945 GE assigns L.D. Miles to reduce costs

1947-52 L.D. Miles develops and proves function
techniques
1955 Navy adds VE Incentive Clause in contracts
1959 Society of American Value Engineers founded
1964 Corps of Engineers applies VE to construction
1964 Charles Bytheway Develops FAST Diagramming Technique
VE Currently Required by FHWA and DOTs for Bridge Projects
over \$40 million, and Highway Projects over \$50 million
Why FAST is Important to Value Engineering

## VE is conducted on capital improvement projects to save money

without compromising function and to enhance function within the
Owners budget
With the help of Functional Analysis, VE is NOT a rudimentary
cost reduction technique
Value Engineering Approach

## VE is a Structured Team Approach Focused on Function(s) and

Thinking Outside the Box
Value Engineering Diagram
Savings in Facility Life Cycle
The Value Equation

V = F/C
Where:
V = Value from the Owners Eyes
F = Function
C = Cost

FAST

## Function Analysis System Technique Diagramming

Developed in 1964 by Charles W. Bytheway
Function is an Active Verb followed by a Measurable Noun
Applies intuitive logic to test functions
Displays functions in a diagram or model form
Identifies dependence between functions
Creates common language for team
Tests validity of functions
No correct FAST model -- team consensus
The Technical FAST Model
How? Why?
When?

Scope Line
Design Design
objective objective

Functions
that happen
All the Time

## Higher Required Required

Basic Basic Causative
order secondary secondary
function function function
function function function

At the Same Time
and/or When

## Scope of problem under study

Types of Functions

## Higher Order Functions

The societal reasons of Why a project is being done
Listed to left of the left scope line on a FAST diagram
Basic Functions
Describes the primary reason a project is being done
All the Time Functions (also called Required Secondary
Functions)
Any function that is required to meet codes, standards, or other
mandatory requirements on a project
Secondary Functions
Those functions that if removed from the project, then both the Basic
and Secondary functions could still be realized
Examples of where too much money is devoted to secondary functions
(targets for VE analysis)
Examples of FAST Diagramming for Highway
Projects
FAST Diagram: Elgin OHare 2011 Value Planning
FAST Diagram: Arches National Park Roadway
Improvements
FAST Diagram: US-89, Thayne-Alpine Junction (Etna
North), SW Wyoming, Star Valley, near Jackson
Lists of Common Functions for Highway Projects
Typical Higher Order Functions of Highway Projects

## Higher Order Functions (the reasons Why a project is being

done, but not within the scope lines):
Promote Economy
Access Employment
Create Jobs
Generate Revenue
Improve Livability
Encourage Development
Typical Basic Functions of Highway Projects

## Basic Functions of a Highway Project

Transport People
Transport Goods
Reduce Congestion
Reduce Travel Time
Basic Functions of an Interchange
Free Flow Traffic Movement
Connect Interstates
Change Travel Direction
Manage Traffic Flow
Access Community
Typical Basic Functions of Highway Projects

## Basic Functions of a Dedicated Lanes

Accommodate High Speed
Pass Slower Vehicles
Accommodate Varying Speed
Separate Traffic
GuideTraffic
Delineate Lanes
Basic Functions of a Median/Center Lane
Accommodate Left Turn Movements
Decelerate Safely
Facilitate Access
Typical Basic Functions of Highway Projects

## Basic Functions of an Outside Shoulder

Change Tire
Decelerate Safely
Warn Vehicles (Rumble Strips)
Emergency Pullout
Basic or Secondary Functions of Drainage and Erosion Control
Dry Base
Shed Water
Extend Pavement Life
Collect Stormwater
Treat Stormwater
Typical Basic Functions of Highway Projects

## Secondary or Lower Order Functions

Construct Project
Plan Project
Obtain Approvals (Environmental, Permits)
Design Project
All The Time Functions (or Required Secondary)
Improve Safety
Enable Emergency Access
Remain within ROW
Comply with Environmental Requirements
Tips and Tools for FAST Diagramming
FAST Diagramming Tips from Paul

## Stay at an Appropriate Level of Abstraction

A FAST diagram for a major program at conceptual design will be at a
higher level of abstraction than a FAST diagram of a smaller highway
project at mid design
You could prepare separate FAST diagrams at varying levels of
abstraction on project components, such as Drainage but this is not
typically done
Numbers of Functions to Show on a FAST Diagram
Include an appropriate number of functions that answer the How-Why
relationships
Dont try and place too many functions on your FAST Diagram
All of the functions generated can be listed in your report, with
representative ones shown on the FAST diagram
Its okay to include a statement in the diagram that says Refer to the
VE Report for additional Basic and Secondary Functions.
FAST Diagramming Tips from Paul

## Techniques During the Study

Start by asking team to generate functions for the overall project
Type them in Word as they are stated by the VE team
Generate additional functions for the major components of the project
Interchange; Mainline; Earthwork; Bridges; Drainage; Right-of-Way
Generate Higher Order functions for why the project is being done
Go back and add acronyms next to each function, in parentheses
H = Higher Order; B = Basic; S = Secondary; A = All the Time
You could prepare separate FAST diagrams at varying levels of
abstraction on project components, such as Drainage but this is not
typically done
FAST Diagramming Tips from Paul

## Practical Tips for FAST Diagramming

Budget 2 to 4 hours in a typical 40-hour study for Function Analysis
and FAST Diagramming
Stay within your time budget; youll need to preserve time for the
development phase
You should be able to complete Functional Analysis (generating
functions) during this time, and starting on the FAST diagram
If FAST diagram is not completed, have a smaller group work on it
during lunch and/or evening hours, and present it back to the group
Refine the diagram as necessary based on VE team input
FAST Diagramming Tips from Paul

## FAST Diagramming Tools

Yellow stickies with functions noted, arranged on a wall (old school)
Project FAST diagram on screen from your laptop, using PowerPoint
or Visio, and arrange the boxes as you discuss with VE team
Need to be fast on the PC to do this
Dont try and place too many functions on your FAST Diagram
All of the functions generated can be listed in your report, with
representative ones shown on the FAST diagram
Its okay to include a statement in the diagram that says Refer to the
VE Report for additional Basic and Secondary Functions.
Drawing Tutorial

Example Functions
Generate a few more
Construct a FAST Diagram Using Yellow Stickies
Construct a FAST Diagram Using PowerPoint
Q/A