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Lab M14 Semester 1 2017

Monash University
Department of Materials and Science Engineering


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
Safety Glasses
Closed Toed Shoes
Lab coat or equivalent protective clothing

Rules of the Lab:

1. No food or drink allowed
2. You must wear PPE as instructed or leave the laboratory
3. Clean up your work area once prac is completed
4. Report any breakages or consumables with need replenishing
5. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap upon finishing prac.
6. If in doubt about any part of the prac, ask your prac supervisor.

Equipment/Materials- Caution:
Need to follow instructions from the demonstrator

Evacuation/Emergency Process:
Calmly turn off equipment on first alarm, prepare to evacuate
On second alarm, calmly evacuate area and go to assembly area
Supervisor is to close doors on exiting room/s
If an emergency exists and no alarm is activated, then activate break glass alarm or
contact 333 on any internal phone or red phone
Leave the building via the closest exit or as directed by wardens instructions and
assemble at the evacuation assembly areas
Do not leave assembly area until all clear is given by building warden.

First Aid:
If you feel as if something unsafe has or could occur in the area, please inform the prac
supervisor. If you are injured, inform the supervisor of the prac immediately, always seek
assistance of First Aid officers for any injury sustained in laboratories.

Listing of local fist aiders & extensions:

Name Contact Location

Fist aid kit is mounted on the wall in the corridor of metallography lab (2.86/82) and a small
first aid kit is located in the mechanical testing lab (2.88/82).
MTE3542 Lab M14 Semester 1 2017

Aim and Requirements

The aim of this experiment is to examine the effects of heat treatments, deformation and
quenching rate on one of the most significant phase transformations in metals the
martensitic transformation. You are required to write a brief answer/explanation to each of
the tasks/questions in this practical exercise.


The Martensite transformation may be induced by deformation, quenching to low
temperature or by a combination of both. This practical exercise is designed to gain some
better understanding of the characteristic features of the martensitic transformation:

The transformation is diffusionless, which means that the parent and product phases
have no compositional differences.
The reaction begins after considerable undercooling at a temperature known as Ms,
which is usually assumed to be constant for an alloy irrespective of the cooling rate.
The Ms varies with composition, usually being depressed by alloying additions as
shown in Figure 1 for the case of carbon additions. Carbon has a particularly strong
effect and the Ms can even be depressed below room temperature if you add enough
The transformation is usually athermal, i.e. it continues only on cooling.
The transformation can be reversible (as in the case of shape memory alloys), with a
temperature hysteresis.
Martensite occurs by a process of shear, which forms single crystal plates (or laths)
coherent with the parent phase. The plates take a lenticular form due to the matrix
constraints. (Thus they appear acicular on a polished surface.)
Martensite structures are always harder than the structure from which they are formed.

Figure 1. Variation of Ms and Mf as a function of carbon content in steels

MTE3542 Lab M14 Semester 1 2017

Experimental Procedures

AISI type 304 stainless steel (0.08%C, 2.0%Mn, 0.75% Si, 0.045%P, 19%Cr, 10%Ni) has an
Ms temperature near room temperature (it has a low carbon content but the other alloying
additions also have a strong effect on the Ms). The samples have been austentised at 850C
for ~ 1hr and water quenched. The microstructure comprises metastable austenite.

An empirical formula for Ms, which may be applied to the 304 Steel, has been formulated to
calculate Ms:
Ms(C) = 561-474C-33Mn-17Ni-17Cr-2.1Mo

Task 1:
Use this equation to estimate the Ms temperature for this steel.

Measure the width and thickness of the AISI304 tensile sample you have been provided with.
Load the tensile specimen in the Instron machine (100kN load cell, crosshead speed at
2mm/min, 25mm extensometer). When you perform the tensile test, the deformation will lead
to some martensitic transformation. The volume fraction of martensite may be determined
using a ferrite indicator. Note the initial length of the specimen and record the extension
required to induce 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15% martensite. Make sure the strains that caused the
ferrite indicator to adhere to the sample are recorded. Make sure measurements from the
ferrite indicator are always taken midway between two clamps of the extensometer.

Task 2:
You will need to obtain the text file from the tensile testing machine indicating the force
and extension measured by the load cell and extensometer during the test.

a) Plot the resulting engineering stress-engineering strain curve,

b) Plot the martensite fraction formed vs strain.

c) Calculate the slope of the stress strain curve and then plot: vs. . An excel file with

the stress strain data for another austenitic stainless steel AISI316 (0.08%C, 2.0%Mn,
0.75% Si, 0.045%P, 17%Cr, 12%Ni, 2.5%Mo) has been uploaded to Moodle. This is a
steel where the austenite is stable during deformation (ie. strain-induced martensite

does not occur). Plot vs. for 316 on the same plot of that for 304 and calculate the

Ms for 316. What do you notice regarding the effect of the strain induced martensite on

the ? Briefly explain why the curves are different.

Four mounted and etched (with E10 etchant) 304 samples have been provided. One sample
comes from the grip of your tensile sample (ie. it is undeformed), one from the fractured area
and the other two samples have experienced only 5% and 15% of strain induced martensite,
are provided. These four samples are ready made from previous experiments using exactly
the same tensile test you have performed. Observe their microstructures under optical
MTE3542 Lab M14 Semester 1 2017

Task 3:
Draw schematically the microstructures for each of the four samples. You need to
indicate in your drawing the constituents and provide a brief explanation for each

Part B Effect of Quenching on Martensite Formation

Two discs of 1040 (0.4% C steel) were austenitised at ~900C for 1hr. One of them was then
quenched by dropping into water, while the other was air-cooled. They were subsequently
mounted, polished and etched with 2% Nital solution. For these two samples provided to you,
observe their microstructures at appropriate magnifications of the microscope.

Task 4:
Draw schematically the microstructures of the two samples. You need to indicate in
your drawing the constituents. A brief comparison of the two microstructures
(similarity and difference) is required. Explain the reasons of forming different
microstructures (saying only because they experienced different cooling rates is not

D.A.Porter and K.E.Easterling, Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 3rd Edn., 1994
P.Haasen, Physical Metallurgy 2nd Edn., Cambridge university Press, 1986
G.B.Olson and W.S.Owen (eds), Martensite, ASM International, 1992