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THE CLIL METHODOLOGY Rodrigo Renedo

Gallo
WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND BY CLIL?

The CLIL methodology transforms the foreign language into a

bridge to access to lots of contents, linguistic and non- linguistic.


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CONTENTS
1. ESL materials Vs. CLIL materials

2. What does CLIL involve?

3. Which model of CLIL programme do I have in your school?

4. Which three of the seven aims of slide 13 do you think are the most
important for CLIL?

5. My personal opinion on CLIL.


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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE BOOKS

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Most of the activities that are actually used to prepare

the examinations of the Cambridge University are

based on pattern drills, fill-in-the-gaps or guided

activities. There is little chance to actively communicate

in real- life contexts, except for some tasks to practise

the speaking part, likes these ones.


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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES
Attention is mainly paid to grammatical aspects

with relation to adjectives in positive, comparative

and superlative form. These activities are based on

pattern drills and fill- in the gap exercises which do

not foster communication nor cultural awareness.

Instead, content is given the greatest importance,

though just from a theoretical point of view.


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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
The same happens with this activity which could be

considered as demanding from a point of view of

content, but would not really foster the

communicative competence if considered as the

ability to perform successfully in the target

language in a daily life situation.

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CLIL TEACHING COURSE BOOKS

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MAIN ASPECTS OF CLIL ACTIVITIES
Content: knowledge, skills and understanding
Communication: use of a non- native language
Cognition: developing thinking skills, understanding and language
Culture: exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings
Skill integration

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CLIL books are full of activities to
increase the communicative
competence as a more complex
concept which does not just
integrate the grammatical
competence. Real- life situations
are enhanced to let students
directly interact and benefit from
each other. Heterogeneous group
activities are also provided along
with cooperative and interactive
tasks. The focus in not so much on
grammar or linguistic contents,
but on non- linguistic contents.
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COGNITIVE SKILLS, CONTENTS, COMMUNICATION
AND CULTURE
Cognitive skills: comparing and researching

Contents: parts of the plant (root and stem)

Communication: investigation (cooperative work)

Culture: identifying different types of roots

BASIC INTERPESONAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS (BICS) are included to develop social and conversational situations.

COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY (CALP) is required to hypothesise, intemperate evidence and

justify the solution.


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BICS AND CALP

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CONTENT AND LANGUAGE
INTEGRATED LEARNING CLIL
HOW TO DEFINE CLIL?
CLIL is an approach to teaching and learning non- linguistic contents like Social Science, Natural Science,

or Arts through the foreign language or any non- native language in a process of language acqusition.

This approach has become really powerful from the 1970s when the Council of Europe realised

languages were absolutely crucial to interact and thefore, they should be acquired through direct

communication and interpersonal relationships.

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MAIN ASPECTS OF A CLIL LESSON
Content: knowledge, skills and understanding
Communication: using language to learn
Cognition: developing thinking skills, understanding and language
Culture: exposure to alternative perspectives and shared
understandings (3rd culture)
Skill integration

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1. Integrate language and skills.
2. Base your lessons on reading or listening passages.
3. Use language functionally under the context of the
subject.
4. Approach language lexically rather than grammatically.
5. Take into account learner styles and the profile of
students.
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OTHER TERMS DEFINING A SIMILAR APPROACH
Bilingual Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD)

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

Content and Language Integration in Primary CLIP

Content-based Instruction (CBI)

Content-based Language Instruction (CBLI)

Content-based Language Teaching (CBLT)

English Across the Curriculum (EAC)

English as an Academic Language (EAL)

English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI)

Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP)

Foreign Languages as a Medium of Education (FLAME)

Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC)

Teaching Content Through English

Teaching English Through Content

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HARD, MID AND SOFT CLIL

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WHICH MODEL OF CLIL PROGRAMME DO I HAVE
IN MY SCHOOL?
CLIL is a really wide concept that may involve different levels and models, as it
was shown in the previous session. My school is currently developing modular
CLIL since, whereas Arts and Natural Science are taught in English, Social
Science or ICTs are properly taught in Spanish. In terms of percentage, it would
be around 70% Spanish and 30% English.

Without considering if this is positive or negative, the main reason to do so relies


on the belief that the use of English at 50% could detriment students' mother
tongue level.
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WHICH THREE OF THE SEVEN AIMS OF SLIDE 13 DO
YOU THINK ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT FOR CLIL?
PURPOSES JUSTIFICATION
To introduce contents in a non- native language, that is to Non- linguistic contents are conveyed through the target
say, with the use of the foreign language. language in a meaningful and contextualised way by directly
giving an intrinsic powerful value to that language.
To improve students performance in both curricular subjects Both curricular subjects and target language benefit from
and the target language by integrating both of them within each other with a process that perfectly integrates them.
the same process.

To increase their confidence in the target language. Students increase their confidence while learning contents in
the target language. Moreover, CLIL favours debates and
project work (skill integration).
To encourage links of community and citizenship. The whole community works together to develop a process
of language acquisition more natural and contextualised than
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MY PERSONAL OPINION ON CLIL
I think the CLIL methodology is an excellent opportunity to increase our students confidence

and self- esteem, promote thinking skills (higher- order thinking skills, such as analysing,

creating or debating), and make a purposeful use of the target language. As many classmates

also said during the last session, CLIL is a way to give the English language (or any other

language if that is the case) an intrinsic value. Students should realise that the English

language is not just to pass the subject or to speak about language (metalinguistic function),

but to express many different ideas, feelings, emotions with diverse purposes.

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In that sense, I really agree with Cook, who defended that language should be analysed from its

different functions, and not just from a metalinguistic point of view. I consider that is what CLIL is

about. Language has many functions, and it is a much more powerful tool than out students

could probably imagine. That is why CLIL is so relevant to make them reflect on how many

contents can be covered with a language that they may not actually master yet. Moreover, taking

advantage of CLIL, the emotional intelligence could be clearly benefited from the English lessons,

if more attention was paid to vocabulary to talk about feelings and emotions. I deeply believe the

emotional competence should be developed at the same time than the communicative

competence.

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HOW TO PUT IT IN PRACTICE?
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Focus on language and culture as if they were two sides of the same coin

2. Contribute to the creation a bilingual intercultural environment of integration

3. Make English the vehicular language to access lots of non- linguistic products

4. Be as much involved as possible by participating and sharing your own ideas.

5. Keep yourself updated by attending free courses which will help you do your best in class

6. And, the most important, enjoy your CLIL practice being yourself!

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ACTIVITIES
Comprehension questions

Information gaps

Jigsaw

Reading tasks

Jumble tasks
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Question loops

Trivia search - 'things you know' and 'things you want to know'

Word guessing games

Class surveys using questionnaires

20 Questions - provide language support frame for questions

Students present information from a visual using a language support handout

Project work
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CLIL HOW TO DO IT

https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/clil-%E2%80%93-how-do-it
http://www.macmillanenglish.com/category/clil-materials/
http://www.eslprintables.com/teaching_resources/clil/
http://www.isabelperez.com/clil/clicl_m_6.htm

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BILINGUAL ACTIVITIES

All bilingual schools have a twinned school in the United Kingdom so as to:
o Exchange projects, experiences, and activities
o Exchange correspondence
o Organize visits
o Promote students and teachers exchanges
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As the American teacher Rita Pierson says, we (teachers) are born to make a
difference. When using CLIL our main duty should be to make every student
feel a champion by finding the genius they have within themselves!

Every kid needs a champion.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Adrin Maria Martinez and Maria Junkal Gutirrez Mangado (2015). Is CLIL instruction
beneficial in terms of general proficiency and specific areas of grammar? Journal of
Immersion and Content-Based Language Education

2. Brinton, D. & Master, P. (Eds.) (1997). New Ways in Content-Based Instruction. New Ways in
TESOL Series II. TESOL.

3. Harding, Edith and Philip Riley (1986). The Bilingual Family: A Handbook for Parents.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

4. Romaine, Suzanne (1995). Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell. 2nd edition.


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