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Overview of Section 7

7.1 General
Apply to:
End-bearing piles
Friction piles
Tension piles
Transversely loaded piles
Installation Method: -
Driving
Jacking
Screwing
Boring
7.2 Limit States
Loss of overall stability
Bearing capacity failure
Excessive settlement
Excessive lateral movement and etc

7.3 Actions and Design Situations


Ground displacement is treated as an action
Downdrag and heave, transverse loading
7.4 Design Method and Considerations
MUST be verified by
Design Method: - Static Load Test
Static load test
Empirical or analytical calculation
Dynamic load test
Observed of comparable pile foundation

Design Consideration: -
Behavior of individual and pile groups
Type of pile, installation method and etc
Potential changes in the ground water regime
7.5 Pile Load Tests
Shall be carried out when there is no
comparable experience
Static Load Test and Dynamic Load Test
Dynamic Load Test has to be calibrated
against SI and static load test results
Shall be located at the MOST ADVERSE
ground condition
Tensile pile should be carried out to failure
No extrapolation of load-displacement graph
Correlation Factors and Partial Factors
7.6 Axially Loaded Piles
Compression and Tensile Piles
Ensure ultimate and serviceability limit state
are improbable
Consider single pile & foundation as a whole
Failure criterion for compression pile,
settlement = 10% of the pile base diameter
Ensure overall stability of the foundations
Consider punching failure if weak ground exist
at < 4 times base diameter below pile base
7.6 Axially Loaded Piles

Compressive Ground Resistance: -


Static Load Tests
Ground Test Results
Dynamic Impact Tests
Pile Driving Formulae
Wave Equation Analysis
7.7 Transversely Loaded Piles
For short piles, consider rotation or
translation as a rigid body
For long slender piles, consider bending
failure
Transverse load resistance can be obtained
from:
Pile load test need not test to failure
Ground test results and pile strength
parameters
Degree of freedom of rotation at connection
shall take into consideration
7.8 Structural Design of Piles
Construction tolerances shall be taken into
consideration
Slenderness shall be checked against
buckling
If the subsoil Su > 10kPa, no need to check
buckling

7.9 Supervision of Construction


Correlation Factors Recommended
in EN1997-1 Annex A
Static Load Tests Ground Tests Dynamic Impact Tests
Number Mean Min Number Mean Min Number Mean Min
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1.4 1.4 1 1.4 1.4 2 1.6 1.5
2 1.3 1.2 2 1.35 1.27 5 1.5 1.35
3 1.2 1.05 3 1.33 1.23 10 1.45 1.3
4 1.1 1.0 4 1.31 1.20 15 1.42 1.25
>5 1.0 1.0 5 1.29 1.15 20 1.4 1.25
7 1.27 1.12
10 1.25 1.08
Partial Factors Recommended in
EN1997-1 Annex A
Design Approach 1 Design Approach 2 Design Approach 3
Combination 1 Combination 2 Comb 2- Piles & Anchors DA2 - Comb 1 DA2 - Slopes DA3
A1 M1 R1 A2 M2 R1 A2 M1 or M2 R4 A1 M1 R2 A1 M=R2 A1 A2 M2 R3
Permanent Unfav 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35
Fav
Action Variable Unfav 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3
Tan ' 1.25 1.25 Structure
Geotech1.25
Effective cohesion 1.25 1.25 ActionsActions 1.25
Undrained strength 1.4 1.4 1.4
Unconfined strength 1.4 1.4 1.4
Soil Weight density
Spread Bearing 1.4
footings Sliding 1.1
Base 1.3 1.1
Shaft (Compression) 1.3 1.1
Driven Total/combined 1.3 1.1
Piles Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6 1.15 1.1
Base 1.25 1.6 1.1
Shaft (Compression) 1 1.3 1.1
Bored Total/combined 1.15 1.5 1.1
Piles Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6 1.15 1.1
Base 1.1 1.45 1.1
Shaft (Compression) 1 1.3 1.1
Total/combined 1.1 1.4 1.1
CFA Piles Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6 1.15 1.1
Temporary 1.1 1.1 1.1
Anchors Permanent 1.1 1.1 1.1
Bearing capacity 1.4
Retaining Sliding resistance 1.1
walls Earth resistance 1.4
Slopes Earth resistance 1.1
Compressive Resistance from
Static Load Tests
( Rc;m ) mean ( Rc;m ) min
Rc;k = Minimum ;
1 2
Rc;m Ultimate Characteristic measured compressive resistance
Rc;k Ultimate Characteristic compressive resistance

Characteristic Measured Resistance Design Characteristic Resistance


= =
Resistance Correlation Factor Resistance Partial Factor

Rc;m Rc;k
Rc;k = Rc;d =
R
Compressive Resistance from Static Load Tests
Load Test Number 1 2 3 4
Measured Load (kN) 382 425 365 412
382 + 425 + 365 + 412 ( Rcm ) min = 365kN
( Rcm ) mean = = 396kN
4
Static Load Tests Ground Tests Dynamic Impact Tests
Number Mean Min Number Mean Min Number Mean Min
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1.4 1.4 1 1.4 1.4 2 1.6 1.5
2 1.3 1.2 2 1.35 1.27 5 1.5 1.35
3 1.2 1.05 3 1.33 1.23 10 1.45 1.3
4 1.1 1.0 4 1.31 1.20 15 1.42 1.25
>5 1.0 1.0 5 1.29 1.15 20 1.4 1.25
7 1.27 1.12
10 1.25 1.08

( Rcm ) mean 396


Rck = = = 360kN
1 1.1 Rck = 360kN
( Rcm ) min 365
Rck = = = 365kN
2 1.0
Compressive Resistance from Static Load Tests
Design Approach 1 Design Approach 1 Conventional BS Method
Load Combination 1 Comb 2- Piles & Anchors Load FOS Partial Global
kN A1 M1 R1 A2 M1 or M2 R4 kN FOS FOS
Permanent Unfav 2000 1.35 2700 2700 1 2000 2000 2000 1 2000 2000
Fav 1 1
Action Variable Unfav 500 1.5 750 750 1.3 650 650 500 1 500 500
Tan ' 1 1 1.25
Effective cohesion 1 1 1.25
Soil Undrained strength 1 1 1.4
Unconfined strength 1 1 1.4
Weight density 1 1 1
Spread Bearing 1
footings Sliding 1
Base 270 1 270 1.3 208 270 3 90
Driven Shaft (Compression) 90 1 90 1.3 69 90 1.5 60.00
Piles Total/combined 360 1 360 1.3 277 360 2 180
Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Base 1.25 1.6
Bored Shaft (Compression) 1 1.3
Piles Total/combined 1.15 1.5
Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Base 1.1 1.45
Shaft (Compression) 1 1.3
CFA Piles
Total/combined 1.1 1.4
Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Temporary 1.1 1.1
Anchors
Permanent 1.1 1.1
Bearing capacity 1
Retaining
walls Sliding resistance 1
Earth resistance 1
Slopes Earth resistance 1
Total Piles 9.58 9.58 9.57 9.57 16.67 13.89
Compressive Resistance from
Ground Tests
( Rb;cal + Rs ;cal ) mean ( Rb;cal + Rs ;cal ) min
Rc;k = Minimum ;
3 4
Rb;cal Calculated Ultimate Base Resistance
Rs;cal Calculated Ultimate Shaft Resistance
Rc;k Ultimate Characteristic compressive resistance

Characteristic Calculated Resistance Design Characteristic Resistance


= =
Resistance Correlation Factor Resistance Partial Factor

Rc;cal Rc;k
Rck = Rc;d =
R
Compressive Resistance from Ground Tests
Borehole BH 1 2 3 4
SPT N at Pile Shaft N 10 15 20 16
Clay Layer Thickness m 20 18 12 20
SPT N at Pile Toe N 50 50 50 50
Pile Size m 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Rs;cal = 3N x As kN 720 972 864 1152
Rb;cal = 200N x Ab kN 900 900 900 900
Rcal kN 1620 1872 1764 2052
(Rc;cal) mean kN 1827
(Rc;cal) min kN 1620

( Rc;cal ) mean 1827


Rc;k = = = 1395kN
3 1.31
( Rc;cal ) min 1620
Rc;k = = = 1350kN The minimum value govern
4 1.2

BH1 is used for Characteristic Resistance Calculation


4 is used as correlation factor
( Rs ;cal ) mean 720 ( Rb;cal ) min 900
Rs ;k = = = 600kN Rb;k = = = 750kN
4 1.2 4 1.2
Compressive Resistance from Ground Tests
Design Approach 1 Design Approach 1 Conventional BS Method
Load Combination 1 Comb 2- Piles & Anchors Load FOS Partial Global
kN A1 M1 R1 A2 M1 or M2 R4 kN FOS FOS
Permanent Unfav 2000 1.35 2700 2700 1 2000 2000 2000 1 2000 2000
Action Fav 1 1
Variable Unfav 500 1.5 750 750 1.3 650 650 500 1 500 500
Tan ' 1 1 1.25
Effective cohesion 1 1 1.25
Soil Undrained strength 1 1 1.4
Unconfined strength 1 1 1.4
Weight density 1 1 1
Spread Bearing 1
footings Sliding 1
Base b 750 1 750 1.3 577 900 3 300
Driven Shaft (Compression) s 600 1 600 1.3 462 972 1.5 648
Piles Total/combined 1350 1 1350 1.3 1038 1872 2 936
Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Base b 1.25 1.6
Bored Shaft (Compression) s 1 1.3
Piles Total/combined 1.15 1.5
Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Base b 1.1 1.45
Shaft (Compression) s 1 1.3
Total/combined 1.1 1.4
CFA Piles Shaft in tension 1.25 1.6
Temporary 1.1 1.1
Anchors Permanent 1.1 1.1
Bearing capacity 1
Retaining Sliding resistance 1
walls Earth resistance 1
Slopes Earth resistance 1
Total Piles 2.56 2.56 2.55 2.55 2.64 2.67
Compressive Resistance from
Dynamic Tests
( Rc;m ) mean ( Rc;m ) min
Rc;k = Minimum ;
5 6
Rc;m Ultimate Characteristic measured compressive resistance
Rc;k Ultimate Characteristic compressive resistance

Characteristic Measured Resistance Design Characteristic Resistance


= =
Resistance Correlation Factor Resistance Partial Factor

Rc;m Rc;k
Rc;k = Rc;d =
R
Conclusions
1. Pile design resistance must be verified
by static load tests
2. More test piles are required to reduce the
risk due to variability of the ground
3. Proper correlation factors shall be
established