Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2 (CPE553)

NAME : MOHAMAD FAZRUL BIN BASRI (2013331897)


GROUP : EH2414 (GROUP1)
EXPERIM : LAB 11 : GAS ABSORPTION
ENT
DATE : 6 NOVEMBER 2015
PROG/CO : EH241
DE
SUBMIT : MDM LIM YING PEI
TO
N Title Allocated Marks
o Marks (%)
1 Abstract 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Objectives 5
4 Theory 5
5 Procedures/Methodology 10
6 Apparatus 5
7 Results 10
8 Calculation 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 References 5
13 Appendices 5
TOTAL 100

Remarks:

Checked by: Rechecked by:


Date: Date:
ABSTRACT

The Gas Absorption experiment was conducted in order to examine the air pressure drop
across the absorption column as a function of air flow rate with different rates of water flow. Gas
absorption is a process in which a gaseous mixture is brought into contact with a liquid and
during this contact a component is transferred between the gas stream and the liquid stream.
The gas may be bubbled through the liquid, or it may pass over streams of the liquid, arranged
to provide a large surface through which the mass transfer can occur. The liquid film can flow
down the sides of columns or over packing, or it can cascade from one tray to another with the
liquid falling and the gas rising in the counter flow. In addition, there is the aim that should be
achieved at the end of the experiment which is to examine the air pressure drop across the
column as a function of air flow for different water flow rates through the column. In packed
column, air is fed into the bottom and water is transferred to the top of the column either from
feed vessel B1 using the centrifugal pump, P1. The pressure drop is recorded when the liquid
flow rate is set to 1 LPM until 3 LPM. The gas flow rate starts from 20 L/min until 180 L/min with
10 L/min of intervals. How fast the liquid can flow down with no vapour flowing upwards and the
rate at which the vapour is trying to flow upwards is the actual flooding point. The flooding point
was recorded during the water flow rate of 1 LPM, 2 LPM and 3 LPM which were 160 L/min, 120
L/min and 80 L/min respectively.
INTRODUCTION

Absorption is a mass transfer process in which a vapor solute A in a gas mixture is absorbed by
means of a liquid in which the solute more or less soluble. The gas mixture consists mainly of
an inert gas and the soluble. An example of gas is the absorption of the solute ammonia from an
air-ammonia mixture by water. A major application of absorption is the removal of CO2 and H2S
from nature gas or synthesis gas by absorption in solution of amines or alkaline salts.

A common apparatus used in gas absorption and certain other operations is the packed tower,
shown in Figure 1 below. The device consists of a cylindrical column, or tower, equipped with a
gas inlet an distributing space at the bottom, a liquid inlet and distributor at the top, gas and
liquid outlet at the top and bottom, respectively and a supported mass of inert solid shapes,
called tower packing.

Figure 1: Gas Absorption Packing Column


Their common dumped packing, Ceramic Berl saddles and Raschig rings are older types of
packing that are not much used now, although there were big improvements over ceramic
spheres or crushed stone when first introduced. The shape prevents pieces from nesting closely
together, and this increasing the bed porosity. As for this experiment we used the column
packed with Raschig rings.

In given packed tower with a given type and size of packing and with defined flow of liquid, there
is an upper limit to the rate of gas flow, called the flooding velocity or flooding point. Above this
gas velocity the tower cannot operate due to high pressure. At the flow rate called the loading
point, the gas start to hander the liquid down flow, and local accumulations or pools of liquid
start to appear in the packing.
OBJECTIVES

To examine the air pressure drop across the column as a function of air flow for different water
flow rates through the column.

To determine the loading and the flooding points in the column.

THEORY

This experiment required to plot graph of pressure drop against air flow rate in graph. The flow
parameter shows the ratio of liquid kinetic energy to vapour kinetic energy and parameter of K4
or y-axis needs and x-axis or FLV can be calculated by using these formulae:

G2y F P 0.1x Gx
g c ( x y ) y G y y
x y

Gas absorption is a process where mixture of gas is in contact with liquid and becomes
dissolve. Therefore, there is mass transfer occurs in the component that changes from gas
phase to liquid phase. The solutes are absorbed by liquid. Inside this experiment, only the mass
transfer between air and liquid are concerned. Gas absorption is widely use in industries to
control the air pollution and to separate acidic impurities out of mixed gas streams. The
pressure drop values are observed from the manometer. The graph of pressure correlation for
different flow rate of water is plotted in order to find the relationship between K 4 and FLV. The
steps on how to obtaine K4 and FLV is shown below:

Density of air, G = 1.175 kg/m3

Density of water, L = 996 kg/m3

Column diameter, Dc = 80 mm

2
Area of packed diameter,
A c= D
4

Packing Factor: Fp = 900 m-1

Water viscosity, water = 0.001 Ns/m2


Theoretical Flooding Point

1. Gy must be in m3/h

2. To calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

Gy
G G=
Ac

3. To calculate capacity parameter, K4,

0.1
L

K4=
2
13.1 ( GG ) F p
( )
L
G ( L G )

4. To calculate liquid flow rate, GL (kg/m2) (1 LPM, 2 LPM, 3 LPM)

G
GL =
Ac

5. To calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L

Where:

Gy = Air flow rate (m3/h)


APPARATUS

SOLTEQ-QVF Absorption column (Model: BP 751-B)


PROCEDURE

General start-up Procedures

1. All the valves were ensured closed except the ventilation valve V13.
2. All the gas connections were checked whether they are properly fitted.
3. The valve on the compressed air supply line was opened. The supply pressure was set
between 2 to 3 bar by turning the regulator knob clockwise.
4. The shut-off valve on the CO2 gas cylinder was opened. The CO2 cylinder was checked
whether the pressure is sufficient.
5. The power for the control panel was turned on.

Experiment : Hydrodynamics of a Packed Column (Wet Column Pressure Drop)

1. The general start-up procedures were performed as described above.


2. The receiving vessel B2 was filled through the charge port with 50 L of water by opening
valve V3 and V5.
3. Valve V3 was closed.
4. Valve V10 and V9 were opened slightly. The flow of water was observed from vessel B1
through pump P1.
5. Pump P1 was switched on, then slowly opened and valve V11 was adjusted to give
water flow rate of around 1 L/min. The water was allowed to enter the top column K1,
flew down the column and accumulated at the bottom until it overflows back into vessel
B1.
6. Valve V11 was opened and adjusted to give water flow rate of 0.5 L/min into column K1.
7. Valve V1 was opened and adjusted to give an air flow rate of 40 L/min into column K1.
8. The liquid and gas flow were observed in the column K1 and the pressure drop across
the column at dPT-201 was recorded.
9. Steps 6 to 7 were repeated with different values of air flow rate, each time increasing by
40 L/min while maintaining the same water flow rate.
10. Steps 5 to 8 were repeated with different values of water flow rate, each time increasing
by 0.5 L/min by adjusting valve V11.

General Shut-Down Procedures

1. Pump P1 was switched off.


2. Valve V1, V2 and V12 were closed.
3. The valve on the compressed air supply line was closed and the supply pressure was
exhausted by turning the regulator knob counter-clockwise all the way.
4. The shut-off valve was closed on the CO2 gas cylinder.
5. All the liquid in the column K1 was drained by opening valve V4 and V5.
6. All the liquid from the receiving vessels B1 and B2 were drained by opening valves V7
and V8.
7. All the liquid from the pump P1 was drained by opening valve V10.
8. The power for the control panel was turned off.
RESULTS

Pressure Drop
Flow
H2O
rate (mm
(L/min)
air
water 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

1.0 0 1 3 15 26 28 32 44 -
2.0 25 27 31 35 41 51 - - -
3.0 27 31 36 47 - - - - -
Table 1: Pressure Drop for Wet column

Flow rate
Air Water 1.0 2.0 3.0

Log Log Log Log


Gas Pressure Pressure Pressure
Gas Pressure Pressure Pressure
Flow drop drop drop
Flow drop drop drop
rate (mmH2O) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)
rate (mmH2O) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)
20 1.301 0 - 25 1.398 27 1.431
40 1.602 1 0.000 27 1.431 31 1.491
60 1.778 3 0.477 31 1.491 36 1.556
80 1.903 15 1.176 35 1.544 47 1.672
100 2.00 26 1.415 41 1.613 - -
120 2.079 28 1.447 51 1.708 - -
140 2.146 32 1.505 - - - -
160 2.204 44 1.643 - - - -
180 2.255 - - - - - -
Table 2: Log Gas Flow rate and Log Pressure drop
Air Air Pressure drop
FLV FLV FLV
Flow Flow GG correlated in mm H20
2
K4 (1 (2 (3
rate rate (kg/ms )
LPM) LPM) LPM) 1LPM 2LPM 3LPM
(L/min) (m3/h)
20 1.2 0.0779 0.0154 1.454 2.912 4.362 1.52 5.08 12.7
0.727
40 2.4 0.156 0.062 1.456 2.181 5.08 10.16 25.4

60 3.6 0.234 0.139 0.484 0.969 1.452 8.89 25.4 38.1


80 4.8 0.311 0.245 0.364 0.729 1.093 12.7 40.64 50.8
100 6.0 0.389 0.383 0.291 0.583 - 25.4 45.72 -
120 7.2 0.467 0.553 0.243 0.486 - 40.64 50.8 -
140 8.4 0.545 0.753 0.208 - - 43.18 - -
160 9.6 0.623 0.984 0.182 - - 50.80 - -
180 10.8 0.701 1.245 - - - - - -
Table 3: Theoretical Flooding Point

Log Pressure drop correlated in mm


H20
1LPM 2LPM 3LPM
0.18 0.71 1.10
0.71 1.00 1.40
0.95 1.40 1.58
1.10 1.61 1.71
1.40 1.66 -
1.61 1.71 -
1.64 - -
1.71 - -
- - -
Table 4: Log Pressure drop correlated in mm H20
Graph of Log Pressure Drop against Log Gas Flow Rate
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5 3 LPM
1
0.5 2 LPM
Log Pressure Drop, mmH2O 0
1 LPM

Log Gas Flow Rate, Gy

Figure 1: Graph of Log Pressure Drop against Log Gas Flow Rate

Graph of log correlated pressure drop vs log gas flow rate


2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8 1 LPM
0.6 2 LPM
0.4
log correlated pressure drop 0.2 3 LPM
0

Figure 2: Graph of Log correlated Pressure Drop against Log Gas Flow Rate
CALCULATIONS

Information given:

Density of air, air = 1.175 kg/m3

Density of water, water = 996 kg/m3

Column diameter, Dc = 80 mm

Area of packed diameter,

2
A c= D = ( 0.08 m )2=5.027 103 m 2
4 4

Packing Factor: Fp = 900 m-1

Water viscosity, water = 0.001 Ns/m2

Theoretical Flooding Point for 20 L/min

1. Gy = 20 L/min

3
20 L 1m 60 min
= =1.2 m3 /h
min 1000 L 1h

2. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

Gy
G G=
Ac

1.2 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
3 2
=0.0779 2
5.027 10 m m .s

3. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,


0.1
L

K4=
2
13.1 ( GG ) F p ( )

L

G ( L G )

0.1
0.0779 kg 2 ( 2

13.1
( m2 s )
900 m ) (
1 0.001 N . s /m

996 kg /m3 ) =0.0154


( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3 )

4. Calculate liquid flow rate, GL (kg/m2) (1 LPM)

3
1 L 1 min 1m 996 kg
3
G min 60 s 1000l m
GL = = 3 2
Ac 5.027 10 m

kg
3.302 2
m .s

5. Calculate liquid flow rate, GL (kg/m2) (2 LPM)

2 L 1 mi n 1 m3 996 kg

G min 60 s 1000l m3 kg
GL = = 3 2
=6.614 2
Ac 5.027 10 m m .s

6. Calculate liquid flow rate, GL (kg/m2) (3 LPM)

3 L 1 min 1m3 996 kg



G min 60 s 1000l m3 kg
GL = = 3 2
=9.907 2
Ac 5.027 10 m m .s

7. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)


kg
3.302
GL
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg /m
FLV = = =1.454
GG L
0.0779 2
kg 996 kg / m3
m .s

8. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
GL
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg /m
FLV = = =2.912
GG L
0.0779 2
kg 996 kg /m3
m .s

9. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
0.0779 2
kg ( 1.175 kg /m3
996 kg / m3 )
=4.362

m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 40 L/min

40 L 1 m3 60 min 3
Gy = min 1000 L 1h =2.4 m /h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

2.4 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
G G= 3 2
=0.156 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,


2 2 0.1

K4=
13.1
(0.156 kg (
2
m s )
900 m1 ) (
0.001 N . s / m
996 kg /m
3 ) =0.062
( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3)

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 996 kg/m3 )
1.175 kg /m3
=0.727

m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=1.456

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=2.181

m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 60 L/min

60 L 1 m3 60 min 3
Gy = min 1000 L 1 h =3.6 m /h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

3.6 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
G G= 3 2
=0.234 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

0.1
0.234 kg 2 ( 2

K4=
13.1
( m2 s ) 900 m ) (
1 0.001 N . s / m

996 kg/m 3 ) =0.139


( 1.175 kg /m3 )( 996 kg /m31.175 kg /m3 )

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
GL
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg / m
FLV = = 3
=0.484
GG L kg 996 kg/m
0.156 2
m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.969

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=1.452

m .s
Theoretical Flooding Point for 80 L/min

80 L 1 m3 60 min 3
Gy = min 1000 L 1 h =4.8 m /h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

4.8 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
G G= 3 2
=0.311 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

0.1
0.156 kg 2 ( 2

K4=
13.1
( m2 s ) 900 m ) (
1 0.001 N . s /m

996 kg /m3 ) =0.245


( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3)

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.311 2
( 1.175 kg/m3
996 kg /m3)=0.364

m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.311 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=0.729

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)


kg
9.907
GL
( )G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg /m
FLV = = =1.093
GG L kg
0.311 2 996 kg/m3
m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 100 L/min

100 L 1 m3 60 min
Gy = min =6.0 m3 /h
1000 L 1h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

3
6.0 m 1h 1.175 kg
3
h 3600 s m kg
G G= 3 2
=0.389 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

2 2 0.1

K4=
13.1
(0.156 kg (
2
m s )
900 m1 ) (
0.001 N . s /m
996 kg /m
3 ) =0.383
( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3)

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
G
FLV = L
GG ( )G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.291

m .s
4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.583

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
G
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg / m
FLV = L = =0.874
GG L kg
0.156 2 996 kg/m 3
m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 120 L/min

120 L 1 m3 60 min
Gy = min =7.2 m3 /h
1000 L 1h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

7.2m3 1h 1.175 kg
3
h 3600 s m kg
G G= 3 2
=0.467 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,


2 2 0.1

K4=
13.1
(0.467 kg (
2
m s )
900 m1 ) (
0.001 N . s / m
996 kg /m
3 ) =0.553
( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3)

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.467 2
( 996 kg/m3 )
1.175 kg /m3
=0.243

m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.467 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=0.486

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.467 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=0.728

m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 140 L/min

140 L 1 m3 60 min
Gy = min =8.4 m3 /h
1000 L 1h
1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

8.4 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
G G= 3 2
=0.545 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

0.1
0.545 kg 2 ( 2

K4=
13.1
( m2 s ) 900 m ) (
1 0.001 N . s /m

996 kg /m3 ) =0.753


( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3 )

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
GL
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg /m
FLV = = 3
=0.208
GG L kg 996 kg/m
0.156 2
m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.416

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.156 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.624

m .s
Theoretical Flooding Point for 160 L/min

160 L 1 m3 60 min
Gy = min =9.6 m3 /h
1000 L 1h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

9.6 m3 1h 1.175 kg

h 3600 s m3 kg
G G= 3 2
=0.623 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

0.1
0.623 kg 2 ( 2

K4=
13.1
( m2 s ) 900 m ) (
1 0.001 N . s /m

996 kg /m3 ) =0.989


( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3 )

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.623 2
( 996 kg /m3)
1.175 kg /m3
=0.182

m .s

4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
G
FLV = L
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.623 2
( 996 kg/m 3)
1.175 kg / m3
=0.364

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)


kg
9.907
GL
( )G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg / m
FLV = = =0.545
GG L kg
0.623 2 996 kg/m 3
m .s

Theoretical Flooding Point for 180 L/min

180 L 1 m3 60 min
Gy = min =10.8 m3 /h
1000 L 1h

1. Calculate gas flow rate, GG (kg/m2s)

3
10.8 m 1h 1.175 kg
3
h 3600 s m kg
G G= 3 2
=0.701 2
5.027 10 m m .s

2. Calculate capacity parameter, K4,

2 2 0.1

K4=
13.1
(0.701 kg (
2
m s )
900m1 ) (
0.001 N . s/m
996 kg /m
3 ) =1.245
( 1.175 kg /m3 ) ( 996 kg/m31.175 kg /m3 )

3. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (1 LPM)

kg
3.302
G
FLV = L
GG ( )G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.701 2
( 1.175 kg /m3
996 kg /m3 )
=0.162

m .s
4. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (2 LPM)

kg
6.614
FLV =
GL
GG ( )
G
L
=
m2 . s
kg
0.701 2
( 1.175 kg / m3
996 kg/m 3 )
=0.324

m .s

5. Calculate flow parameter, FLV (3 LPM)

kg
9.907
G
( )
G
( )
2 3
m .s 1.175 kg / m
FLV = L = =0.485
GG L kg
0.701 2 996 kg/m 3
m .s

Percentage Error %

1LPM

Total correlated pressure drop = 185.21 mm H20

Total pressure drop = 149.00 mm H20

theoritical valueexperimental value


Percentage error , = 100
theoritical value

185.21149.00
100 =19.55
185.21

2LPM

Total correlated pressure drop = 177.80 mm H20

Total pressure drop = 210.00 mm H20


theoritical valueexperimental value
Percentage error , = 100
theoritical value

177.80210.00
100 =18.08
177.80

3LPM

Total correlated pressure drop = 127.00 mm H20

Total pressure drop =141.00 mm H20

theoritical valueexperimental value


Percentage error , = 100
theoritical value

127.00141.00
100 =11.02
127.00
DISCUSSION

The important things that we want to find out from the experiment are to determine where is the
flooding and loading point of the gas absorption as well as to determine the pressure drop (P)
as a function of gas (air) and liquid (water) mass velocities (m 3/h) using flexi glass packed with
Raschig rings. In this experiment, the data was tabulated based on the necessary formula
given. As shown in the calculation part, the pressure drop based on the equipment was stated.
The following are the graphs showing the pattern on the pressure drop with different value of
water flow rate; 1 LPM, 2 LPM and 3. LPM.

During the experiment, the air flow rate increased as the pressure drop in the dry packed
column increases. These occur due to the air flow rate increased results of increasing in
resistance for the water to flows down the column and give high pressure drop across the
packing. In the graph of log pressure drop against log gas flow rate, the log air flow rate
increase as the log pressure drop is also increase. The air flow rate increase as the pressure
drop increase in constant flow of water. At 1 LPM, the pressure drop is the lowest water flow
rate compared to the other two flow rate. This is because of the space for gas flow is blocked by
the liquid that flows sown the column. The water flows down due to the gravitational force and
thus the gas flows in a counter-current direction with water

Theoretical generalized correlation charts show that the high flow parameters are typical of high
liquid rates and high pressure drop. However, by looking at both of graph, it shows difference of
value pressure drop in theoretical and experimental. Percentage error of pressure drop in 1LPM
is 19.55%, 2LPM is 18.08% and 3LPM is 11.02%. It might be due to minor leaking when the
experiment is being carried out. Minor leaking will affect the flow rate of both water and air thus
affecting the pressure drop. When the gas flow rate increased, pressure drop increased and
some of the water will trapped in packing.

Later, the water from bottom will increase until the highest level and this will results in flooding.
Flooding point is the highest point for each line in the graph of pressure against gas flow rate.
When this happen, the process can be no longer be conducted because there is too much liquid
entrainment. The flooding points occur at 160 L/min, 120 L/min and 80 L/min for 1 LPM, 2 LPM
and 3 LPM respectively.
CONCLUSION

At the end of the experiment, we had managed to determine the loading and flooding point
where the loading point is from the volume water flow rate of 1 LPM, 2 LPM and 3 LPM. The
pressure drop will increase when the gas flow increased at constant water flow rate of 1 LPM to
3 LPM. The gas was absorbed through the packed column in a batch process in absorption of
air and the effect of liquid flow rate on the absorption-adsorption process was observed. When
the volume water flow rate at 1 LPM, 2 LPM and 3 LPM, the flooding point started at gas flow
rate of 160 L/min, 120 L/min and 80 L/min respectively. As the flow rate of air increased, the
absorption-adsorption process also increased as the composition of the outlet volume of air
increased over time. Thus, we can conclude that all the objectives of the experiment had been
reached.

RECOMMENDATIONS

During the experiments, there are some mistakes that have been made. Those mistakes had
affected the result of experiment which is the pressure drop (P)as a function of gas (air) and
liquid (water)mass velocities ((L/min)) using flexi glass packed with Raschig rings. The mistakes
are caused by parallax error when reading the pressure on the monotube and also due to the
lack of control on the water pump. Apart from that, to ensure the experiment to become more
accurate, the valve controlling the level of water flowing back to the water reservoir should be
constantly checked so that we can get a better reading. The level of water must be higher than
the bottom of the reservoir. This needs to be done to avoid the air being trapped in line. Besides
that, make sure all the valves are closed before using the column so that the experiment runs
smoothly. Moreover, make sure the gas and liquid flow rates were constant at that particular
flow rate. Then the gas and liquid flow rates must be constant at that particular flow rates. Then,
collect the samples simultaneously from both inlet and outlet of the packed column.
Furthermore, give the experiment some more time before the results are taken.
REFERENCES

C.J. Geankoplis.Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles(includes unit


operations). Fourth edition. Page 119
CAG Gas Absorption Column. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from
http://www.edibon.com/products/catalogues/en/units/chemicalengineering/chemicalengi
neeringbasic/CAG.pdf
Chemical Engineering: Gas Absorption Column. June 1, 2015 from
http://chem.engr.utc.edu/Webres/435F/ABS_COL/abs_col.html
Dr. Rami Jumah (2002). Unit Operation Laboratory. Jordan University of Science and
Technology. Retrieved on 20th April 2013
Gas Absorption handouts. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from
http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ewanders/CHEG237W/Gas-Absorption.pdf
Richardson, J. F. and Harker, J. H. (2002). Chemical Engineering. Fifth Edition. Page
655.
Yunus A. Cengel et. al., Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, 2 nd Edition,
McGraw Hill.

APPENDICES