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Tackling the Intricacies of Skill Acquisition

Josh Yagel

Bridgewater College
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On any given Friday, Saturday or Sunday afternoon in America

between mid-August and the end of November, it is a guarantee that you will

find someone performing a football tackle. Tackling is an essential part of

football that every person who has played the game (except maybe kickers

and punters) has been taught at some time in their football career. Whether

it be on an initial, emerging, or proficient level, football players are

continually trying to learn new tips on how to tackle well so that they can be

effective in their games. Tackling is defined as stopping the forward progress

of the ball carrier by seizing them and knocking them to the ground. This

report will attempt to teach this specialized motor skill to a specific audience.

Teaching Context

This lesson will require an open grass field and full football equipment

to ensure the safety of the players. This lesson will be geared towards

emerging learners, or individuals in the associative skill acquisition phase.

This time of instruction will attempt to take learners who have a general

understanding of straight on form tackling and have them apply this

knowledge in an open-field tackling situation in a game.

Task Characteristics

Although tackling in football is incredibly common in the abilities of

men throughout the country, it is a skill that requires constant tuning and

can always be improved. Tackling in the open field is a discrete skill because

the beginning and end points of the action are clearly defined. The action

begins when the runner starts running with the ball and the tackler closes on
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him to bring him down. The action has a clear end whether that be

successful (getting the runner on the ground) or unsuccessful (allowing the

runner to stay upright). An open-field tackle is a gross motor skill because

there is not an overwhelming amount of precision involved and it is the result

of large multi-limb movements. Albeit open-field tackling does require some

precise movements, these are large limb movements with a type of precision

that is very different from that of playing the piano, for example. As stated in

the name of the motor skill, open-field tackling has open environmental

predictability because it is performed in an unpredictable, ever-changing

environment. Making an open-field tackle is worlds harder than making a

tackle straight on, simply because the ball carrier has free range to do

anything he wants to get the tackler to miss the tackle. In addition, the

performance of an open-field tackle will never be the same because the

tackler is always reacting to the movement of the runner.

In terms of information processing demands, open-field tackling can be

broken down into perception, decision making, and execution. Perception is

identifying the stimulus/ environment through the use of many sources. For

open-field tackling, this would involve the tackler identifying where the ball

carrier is in relation to himself, the other players, and the boundaries of the

field. The tackler must also identify where the ball carrier is trying to get to

and how he is trying to get there. These are all ways in which the tackler is

attaching meaning to the stimulus he is receiving.


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Next, the tackler will carry out the decision making part of information

processing. This is where the tackler will decide whether or not a response is

needed and if so, what response. In this case, the tackler will decide whether

or not it is necessary to attempt to tackle the ball carrier. If he decides it is

necessary, the tackler will then decide how he is going to attempt to get the

ball carrier on the ground.

The final step of information processing for the tackler is execution.

The tackler will organize his motor system for the production of the desired

movement. After having identified the stimulus and deciding what response

to make, this is where the brain prepares the body for the movements

necessary for successful completion of an open-field tackle. Although the

information processing procedure seems like a long drawn out process,

humans experience this millions of times every day without realizing it.

Information processing happens so rapidly that humans do not realize that

they are completing all the different steps of the sequence so many times

throughout daily activities.

In order to illustrate the different components of the skill, a task

analysis will be provided, outlining the key concepts of the organized

movement. First, the tackler must start in a ready position, facing the runner

with feet shoulder-width apart and knees bent, ready to react and move in

any direction. The tackler should have his eyes on the runner as he begins

to close the distance between the two of them. As the runner advances at an

angle, the tackler should run towards the runner at an angle based on where
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the runner will end up, not where the runner is initially. As the gap is closes,

the tackler should stay on the backside hip of the runner so as not to overrun

the tackle. As contact is made, the tackler should put his head across the

body of the runner, and shoot his arms up into the armpits of the runner,

securing the tackle. The tackler should then continue to run his feet and

rotate his hips forward into the runner to ensure the runner gets knocked

down. If each of these steps is followed precisely, it will result in an effective

open-field tackle.

After analyzing the task in a detailed fashion, it is clear that open-field

tackling will require the combination of a number of underlying basic motor

abilities. In terms of perceptual motor abilities, it will require the following:

control precision (the ability for highly controlled movement adjustments,

especially those involving larger muscle groups), multi-limb coordination (the

ability to coordinate numerous limb movements simultaneously), reaction

time (the ability to initiate a rapid response to an unexpected stimulus),

speed of limb movement (the ability to make gross rapid limb movement

without regard for reaction time), and rate control (the ability to make

continuous speed and direction adjustments with precision when tracking)

(Coker, 2013). In addition, it will require the following physical proficiency

abilities: explosive strength (muscular power or ability to create maximum

effort by combining force and velocity) and stamina (cardiovascular

endurance or ability to sustain effort) (Coker, 2013). Individuals with patterns


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of strength in these abilities will be much more likely to have enhanced

performance in terms of open-field tackling.

Learner Characteristics

This lesson will be geared towards individuals in the associative phase

of skill acquisition in the high school age range with previous experience in

organized football for 3-6 years prior. Learners in this category will have a

good grasp on the initial task of tackling and as a result, the cognitive part of

tackling will likely drop out for these learners. Also, as a result of prior

experience, these learners will exhibit a greatly reduced level of effort and

their movements will be much more efficient than those in the initial

cognitive phase. As learners progress to the next stage, muscle sense will be

important to for successful learning and transfer. These individuals will be

accustomed to the idea of form tackling in a straight on, closed scenario.

However, individuals will not be accustomed to the skill of open-field tackling

in such an unpredictable environment. With this in mind, the lesson will be

more structured towards getting individuals to perform the skill in a situation

that is as close to competition as possible. This will allow individuals to

practice the exact output of the skill that will be necessary in competition. In

addition, the lesson will incorporate fun activities to keep individuals

engaged in learning. Feedback will be a key component of the lesson as well.

Attentional capabilities of individuals will primarily be a case-by-case

basis, however since learners will be in the associative stage of learning, it

will be important not to overload them with too many tasks at one time. The
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task should be broken down and introduced piece by piece initially, though

these learners will be more advanced than those in the cognitive stage so

going too slow and basic will lose their attention. Since learners are in the

middle stage, they should be provided with a moderate amount of

information at one time; not too little for fear of disengagement and not too

much for fear of overwhelming the learner. Learners will be instructed to

attend to specific cues of the runner such as angle of hips, approaching

speed, and eye placement in order to better anticipate the intentions of the

runner. A moderate number of cues will best foster the retention of the skill.

In terms of selective attention, the practitioner must be clear on

disregarding irrelevant stimuli (crowd noise, opposing player comments,

appearance of the field) and paying attention to relevant stimuli (position of

runner, intentions of runner, speed of runner). Broad (followed by narrow)

and external attentional focus is then required to be successful in an open-

field tackle. Tacklers must scan the field to find the runner, then narrow their

focus and identify various details of the runner as he gets closer. External

focus is required because the tackler must attend to the information in the

environment rather than focusing on personal thoughts and body

movements alone. It is important to encourage learners to attend externally

to the results of their movements rather than internally to their own body

movements, as this could be detrimental to the learning process.

Practitioners must keep in mind that distractions will come as external or

internal, and must be ignored and replaced by meaningful cues.


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Arousal is a key component of skill learning and execution. According

to the inverted-U principle, there is always an optimal level of arousal for

peak performance at a given task (Coker, 2013). This optimal level is almost

never constant, and always depend on task and performer characteristics.

With high school kids, arousal levels will be high, meaning they will be easily

distracted and the instructor will have to work extra hard to maintain focus.

High arousal levels means a wide range of attentional focus which can allow

attention for irrelevant stimuli. Since high school kids will typically have high

initial arousal levels, strategies such as controlled breathing, positive self-

talk, visualization, and focus on performance rather than outcome could be

useful to manage these high levels. In case of arousal levels being too low,

strategies such as listening to upbeat music, increasing physical activity, and

increasing rate of breathing could be used to increase arousal levels.

Practitioners must be cognizant of arousal levels of their learners, and adjust

accordingly.

As mentioned earlier, learners will be in the middle stage of skill

development, and will be in the early stages of high school. Therefore,

practitioners should use a moderate number of cues and pieces of

information since memory capabilities will not be advanced. Information

should be placed into manageable sections and strategies such as

mnemonics, story making, and finding a meaning will be helpful in recall of

information. Also, in order to ensure clear recall during game-like situations,

practice conditions should be similar to game conditions at some point in the


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practice model. In order to avoid trace decay, practice should be scheduled

fairly frequently. Concepts involving practice structure and schedule will be

explored in greater depth later on.

In terms of motivation, learners' initial interest may fade since tackling

is already in their arsenal. Ergo, the practitioner must be sure to carry high

energy and excitement while teaching the skill as well as providing a fun

lesson structure to increase excitement. In order to motivate learners, it is

also important to include clear, SMART goals. With clear goals in mind,

learners will be motivated to perform at a higher level and learn at a more

advanced level. From the practitioner's perspective, it is also important to

provide specific positive feedback to motivate the learner. Encouragement

that is specific and motivating will foster better performance from the learner

and inspire the learner to strive for greatness in each repetition of practice. It

is also important that learners experience some form of success, however

small and insignificant it may be. Learners may disengage if tasks seem too

daunting and impossible, which is why providing success and feedback is so

important.

As previously mentioned, the learners for this occasion will be early

high school students in the associative stage of learning with 3-6 years of

prior football knowledge. According to Gentile's Two-Stage Model, this stage

is pertinent for the movement of the learner from developing a basic

movement pattern (Getting the idea of the movement stage) to being able

to adapt their movement to the ever-changing demands of the environment


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(Diversification stage) (Coker, 2013). Since learners are in this stage,

practitioners should be intentional in implementing the following strategies.

Practitioners must get students to perform the desired skill as a whole, at the

proper speed, and extremely close to the actual performance in competition

as soon as possible. Practitioners should also be sure to keep practices fun

and engaging while providing optimal practice conditions and specific,

positive feedback. Learners in this stage will be abandoning the cognitive

side of the task and relying mostly on muscle sense, so an increased number

of practice sessions is key.

Learning styles of the student will have a great impact on the nature of

the lesson for skill performance. Practitioners should consider instructional

environment and preferences in terms of emotionality, sociology, physiology,

and psychology. For instructional environment, practitioners should make

sure the learning environment for the lesson is productive and distraction

free. In terms of emotionality preference, practitioners should figure out what

kind of motivation, responsibility, and organization to use for the lesson

based on the learner. Sociological preference refers to the student's desire

when it comes to group work or individual treatment. Physiological

preference refers to the way in which a student perceives information the

best (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile). Psychological preference refers to

the learners inclination to learn globally versus analytically and impulsively

versus reflectively. For each of these learning preferences, practitioners


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should identify where their students stand on each, and adjust the lesson

accordingly.

Abilities of the learners in the associative stage should be right in the

middle in terms of proficiency. Learners will have mastered the cognitive

aspect of tackling but should require a lot more practice and feedback to

reach proficiency. In response to this level of proficiency, practitioners should

be prepared to provide structured practice that fosters development in

certain areas based on the abilities of the learner. In a one-on-one situation,

it would be easier to provide practice situations that are specifically geared

towards one learner whereas in a bigger pool of learners, practitioners should

be sure to give equal attention to practicing the different aspects of open-

field tackling. For example, one learner may feel confident with rolling his

hips and driving his feet through contact but might need more work at

getting his head across the runner or closing to the runner without

overrunning the tackle. Practitioners must be sure not to let learners get

bored by practicing an aspect of the skill at which they are already proficient.

They must make sure each learner is challenged and motivated in the right

ways. Practitioners must again be cognizant of the abilities of the learner and

adjust the practice schedule accordingly.

Goal Setting, Assessment, Arousal and Transfer

Goal setting is a key component of teaching a skill because it helps

keep motivation and excitement high throughout the learning process. When

setting goals for the learner, practitioners must consider outcome,


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performance, and process goals in the context of the SMART framework. The

SMART framework goes as follows: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic

yet challenging, and Time dependent. Outcome goals refer to meeting a

standard based on the result of performance. Performance goals refer to

meeting a standard based on self-improvement.

In terms of open-field tackling, a good, SMART outcome goal would be

successfully tackling the runner two out of five times before the end of one

practice. This goal focuses on meeting a standard based on results and it

also meets the five SMART conditions. In terms of performance goals, a good

example would be showing proper technique on three out of five attempts at

tackling the runner before the end of the drill. This goal is SMART and it

focuses on meeting a standard based on self-improvement rather than

results of performance. Performance goals are often more effective than

outcome goals because learners can always control their own performance

(self-improvement) but cannot always control the performance of their

opponent. In terms of achieving an outcome goal, learners may demonstrate

proper technique yet come up short due to extraordinary execution by the

opponent. On the other hand, a learner could demonstrate very poor

technique yet succeed in meeting the outcome goal due to an opponents

blunder. Clearly, performance goals are more effective in fostering skill

development.

Process goals direct the attention of the learner towards a technical

element of the skill and help learners to achieve their outcome and
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performance goals. Process goals usually do not fit in the SMART framework

because they have a different kind of focus. A good process goal for open-

field tackling would be shooting the arms and getting the head across the

body. Focusing on these specific technical elements will help the learner

achieve overall proficiency at the skill while accomplishing outcome and

performance goals along the way.

In order to determine the abilities and development level of the

learner, practitioners must use assessment. Assessment allows practitioners

to observe the learner in a number of specific aspects and determine the

overall development stage from there. Practitioners will look at energy

expenditure, consistency, attention and skill execution, knowledge and

memory, visual attention, error detection, coordination and control, and

muscle activity in the learner. In terms of energy expenditure, learners in the

early stages will need to use a high level of energy to complete the skill

because the skill may be foreign, and they must concentrate harder. As

learners progress, they start to expend less energy on skill execution

because the skill becomes more natural and second nature. Next,

practitioners must observe consistency of the learner. In early stages,

learners will be highly inconsistent in skill execution. However, with time and

practice, these learners will gradually become more consistent at skill

execution.

In terms of attention and skill execution, learners will start out with

undivided attention on each technical aspect of skill execution. However, as


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learners progress their need to attend to each technical aspect of the

movement dissipates and the skill becomes somewhat automatic.

Practitioners must attend to the learner in terms of observing fluidity; this

will indicate the developmental stage of the learner. Visual attention is

similar in that early stage learners will focus most of their visual attention on

their own movements, and as a result, will seem fairly robotic. As learners

develop, they will focus less on their own movement patterns and more on

the relevant stimuli for task execution. Performance then becomes more

smooth and effortless. Knowledge and memory is fairly clear-cut in terms of

observing developmental levels of the learner. From day to day and practice

to practice, it will be clear to the practitioner where the learner stands.

Learners in the early stages will have trouble remembering the cues of skill

execution whereas proficient learners will remember the cues and be able to

implement them.

Learners in various stages throughout the learning process will

experience numerous errors. Presence of errors alone is not what

practitioners look for in terms of assessment. Practitioners look at the ability

of learners to detect their errors and correct them. A learner in the early

stages would make an error resulting in unsuccessful execution of the skill,

but would not be able to tell you what he/she did wrong. On the contrary,

highly skilled learners will make a mistake and be able to point out exactly

what went wrong. Practitioners cannot just look at error presence alone,

instead they must observe the error detection level of the learner.
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Lastly, practitioners must observe coordination and control and muscle

activity. Coordination and control of the learner will start out awkward and

unconfident. Learners will be unsure of themselves as they attempt a skill for

the first few times. Early learners will be identified as being robotic and

uncoordinated. Learners will look smoother and more coordinated as the

learning process continues, and practitioners will be able to observe notable

changes in fluidity. In a similar sense, early learners will demonstrate rigid

muscle activity, tightening muscles throughout the body as the movement is

carried out. As learners progress they will again look smoother and more

relaxed, engaging only the muscles necessary for skill execution.

As mentioned earlier, arousal plays a large part in successful skill

execution. Since open-field tackling is a series of simple gross movements,

high arousal levels will provide optimal performance. As arousal approaches

optimal levels, attentional focus narrows, enabling the performer to

concentrate on task-relevant cues while ignoring irrelevant ones (Coker,

2013). This stage is called the zone of optimal functioning which will lead to

the best results in performance. If arousal levels get too high, strategies

such as controlled breathing, positive self-talk, visualization, and focus on

performance rather than outcome could be useful to manage these high

levels. If arousal levels become too low, strategies such as listening to

upbeat music, increasing physical activity, and increasing rate of breathing

could be used to increase arousal levels. It is important that practitioners pay


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attention to the arousal levels of their learners and use these strategies to

adjust accordingly.

Lastly, before teaching a motor skill, practitioners must be cognizant of

the transfer of learning for the learner in question. Transfer can be either

positive or negative and can take place in movement elements, perceptual

elements, conceptual elements, and temporal/spatial elements. Some

positive transfer for the associative learners for open-field tackling could be

in movement, conceptual and temporal/spatial whereas negative transfer

could occur in the perceptual element. Movement elements could be

positive transfer because learners have previously been exposed to the task

of straight-on form tackling. As a result, learners will know the basic motor

movements involved in tackling (rolling hips, driving feet, shooting arms).

Conceptual elements may also transfer in a positive way because learners

will have previous experience telling them the overall concepts and

objectives of tackling a runner, though some of the new mechanics may be

foreign. Temporal and spatial elements will transfer positively because

learners will have prior experience with the concepts of space and

positioning. One aspect that may transfer with a negative effect would be

perceptual elements. Learners with prior experience of straight-on tackling

will not be used to having to perceive certain details of the runner's

intentions. Learners will be used to running straight-on and form tackling, so

it may be difficult for them to adjust to the runner on the move. This is due

to a change in spatial location and timing.


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In order to avoid negative transfer and encourage positive transfer,

practitioners must follow these steps: provide a task analysis, provide

adequate experience with the original task, identify important features of the

task and make connections, know the learner in terms of past experiences

and skill level, teach lead-up skills and use good progression, use analogies,

and maximize the similarity between practice and game-like situations. If

practitioners follow these steps, learners will experience high levels of

positive transfer when competing in a more game-like situation.

Practice Presentation

1. Practitioner will tell students what they will do in practice and why

a)Attention Grabber- Have you ever played football? Have you ever

learned how to tackle straight on? How about angle tackling?

b) Goals of the day:

Memorize and rehearse cues of tackling

Track a runner on an angle by staying on his back hip

Demonstrate proper technique in terms of eye attention, head

placement, arm action, and hip action

Demonstrate proper technique when attempting to tackle with

60% success

Tackle the runner to the ground in an open-field situation with

40% success

c) Today we will be learning how to tackle a runner in an open-field

situation
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d) After today's lesson, you will be able to tackle a runner in an

open-field game situation just like the guys in the NFL on television!

2. Practitioner will tell students what elements of the skill to attend to

a)Important points of emphasis for today's lesson will be:

Starting in an athletic position with feet shoulder-width apart,

knees bent, hands up, and eyes on the runner

Tracking towards the runner with eyes on the back hip, staying a

step behind while taking a good angle

Making contact with the runner with head across his body,

shooting the arms, rolling the hips, and running the feet

b) Have you ever practiced tackling someone at an angle rather

than straight on? Have you ever worked on form tackling?

c) Cues for remembering: ARC

Athletic position: start in an athletic position ready to move in

any direction

React: observe the runner and close to him as he starts running

Contact: make contact with head across, arms shooting, hips

rolling, and feet running

3. Practitioner will say each of the steps to the students

a)Athletic position

Feet shoulder-width apart, knees bent, hands up, and eyes on the

runner

b) React to the runner


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Track towards the runner with eyes on the back hip, staying a

step behind while taking a good angle

c) Contact with the runner

Make contact with the runner with head across his body,

shooting the arms, rolling the hips, and running the feet until the

runner is on the ground

4. Practitioner will do each step in front of the students

5. Practitioner will ask students to memorize the steps

a)Practitioner will ask students to visualize themselves tackling the

runner in the open field

Students will visualize the starting position, ready to react to the

runner's movements

Students will visualize themselves tracking towards the runner

and reacting to his movements as he closes the distance

between them

Students will visualize themselves making contact with the

runner and running through contact until the runner is on the

ground

b) Practitioner will ask students to rehearse the cues and ask

questions about the skill execution process such as:

How should I stand so that I am ready to start the tackling

process?
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When I am tracking towards the runner, where should my eyes

be?

When I make contact with the runner, what should I do with my

feet, hips, and arms?

6. Practitioner will have students practice the skill

a)In terms of physical practice, students would start with progressive

part practice so that the skill can be broken down and learned in

individual pieces using the ARC cue system. This is the most

effective form of practice because the task is high in organization

and complexity. First, students will practice the using athletic

position, then reacting to the runner without making contact, and

finally students will practice the keys of making contact with slow

motion practice. Though students will start with progressive part

practice and some slow-motion practice, it is important to move to

whole full-speed practice as soon as possible. Distributed practice

will be implemented so that students do not get overwhelmed and

tired. Also, distributed practice will allow for more feedback and

error detection between repetitions. After practicing as a whole,

students will be asked to detect any errors that may be occurring,

and how these errors can be fixed. Drills will be modified at first to

allow students to experience success and foster motivation and

excitement. Students will then participate in a competition to

determine the better team based on number of successful uses of


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proper form. This will allow students to have fun and get excited

about the successful completion of the skill.

Practice Structure

Practice sessions will be set up in a manner that produces the best

learning opportunity for students. At the beginning of the learning process,

blocked constant practice will be used to ensure learners will have the

opportunity to create consistency in performance. Learners will need

consistency to harness the initial feeling of the skill. As learners progress,

practice will move towards random varied practice so that learners will get a

better feel of game-like experiences. Random practice will reduce

predictability of drill settings and force students to adapt to different

variations. Varied practice will allow students to rehearse several variations

of the task during the given time period, again, allowing students to

experience game-like situations.

In another sense of practice structure, distributed practice will be

preferred over massed practice to allow time for feedback and error

detection in between repetitions. Also, due to the nature of the skill, it would

be hard to do massed practice because each repetition requires a bit of

resetting, and cannot be rapid and continuous. Students will be in the middle

stage of learning so therefore feedback and error detection will be very

important for development. This is why distributed practice will be most

effective.

Practice Feedback
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As previously mentioned, feedback will be an essential pert of the

learning process for learners in the associative stage. Although in the

uneducated world feedback is a very broad term, in the world of health and

exercise science it is very complex and detailed. First of all, learners will use

intrinsic feedback to improve performance. Learners will use their sensory

systems to learn about their skill execution, much like error detection. For

example, a student would use their sensory systems to realize when they are

not making proper contact with the runner do to errors in arm placement, hip

action, and foot action.

Extrinsic will come from the practitioner in the form of knowledge of

performance rather than knowledge of results. When performing an open-

field tackle, knowledge of results is obvious because there is a clear end

point for the learner to identify. However, knowledge of performance will be

helpful since there are a number of specific mechanical details that can be

overlooked or forgotten while attempting the task. The practitioner must be

careful not to make his/her extrinsic feedback redundant with the intrinsic

feedback the learner is already provided with.

The content of feedback should be start with program and move

towards parameter feedback as the learner progresses. If possible, visual

feedback should be given either in the form of video or teacher

demonstration. It is important that the learners get to see the proper form

and technique for the skill as they attempt it. Also, if video access is

available, video taping the learner and having he/she watch it would be very
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helpful with error detection. After visual feedback, verbal feedback is also

important. As the learner continues to practice the skill, the practitioner must

provide positive verbal feedback. Manual feedback can be provided next if

the practitioner feels like it is necessary. Also, in the case of open-field

tackling, practitioners must be sure to provide both prescriptive and

descriptive feedback. Prescriptive will tell the learner what should take place

for the skill and descriptive will tell the learner what is going on during skill

execution, again relating to error detection.

Feedback is very important, though it can have both positive and

negative effects. Positive effects can be in the form of informational,

reinforcement, or motivational. If feedback is too much and too often, it can

cause the learner to be dependent on that feedback which will set them up

for failure during game-like situations. Learners will depend so much on

extrinsic feedback that they will lose the ability to create intrinsic feedback.

Summary feedback is usually preferred rather than feedback after every

attempt because if feedback is too frequent, it can distract the learner and

make him/her unsure about his/her abilities. Summary feedback will allow

the learner to create intrinsic feedback between every repetition that can be

reinforced by extrinsic feedback from the practitioner after a bit of practice.

The precision with which feedback is provided should start out fairly

broad (yet still effective) and move towards more specificity as the learner

progresses. As the learner gets the hang of the skill, more specific feedback

should be given so that the learner can continue to fine tune the skill.
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Contrary to popular belief, immediate feedback is not always helpful. In fact,

immediate feedback can be detrimental in the development of intrinsic

feedback for the learner. Practitioners should keep this in mind as they let

the learners practice a bit before providing extrinsic feedback.

Feedback for learners is a very sensitive subject because content,

frequency, precision, and timing all impact the effectiveness of feedback.

Proper strategies for each of these aspects have been discussed, however

there is still one important rule to remember for practitioners. The feedback

sandwich should always be used when providing feedback. This refers to the

idea that practitioners should provide reinforcement of positive aspects of

performance before informing the learner about ways to improve. After the

learner has been informed, the practitioner should finish the sandwich by

encouraging the learner about his/her efforts.


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References

Coker, C. (2013). Motor Learning & Control for Practitioners (3rd ed.).

Scottsdale: Holcomb Hathaway.