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Enhancing Irrigated Agriculture Productivity through

Multifunctional Water Users' Associations and Its Dissemination:


A Pilot and Demonstration Activity (PDA) After Care

Supported by:
RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADBs Water Financing
Program Pilot and Demonstration Activity for Nepal

Final Report

Prepared by:
International Network on Participatory Irrigation Management (INPIM) - Nepal
May 2013
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Abbreviations and Acronyms

ADB Asian Development Bank


AMIS Agency Managed Irrigation System
APP Agricultural Perspective Plan
CBO Community Based Organization
CIP Community Irrigation Project
CMIASP Community Managed Irrigated Agriculture Sector Project
DADO District Agricultural Development Office
DOI Department of Irrigation
DOA Department of Agriculture
FFS Farmers Field School
FMIS Farmer Managed Irrigation System
FMIST Farmer Managed Irrigation System Promotion Trust
INPIM-Nepal International Network of Participatory Irrigation Management-Nepal
IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management
NARC Nepal Agricultural Research Council
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NFIWUAN National Federation of Irrigation Water Users Associations-Nepal
NWRS Nepal Water Resources Strategy
O&M Operation and Maintenance
PDA Pilot and Demonstration Activity
RETA Regional Technical Assistance (for knowledge and innovative support)
UNDP United Nations Development Program
VDC Village Development Committee
WUA Water Users Association

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Acknowledgement
The financial support for the undertaking of this Pilot and Demonstration Activity (PDA) Enhancing
Irrigated Agriculture Productivity through Multifunctional Water Users' Associations and Its
Dissemination: After Care was provided under Regional Technical Assistance for Knowledge and
Innovation Support (RETA 6498) of Asian Development Bank (ADB), Manila.

The PDA comprised of a large number of interrelated activities that required intellectuals and
managerial inputs from a large number of individuals both from within the fraternity of INPIM-Nepal
and outside. INPIM Nepal would first of all like to thank Ms. Cindy Malvicini, Senior Water Resources
Management Specialist at ADB for all the intellectual support and encouragement she provided
throughout the PDA. Grateful thanks also to all the other administrative staff from ADB for all the
support they provided during the endeavour.

INPIM Nepal would also like to thank the Mr. Naveen Mangal Joshi (later Mr. Ashok Singh), Project
Manager of Community Managed Irrigated Agriculture Sector Project (CMIASP) and Mr. Prakash
Thapa, Project Coordinator, who extended unconditional support throughout the undertaking of this
PDA.

A large number of INPIM Nepal members have made their contribution in the process of collecting
and compiling the case studies of events and processes pertinent to different FMIS scattered in
different regions and agro-ecological zones of the country. Supports from many members have been
received during the preparation of handbook and the conduction of regional level Orientation
Workshops for the WUA. INPIM Nepal would also like to thank all the concerned people for their
contribution.

Finally and most importantly, the support extended by the functionaries of the WUAs and the
farmers, towards whom this whole endeavour has been ultimately targeted, is thankfully
acknowledged.

INPIM Nepal Team

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Table of Content

Topics Page
Acronyms ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Content iv
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................... 1
1.2 Objectives of the PDA......................................................................... 1
1.3 Proposed Activities of the PDA ............................................................... 1
1.3 Report Organization .......................................................................... 2

2. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION ........................................................................................ 3


2.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 3
2.2 Orientation Training .......................................................................... 3
2.3 Process Document Methodology ............................................................ 4
2.4 Monitoring and Backstopping of Process Documentation.................................. 4
2.5 Process Documentation Reports ............................................................. 5

3. CASE STUDIES............................................................................................................... 6
3.1 Selection Criteria .............................................................................. 6
3.2 Selection Process.............................................................................. 6
3.3 Selected Cases ................................................................................ 6
3.4 Methodology.................................................................................. 7
3.4 Case Study Report ............................................................................ 8
3.5 Lessons Learned and Conclusions ............................................................ 9

4. ORIENTATION TRAINING TO CIP ENGINEERS AND CONSULTANTS............................. 12


4.1 CIP and Its Objectives ....................................................................... 12
4.2 Training Objectives ......................................................................... 13
4.3 Training Preparation ....................................................................... 13
4.4 Training Conduction ........................................................................ 13
4.5 Feedback and Suggestions ................................................................. 19

5. BACKSTOPPING TO CMIASP SITES .............................................................................. 25


5.1 Site Selection ................................................................................ 25
5.2 Planning for Backstopping ................................................................. 25
5.3 Diagnostic Analysis ......................................................................... 25
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5.4 Backstopping................................................................................ 27

6. HANDBOOK PREPARATION ........................................................................................ 28


6.1 Background ................................................................................. 28
6.2 Objective .................................................................................... 28
6.3 Handbook Preparation ..................................................................... 28

7. WUA ORIENTATION WORKSHOPS ............................................................................. 30


7.1 Background ................................................................................. 30
7.2 Pokhara Workshop ......................................................................... 30
7.3 Hedauda Workshop ........................................................................ 33
7.4 SurkhetWorkshop........................................................................... 38

8. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE .................................................. 41


8.1 Achievements ............................................................................... 41
8.2 Outcome and Impact ....................................................................... 41
8.3 Prospects for the Future .................................................................... 42

Annexes
Annex 1: Outline of Process Documentation in Irrigation Sub-projects 1
Annex 2: Checklist Used for Monitoring the Process Documentation 2
Annex 3: Table of Content of Process Documentation Report 2
Annex 4: Process Documentation Report of Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation Sub-project 3
Annex 5: Chronicle of Development of Tanting Kalikhola WUA 15
Annex 6: Process Documentation Report of Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project 25
Annex 7: Chronicle of Development of Tanting Kalikhola WUA 36
Annex 8: Process Documentation Report of Shikharkatteri Irrigation Sub-project 43
Annex 9: Chronicle of Development of Shikharkatteri WUA 54
Annex 10: Case 1: Soyak Irrigation System, Illam 62
Annex 11: Case 2: Tokha Chandeshori Irrigation System, Kathmandu 68
Annex 12: Case 3: Bagkhore Irrigation System, Surkhet 74
Annex 13: Case 4: Kankai Irrigation System, Jhapa 80
Annex 13: Case 5: Panchakanya Irrigation System, Chitwan 85
Annex 14: Case 6: Chattis Maujha Irrigation System, Rupandehi 90
Annex 15: Case 7: Tollo Medebung Irrigation System, Taplejung 95
Annex 16: Case 8: Subedar ko Kulo Irrigation System, Sindhupalchok 100
Annex 17: Case 9: Golai Jiula Irrigation System, Bajhanj 105
Annex 18: Checklist for Diagnostic Analysis 145

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1. Introduction

1.1 Background
In accordance with the Letter of Agreement (LOA) signed between Asian Development Bank (ADB)
and International Network on Participatory Irrigation Management - Nepal (INPIM-Nepal) signed on
16th January 2012 and the Inception Report of the same (February 2012), INPIM Nepal successfully
completed the Pilot and Demonstration Activity (PDA) entitled Enhancing Irrigated Agriculture
Productivity through Multifunctional Water Users' Associations and Its Dissemination. The
originally allocated period for the PDA was for one year (up to January 2013). However, approval
was granted for up to April 30, 2013.

1.2 Objectives of the PDA


The main objective of this PDA was to evaluate the potential for and merit of building
multifunctional water users associations (WUAs) in Nepalese irrigation systems and to take it one
step ahead by disseminating those findings through trainings and workshops. The specific objectives
of the research aspect are as follows:
(i) To document the process of evolution of multifunctional WUAs after the rehabilitation
(construction) works;
(ii) To evaluate the factors, environment, and prerequisites for the evolution of multifunctional
WUAs through success and failure case studies that are representative of the different agro-
ecological zones of Nepal;
(iii) To develop training material and to provide necessary trainings / backstopping in terms of
promoting multi-functionality in the ADB supported irrigation projects, namely, Community
Managed Irrigated Agriculture Sector Project (CMIASP) and Community Irrigation Project (CIP).

1.3 Proposed Activities of the PDA


In order to meet the above objectives, the following six (6) activities were included in this PDA:
(i) Process Documentation and diagnosis for development / promotion of multifunctional WUAs in
selected FMISs under CMIASP
(ii) Case Study of selected irrigation systems (FMIS and AMIS) demonstrating successful and failure
models/examples of evolution of multifunctional WUAs
(iii) Orientation Training for the CIP project staff and consultant on the process of developing
multiple functions among the WUAs
(iv) Preparation of Handbook suggesting process and areas for development of multifunction of
WUAs based on the study and research thus far;
(v) Backstopping to CMIASP for promoting multiple functions among WUAs in the 9 selected sites
(vi) Organization of WUA Orientation Workshops on developing multiple functions covering all the
regions.

Since the activities are interrelated, they were not independent of each other and had to follow a
logical sequence. The findings from the stipulated studies (process documentation and case studies)
were planned to be used for later dissemination activities like preparation of handbook and
trainings to the project staff and WUA representatives.

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1.3 Report Organization
This document is the final report of the PDA. It describes in detail the activities carried out under the
PDA and outlines its achievement. It also highlights the lessons learned from the PDA and draws out
the some of the future course of action.

The report comprises of eight chapters. The first chapter is an introductory chapter that includes a
brief background of the RETA Research and enumerates its objective and proposed activities. All the
six different activities have been described separately in detail in the subsequent six chapters from
chapter 2 to 7. Finally, Chapter 8 presents the achievements, conclusions and recommendations.

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2. Process Documentation

2.1 Introduction
For the process documentation, the same three subprojects under CMIASP selected earlier were
continued. They were:
Tanting Kalikoshi Irrigation Sub-project in Arujundhara VDC in Jhapa District
Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project in Thaibe VDC in Lalitpur District
Sikharkatteri Irrigation Sub-project in Ravi Opee VDC in Kavre District

The Farmer Observers (FOs) used earlier were continued as they had already received the necessary
training and were also aware of the historical background. They were stationed in the respective
subprojects and were asked to document and analyze the activities and changes in the WUAs. They
were also asked to participate in the CMIASP implementation activities on a daily basis and to work
with relevant WUA subcommittees, such as the Agriculture and Social Development Subcommittee
and the Subproject Monitoring Subcommittee. Through inquiry with the water users, the FOs were
also asked to cover the missing period of gap between this study and the previous one.

2.2 Orientation Training


Prior to embarking on the work, orientation training was conducted for the FOs. The Orientation
Training was conducted on 19th February 2012. The main objective of the training was as follows:
1. Inform about the Piloting and Demonstration Activity (PDA)
2. Share the results of the previous PDA Study on Multifunctional WUA
3. Provide an overview of CMIASP interventions and the present status of sub-projects
4. Explain about the methodology of Process Document (what is expected)
5. Inform about the administrative arrangements and monitoring of the Process Document
6. Gather feedback from participants for the Inception Report.

Figure 1 presents a glimpse of the participants of the Orientation Training.

Figure 1: A Glimpse of the Orientation Training

During the training, the FOs were also provided an outline of the process documentation
methodology to be followed and explained what is expected from the exercise (Figure 2). Annex 1 of
this report presents a brief outline of the process documentation methodology.
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Figure 2: Participants being briefed during the Orientation Training

2.3 Process Document Methodology


Process documentation was mainly focused on:
i. Improvement of physical infrastructures in the irrigation schemes undertaken as a part of
the support under CMIASP
ii. Capacity development of the WUAs relating to operation and management functions and
delivery of irrigation services.
iii. Improvement in the agricultural technology and practices aimed at enhancing the
productivity of irrigated agriculture.
iv. Initiatives of market promotion, women participation, micro-credit and income generating
activities aimed towards diversification of income opportunities of water users and their
livelihood improvement.

This process documentation was continuously carried out from February to June 2012 by the three
enumerators stationed in the three sub-projects. Documentation of all the events and activities in
response to the various interventions from CMIASP and the initiatives of the WUAs themselves were
also arranged in timelines recorded separately for all the three sub-projects. The outline of the
methodology followed in the collection and compilation of process documentation information have
been attached as Annex 1.

2.4 Monitoring and Backstopping of Process Documentation


INPIM Nepal formed teams of two to three expert members and continuously monitored the on-
going documentation process by the enumerators from time to time. Backstopping support was
provided to the concerned WUA. The checklist used by the monitoring teams has been attached as
Annex 2 of this report.

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Figure 3: Monitoring Visit by the INPIM Nepal Team

2.5 Process Documentation Reports


The documents produced from the process documentation exercise carried out in the three sub-
projects was compiled, analyzed put into complete reports during the month of July 2012.

A standard template was developed for documenting the outcome of the process documentation
exercise. This was done in close collaboration with the CMIASP team and finalized by the CMIASP
Project Director. The table of the contents of the report has been presented in Annex 3 of this
report. Following the same outline, three separate Process Documentation Reports were produced
for the three subprojects. The three individual reports for Tanting Kalikhola, Ikudha and Sikhar
Katteri have been attached as Annex 4, 6 and 8 respectively. While the chronicle of development of
the WUAs as reflected by their activities have been presented in Annex 5, 7 and 9 respectively.

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3. Case Studies

3.1 Selection Criteria


Nine (9) irrigation systems, three (3) from each of the agro-ecological zones of Nepal: high
mountains, middle hills and terai (flat planes), were selected for this publication. Moreover, it was
also tried to ensure that the selected system belonged to different parts of the country (eastern,
central and western) and contained different ethnic compositions.

In addition to the above criteria, it was also tried to ensure that at least one system out of three
from each zone was a failure case. The distinction between success and failure cases was made on
the basis of whether the WUA has been able to effectively take up multifunctional roles. Thus, those
WUAs which have been reported to be as engaging in several functions apart from the operation
and maintenance of the irrigation system and as performing satisfactorily as per the desires of the
water users were considered as successful WUAs while those that have failed to do so were
considered as failure cases.

3.2 Selection Process


The selection process was carried out in two stages. The first stage involved general information
collection of a large number of irrigation systems and the status of activities of the WUA so that
short listing could be done to identify the systems that met the required conditions. The second
stage involved detailed data collection and analysis and documentation as per a set template that
was developed in order to standardize the reporting of all the cases.

3.3 Selected Cases


The nine systems selected on the basis of the above mentioned procedure has been presented in
the form of a matrix in Table 1.
Table 1: Matrix of the Selected Cases
Geographic Eastern Nepal Central Nepal Western Nepal
location:
Agro-ecological 1. Soyak, Ilam 2. Tokha Chandeshori 3. Bagkhore, Surkhet
zones: (Maximilian Rakjulo, Kathmandu (Umesh Shrestha)
Manderscheid & Jol (Ram Hari Sharma)
Mid -hills Verstoep)
(Success Case) (Failure Case) (Success Case)
4. Kankai, Jhapa (Chet 5. Panchakanya, 6. Chattis Mauja,
Man Bhudthapa) Chitwon (Janwillem Rupandehi (Rajedra
Terai Liebrand and Bir Joshi and Yagya
Manpriet Singh) Gaire)
(Success Case) (Failure Case) (Success Case)
7. Tallo Medebung, 8. Subedar ko kulo, 9. Golai Jiula, Bajhanj
Taplejung (Ganesh Sindhupalchok (Dr. (Gauri Lal Upadhyay)
High mountains Khaniya and R. H. Surendra Joshi)
Sharma
(Success Case) (Success Case) (Failure Case)

The selected cases represent irrigation systems from different geographic, social and economic
contexts in Nepal. The locations of the selected cases have also been displayed in the map of Nepal
in Figure 4.
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Figure 4: Location of the Case Irrigation Systems

3.4 Methodology
The selected cases were analyzed through diagnostic and comparative analysis to derive the
necessary conclusions. Figure 5 presents the methodological framework of analysis.

Conclusion and Suggestions

Comparative Analysis (across different cases)


Comparison of physical attributes, multiple use of resources and production system
Comparison in terms of socio-economic attributes and capacity to generate social capital
Comparison of the strength and weakness of each system

Terai Middle Hill Middle Hill


Irrigation Systems Irrigation Systems Irrigation Systems

Diagnostic Analysis (separately for each case)


Characterization of the system in terms of basic features like source, size, system
components, history of development, etc
Characterization in terms of the socio-economic context
Characterization in terms of evolution of WUA
Mapping of the events and processes to capture the dynamics of the evolution of
multifunctional WUAs
Probe into the major WUA activities and contributing to each development
Outline the strengths and weaknesses of the WUAs in terms of their contribution towards
improving the operation and maintenance and diversification of livelihood opportunities
Develop an insight of the internal and external linkages of the system and support services
and external market conditions

Figure 5: Methodological Framework of Analysis of the Cases


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A diagnostic analysis was made based on the information collected from the different cases. The
analysis included collection and characterization of the system in terms of its basic features like its
source, size, coordinates, components and its history of development. It also included
characterization in terms of socio-economic context and the evolution of the Water Users
Association (WUA). Mapping of the events and processes in order to capture the dynamics of the
evolution of multifunctional WUAs was carried out through primary data collected from field
observation and discussions with the WUAs. It then included a probe into the major activities of the
WUA and scrutiny of which elements contributed to each development. It also included an
exploration of the strengths and weaknesses of the WUAs categorically enumerated their merits and
demerits. Contributions (both positive and negative) to the operation and management of the
irrigation systems and enhancement and diversification of livelihood opportunities of the users were
also analyzed. Attempt was also made to understand the internal and external linkage of the system
and support services and market outside the boundary of the irrigation system. Finally, through
these different analyses, correlations are drawn between the technical, socio-cultural, political and
financial context in which the WUAs are functioning and their indulgence into multifaceted activities
and conclusions are drawn from the observations.

3.4 Case Study Report


Following the same analytical procedures, all the 9 cases were analyzed and the case studies were
finalized. The individual cases have been presented in Annex 10 to Annex 18 of this report. The
outcome of the analysis has been presented below

From the different cases, it is quite evident that the WUAs in Nepal are not functioning at the same
level and functional level varies significantly from system to system. However, in general it has been
observed that most WUAs are facing a challenging situation. The challenges most of them are facing
are in terms of declining scenario of labor availability due to outward-migration from rural areas in
search of white collar jobs, low priority accorded to agriculture due to lower returns, urbanization
in the peri-urban areas resulting in conversion of agriculture land into housing uses, etc.

In spite of these difficulties, some WUAs have been found not only to have sustained but also
expanded their activities. This indicates that there is still hope and scope for the WUAs to function
effectively if they carry out their activities in a proper way.

The cases also clearly indicate that the irrigation systems are quite dynamic in nature. Most FMISs
are found to have gradually undergone changes in the command area (mostly expansion in terms of
the interest of other farmers who also want to avail the irrigation facility or, in some cases, shrinking
of the command area due of urbanization). Likewise the WUAs are also observed to undergo
institutional changes as per the needs and requirements of the users. This has been observed both
by adjusting the prevailing rules and regulations or by forming committees (taskforces) to carry out
specific activities considered essential by the users.

It has also been observed that economy is the driving factor. In those irrigation systems where the
physical system is performing well and is generating significant returns, the WUAs are also observed
to be vibrant and encouraged to take a further active role, consequently leading to an upward spiral.
On the other hand, irrigation systems that are not able produce sufficient benefits are not able to
attract the WUA to multifunctional roles.

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3.5 Lessons Learned and Conclusions
A comprehensive understanding of the scenario and status of the WUAs in Nepal can be grasped
through this compilation of diverse case studies. They also bring out a wealth of knowledge in terms
of lessons learned from the different experiences faced in different contexts. Some of the pertinent
lessons learned from the different cases have been encapsulated below:

The size of the irrigation system is an important parameter in determining the activities of
the WUA. For small systems like Soyak, all users know each other making it much more
convenient to unite and collaborate (Soyak case).

The cases indicate that investment in irrigation can be a very beneficial venture for the
farming communities that can bring significant changes in their livelihood, provided that it is
executed in a planned and transparent manner (Soyak case).

Shift towards more productive cropping pattern and multiple uses of water has been
observed to open up more avenues of diversification of livelihood (Tallo Medebung case,
Bagkhore case).

This opportunity of diversification of livelihood when supported by a well represented and


active WUA is found to set the ground for developing multiple functions (Bagkhore, Chattis
Maujha case).

The system of having a collection pond in the irrigation system in the hills is observed to be
a good mechanism for controlling flows and assuring greater reliability of the water supply
from the source. Hence, better performance of the system can be assured though such
mechanism, especially where the source is not reliable (Bagkhore case).

The process of implementation of the irrigation system has an important bearing on how
the WUAs perform. If the construction works are carried out in an organized and
transparent way, then there is better probability that the quality of the works will also be to
the satisfaction of the users and also a better probability of the users working
collaboratively (Soyak case).

The WUAs must make continuous effort to ensure proper and timely communication
amongst the users. It is always helpful to have regular meetings and mass gatherings to
discuss the common concerns and issues that the system is facing. This approach also
eliminates conflicts over water distribution or maintenance (Kankai case).

The executives of most WUAs are expected to perform a lot of tasks on voluntary basis. Lack
of minimum remuneration and incentives seems to be adversely affecting their performance
(Kankai case).

The activeness and the invariable watch dog function of the farmers is most essential
element to keep the functionaries accountable and abide within the framework of norms
and values of the WUA (Kankai case).

A dynamic, committed and accountable leadership is a must to drive the institution that can
learn from the past and develop strategies with vision for adopting new initiatives and
address the challenges as they emerge (Subedar ko kulo and Panchakanya case).

Urbanization is one of the factors affecting agriculture, and consequently, the irrigation
system in the peri-urban areas. However, this issue can also be addressed by making sure
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that urban expansion does not encroach upon the canal alignment so much so that it
becomes defunct, and by finding alternative ways for the utility of the available water
(Tokha and Golai Jiula case).

Development of the feeling of ownership is crucial for any WUA to function smoothly. This
generally exists in irrigation systems where the need was felt and the initiative taken by the
farmers themselves. In cases where the systems were constructed by the government or by
other external funding, this is very difficult and extra effort is needed to develop and ensure
the ownership feeling (Tokha case).

Socially inbuilt values and norms in irrigation systems could deteriorate after government
intervention and a dependency syndrome could be developed if the concerned agency is not
able to prepare and implement an institutional development plan side by side with canal
construction (Tokha and Golai Jiula case).

It is quite normal for different WUA members to show different political inclinations.
However, the political ambitions of individual members guided by their vested interests can
be detrimental. However, care should be exercised to make sure that this does not affect
the functioning of the WUA. Examples of good cases of the WUA have shown that local
polities can be completely put aside from the WUA functioning if sufficient precautionary
measures are taken (Tallo Medebung case).

Political affiliations of members of the WUA can be positive, because it helps farmers to
approach government organizations and keep external organizations accountable for
providing technical assistance, rehabilitation support and trainings (Panchakanya case).

Issues of caste, class, ethnicity and gender matter in the functioning of WUAs. If policies in
Nepal now have to readdress some of these issues, then they need to be designed as an
integral part of irrigation rehabilitation and support programmes (Panchakanya case).

Engagement of the WUAs in multifunctional activities is only possible when the irrigation
system itself is showing a good performance, and it is making a significant contribution in
terms of agriculture production and overall productivity (Golai Jiula case).

Socially built values and norms play a vital role in the success of irrigation system (Chhattish
Mauja case).

WUAs engagement in multiple functions has been observed to facilitate a more vibrant
WUA able to capture opportunities of livelihood enhancement, able to adjust to externally
changing conditions and better performance that caters to the overall needs of the water
users.

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Evolving WUA that
is able to adjust to
the externally
Vibrant WUA that is changing
Better performing
able to capture WUA that caters
opportunities of
to the overall
livelihood needs of the
enhancement
WUA engagement in
multiple functions

Grounds for developing multi-functions

Inclusive WUA Diversified Livelihood

Multiple Use of Water Productive Agriculture System

Figure 6: Schematic Diagram of Inferences from the Case Studies

The following are some inferences that can be made in terms of engagement of the WUA in multiple
functions:
Activities that involve the majority of the farmers not only results in benefiting the farmers
in general but also facilitates cohesion among the members if they are conducted in an
inclusive and transparent way. Hence, the WUAs should explore what activities are possible
in their specific context and try to maximize such activities.
The studied cases have also indicated that some external support, if provided based on the
actual needs of the users and appropriately planned, can be helpful in encouraging the WUA
and guiding them for further expanding their activities. Hence, interventions in terms of
institutional support to the WUAs should be carried out. However, a blue print approach in
these interventions does not work and the interventions should be carried out based on a
diagnostic analysis of the prevailing status of the WUA.
The exchanges of information and visits to the different systems have been noted as an
effective method of developing new ideas and linkages among different water users. This
method should be highlighted and carried out for systems where it may be considered as
suitable.

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4. Orientation Training to CIP Engineers and Consultants

4.1 CIP and Its Objectives


Community Irrigation Project (CIP) is a grant support from ADB aimed at developing or improving
small-scale irrigation systems in 12 districts in Nepal through a community-driven process targeted
at the poor, women, and other disadvantaged groups. Small irrigation systems are defined as
systems with less than 25 hectares of irrigation area in the hills and mountains and less than 200
hectares in the Terai plains. The participating districts were selected because of their high poverty,
food insecurity and irrigation potential. They are Kanchanpur, Kailali, Dang, Kapilvastu in the Terai
plains; Doti, Salyan, Rukum, Rolpa, Pyuthan in the hills; and Bajhang, Jumla, Mugu in the mountains.
Figure 7 presents a map showing the districts covered by CIP.

Figure 7: Map showing CIP Districts

As the first large-scale intervention in small irrigation development in Nepal, the project aims to
demonstrate participatory irrigation planning and management and build the capacity of all levels of
the government for small-scale irrigation development. Farmers will form or strengthen existing
water users associations (WUAs) to apply for project support. The project will provide support to
rehabilitate and build new surface water irrigation schemes and to develop groundwater irrigation
through shallow tube wells. It will also facilitate access to microfinance support and provide
extension services. For farmers without access to electricity who are installing shallow tube wells,
the project will connect them to the electricity network. WUAs will in turn learn to manage water
more efficiently and equitably, maintain their systems, and apply improved agricultural practices.

The project supports the multi-sector approach advocated in ADB's Operational Plan for Sustainable
Food Security, as it aims to improve water productivity, access to microfinance, and the application
of improved agricultural practices. The project's interventions will be underpinned by associated

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capacity building at district and community levels.

One of the key expected outputs from the project is that the participating farmers apply improved
agriculture practices and have access to microfinance. The Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will
analyze each sub-project and suggest targets and methods for participation assistance. They will
also provide training support to the field teams in this respect. In order to ensure the project may
learn from other relevant activities and vice versa, the PCU will invite government organizations,
NGOs and community-based organizations to periodic workshops to discuss project results, and in
particular periodic specialized studies on such topics as gender, poverty impact or other case
studies.

Considering the fact that the implementing agency is for the first time managing irrigation
development projects, capacity building is one of the major concerns of CIP. The PMIS Team will
assist the DTO in conducting trainings, seminars and workshops to enhance the capability of
irrigation and agriculture staff. Training will also be provided to other government officials and key
farmers to improve DDCs/DTOs capabilities in participating in and supporting participatory irrigation
development and management. The training would be focused on the application of participatory
strategy, and in understanding the basic principles of the CIP program implementation and
understanding of CIP guidelines.

4.2 Training Objectives


Since this topic of multifunctionality of WUA is relatively new for most of the staffs and consultants
of CIP, who have recently been enrolled, the workshop was planned to be more of orientation
training. The goal was to introduce the different aspects of the topic so that they can ensure that it
is achieved to the extent possible in their actual work. It is also expected that the participants should
be able to apply this knowledge in providing the necessary guidance to the WUAs in their respective
domain of work (districts). Hence, it was also meant to serve as Training of Trainers (TOT).

The main objective of the Training Workshop was to introduce the concept of multifunctionality to
the staff and consultants of CIP from the very beginning of the project so that it can the included as
integral part of the project. The specific objectives can be enumerated as follows:
1. Share the basic concept and benefits of multifunctionality
2. Inform the participants about the basic features/characteristics of multifunctional WUAs
3. Explain how multifunctionality fits-in in the context of CIP sub-projects
4. Illustrate the process of transformation of WUAs to take up multifunctional roles in the CIP
implementation procedure
5. Brain-storming to develop in-built strategy for multifunctionality of WUA in CIP

4.3 Training Preparation


Before embarking on the training, discussion was carried out with the Project Coordinator of
Community Irrigation Project (CIP), Mr. Prakash Thapa, regarding the conduction of the Orientation
Training for the CIP project staff and consultant. It was decided that it will be more appropriate to
have the orientation training during November/ December 2012.

A team from INPIM Nepal designed the orientation training. The training was basically designed
towards creating general awareness among the new staff and consultants in the projects about
WUAs and how they can be motivated to be engaged in multifunction.

4.4 Training Conduction


After several rounds of discussions with the CIP management, the training proposal was finalized
and submitted to ADB for approval. After approval from ADB, the Training Workshop was conducted
13
on the 25th and 26th of November 2012 accordingly. Detailed program of the workshop has been
presented in Table 2 and 3, respectively.

Table 2: Orientation Training Workshop on Multifunationality in WUAs (25th Nov 2012)


Time Topic Resource Person
09:00 - 09:30 Registration and Introduction
Suman Sijapati, President,
09:30 - 10:30 Introduction to the Concept of multi-functionality
INPIM Nepal
Brief Introduction of CIP with Specially with Prakash Thapa, CIP
10:30 - 11:00
Reference to Multi-functionality in WUAs Coordinator
11:00 - 11:15 Tea Break
Implementation Procedure of CIP and Role of Durga Shankar Sharma, TL,
11:15 - 12:00
WUAs CIP Consultant
B. P. Baskota, M&E
12:00 - 12:45 Social Aspects to be included in CIP Sub-projects
Specialist, CIP Consultant
13:00 - 14:00 Lunch Break
Forming Multifunctional WUAs: Cooperative Rishi Ram Sharma
14:00 - 15:00
Approach Neupane, INPIM Nepal
15:00 - 15:15 Tea Break
15:15 - 16:00 Discussion and Question / Answers All Resource Persons

Table 3: Orientation Training Workshop on Multifunationality in WUAs (26th Nov 2012)


Time Topic Resource Person
Case studies of development of social capital Ashutosh Shukla, Team
09:00 - 10:00
though multifunctional WUAs Leader, RETA Research
Process of transformation of WUAs to take up Suman Sijapati, President,
10:00 - 11:00
multifunctional roles INPIM Nepal
11:00 - 11:15 Tea Break
Brain-storming to develop in-built strategy for
11:15 - 12:00 All resource persons
multifunctionality of WUA in CIP
12:00 - 12:45 Brainstorming and discussions in groups
13:00 - 14:00 Lunch Break
14:00 - 15:00 Presentation by the different district teams
15:00 - 15:15 Tea Break
Facilitated by S Sijapati,
15:15 - 16:00 Conclusion and wrap up
President, INPIM Nepal

Table 4 presents the list of all the participants of the workshop and Figure 8 shows their glimpse.

14
Table 4: Orientation Training Workshop on Multifunationality in WUAs (26th Nov 2012)
S.N. Name Designation District(s)
1 Prakash Thapa Project Coordinators all 12
2 Durga Shankar Sharma Team Leader, Consultants all 12
3 Basudev P. Banskota Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, Consultants all 12
4 Surendra M. Shrestha Senior Irrigation Engineer, Consultants all 12
5 Kalpana Basynet District Engineer Kailali
6 Mahesh Kathayat District Engineer Mugu
7 Sujit Bijukchhe District Engineer Salyan
8 Bipina Bajrachaya District Engineer Doti
9 Mukunda Pokhrel District Engineer Rolpa
10 Santosh Pandey District Engineer Bajhang
11 Bishnu Maya Thapa District Engineer Pyuthan
12 Manju Adhikari District Engineer Dang
13 Nabin Basnet District Engineer Kanchanpur
14 Labin Dhoj Khad District Engineer Jumla
15 Dhiraj Poudel District Engineer Kapilbistu
16 Sudip Bikram Bhatta District Engineer Rukum
17 Kaman Singh Bist District Coordinator Kanchanpur
18 Lila Bahadur Devkota District Coordinator Rolpa
19 Prabhakar Pandit District Coordinator Doti
20 Saroj Adhikari District Coordinator Pyuthan
21 Manoj Timsina District Coordinator Salyan
22 Ratna Kumar Shrestha District Coordinator Kailali
23 Gyana Hari Devkota District Coordinator Kapilbistu
24 Laxmi Chand Mahat District Coordinator Mugu
25 Prakash Man Singh GC District Coordinator Rukum
26 Padam Kattal District Coordinator Jumla
27 Sishir Gautam District Coordinator Dang

Figure 8: A Glimpse of the Training Participants

15
The Orientation Workshop began with the registration of the participants most of whom arrived
well in time at 10 am on Sunday morning, 25th November 2012 at the workshop venue, which was
decided as Nanglo Bakery opposite UN Building. The registration was carried out smoothly and was
completed by 10:30 a.m. as planned.

Figure 9: Banner of the Workshop

Without much formality, the workshop began punctually and was moderated by the President of
INPIM Nepal, Mr. Suman Sijapati. The first agenda of the workshop was the introduction of all the
participants as well as the organizer. Everyone was asked to mention their name, designation and
their domain of work. After all the participants as well as the workshop organizers gave their
introduction, the workshop moderator Mr. Sijapati gave an introduction about INPIM Nepal and
explained about its objectives and activities and how it is being engaged in supporting the WUAs. He
also described the backdrop against which this workshop was being organized and also explained
about the design and details of the workshop program. Finally he also mentioned the ground rules
that are to be followed by all participants during the course of the workshop.
Lecture 1: Introduction to the Concept of Multi-functionality
The first presentation of the workshop was an introduction to the whole concept of
multifunctionality. The presentation was made by Mr. Suman Sijapati, President of INPIM Nepal. The
main target of this presentation was to explain the history of development of WUA in Nepal and
then go-on to explain what is meant by multiple functions, what are the merits and demerits of
multi-functional engagement and way it is considered important to promote multifunctional WUA in
CIP? The presentation focused on bringing clarity in the very definition of multiple functions because
it was observed to be understood differently by different people. Also, an in-depth discussion was
presented about the benefits from engagements of WUA in multiple functions while, at the same
time, the message of caution was also shared as to how things could go wrong if not carried out
properly. The opinions expressed and the examples cited were mainly founded on the case studies
of the different WUAs carried out by INPIM Nepal.
Lecture 2: Brief Introduction of CIP with Specially with Reference to Multi-functionality in WUAs
The second presentation was on Community Irrigation Project (CIP) itself. The Project Coordinator of
Mr. Prakash Thapa covered he topic. In his lecture, he highlighted on the importance of promoting
multifunctionality in WUAs associated with the project. He also briefly outlined the implementation
procedure of CIP and emphasized that it is very crucial that the field level activities should provide

16
sufficient space to the WUAs recognizing them as key stakeholders of the project. Finally, he also
mentioned that the participants are lucky to get this opportunity to be oriented from INPIM Nepal
which has very rich experiences of working with different WUAs throughout the country.

Figure 10: Project Coordinator, Mr. Prakash Thapa briefing the Participants

Lecture 3: Implementation Procedure of CIP and Role of WUAs


The third lecture was taken by the Team Leader of Consultants, Mr. Durga Shankar Sharma on the
topic of implementation procedure of CIP and the roles of WUA. In his presentation Mr. Sharma
gave a brief historical background of the involvement of WUAs in irrigation projects in Nepal and the
background of CIP. He also mentioned about the objective and area coverage of the project and
cited 1) Construction of irrigation infrastructure, 2) Improvement in agriculture production system
and enterprises and 3) Capacity building of government agencies and WUAs as the three main
programs/ activities under the projects. In his presentation, Mr. Sharma also illustrated to the
participants the sub-project implementation flow chart and explained what is expected from the
field level staffs at each stage of project implementation. He also explained the roles and
responsibilities of the WUAs at each step of sub-project implementation.
Lecture 4: Social Aspects to be included in CIP Sub-projects
Mr. Bashu Dev Banskota, the Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist in the Team of CIP Consultants
covered the next topic of social aspects in the CIP subproject. In his presentation Mr. Banskota
mainly touched upon four social aspects related topics under the CIP viz.: 1) WUA formation and
strengthening, 2) Indigenous people development framework preparation, 3) Gender action plan
development and 4) Preparation of consultation and participation plan with the WUAs. He
elaborated on each of these topics stating procedure to be followed and the expected output. He
oriented the participants that all these have to been taken simultaneous along with the other
stipulated activities of the project. As for the activity of WUA formation he also discussed with the
participant about the sample WUA Constitution that he had prepared and mentioned than
necessary changes can be made in the template as per the local conditions.
Lecture 5: Forming Multifunctional WUAs the Cooperative Approach
The fifth topic of forming multifunctional WUAs was taken by Mr. Rishi Ram Sharma Neupane,
Water Management and Institutional Development Expert of INPIM Nepal. Based on his vast
experiences of more than three decades of working with many WUAs, Mr. Neupane began by
narrating about the key features, functions and the present status of the WUAs in Nepal. He then
discussed at length about the need of the WUAs to be multifunctional stressing on the fact that it is
the only they can maximize their benefits and sustain in the current difficult situation. He then went
on to describe his vision of WUA cooperatives and brief outlined his concepts of user owned, user

17
controlled and user benefit principles. Finally, Mr. Neupane also elaborated the steps to be followed
in the process of multifunctional WUAs.

Figure 11: Mr. Rishi Ram Sharma Neupane Delivering Lecture on Cooperative Approach

First Discussion Session: End of Day 1


At the end of the first day (25th November) a brief discussion session was organized in which the
moderator briefly summed up the gist of the topics that were covered during the day and opened
the floor for discussion on any of the things that the participants had any queries or comments. The
queries and comments of the participants were widely discussed and satisfactorily addressed by the
resource persons.
Lecture 6: Case Studies of Development of Social Capital though Multifunctional WUAs
The first presentation of the second day of the workshop was made by Mr. Ashutosh Shukla on the
topic of process of development of social capital through multifunctional WUAs.

Figure 12: Presentation by Mr. Ashutosh Shukla

18
In his presentation Mr. Shukla discussed about the four successful cases from the Case Study carried
out INPIM Nepal. He elaborated in length about each case and explained how they had been able to
achieve different benefits through their engagement in multiple functions.

Lecture 7: Process of Transformation of WUAs to take Multifunctional Roles


The last lecture of the workshop was on the process of transformation of WUAs to take
multifunctions. This lecture was taken by Mr. Suman Sijapati, President of INPIM Nepal. In his
presentation Mr. Sijapati narrated the key observations and finding from the process
documentation works that were carried out by INPIM Nepal. His presentation covered the observed
process of transformation in the selected WUAs starting from livelihood diversification to the
formation of completely multifunctional WUA. Mr. Sijapati discussed on the various factors that
contributed towards setting up the grounds for developing multiple functions and also highlighted
the importance of visionary leadership in breaking the barrier in moving towards that direction.
Finally, he also discussed on the changes that were observed in the studied WUAs after their
engagement in multiple functions.

Figure 13: Discussion on the Multiple Engagements of WUAs

4.5 Feedback and Suggestions


The feedbacks received from the participants and suggestions drawn from the different discussions
held during the course of the workshop have been presented in this part of the proceeding report.
The details of the group discussion, presentation made by the participants and the closing discussion
has been described separately one by one.
Group Discussion to Develop Strategies for Multifunctionality of WUAs in CIP
After the set presentations the workshop proceeded to the part in which feedback were sought
from the participants regarding this overall theme of the workshop. In this regard, firstly, the
participants were divided into different working groups. The participants were mainly divided into
three groups based on ecological zones. Thus all the District Coordinators as well as the Engineers
working in the different ecological regions were grouped into respective groups as follows:
Group I: Kanchanpur, Kailali, Dang, Kapilvastu (Terai districts)
Group II: Doti, Salyan, Rukum, Rolpa, Pyuthan (hills districts)
Group III: Bajhang, Jumla, Mugu (mountain districts)

19
The topics given for discussion to all the three groups were as follows:
WUA formation and institutional strengthening
Indigenous People Development Framework (IPDP)
Gender Action Plan (GAP)
Consultation and Participation Plan (CPP)

Based on their learning in the course of the workshop and their own past experiences, the
participants were asked to discuss in their respective groups and develop strategies suitable for their
particular ecological regions that would ensure smooth implementation of those activities and
ultimately facilitate to develop multiple functions among the WUAs.

Figure 14: Participants discussing in Different Groups

Presentation by the Different Districts


All the three groups actively discussed in separate groups in all the four topics given to them and
developed presentations based on the consensus reached among the group members. After the
discussions each group made separate presentations.
The first presentation was made from the Terai districts (Kanchanpur, Kailali, Dang, and Kapilvastu).
The presentation was made by Ratna Kumar Shrestha, District Coordinator of Kailali district. The
presentation covered the issues of the Terai region in forming and working with WUAs and
addressed all the four topics. The team expressed their opinion as to what should be done in terms
of formation of WUA, development of indigenous people development framework, gender action
plan and consultation and participation plan for the WUAs in the districts that they were working.
The main outline of the presentation from the first group can be summarized here. Firstly, the team
expressed the opinion that the following has to be ensured in the process of WUA formation:
Gender representation of 33 % must be ensured
Proportionate representation of indigenous plus marginalized
Participation of all head + middle + tail end farmers
Orientation about multifunctionality (success stories)
Brain-Storming within the beneficiaries for resource identification

Similarly, in implementing the social activities at the sub-project level, the team decided that the
following process needs to be followed:
Identification of stakeholders for co-ordination with WUA for multifunctionality
20
Development of WUA co-operative for the following aspects:
supply of seed and fertilizers
saving and credit
fair price shop
Natural resources conservation and watershed management
Plantation-promote the agro forestry
Diversification of cropping system/off-season
Increased rate of irrigation service fees
reduce dependency on outer sources
Cash instead of labor = increase in internal employment
Regarding the development of Indigenous People Development Plan (IPDP), the following actions
were stressed by the group:
Create environment for their enhanced participation
Provide opportunities of capacity building especially those related to livelihood
enhancement e.g. mason, house wiring, etc. and income generating
Promote their traditional occupation and preserve the culture
Provide better health and sanitation facilities
For the development of Gender Action Plan (GAP), the first group suggested the following activities:
Participation in WUA plus all sub- committees
Women empowerment (minimum 33 %)
Better health and sanitation awareness
Trainings
activities- surveys, meetings, decision making
skill development
Finally, for consultation and participation of the WUAs, the group mentioned that it is important to
ensure inclusion of all stakeholders with major prioritization to women, indigenous and marginalized
groups.

Figure 15: Presentations made by the Groups

The second presentation was made by Mr. Prakash Man GC who represented Hill districts. This
group also expressed their opinion about their proposed ways of forming the WUAs, developing

21
indigenous people development framework, gender action plan and consultation and participation
plan for their respective districts.

For the formation of WUA and implementation of social activities at the sub-project level the group
made the following suggestions:
Inclusion approach at the sub-project level
Hydrological inclusion (head, middle and tail)
Social inclusion( ethnicity , caste, economical)
Different existing groups/organization inclusion in WUA wherever possible
Inclusion of landless HHs in non-farm, farm and lease land activities.
Vital post: prioritize women, dalit, and janajati
Formation(ensure): capacitate and ensure activeness
Explore and pool resources with different agencies / organization and potential form and on
form activities.

The group discussed that for IPDP development the following points need to be considered:
Priority should be given for ID people in planning, implementation and benefit sharing.
Provide opportunities in microcredit schemes, infrastructure construction, agricultural
services, CB to ID people
Safeguard, Rules, Strategies should be develop and given opportunities to those unable to
contribute in cash and kind.
Support in action plan preparation to ensure potential multifunctional scope from project.
Promote and upscale traditional occupation.

Similarly, for GAP development, the followings were emphasized:


Women representation in proportionate ratio in training, benefit sharing, decision making,
planning, etc as per ADB/CIP guidelines.
Ensure and prepare /maintain MIS of disaggregated data in every activity.
Ensure women representatives in project consultation, planning and benefit sharing.
Capacity building training on management skill, entrepreneurs development, input supply.
Advocate for equal wages.

Finally for consultation and participation plan, the group discussed the following priorities:
Encourage and create awareness in project activities both at district as well as sub-project
level.
Provide opportunities and assign rules and responsibilities to WUA functionaries.
Involve beneficiaries in every step of project activities/ cycle, i.e. from planning to
implementation and monitoring and evaluation.
Linkage, networking, collaboration and co-ordination with other like minded
agencies/organization in national, sub national and sub project level.
Participation of beneficiaries in observation and study tours on multifunctional WUAs,
success sites.

The third and final presentation was made by Mr. Laxmi Chand Mahat, District Coordinator of Mugu
district, who represented mountain districts. Like the other groups, this group also expressed their
ideas and opinions regarding the appropriate ways of formation of the WUAs and development of
indigenous people development framework, gender action plan and consultation and participation
plan for their respective districts.
Regarding the formation of WUA and implementation of social activities through them, the group,
come to the consensus for the following activities as necessary steps:
Develop WUAs Inventory (existing and potential)
22
Assess the status of different social institutions
Assess the status of micro-finance activities
Collect data of existing cropping pattern and potentiality of multi-functionality
Identify and coordinate with development partners
Collect information on the level of awareness and practice of marketing activities
Plan and implement exposure visits
Review existing WUAs case-studies (success and failure)
For IPDP development, the team decided on the following:
A study on existing ethnic diversity
Data collection of the cropping pattern and landholding by ethnic diversity
A study on involvement of indigenous people in non-agricultural activity
Promoting and involving indigenous people on their interest of occupation
Similarly, for the preparation of GAP, the group discussed on ensuring the following:
At least 50% of women participation in WUAs formation
At least 50% of women participation in cooperative formation
At least 50% of women participation in training and exposure visit
At least 75% of women involvement in micro-finance activity
At least 2 key post of women involvement out of 5 member (lets say) of executive body of
WUAs and cooperative
Finally, for the preparation of consultation and participation plan, the group decided that the
following stakeholders should be included:
All catchment members
All user members
All development partners
Local political leaders and other concern stakeholders
Women, Dalit, Janajati and marginalized peoples
DDC & VDCs
Discussions were held at the end of each presentation to clarify the points mentioned by each group
that were not clear to the others. Also, opportunity was given to the other group members to add
the points that were missed by the presenter.
Workshop Conclusion and Wrap-up
At the end of the workshop, the moderator summarized the contents of all the workshops and
wrapped up the workshop with the conclusions derived from the different presentation. Fruitful
discussions were held with all the representatives from both CIP team including Mr. Prakash Thapa,
Mr. Durga Shankar Sharma, Mr. Basu Dev Banskota and Mr. Surendra Meher Shrestha as well as
representatives from INPIM Nepal including Mr. Bashu Lohani, Mr. Chet Man Bhudthapa and Mr.
Rajendra Bir Joshi. Finally, Mr. Prakash Thapa, Program Coordinator of CIP was also asked to make
his concluding remarks. In his concluding remarks, Mr. Thapa expressed his confidence that the
learning from the orientation training workshop will be an asset to the participants. He thanked
INPIM Nepal for their efforts and also requested all the participants to materialize the learning of
the workshop to the practical use in their respective districts.
Some of the conclusions that were drawn at the end of the workshop were as follows:
There was a general acceptance of the fact that social capital development works that
relates to the targeted project beneficiary, namely the WUAs, has to be taken along with the
other proposed activities from the very beginning of the project.
The participants got oriented about what is multifuntionality and how it can be developed
among the WUAs with whom they will be working in their respective districts.
23
The participants of the workshop held an unanimous view that the workshop helped in
developing a better understanding of the activities they need to conduct in terms of social
activities like WUA formation and strengthening and IPDP, GAP and Consultation and
Participation Plan development.
The workshop also created awareness among the participants about INPIM Nepal and it mission. At
the end of the workshop, some of the participants also showed interest in being part of the mission
by taking membership of INPIM Nepal.
Finally, a group photo was taken of all the participants of the workshop for keeping record of the
event.

Figure 16: Group photo of the participants of the Training Workshop

24
5. Backstopping to CMIASP Sites

5.1 Site Selection


For the backstopping to CMIASP for promoting multifunction among WUA, a meeting of the
Secretary and Joint Secretary of INPIM Nepal with the Project Director of CMIASP Mr. Naveen
Mangal Joshi on 19th March 2012. Upon the request from the team, the list of nine sub-projects,
three from each Batch 1, 2 and 3, were received from Mr. Joshi. The systems are as follows:
Batch 1: 1.Tanting Irrigation Sub-project, Jhapa - 200 ha.
2. Sikharkateri Irrigation Sub-project, Kabhre- 100 ha
3. Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project, Lalitpur - 70 ha
Batch 2: 4. Balan Irrigation Sub-project, Bahuna -6, Kamalpur, Saptari - 206 ha
5. Khahare Chuwabote Irrigation Sub-project, Thechambu-5, Taplejung- 25 ha
6. Neurenipani Irrigation Sub-project, Shaktikhor, Chitwan- 69 ha,
Batch 3: 7. Bataha Irrigation Sub-project, Raghabpur-3, Siraha - 224 ha
8. Akushi Irrigation Sub-project, Gonarpur-3, Mahottari - 550 ha
9. Sindurekhola Binamare Duichango Irrigation Sub-project, Kakani, Nuwakot 90 ha

The nine sites are representative of all the CMIASP sites. They include systems in all agro ecological
zones, including terai and hill systems, and include systems in both eastern and central development
region. Mr. Joshi also pointed out that these systems were identified through consultation with DB
Singh, Senior Environmental Officer in ADB Nepal.

5.2 Planning for Backstopping


In order to carry out the backstopping, it has been planned to carry out at least two visits to each of
the sites with two specific objectives. The first round of visit was for diagnostic analysis while the
second visit was for institutional backstopping based on gaps identified during the first visit.
Pragmatic procedure for consultation with the WUAs and addressing the identified gaps was also
discussed with CMIASP team.

Before moving to the site, INPIM Nepal Team prepared a check list for diagnostic analysis. The
checklist was then finalized through consultation with CMIASP Team. The checklist has been
attached as Annex 19 of this report.

5.3 Diagnostic Analysis


INPIM Nepal formed different teams to visit different sites for diagnostic analysis during the months
of July to September 2012. The teams generally comprised of multi-disciplinary members: one
engineer, one sociologist and one WUA representative.

Table 5: Details of Diagnostic Analysis and their Teams in the Different Sub-projects
S. N. Subproject Name District Diagnostic Analysis Team
1 Tanting Jhapa Ashik Shahani, Benu Poudel, Chet Raj Shrestha
2 Sikharkatteri Kabhre Suman Sijapati, Bashu Lohani, Ranjana Shrestha
3 Ikudha Lalitpur Bashu Lohani, Rajendra Bir, Chet Raj Shrestha
4 Balan Saptari Gauri Lal Upadhya, Ram Hari Sharma, Ananda Dhami
5 Khahare Chuwabote Taplejung Ganesh Khaniya, Ram Hari Sharma, Binod Jha
6 Neurenipani Chitwan Gauri Lal Upadhya, Ram Hari Sharma, Prakash Lamshal

25
7 Bataha Siraha Gauri Lal Upadhya, Ram Hari Sharma, Anand Dhami
8 Akushi Mahottari Ganesh Khaniya, Ram Hari Sharma, Shree Prasad Sha
9 Sindurekhola Nuwakot Rajendra Bir, Ram Hari Sharma, Kedar Shrestha

Using the checklist prepared by INPIM Nepal, the teams visited all the nine sites and carried out
diagnostic analysis. Both field visits and discussions with the WUA members were carried out in
order to carry out the bottle necks and institutional gaps. Figure 17 and 18 shows some glimpses of
the activities during the diagnostic analysis.

Figure 17: Field Observation during Diagnostic Analysis

Figure 18: Discussion with WUA members during Diagnostic Analysis

26
Several rounds of discussions with the WUA were carried out to identify their present status in
terms of adapting multifunction and to recommend specific ways of going about it. Annex 20 to 28
present the outcome of the diagnostic analysis in the different systems.

5.4 Backstopping
Based on the findings of the diagnostic analysis, the teams again visited the sites for the second
round for backstopping the WUA. Backstopping was carried out during October 2012 to March
2013. The backstopping teams also disseminated the findings from the case studies and the process
documentation exercise and hinged the messages to the individual scheme on the general
framework of promoting multi-functionality among the WUAs. In most of the systems, the WUAs
were observed to be inspired by the good examples of multi-functional WUAs that were shared by
the backstopping teams.

27
6. Handbook Preparation

6.1 Background
Another important activity of the PDA was the preparation of handbook on the process of
developing multifunctionality. The suggestion for preparation of the handbook was made from ADB
Nepal and INPIM Nepal took the suggestion very positively. The handbook was primarily based on
the output from the process documentation and the findings from the studies of individual cases of
success and failures of WUAs in attending multifunctionality.

6.2 Objective
The objective of preparing the handbook was to document the process of promoting / developing
multifunctional WUAs in Nepal. It is expected that this handbook will be effectively used by the
WUAs and well as development agencies in Nepal.

Since the handbook was meant to be used also by the WUAs, it was decided that it should be
prepared in simple Nepali so that it can be useful even at the level of the general farmers.
Moreover, it was decided that it should be as illustrative as possible and should include detailed
procedure of steps to be followed and the dos and the donts. Also, it was decided that since this
was the handbook would be mainly targeted towards the WUA, INPIM Nepal should also collaborate
with National Federation of Irrigation Water Users Association Nepal (NFIWUAN) in this assignment.

6.3 Handbook Preparation


Before embarking on the task, a meeting has been held with the NFIWUAN members to discuss on
the process of handbook preparation. A team was formed including a representative from NFIWUAN
let by the Institutional Development Specialist from INPIM Nepal, Mr. Umesh Shrestha.

The team, first of all, prepared an outline of the report content. The outline was then circulated to
all stakeholders including NFIWUAN, ADB, DOI, etc and feedback was sought. Based on the feedback
received from different stakeholder, the content outline was finalized. Then the team filled up the
required content from all the relevant sources.

Figure 19: Publication of Handbook on Multifunctional WUA

28
The handbook basically comprise of nine (9) chapters. The first chapter gives the background of why
and how the handbook was produced. The second chapter explains about the concept and
relevance of Multifunctional WUA. The third chapter outlines the basic definition of a
Multifunctional WUA and the fourth chapter describes its characteristics. Chapter five of the
handbook explains the need and importance of Multifunctional WUA. The sixth chapter describes
the functions. The seventh chapter explains about different aspects of multiple uses of water and
Chapter eight outlines the elements essential to transform WUAs into Multifunctional WUAs. Finally,
Chapter nine illustrates through some example how social and economical transformations are
possible through Multifunctional WUAs. In the Annex, a sample statute of WUA Cooperative has
been attached.

The published handbook was widely distributed through NFIWUAN to WUAs who want to expand
their activities towards multi-functionality. Similarly, it was also distributed to all the INPIM Nepal
members who showed interest in the handbook. Additional copies were also distributed to other
development organization and NGOs trying to support the WUAs.

29
7. WUA Orientation Workshops

7.1 Background
Three regional level WUA Orientation Workshops were also conducted as part of the PDA. These
Orientation Workshops was mainly targeted towards WUAs in the subprojects supported by CMIASP
and CIP. INPIM Nepal in collaborate with NFIWUAN took support from the two projects in selecting
the appropriate target groups for reaching out to the WUA.

The three workshops were conducted in suitable areas so as to cover all the five development
regions namely in Hedauda(for eastern and central region), Pokhara (for western region) and
Surkhet (for Midwestern and Far-western region).

The orientation workshops were based on the findings and lessons learned from the previous and
current process documentation and case studies. They were conducted during the months of
November and December of 2012. Interaction and discussions was held on the challenges that the
WUAs face in moving towards multi-functionality. Appropriate solutions and measures was
discussed and disseminated. The detail of each of the workshop has been described one by one in
these following sections.

7.2 Pokhara Workshop


The first of the regional orientation workshops was conducted in Pardi, Pokhara with the
cooperation of the Regional Irrigation Directorate in Pokhara. It was organized on the 8th of January
2013 at Pardi, Pokhara at the main hall of the Western Regional Irrigation Directorate.

The workshop content was designed by Mr. Suman Sijapati and six different topics were covered
during the workshop. The aim of the workshop was to orient the WUAs of Western Development
Region on developing multi-functionality in WUAs of their concerned systems. The following training
topics were covered in the workshop:
1. Introduction to INPIM Nepal and the Concept of Multifunctionality
2. Status of WUAs and their Potential in the Region
3. Different experiences with multifunctionality of the WUAs in the region
4. Multifunctionality of the WUAs and its benefits
5. Process of transformation of WUAs to take up multifunctional roles
6. Group discussion on the ideas and experiences faced by the different WUA representatives

The workshop started with the registration of the participants at 9:30 am on 8th January 2013. At the
beginning Mr. Sijapati gave a brief introduction of the objective of the workshop and its program.

Figure 20: Introducing the Participants about the Objective and Program of Orientation Workshop

30
The different topics covered during the workshop have been briefly described one by one.

Topic 1: Introduction to INPIM Nepal and the Concept of Multifunctionality


As the first topic, Mr. Suman Sijapati gave a brief introduction of INPIM Nepal and explained the
concept of multifuntionality in WUAs. The main objective of the session was to inform the
participants about the kind of work that INPIM Nepal is doing and how they can benefit from it. It
also aimed to create general awareness on the topic of multifuntionality in WUAs.

Topic 2: Status of WUAs and their Potential in the Region


As the next topic Mr. Rajendra Prasad Adhikari, Regional Director of the Western Region explained
about his assessment of the status of WUAs in the Western Development Region as compared to
WUAs elsewhere. He also elaborated on their potential in terms of contributing to livelihood
enhancement of farmers in the region by diversifying their activities into multiple functions.

Figure 21: Regional Director Explaining about the Status of WUAs in the Region and their Potential

Topic 3: Different experiences with multi-functionality of the WUAs in the Region


The third topic was covered by Ms. Meera KC, the regional representative of NFIWUAN for the
western region. Ms. KC explained about the different observations and experiences that she had in
terms of WUAs in the region moving towards multi-functionality. She also gave practical experiences
of how the WUAs in the region can benefit from engagement in multiple functions.

Figure 22: The WUA Representatives Sharing their Experiences during the Workshop

31
Topic 4: Multi-functionality of the WUAs and its benefits
The next topic was based on the findings and lessons learned from the various studies carried out by
INPIM Nepal including the process documentation and case studies. The presentation was made by
Mr. Gauri Lal Upadhaya, Senior Sociologist and member of INPIM Nepal. He shared the key findings
of the different studies and indicated the key elements that were observed to contribute towards its
success and failure.

Figure 23: Mr. Gauri Lal Upadhaya Explaining about the Benefits of Multi-functionality in WUAs

Topic 5: Process of Transformation of WUAs to take up Multifunctional Roles


Mr. Suman Sijapati again made the fifth presentation of the workshop. This presentation was also
based on the key findings of the different studies carried out my INPIM Nepal. Based on the key
finding, he outlined the roadmap that the WUAs need to follow in order to transform from and
ordinary WUA to a multifunctional WUA. He also shared the handbook that INPIM Nepal has
prepared that facilitates the process.

Topic 6: Group discussion on the ideas and experiences faced by the different WUA representatives
Finally, a group discussion was held which gave opportunity to all the WUA representatives to
express their opinion on the topic. Live discussion was held facilitated by the workshop moderator
where all the participants shared their experiences and also discussed on how they should move
ahead from the point.

Figure 24: WUA Representatives discussing about their Future Roadmap


32
7.3 Hedauda Workshop
In order to cover the WUAs in the region, INPIM Nepal in collaboration with CMIASP conducted
another regional level WUA Orientation Workshop at Hetauda from January 11th to 13th 2013. The
aim of the workshop was to orient the WUAs of Batch - I and II on developing multi-functionality in
WUAs of the concerned systems. This is very much in line with the first objective of CMIASP which is
to develop participatory irrigated agriculture with the emphasis on livelihood enhancement and
reduction of poverty in the rural area. In batch - I area where civil construction is completed and
farmers have initiated canal operation and maintenance activities, more agricultural activities for
higher productivity and more market linkages for more profit and better livelihood have to be
initiated. Hence it was considered that the WUA should be aligned to multi-functional roles through
marketing agricultural co-operatives.

The overall objective of the training was to provide knowledge and skill on transforming existing
WUA to multi-functional WUA through co-operative approach. The specific objectives of the training
were as listed below:
1. Review and organization creation and development, forming WUA co-operatives.
2. Providing knowledge & skill to participants in profitable agro-enterprise selection and
development.
3. Development of marketing management - Small Agriculture Market: Enabling participants
in understanding value addition chain in the agricultural product and market study for
profitable enterprise.

Figure 25: The Workshop Banner

INPIM Nepal deputed Mr. RRS Neupane for developing the training content and program
development. After several consultations with CMIASP advisors, field staffs and review of
participants positions and functions were made in order to tailor made the lesson plans. Discussions
revealed the overall status of Batch-I & II irrigation schemes as follows:
1. Physical improvement has been completed.
2. WUAs are functional
3. WUAs are trained in Water Management.
4. Some WUAs have started co-operatives.
5. Their interest is to earn more profit diversifying agricultural productivity through
strengthening co-operative activities.

With above background and needs analysis, the following training topics with the lesson plans were
developed:
33
1. Pictorial -Motivation and Vision Development
2. WUA under CMIASP - Status, Analysis, Discussion
3. Multi-functional WUA - Experiences & Activities
4. WUA and Marketing Co-operative - Establishment & Operation
5. Market Opportunity Study for Profitable Farming
6. Off-season Vegetable Farming - Greenhouse Farming
7. Canal Operation and Proportional Water Distribution
8. Saving and Credit Mobilization (Micro Finance Development)
9. WUA and Value Addition Chain in Agriculture
10. Jagatpur WUA - Experience Sharing
11. Work Plan Development - Commitment for Multi-functional WUA

The workshop was conducted at Seema Hotel, Hetauda and altogether 34 participants including 3
women WUA members 7 Association organizers, 2 Engineers and 25 WUA executives from CMIASP
participated in it. In general, participants from WUA were holding executive positions and actively
involved in institutional functions. All of them were from 12 districts of Central Region of Nepal

The training program started with the registration of the participants at 9:30 am on 11th January,
2013, Friday morning in Seema Hotel, Hetauda. At the beginning participants were introduced to
each other with name, designation, work experience and function in WUA. Mr. Sushil Subedi, TA-
CMIASP briefed about the overall training objectives and expected outputs after training. Then he
handed over the session conduction to Mr. RRS Neupane who afterwards moderated the training
session.

Topic 1: Motivation and Vision Development (Pictorial)


The first session was started with photo display of vegetable marketing, existing irrigation schemes,
available land use of different technologies of crop farming, advantage of value addition and market
price for different produces by RRS Neupane. The main objective of the session was to motivate,
develop enthusiasm and keen interest among participants on how a farmer community can be
benefitted with diversified crop cultivation and adopting multi-functional roles of WUA. The key
photo messages were focused on:
Vision and goal setting of the profitable farming.
Objectives - profitable markets study.
Activities - water management, new technology for crop cultivation, enterprise selection.
Transforming WUA into multi-functional roles.

Topic 2: WUA under CMIASP - Status, Analysis, Discussion


Mr. Sushil Subedi, TA, CMIASP explained the
present functions which WUAs have been
doing:
WUA operate and maintain the canals
Multi-functional activities implications
such as co-operative establishment,
saving and credit activities, fish
farming, water mills operation, brick
factory running.
Many other schemes also have initiated multi-
functional roles such as:
1. Koirala Khola sub-project - established
34
Fig 26: Mr. Sushil Subedi delivering lecture
co-operative, cultivating organic vegetable, income generation activities.
2. Mahakali sub-project - established co-operative, vegetable farming, income generation
activities.
3. Ripani dhotal sub-project - established co-operative, running saving & credit program by
woman group.
4. Rampa sub-project - cultivating vegetable farming.
5. Akusi Irrigation sub-project - established co-operative and running saving and credit
program.

Topic 3: Multi-functional WUA - Experiences and Activities


The third session was taken by Mr. Suman Sijapati, President, INPIM Nepal. He explained about
INPIM history, its ongoing activities and it's achievement. He clarified what is meant by multi-
functions, what are merits and demerits of multi-functional engagement. Also the presentation
focused on benefit of multi-function derived from extensive research work carried by INPIM Nepal.

Topic 4: WUA and Marketing Co-operative - Establishment & Operation


This session was started with the key slogans by RRS Neupane: Agricultural Cooperative -A key to
Feeding the World-world food day. In his presentation, meaning of co-operative, WUA co-operative
principles, functions of co-operative facilitating multi-function roles of WUA, its main pillars and
basic steps in establishing and transforming WUA into co-operative were discussed in details.

Topic 5: Market Opportunity Study for Profitable Farming


Highlighting on the key functions of co-operative, Mr. RRS Neupane discussed on need of
appropriate agro enterprise selection resulted from intensive market opportunity studies. Small land
holders and poor community farmers can benefit increasing productivity and income by linking with
markets. That is why he explained the process
steps of market study as follows:
Forming market study team (steering
committee)
Community diagnosis and visioning
Market and enterprise visits
Evaluation and presentation of enterprise
options
Experimental learning
Planning & expansion
Facilitating support services & linking
markets.
Fig 27: Mr. RRS Neupane delivering lecture
Topic 6: Off-season Vegetable Farming - Greenhouse Farming
Mr. Kasi Raj Hamal, agricultural officer delivered lecture on plastic tunnel technology for tomato. He
explained the advantage of green house farming, plastic house construction and materials, best &
profitable crops suitable to plastic tunnels, best seasons, tomato farming, best time for cultivation,
seedlings, fertilizer application, harvesting and marketing. He presented photo images for better
clarification of plastic houses.

Topic 7: Canal Operation and Proportional Water Distribution


Mr. Om Prakash Gupta, Engineer, TA, CMIASP in his class session systematically presented stepwise
procedures of canal operation and water management for CMIASP irrigation sub-project. He
provided basic knowledge and skills to be used in canal operation. He also emphasized on WUA
goals, objects, crop plan, policy & rules, needs for water management; explained in detail how to
develop irrigation schedule at different situation of water availability. He elaborately explained
35
process of water distribution in branch and tertiary canals also. Participants acquired in depth
knowledge and skills required for sub-project level water distribution by forming very effective
water user organization up to the lower level of canal networks.

Topic 8: Saving and Credit Mobilization (Micro Finance Development)


With the opening sentence "Community Based Saving and Credit Program is only the ground base
on which small land owners can get credits without co-laterals and high interest rate", Mr. RRS
Neupane shared knowledge and skill on using and developing saving and credit program in co-
operative. He explained how Dr. Yunus started it in Bangladesh, how it got started in India, Sri Lanka
and even in Nepal.

He explained the steps of developing saving and credit program as follows:


Discussion of credit issues in the community
Campaigning for saving activities
Developing crediting policy and norms
Formation of management team
Implementation and monitoring of credit utilization & benefit.

Topic 9: WUA and Value Addition Chain in Agriculture


Showing a photo image of wheat plant, flour and noodles, Mr. RRS Neupane started session with an
objective to make participant understand how small land owners in irrigation scheme can be more
benefitted in WUA can shift their position from crop producer to graders, packagers, millers and
processors - controlling and managing the added value. He also explained WUAs need acquire
technology and management skills gradually in order to control the value addition. He ended his
session with the conclusion "The only way to raise small farmer above present condition is by
shifting their present position to value added product manager."

Topic 10: Jagatpur WUA - Experience Sharing


Mr. Rambabu Dhakal, member of Taj Tarkari co-operative from Jagatpur shared his experiences on
the evolutionary process of vegetable marketing co-operative establishment in Jagatpur. He
explained the very poor condition of the farmers at the beginning. After installation of shallow tube-
well under CGISP program how farmers began vegetable farming, started bringing vegetables in the
collection centre and then to Narayangadh markets. At present annual sale of vegetable is worth of
Rs. 900,00,000. Experience, process and co-operative activities were highly commended by the
participants.

Topic 11: Work Plan Development - Commitment for Multi-functional WUA


At the end of the training program, participants were highly encouraged to be transformed into
multifunctional WUAs. Mr. RRS Neupane facilitated the session with the designed action plan
framework. Each group of WUAs developed action plan, for the monitoring of which, Association
Organizer from the district was nominated. The sample framework used by the participants depicts
as follows:

Sample form of Action Plan


S. Activities Time for Who is Monitoring
No. Completion accountable Persons
1 Advocacy of learning in WUA
2 Reforming WUA
3 Establishing co-operative
4 Equitable water distribution
5 Enterprise selection
36
6 Enterprise implementation
7 Market establishment
8 Annual meetings
9 Others

Participants presented their sample action plan in


front of Mr. A. Singh, R.N. Shaha, SDE, consultant
team and resource persons. CMIASP - staff and
consultant team appreciated the efforts and
commitment expressed by the participants.

Towards the end of the workshop, participants


were requested to express their views on the
program content, its usefulness and relevance. Two
participants (1 male and 1 female) were asked to Fig 28: Participants prepared the Action
represent the entire group. The views expressed are summarized below:

Mr. Bashudev Lamichane: Betegauda ISP Rasuwa


Thanked the organizers
It was a new area and new dimension that the program addressed. We learnt that canal
alone may not enhance our livelihood significantly.
The program aimed to make the participants active and has added new energy to the WUA
members.
Creation of Cooperatives was essential for the change in WUA status
Agriculture Development activities should have been included in the program

Ms. Kopila Basnet


We understood the need for making the irrigated agriculture more enterprising.
Cooperative can be one of the major means for achieving goals
The program was more interactive and we shared our experiences
The program should have added some entertainment activities as well.

Mr. Ashok Singh: Project Director


With words of appreciation, encouragement and thanking to the resource persons Mr Singh
concluded the training program with the following remarks:
He informed that initially the program was
planned for 1 day. But as they discussed with
INPIM it was agreed that the program would
need more time to be meaningful.
Mr. Singh encouraged the participants to
build up resources for the WUA and
cooperative can be a very effective tool for
this.
He further informed that such program may
be conducted in Eastern region as well. He
solicited the suggestions of the participants in
order to further improve the program delivery. Fig 29: Mr. A Singh closing the session
He requested the participants to learn from those WUAs that have transformed

37
into cooperatives. He suggested obtaining the constitution of such cooperatives and
following it in their own WUAs.
Finally Mr. Singh thanked the participants and resource persons for attending the 3 days
program despite their busy activities at home.
At the end after the training the following outputs have been expected:
The participants would be awarded of the importance of multi-functional roles of WUA.
They will be knowledgeable and skill full in developing WUA marketing co-operatives,
increasing vegetable cultivation through green house technique and adopting equitable
water distribution through effective irrigation schedule.
At the end of the program they would develop an action plan for transforming existing WUA
to multi-functional WUA to be applied in their scheme.

7.4 SurkhetWorkshop
The third orientation workshop was carried out in Surkhet. It was intended to cover the mid-western
and Far western Region. It was carried out on the 22nd February 2013.

Figure 30: The Workshop Banner

Based on the need assessment for the region eight different topics were covered during the
workshop. The training topics covered during the workshop were as follows
1. Introduction to INPIM Nepal and the Concept of Multifunctionality
2. Status of WUAs in the Region in terms of Multifunctionality
3. Potential of the WUAs in the Region
4. Case studies of development of social capital though multifunctional WUAs
5. Different experiences with multifunctionality of the WUAs in the region
6. Guidelines for Multifunctionality in WUAs
7. Process of transformation of WUAs to take up multifunctional roles
8. Group discussion on the ideas and experiences faced by the different WUA representatives

The different topics covered during the workshop have been briefly described one by one.

Topic 1: Introduction to INPIM Nepal and the Concept of Multifunctionality


As the first topic, Mr. Suman Sijapati gave a brief introduction of INPIM Nepal and explained the
concept of multi-functionality in WUAs. The main objective of the session was to inform the
participants about the kind of work that INPIM Nepal is doing and how they can benefit from it. It
also aimed to create general awareness on the topic of multi-functionality in WUAs.
38
Figure 31: Introduction to the Workshop and the topic

Topic 2: Status of WUAs in the Region in terms of Multifunctionality


As the next topic Mr. Ramesh Gautam, Acting Regional Director of the Mid-western Region,
explained about the status of WUAs in the region. He discussed about on the activities of the
Regional Directorate in terms of supporting the WUAs in their endeavor of enhancing livelihood of
farmers by diversifying their activities into multiple functions.
Topic 3: Potentiality of the WUAs in the Region
The third topic was covered by Mr. Ramesh Bandu Aryal, the Division Chief of Surkhet Irrigation
Development Division. Mr. Aryal explained about his observations and experiences of the activities
of WUAs in the region moving towards multi-functionality. He also elaborated on their potential in
terms of contributing to livelihood enhancement of farmers in the region by diversifying their
activities into multiple functions.
Topic 4: Case studies of development of social capital though multifunctional WUAs
The fourth topic was based on the findings and lessons learned from the various case studies carried
out by INPIM Nepal. The presentation was made by Mr. Tribhuban Poudel, Joint Secretary of INPIM
Nepal. He shared the key findings of the different cases that were studied and indicated the key
elements that were observed to contribute towards its success and failures of the cases.
Topic 5: Different experiences with multifunctionality of the WUAs in the region
The next topic was based on the accumulation of experiences of many WUAs in Nepal. The
presentation was made by Mr. Benu Poudel, Senior Sociologist of Mid-Western Development
Regional Irrigation Directorate and member of INPIM Nepal. He shared his experiences about what
works and what does not work in the process of institutional development of the WUAs.
Topic 6: Guidelines for multi-functionality in WUAs
The sixth topic of the workshop was on developing guidelines for multi-functionality in WUAs. This
topic was covered by Mr. Umesh Kumar Shrestha, the coordinator from INPIM Nepal for the
preparation of Handbook on Multifunctional WUAs. Mr. Shrestha explained about the content of
the handbook and also explained how handbook can be a useful guide for most of the WUAs which
are striving towards multifunctionality.

Topic 7: Process of Transformation of WUAs to take up Multifunctional Roles


Mr. Suman Sijapati again made the seventh presentation of the workshop. This presentation was
also based on the key findings of the different studies carried out my INPIM Nepal. Based on the key
finding, he outlined the roadmap that the WUAs need to follow in order to transform from and
ordinary WUA to a multifunctional WUA. He also shared the handbook that INPIM Nepal has
prepared that facilitates the process.
39
Topic 8: Group discussion on the ideas and experiences faced by the different WUA representatives
Finally, a group discussion was held which gave opportunity to all the WUA representatives to
express their opinion on the topic. Live discussion was held facilitated by the workshop moderator
where all the participants shared their experiences and also discussed on procedural things for the
way ahead.

40
8. Achievements and Prospects for the Future

8.1 Achievements
INPIM Nepal has successfully complicated all the six stipulated activities under the PDA as per the
LOA signed between ADB and INPIM Nepal on the 16th of January 2012. Process documentation of
the three CMIASP sub-projects was conducted up to June 2012 and monitoring and backstopping
was carried out from July onwards. The case studies including field exercises, case write-up and
editing was also timely completed and the publication of the nine case studies was produced and
widely circulated. The Orientation Training for the CIP project staffs and consultants were also
successfully accomplished. Initially, there was some delay in the preparation of handbook as the
write up was also based on the completion of the other tasks. However, it did work out well at the
end and it was timely accomplished.

Even though most of the activities were accomplished within the one year assigned period, the task
of backstopping of the 9 selected CMIASP sites and the WUA Orientation Workshops could not be
fully wrapped up due to delays in the progress of concerned projects. Hence a request was made for
budget-neutral time extension. ADB granted INPIM Nepal a time extension of up to the end of April,
2013. Hence all the stipulated PDA activities were successfully accomplished within the extended
time period.

All the six PDA activities were carried out in tandem with the concerned agencies. Close
coordination was maintained specially with the two main ADB funded projects, viz. CMIASP and CIP.
The participation of the stakeholders in the course of the PDA was utilized at both project and sub-
project level. At the project level representatives from both CMIASP and CIP were consulted from
time to time. Progress of the different PDA activities was also shared with the representatives from
these projects from time to time. At the subproject level, monitoring visits were carried out by the
INPIM Nepal team to the different subprojects in order to meet and discuss with the concerned
WUA functionaries and water users.

INPIM Nepal has been frequently briefing the concerned parties about this PDA activity and
consulting them about the activities from time to time. Apart from the formal reporting through the
Inception Report and this Mid-term Progress Report, the INPIM Nepal team also met with the
Project Director of CMIASP, Mr. Naveen Mangal Joshi (and later Mr. Ashok Singh), and Project
Coordinator of CIP, Mr. Prakash Thapa and briefed them about the on-going activities. Two meetings
were also held with ADB Nepal (the first on the 9th of January 2012 and the second in 23rd August
2012) to brief and seek suggestions from Mr. Deepak Bahadur Singh, Senior Environment Officer
who is overseeing this PDA activity from ADB Nepal Resident Mission.

8.2 Outcome and Impact


The outcome of the PDA has come both in the form of vivid publications as well as in software
contribution it terms of enhancing knowledgebase. Reports have been produced of the process
documentation of the three selected CMIASP sub-projects, case studies of nine selected irrigation
systems from different agro-ecological zones of Nepal and Handbook of Multifunctional WUAs. All
these have been widely circulated to the concerned people and institutions. Similarly, capacity
building and empowering activities were carried out through trainings at different levels from
project staff to WUA representative. These trainings are expected to make a difference in the field
by enhancing the level of knowledge as well as the mindset.

41
Even though the activities have just been completed and it will take some time to see the real
impact from the work, it can be expected that it will make significant contribution towards
institutionalizing multiple functions among the WUAs. The finding from the process documentation
exercise and the case studies and the subsequent handbook (in simple Nepali language) that was
produced and widely circulated can be expected to facilitate in establishing the right procedures for
the institutional development of the WUAs so that they take up multiple roles. More specifically, the
impact of the PDA can be expected in terms contributing to link the activities and achievements
made by the ADB-funded CMIASP (including irrigation system rehabilitation) to the project goal of
enhancing agricultural productivity and sustainability of farmer-managed irrigation systems by
empowering WUA. Moreover, it can also be expected to contribute in giving the right direction to
CIP implementation at the field level through the timely orientation that was provided to the project
staff.

8.3 Prospects for the Future


Based on the foundation that has been created by the activities under this PDA, INPIM Nepal is
committed to continue working and building up on it so that the WUAs in Nepal and the nation as a
whole can benefit on it. INPIM Nepal has decided to strongly take the message through its
dissemination mechanism that the role of WUA needs to be expanded from the routine O&M
functions towards taking up much wider roles of promoting appropriate agricultural technology,
input delivery and marketing of agricultural produce. INPIM Nepal will continue to strengthen the
WUA and their capacity building to orient them towards that end through its own network. In this
committed path of INPIM Nepal, collaboration will be sought with donors as well as other agencies
so that the future programs can be developed in that direction.

42
Annexes

Annex 1: Outline of Process Documentation in Irrigation Sub-projects 1


Annex 2: Checklist Used for Monitoring the Process Documentation 2
Annex 3: Table of Content of Process Documentation Report 12
Annex 4: Process Documentation Report of Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation Sub-project 13
Annex 5: Chronicle of Development of Tanting Kalikhola WUA 25
Annex 6: Process Documentation Report of Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project 35
Annex 7: Chronicle of Development of Ikudha WUA 46
Annex 8: Process Documentation Report of Shikharkatteri Irrigation Sub-project 53
Annex 9: Chronicle of Development of Shikharkatteri WUA 64
Annex 10: Case 1: Soyak Irrigation System, Illam 72
Annex 11: Case 2: Tokha Chandeshori Irrigation System, Kathmandu 78
Annex 12: Case 3: Bagkhore Irrigation System, Surkhet 84
Annex 13: Case 4: Kankai Irrigation System, Jhapa 90
Annex 14: Case 5: Panchakanya Irrigation System, Chitwan 99
Annex 15: Case 6: Chattis Maujha Irrigation System, Rupandehi 109
Annex 16: Case 7: Tollo Medebung Irrigation System, Taplejung 114
Annex 17: Case 8: Subedar ko Kulo Irrigation System, Sindhupalchok 120
Annex 18: Case 9: Golai Jiula Irrigation System, Bajhanj 125
Annex 19: Checklist for Diagnostic Analysis 132
Annex 20: Diagnostic Analysis of Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project, Lalitpur 137
Annex 21: Diagnostic Analysis of Tanting Irrigation Sub-project, Jhapa 144
Annex 22: Diagnostic Analysis of Sikharkateri Irrigation Sub-project, Kabhre 151
Annex 23: Diagnostic Analysis of Neurenipani Irrigation System, Chitwan 158
Annex 24: Diagnostic Analysis of Balan Irrigation Sub-project, Bahuna -6, Saptari 161
Annex 25: Diagnostic Analysis of Khahare Chuwabote Irr. Sub-project, Taplejung 163
Annex 26: Diagnostic Analysis of Bataha Irr. Sub-project, Raghabpur-3, Siraha 164
Annex 27: Diagnostic Analysis of Akushi Irr. Sub-project, Gonarpur-3, Mahottari 166
Annex 28: Diagnostic Analysis of Sindurekhola Binamare Irr. Sub-project, Nuwakot 168

0|Page
Annex 1
Outline of Process Documentation in Irrigation Sub-Projects

Definition:
Process documentation is the activity of documenting all the events, their cause and their impact
with the objective of developing a better understanding of the topic.

Scope of Process Documentation:


Institutional develop of WUA towards assuming multiple functions.

Background:
Process documentation is basically the continuation of the activity conducted in the previous PDA.
When the previous PDA ended in December 2010 the physical improvement (construction) works in
most of the irrigation systems were not accomplished. Hence it was desired to see what will be
impact of the construction works on the subprojects and thus the same CMIASP sub-projects
selected earlier were continued. They are:
Tanting Kalikoshi Irrigation System in Arujundhara VDC in Jhapa District
Sikhar Kateri Irrigation System in Ravi Opee VDC in Kavre District
Iku Dha Irrigation System in Thaibe VDC in Lalitpur District

Two-prone Objective of Process Documentation:


Research aspect
Positive intervention aspect

Research Aspects:
i. Improvement of physical infrastructures in the irrigation schemes undertaken as a part of
the support under CMIASP
ii. Capacity development of the WUAs relating to operation and management functions and
delivery of irrigation services.
iii. Improvement in the agricultural technology and practices aimed at enhancing the
productivity of irrigated agriculture.
iv. Initiatives of market promotion, women participation, micro-credit and income generating
activities aimed towards diversification of income opportunities of water users and their
livelihood improvement.

Output:
- Timeline: major events and activities related to the WUA (February to July 2012)
- Process Documentation Report (August 2012)
- Intervention strategy and work plan (September 2012)
- Positive interventions (October to December 2012)

1|Page
Annex 2
Checklist Used for Monitoring of Irrigation Sub-Projects

Name of the Irrigation Subproject:


Location (District/VDC/Ward No.):
Name of Members of visiting team:
Date of visit:

Respondents Information:
S/N Name Age Occupation Location

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1. General Information

i. Source:
ii. Nature of the source (seasonal/perennial):
iii. Command Area of the Scheme:
iv. Villages under irrigation command:
v. No. of households served:
vi. Irrigation coverage by season:
Monsoon (July-October):
Winter (November-March):
Spring (April-June):

vii. Nature of the physical infrastructures:

Intake: temporary/semi-permanent/permanent
Main canal (length/nature):
Branch Canal (No./length and irrigated area):
Other infrastructures

2. History of Development

i. When was this irrigation scheme started (If developed a long time back and not possible
to ascertain the year of initial development, try collecting information in the memory
carried generation to generation);

2|Page
ii. What was the reason/purpose of initiating the construction of the irrigation scheme?
What benefit was expected from the development of the irrigation scheme?

iii. Who initiated, supported and lead the initial construction and how was the initial
resource for construction mobilized? Try collecting information relating to resources
used (in cash, labor or in kind) in the initial construction?

iv. If possible try collecting the resources spent in the initial construction (cash mobilized
from among the users, labor days contributed, prevailing wage rate, other resources so
that total amount spent in the initial construction could be quantified)

v. Was there government support of some form available in the initial construction?

vi. Have rehabilitation/improvement/modernization works of some form been carried out


since the initial construction? If yes, when and what have been their outcomes? Also, try
collecting the share of contributions made by the users in each events of rehabilitation
and improvement since the initial construction?

Year of rehabilitation Reason Who supported Outcome


And improvement and how

3. Social and Economic Characteristics of the Users

i. Caste/Ethnicity of the households:

Caste/Ethnicity No. of households % of Total Population Remarks


Brachmin+Chhetri
Gurung+Magar
Rai+Limbu
3|Page
Newar
Others (Pls. specify):

ii. Occupation (put a household in specific category of occupation if one or more members
of the households are engaged in that category)

Occupation No. of households % of Total Population Remarks


Farming Only
Jobs in government or
private organizations
Farming + Jobs
Business only
Farming + Business
Foreign Employment
Daily wage earner
Others (Pls. specify):

iii. Landholding size of the households (Try to work out the range of landholding categories
based on the size of largest and smallest holders in the irrigation scheme)

Landholding Category Landless Remarks


Landless

iv. Households involved in livestock raising as main or supplementary source of farm


income:

Livestock Enterprise No. of Households No. of households producing


marketable surplus
Cow+Buffalo (Milk Production)
Goat Raising
Swine Raising
Poultry Raising
Others (Pls. specify):

4|Page
v. Educational Attainment of User Households (put a household in specific category of
educational attainment if one or more members of the households have specified level
of educational attainment)

Educational Attainment No. of Hhs % of Population Remarks


Illiterate
Literate (no formal schooling)
Primary Level
Lower Secondary Level
Secondary Level (S.L.C.)
Higher Secondary Level
University Level

vi. What has been the trend in the households sending their children to school? Also
explain the pattern in girl child education.

vii. Food sufficiency (Specify the distribution of households based on sufficiency of food)
Food Sufficiency Category No. of Hhs % of Population Remarks
Food Surplus (Producing
marketable surplus)
Food sufficient (own production
sufficient the year round food
needs)
Food deficit (Months that own
production is sufficient):
>6 months
3-6 months
<3 months
Household depending on
supplemental earning to meet the
household food needs
Others (Pls. specify):

4. Characteristics and Performance of Agricultural System

i. Crops and their area coverage by season:

Season Crops Area % of Area Remarks


(bigha/ropani)
Monsoon Rice
Maize

5|Page
Winter Wheat
Lentil
Mustard
Maize
Potato

Spring Rice
Maize

ii. Have there been changes in the cropping system and/or acreage of crops over time,
(since original construction and after the rehabilitation and improvement in the
irrigation schemes in the past)? If yes, specify these changes.

iii. Distribution of the user households by adoption of high yielding crop cultivars by crops
Season/Crop No (or %) of Hhs Remarks
Local Cultivars HYVs
Monsoon:
Rice
Maize

Winter:
Wheat
Lentil
Mustard
Potato

Spring:
Rice
Maize

6|Page
iv. Rates of Application of Chemical Fertilizers by Crops

Season/Crop Specify the rates of application of Urea, Phosphate Remarks


and Potash
Low High General
Monsoon:
Rice
Maize

Winter:
Wheat
Lentil
Mustard
Potato

Spring:
Rice
Maize

v. Productivity of Crops by Season

Season/Crop Crop Productivity (Quantity/Area) in the units that Remarks


the users feel comfortable)
Low High General
Monsoon:
Rice
Maize

Winter:
Wheat
Lentil
Mustard
Potato

Spring:
Rice
Maize

7|Page
vi. Marketable Surplus Production of Crops in the Irrigation Scheme

Season/Crop No. of Hhs Quantity of Market Sold Remarks


Producing Marketable
Surplus Surplus
Monsoon:
Rice
Maize

Winter:
Wheat
Lentil
Mustard
Potato

Spring:
Rice
Maize

5. Characteristics and Performance of Operation and Management Services

i. How is the water allocated and distributed to the users and who decides on allocation
and distribution?

In Monsoon

In Dry Seasons

ii. How is the equity in water allocation and distribution ensured in different reaches of the
irrigation scheme?

iii. How the timeliness in the irrigation distribution ensured in the irrigation scheme?

iv. How are annual and emergency repair and maintenance in the irrigation scheme carried
out? How frequent are the needs of emergency repair and maintenance in the irrigation
scheme?

v. How frequent are the occurrence of conflicts among the users relating to water
allocation and distribution? How are the conflicts managed?

8|Page
6. Characteristics and Performance of Irrigation Institution

i. When was WUA (Kulo Samiti) formed in this irrigation scheme?


ii. How many functionaries and appointees are currently involved in WUA?

Name of Position Years of Remarks


functionary/appointee engagement in
WUA
Functionaries:

Appointees:

iii. Is the WUA registered? If yes, when and how was the registration initiated?

iv. Have there been changes in the structure of WUA brought since its original formation? If
yes, what have been the changes in the structure of WUA in terms of number of
functionaries, their tenure etc.

v. How are the functionaries of the WUA selected/elected and what is their tenure now?

vi. How frequently the general assembly of the users called and what are the decisions
made in the general assembly? When the general assembly is commenced and who
decides the date of the general assembly?

vii. How frequently the meeting of executive committee called and what are the decisions
made in the executive committee? Who decides upon the date of the executive
committee meeting?

9|Page
viii. What are the existing rules pertaining to following operation and management activities
in the irrigation scheme?

Operation and Management Existing Rules Changes in the Rules brought


Activities since past
Annual repair and
Maintenance:
Date
Resource Mobilization
Fine
Others
Emergency Repair and
Maintenance:
Resource Mobilization
Fine
Others
Major Rehabilitation and
Improvement:
How decided:
Resource Mobilization
Others
Water Allocation and
Distribution:
Monsoon
Dry Season
Default:
Water theft
Damage to Infrastructure
Others
Water Fee

ix. What changes have been noticed relating to participation of users and their faith on
WUA? Has the participation of users in the WUA been increasing/decreasing over time,
if yes what have been the reasons thereto?

7. Potential of WUA Assuming the Role of Irrigation Cooperative

i. Has the WUA been involved in cooperative activities of some form such as supply of
crop production inputs, marketing of agricultural produces or in the provision of other
support services in this irrigation scheme? If yes, specify them?

ii. Has the WUA been engaged in social development or social welfare activities of some
form (such as skill development and income generating activities, literacy classes, health
and nutrition or rural infrastructure development)? If yes, specify them.

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iii. If the WUA is not engaged in the activities specified in (i) is there thinking process going
on in the WUA to initiate such activities through WUA? Have the needs for initiating
such activities realized? If yes, specify them?

iv. If WUA would like to take up the activities specified in (i) or (ii) what would be preferred
activities that the WUA would like to start?

v. If the WUA gets engaged in activities specified in (i) or (ii) above what the most users
feel would be the effect on the functioning of WUA? Will the additional engagement
support positively of negatively in the functioning of the WUA relating to operation and
management of the irrigation scheme?

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Annex 3
Table of Content of the Process Documentation Reports

1 INTRODUCTION
13
1.1 Location and Context ......................................................................................................13
1.1.1 Location .......................................................................................................................... 13
1.1.2 Topography ..................................................................................................................... 13
1.1.3 Climate............................................................................................................................ 13
1.1.4 Soils ................................................................................................................................ 13
1.2 Physical System Characteristics .......................................................................................14
1.2.1 Intake .............................................................................................................................. 14
1.2.2 Main Canal ...................................................................................................................... 14
1.2.3 Branch Canal ................................................................................................................... 14
1.2.4 Command Area................................................................................................................ 14
1.3 Socio-economic Status of Water Users ............................................................................15
1.3.1 Population Status ............................................................................................................ 15
1.3.2 Land Holding Pattern ....................................................................................................... 15
1.3.3 Crops, Cultivation Practices and their Productivity ........................................................... 15
1.3.4 Diversification in Agriculture............................................................................................ 17
1.3.5 Food Production and Food Sufficiency Situation............................................................... 17
1.3.5 Livelihood and Economic Status ....................................................................................... 18
2. EVOLUTION OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
19
2.1 History of Establishment of Irrigation System ..................................................................19
2.2 Major Rehabilitations till date.........................................................................................19
2.3 Operation and Maintenance ...........................................................................................19
2.4 Allocation and Distribution of Water ...............................................................................19
3 WATER USERS ASSOCIATION 20
3.1 Formation of WUA ..........................................................................................................20
3.2 Functionaries of WUA .....................................................................................................20
3.3 Working of WUA .............................................................................................................21
4. CMIASP INTERVENTIONS IN TANTING KALIKHOLA I.S. 21
4.1 Improvement of Physical Infrastructure ..........................................................................21
4.2 Capacity Building of WUAs..............................................................................................22
4.3 Improvement in Agriculture Technology ..........................................................................22
4.4 Initiative of Market Promotion and Income Generation...................................................22
4.5 Overall Impact of CMIASP Interventions ..........................................................................22
5 MULTIFUNCTIONAL ENGAGEMENTS OF THE WUA 23
5.1 Process Documentation and its Results ...........................................................................23
5.1 Assessment of Present Status of WUA Engagement ........................................................24
5.2 Suggestions for Enhancing Multifunctional Engagement .................................................24

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Annex 4
Process Documentation of Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation Sub-project

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Location and Context

1.1.1 Location
Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation System is a Farmer Managed irrigation system (FMIS). It is located in the
in the Arjundhara VDC of Jhapa district in Mechi zone in the Eastern Development Region. It is
located between the latitude and longitude of 26o 42 30N to 26o 43 00N and 87o 58 30E to 88o
00 00E, respectively. The location and elevation of Headsworks is 26o4130N, 875730E and
148m above msl, respectively.

The irrigation command area is easily accessible through metalled and gravelled motorable road
during all seasons (10 km North from East west highway Laxmipur Chowk which is 22 km west/north
from Chandragadhi, the District headquarters). Thereafter, in about 200m length, the road is
seasonal leading towards west from Khaireni village to reach the intake site.

1.1.2 Topography
The irrigation system is located in the Terai plains with gently slope from north to south. It lies on
the left bank of Tanting and Kalikhola River. Kalikhola flows parallel with Tanting in left side and is
about 100 m apart at the intake site.

1.1.3 Climate
The climate of the area is mainly sub-tropical and humid. It has hot and humid climate during
summer and moderately high rainfall during the monsoon. There is no meteorological station in the
command area itself, however, the nearest meteorological station is at Damak, Jhapa (Station No.
1421), and is used as reference. The recorded data of precipitation, maximum and minimum air
temperature, wind speed, relative humidity of Gainde Station is used for analysis of crop water
requirements. About 80% of the precipitation occurs in monsoon season from July to September
and the source river has abundant water at this time, while the area faces water shortage in spring
and winter season. However, the river does not dry up completely since its long stretch is fed by
perennial springs. Following are some important hydro-meteorological observations:

Mean annual rainfall varies from 10.3 mm (min) in December to 790.9 mm (max) in July. Average
annual precipitation is 2542 mm.

Mean monthly maximum temperature varies from 23.7oC in January to 33.5oC in April while the
minimum temperature varies from 8.3oC in January to 24.2oC in August. Similarly, the monthly
evaporation rate varies from 2.97 mm (min) in December to 8.05 mm (max) in April.

1.1.4 Soils
The soil of command area of the irrigation system is light soil (loam). The Nitrogen content of the
soil is of medium level. Phosphorous content is drastically low while Potassium content is of medium
level. Organic matters content varies from low to medium level. Soil texture and composition of soil
in the command area are suitable for cultivation of all crops including paddy. However, it is best
suited for maize, wheat, oil crops, pulses, and potato and vegetables.

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1.2 Physical System Characteristics

The system at present consists of a new intake, main canal of about 2.8 km in length and six branch
canals.
1.2.1 Intake
The farmer use water from Kalikhola. During monsoon season, water from Kalikhola and local field
drains, which cross the canal at different chainage, is sufficient for irrigation. However, the river
dries up during the winter season. In
order to cope up with the situation
the farmers constructed a link canal
of length 192 m to convey water
from Tanting to Kalikhola. Water
from Tanting was only used in the
winter with temporary intake
arrangement since bank and bed of
the river was changing. Due to the
heavy seepage in existing canal,
there was shortage of water in the
tail of the command area. Hence, a
new intake was constructed under
the CMIASP.
Figure 1:- New Intake of the canal system
1.2.2 Main Canal
The system has a main canal of about 2.8 km in length. It has negligible idle length and runs parallel
to the river. The existing main canal is aligned from northwest to south east along the slight ridges
and irrigate to both sides. The main canal is 2.5 ft wide and 3 ft deep. Due to excessive seepage RCC
lining has been done at some reaches as per the request of the local farmers.

1.2.3 Branch Canal


There are 6 branch canals drawing water through outlets from the main canal. Most of the canals
provide irrigation facility in larger command area with shortest possible length. The canal also
receives drainage water from upstream areas through drains locally called holy.
1.2.4 Command Area
The gross command area of the system is about 265 ha. It supplies water to a net area of 200 ha. All
the command area is irrigated, although there is some shortage of irrigation water during dry
season. The total command area has been divided into 7 Blocks. The details of the Blocks including
area irrigated and the number of household served has been presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Details of the Different Blocks
Block No Name Area Irrigated (Bigha) Households served
1 Sisne 63-12-11 42
2 Khaireni 47-13-08 36
3 Navadurga Tol 37-19-05 25
4 Singhabahini 28-08-01 41
5 Tamang Tol 39-19-09 29
6 Ratekhal 50-06-09 33
7 Bangedangi 54-07-07 45
Total 322-06-10 251

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1.3 Socio-economic Status of Water Users

1.3.1 Population Status


Tanting Irrigation System serves about 251 households in ward number 5 of Arjundhara villages.
Bhramins and Chhetris occupy the major proportion of population. Detailed breakdown of the
ethnic composition has been presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Details of Ethnic Composition of Water Users
S No Caste No of Households % of Total Population
1 Bahun /Chettri 191 76
2 Danuwar 15 6
3 Scheduled caste 12 5
4 Dhimal 9 4
5 Rai 8 3
6 Tamang 4 2
7 Rajbansi 4 2
8 Magar 3 1.2
9 Newar 3 1.2
10 Chaudhari 2 0.6
Total 251 100

1.3.2 Land Holding Pattern


The average land holding size of the water users is about 1.3 Bigha. There are three (3) landless
households. A significant number of households have less than a Bigha of land. Two household own
more than 7 Bigha of land.

Table 3: Land Holding Pattern of Water Users


Landholding Category No of Households % Land in the Category
Landless 3 1
1 - 5 Kattha 18 7
5 - 10 Kattha 39 16
10 Kattha 1 Bigha 60 24
1 2 Bigha 77 31
2 3 Bigha 24 10
3 4 Bigha 14 6
5 6 Bigha 6 2
5 6 Bigha 0 0
7 9 Bigha 2 1
Total 251 100

1.3.3 Crops, Cultivation Practices and their Productivity


Rice (in monsoon) and maize (in winter) are the major crops currently harvested in the command of
the irrigation system. During monsoon, all the fields are covered by paddy. In winter, a variety of
crops like maize, wheat, barley, potato, mustard and vegetables are cultivated. Table 4 shows the
different crops and their coverage by season.

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Table 4: Crop Coverage by Season
Season Crops Area (Bigha) % of Area Remarks
Monsoon Rice 280 87
Winter Maize 85 26
Alas 18 5.6
Wheat 15 7
Mustard 15 7
Potato 10 3
Phaper 9 2.7
Philange 7 2
Spring Rice 45 14 Mainly in Block 1 and 2.
Maize 40 12.5

Some changes in cropping system have been observed after the rehabilitation of the irrigation
system both in terms of crops and their coverage. Due to assured availability of irrigation water,
even the coverage of spring rice has expanded beyond block 1 and 2. Awareness about the High
Yielding Varieties (HYVs) has encouraged the farmers to shift to new and improved varieties. Table 5
shows the details of the HYVs used by the uses of the irrigation system.
Table 5: HYV Crops and their Coverage by Season
Season Crop Total hh cultivating hh adapting HYV Name of variety
Monsoon Rice 242 34 - 66
Winter Maize 150 Pro-agro, 40 45, all rounder
Wheat
Potato 50 45 T.S.P.
Mustard 45
Spring Rice
Maize
Farmers mainly use Urea as fertilizer. Few farmers also use compost manures that they themselves
produce. Table 6 shows the rate of application of fertilizers used by farmers in the fields.
Table 6: Fertilizers Application Rates (Kg/ Kattha)
Season Crop Fertilizer Low dose High dose Average dose
Monsoon Rice Urea 1 kg 2.5 kg 2 kg
DAP 1 kg 3 kg 2 kg
Organic manure
Winter Maize Urea 1.5 kg 5 kg 2 kg
DAP 2 kg 5 kg 3 kg
Organic manure
Wheat Urea 1.5 kg 2 kg 1.5 kg
DAP 1.5 kg 4 kg 3 kg
Organic manure
Potato Urea
DAP 1 kg 20 kg 5 kg
Potash 1.5 kg 2 kg 3 kg
Organic manure
Mustard Urea
DAP 4 kg
Organic manure
16 | P a g e
Spring Rice Urea
DAP 2 kg 5 kg 3 kg
Organic manure
Maize Urea
DAP
Organic manure

The average productivity of rice in the command area is about 3 Man per Kattha and for maize it is
about 4 Man per Kattha. Table 7 shows the crop productivity of irrigated area of the irrigation
system.
Table 7: Crop Productivity (Man/ Kattha) in the Command Area
Season Crop High Productivity Low Productivity Average Productivity
Monsoon Rice 5 1.5 3
Winter Wheat 2 1 1.5
Maize 5 3 4
Potato 8 4 5
Spring Rice 5 1.5 2.5

1.3.4 Diversification in Agriculture


Apart from crop production, livelihood in the area is also significantly diversified in terms livestock
enterprises. More than 85% households rear cow or buffalo but only about one third of these
households produce marketable surplus and two third of them consume it themselves. Milk
production is low and cows and buffalos are mainly reared for compost manure. There are few
poultry farms. Table 8 shows the number of households engaged in livestock rearing.
Table 8: Households Engaged in Livestock
Livestock Enterprise Objective Total No of hh hhs producing marketable surplus
Cow and buffalo Milk for income 215 70
Goat raising Household needs 140 20
Poultry raising For income 21 1
Pork raising Household needs 15 12

1.3.5 Food Production and Food Sufficiency Situation


Though agriculture is the main occupation of the people, only few households produce surplus food
products. The nearest market is Shanischare which situated at 3 km away. Table 9 shows the
number of households producing food surplus and the total volume of surplus food in Man.
Table 9: Households Producing Surplus Food
Seasons Crops Food Surplus (hh) Surplus Food (Man)
Monsoon Rice 31 1500
Winter Wheat 20 200
Maize 21 400
Potato 15 150
Spring Rice 22 800
The breakdown of the households in terms of food security is presented in Table 10.
Table 10: Households by Food Sufficiency
Level of Food Sufficiency: Number of hh:
Excess food (sold in the market) 31
Sufficient to eat year-round 103
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Food deficiency for 3 months 45
Food deficiency for 3 -6 months 10
Food deficiency for 6 months 15
Meeting food deficiency through other means 47
Total households 251

1.3.6 Livelihood and Economic Status


Literate rate in the area is quite high compared to national average. Table 11 presents the level of
education of the water users.
Table 11: Level of Education of the Water Users
Level of Education Number of Persons % of Total Population
Illiterate 15 0.9
Literate (informal education) 515 29.7
Primary level education 170 9.8
Lower secondary level education 295 17.8
Secondary level education 485 28.0
High school level education 190 11.0
Graduate level education 65 3.7
Total 1735 100

The water users believe that they should provide equal education opportunities to both boys and
girls. The available education centers are as follows:
1. Chile centers for children less than 5 years old 2 numbers
2. Navadurga Primary School, Navadurga Tol
3. Bhanu Medium School, Fulbari
4. Sanischare Medium School, Sanischare

The principal occupation of the water users is agriculture. About 62% of the total population are
involved solely in agriculture. However, agriculture alone is not enough to support the family
throughout the year. So, about 14% of the population are engaged in foreign employment. Also, a
significant number of farmers are involved in more than one occupation to earn their living. Table 12
shows the occupation adopted by water users of the system.
Table 12: Occupation of Water Users
Occupation Population of Users % of Total Employed Population
Population below 18 ysr 330 19.0%
Agriculture only 868 50.0%
Foreign employment 191 11.0%
Agriculture + govt. service 104 6.0%
Government service 69 4.0%
Labor 53 3.1%
Agriculture + business 51 2.9%
Self employed 35 2.0%
Private organization 18 1.0%
Business only 16 0.9%
Total 1735 100.0

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2. EVOLUTION OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

2.1 History of Establishment of Irrigation System

The irrigation system is found to have gradually expanded to come to the present size. The exact
date of the origin of the system is unknown. The whole area belonged to Gajaraj Thapa up until B.S.
2017 when Block 1 and 2 was bought by Bir Bahadur Karki. Those blocks were reported to have
irrigation facilities even during that time.

In the year 2057 B.S. the water users strived to expand the command area. The link canal was
constructed and the intake point was taken further up. This helped to enhance the water supply to
the canal system and the canal was further extended towards the south from Pingdada.
After that two canal systems were reported to prevail: Rajpaini for the upper reach and
Singhabahini kulo for the lower reach. These canals were constructed by the users themselves and
no support was received from the government.

2.2 Major Rehabilitations till date

Not much information is available pertaining to the rehabilitations of the system because no major
rehabilitation from the government side is reported to have been carried out prior to the
implementation of the CMIASP. However from the users, regular rehabilitation and even expansion
of the system is found to have been taken place. Even until now, each year the water uses mobilize
resources (labour) for desilting the canal system during the month of Jestha (May / June) and Poush
(December / January) for monsoon and winter season respectively to bring the canal to the full
capacity.

2.3 Operation and Maintenance

A rule of compulsory canal maintenance twice a year is strictly adhered in Tanting Kalikhola
Irrigation System. If there is any sudden breakage or damage to the canal the water guards will
immediately inform the WUA about the incidence. Depending on the situation, the WUA will fix an
appropriate date for the gathering of all users for the repair of the damage. Even though the canal
breakage is very rare during the winter season, during summer season canal breakage occurs on an
average one in every 15 to 20 days.

2.4 Allocation and Distribution of Water

Tanting Kalikhola WUA has developed a set of rules for water allocation and distribution. Water is
distributed in turns in proportion to the land area in each of the blocks. The timing of turns of each
block is then informed to all the water guards as well as to the block committees. The water guards
implement the turns and they in turn are monitored by the Water Distribution Committee of the
WUA.

The Water Distribution Committee comprises of five (5) members: one chairman, one secretary, one
women member and two other members. It is tried to ensure that each member is from different
block.

During monsoon (summer) season, normally there is no need of water distribution rule. However,
during dry spells (droughts), some system of turns if applies. The canal system has two water
sources (locally called Jaruwaholi) which are located in Block 2 and Block 7. Because of the
19 | P a g e
comparative ease in water distribution during monsoon season, the water guards are not paid salary
for two months of this season.

During dry (winter) season, Water Distribution Committee of the WUA decides on the timing of the
turns for each block based in proportion to the area of the block. The schedule is handed over to the
water guards for implementation. The extent to which the water guards adhere to the distribution
schedule is again monitored by the Water Distribution Committee.

Conflict among users for water distribution is reported to be quite rare in Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation
System. Just in case there is any such incidence, then the water guards submit an application to the
WUA explaining the situation. The WUA call a meeting and decide on the matter. Any individual
found guilty, is first given a warning by the WUA. However, if he/she is observed to repeat such
mistakes then he/she will be fined Rs. 251 to Rs. 500 as per the WUA statute.

3. WATER USERS ASSOCIATION

3.1 Formation of WUA


With the increase in awareness among the water users about the advantages of having assured
irrigation supply, the water users stated to get organized during year 2060 B.S. They formed a Water
Users Association (WUA) called the Tangting Kalikhola WUA. The WUA was registered in District
Water Resources Committee in the year 2062 B.S. under the Water Resource Act. Fund raising was
done from the users at the rate of Rs. 40/Bigha and a total of Rs. 10,000 was collected.

The water users deposited Rs. 164,000 security fund in a joint account of the District Irrigation Office
(DIO) and Tanting Kalikhola WUA at Banijya Bank at Chandragadi. Apart from that the users also
made labour contribution.

The WUA prepared a Work Plan in the year 2065/66 and in the year the WUA Constitution was
revised.

3.2 Functionaries of WUA


In the initial period of canal expansion, works were said to have been executed by an informal WUA
was led by Bhuwan Singh Dewan. The first formal WUA of the Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation System is
reported to have been formed in the year 2057 B.S. under the leadership of Resham Bahadur Khatri.
Then in 2059/60 B.S. a new WUA was formed under the leadership of Som Bahadur Dangi. The third
WUA was developed under the leadership of Tikaram Adhikari in the year 2061/62. Tika Ram
Adhikari got re-elected as the chairman of WUA again in the year 2064/65 B.S. also. This time with a
more responsible job of supervising the construction works.

The WUA Executive Committee comprises of 13 members: 7 representatives one from each Block
and 6 members directed elected by the General Assembly. The list of current functionaries of the
Executive Committee of WUA and one staff are presented in Table 8.
Table 2:- Functionaries of Executive Committee
Years of
S.N. Name of Functionary Position Remarks
engagement
1 Tikaram Adhikari President 7 Continued from last tenure
2 Rana Bdr. Basynet Vice-President 7 Continued from last tenure

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3 Sita Ram Dhital Secretary 4
4 Saraswoti Lamsal Joint Secretary 2
5 Amber Bahadur Rai Treasurer 5 Continued from last tenure
6 Krishna Thapa Member 7 Continued from last tenure
7 Khadga Subedi Member 7 Continued from last tenure
8 Dhan Bahadur Karki Member 5
9 Anita Rai Member 2
10 Gita Kharel Member 5 Continued from last tenure
11 Rajan Adhikari Member 5 Continued from last tenure
12 Bhisnu Maya Bika Member 2
13 Som Bahadur Dangi Member 7
14 Madan Thapa Office Secretary 7

3.3 Working of WUA


The normal tenure of the Executive Committee of WUA is of two years. The WUA of Tanting
Kalikhola seems to be active in the operation and maintenance of canal system. The WUA has a
separate committee to take care of the water allocation, distribution and dispute management
between the water users. The meeting of the executive committee is called as and when needed.
The date of the meeting is called upon by the President and Secretary. The meeting is normally
concerned with canal operation and maintenance.

The general assembly of the users is called twice every year: once during monsoon season and the
other during winter season. The date of the assembly is fixed by president and secretary with
discussion with other members of the committee. The general assembly decides and elects
members for new executive committee.

4. CMIASP INTERVENTIONS IN TANTING KALIKHOLA I.S.

4.1 Improvement of Physical Infrastructure


Tanking Irrigation System required construction of a permanent intake system and a proper canal
layout to save the farmers from the trouble of having to divert water from the intake all the time.
The following were the major physical improvement works carried out in the system:
Stabilization of Kalikhola river bank in order to protect the intake and canal from inundation
during the time of flooding.
Construction of a permanent intake structure by replacing the old temporary intake in order
to assure reliable regulated supply of water and rehabilitation of existing dyke with over spill
crate works in order to expel excess water.
Improvement of the conveyance capacity of the main canal through canal lining works.
Permanent canal flow control and outlet structures as well as road crossings and cross
drainage structures.
Arrangement of drain intake into canal system and outlets.
Additionally, Navadurga Primary School, child education centre and one temple has been
constructed.

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4.2 Capacity Building of WUAs
Various kinds of trainings were conducted under CMIASP in order to strengthen capability of the
farmers to solicit envisaged benefits from the Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation System. The trainings
included topics relating to functions and delivery of irrigation services like construction and
construction quality, operation and management, water management and leadership development.

These trainings have been instrumental in motivating the WUA functionaries to develop a system of
regular monitoring of the construction work and empowered them to undertake the task. However,
capacity building of WUA has been limited to few topics. It would be highly desirable that the WUAs
expand their activities not only in terms of operation and management services but also in other
related needs of the users. The current need is to illustrate successful models of resource
mobilization and sensitize WUA functionaries and water users on the importance of these activities
to attain satisfactory operation of the system and attaining better performance.

4.3 Improvement in Agriculture Technology


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. In Tanting Kalikhola significant changes has been observed
after the intervention from CMIASP. Assured supply of water has not only increased that area under
cultivation but also changed the choice of crops. Spring rice which was only limited to block 1 and 2
has now spread to the remaining five blocks also.

4.4 Initiative of Market Promotion and Income Generation


CMIASP also aimed at diversification of income opportunities of water users and their livelihood
improvement by market promotion, women participation, micro-credit and income generating
activities.
The steps taken by Tanting Kalikhola WUA are very much in line with the objectives of CMIASP. The
Farmers Committee of the WUA is implementing the following activities:
Collecting Rs. 10 each month from all the households and investing within the block with
interest.
Janamilan Agriculture Cooperative Organization (operated by Sahara Nepal)
Chetana Mahila Bahuuddhesya Cooperative Organization (operated by Women
Development Office)
Dahijhoda Community Forest

4.5 Overall Impact of CMIASP Interventions


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. Even though the productivity enhancement did not occur to
the extent projected during the sub-project design, Tanting Kalikhola can be cited as a good example
of significant productivity enhancement.

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5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL ENGAGEMENTS OF THE WUA

5.1 Process Documentation and its Results


INPIM Nepal, through the support of ADB, carried out process documentation of the irrigation
system by engaging local Farmer Organizer (FO). In this regard systematic documentation of the
events and processes in the course of undertaking of rehabilitation and improvement of physical
infrastructures, agricultural support services and livelihood improvement activities was carried out.
The chronological records of events and processes relating to envisaged improvements under
CMIASP and their significance in the context of each system is documented. The observations
relating to progress and achievements of envisaged improvements under CMIASP based on the
documentation of the events and processes in the system.

The emphasis of CMIASP as well as WUA has been on speedy accomplishment of the construction
works so that all the works could be completed within the stipulated period of time. The WUAs in
the system seemed more concerned about the completion of the construction works of the intake
so that water could be distributed to the users in the forthcoming dry season. The users in the
systems seem to be valuing the improvement of the physical infrastructures as the most tangible
gain resulting from the investment made under CMIASP.

The WUA of Tanting Kalikhola Irrigation System was found to be conscious of the quality of the
construction works. It has been this consciousness for the construction quality that the WUAs in the
system have developed their own institutional arrangement system of monitoring and supervision
of the construction works. The institutional arrangement and system of monitoring and supervision
of construction works seem very strong and formal.

A very interesting element of the monitoring and supervision efforts made in the system has been
time spent of the members of the monitoring committee and key personnel of the WUA on
monitoring and supervision of the construction works. If the time spent is translated in terms of
transaction cost involved, this will come out to be significant investment made by the users and
their WUA in ensuring quality construction works. The users in the system seem to be adequately
convinced that the return resulting from physical improvement of infrastructures would be much
higher in comparison to their time investment, both at the level of the community and also at the
household level.

The command area of the irrigation system has been divided into seven blocks with block level
committee constituted in each block as second tier of organization of WUA. One representative
from each block is elected to represent in the main committee. The block committees are
responsible for operation and management of the system and delivery of the irrigation services at
the block level. In each block the Block Level Agricultural Committee has also been constituted
which functions as sub-committee of the Block level committee. The agricultural committees at the
block level have been instrumental in linking the irrigation service delivery with the agricultural
activities and also in disseminating the information relating to improved agricultural technology and
practices among the farmers. This has been the institutional mechanisms devised that establishes
functional links between agricultural production activities and irrigation service delivery. The
functioning of the block level agricultural committees have similarity, at least in terms of roles and
functioning, with the production groups created under agricultural production programs started
constituted under production promotion programs of DOA. This institutional arrangement has
already started producing some good results, such as, initiative of saving and credit program started

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in each block. There is possibility of replicating this institutional arrangement to other irrigation
systems undergoing improvement under CMIASP.

5.2 Assessment of Present Status of WUA Engagement


At this stage the farmers have started experiencing improved quantity and dependability of
irrigation service delivery resulting from improvements in the physical infrastructures. They will
gradually start experimenting with different cropping system and input management practices and
eventually the most remunerative cropping system and input management practices would be
adopted by them. Therefore, a lag time is obvious between completion of the physical infrastructure
improvement works and the innovations in the agricultural system and practices leading to
transformation in the irrigated agriculture. At this stage support services of the agencies responsible
for the dissemination of agricultural technology would be valuable for the farmers in making
informed decisions at the farm level.

The irrigation system focuses on diversified cropping with emphasis on cereals, pulses and oilseeds
for the promotion of agricultural practices and technologies. Thought the farmers in the area have
also increased the area under vegetable crops, they seem to give higher value to cereals, pulses and
oilseeds due to assured market for these products.

5.3 Suggestions for Enhancing Multifunctional Engagement


The following suggestions can be made for enhancing engagement of WUA in multiple functions:
The existing Water Users association should be strengthened by increasing the involvement
of the farmers who are the direct beneficiaries of the canal system.
Technical support is to be provided to the WUA to develop a yearly operational and
maintenance plan of the system. Proper rules and regulations and scientific water
distribution system should be developed to ensure the equity and timeliness in water
allocation between the fields.
It was noted that the WUAs do not have office space of their own. In the absence of the
office space, the record keeping of the WUA gets scattered and also the WUA functionaries
face increasing constraints in organizing regular meeting. Investment from the side of
CMIASP in developing office space of the WUA would be desirable at this stage. This would
provide the WUAs more formal position in the system. This may also create environment for
the WUAs to start diversifying their activities beyond operation and management of the
irrigation system and getting linked to other institutions and development organization.
The activities relating to dissemination of pertinent agricultural technology and knowledge
seems stronger and on a more regular basis in Tanting Irrigation System. The FFS (Farmers
Field School) approach to agricultural technology dissemination and enhancing the capacity
of the users to on-farm water management would significantly contribute in this regard.

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Annex 5
Chronicle of Development of Tanting Kalikhola WUA

S/N Date Event Who Involved Process Outcome/Expected Outcome


1 Falgun 18, Testing of Soils in the Farmers, WUA Functionaries Soil samples were collected from the The soils of the area were found acidic
2066 Irrigated Area- soil of 197 and personnel deputed from farmers fields and tested for fertility
in nature probably because of the
user farmers was tested DADO elements and problems related to continued practice of growing rice
under a program organized soil under saturated condition and
by DADO continued use of urea as source of
nitrogen.
2 Falgun 18, Training on Improved Five farmers from the The participating farmers were The irrigated area in the irrigation
2066 Farming Practices organized irrigation system, who were provided knowledge on improved system has been divided in 7 blocks.
by DADO at Ratekhola selected by the WUA, crop production practices for such The selection of the farmers for the
Shivbahini Temple at Ward participated in the training. crops as wheat, maize and training was made with one farmer
No. 5 of Arujundhara VDC vegetables. The participating farmers representing from each block. The
were provided seeds of improved farmer participating in the training was
crop cultivators who were expected expected to disseminate the
to distribute the seeds to farmers in knowledge to others through peer
their respective blocks. exchanges.

Nomination of a member Mr. WUA Functionaries to The training was focused to Because Mr. Dhan Bahadur Karki was
Dhan Bahadur Karki from deicide the nomination of formation of farmers producer already involved in off-season
Block No. 1 to participate in a the member. They decided group, seed storage, fertilizer vegetable production, it was expected
training in Kathmandu to nominate Mr. Dhan management and off-season that he would disseminate the
organized by Department of Bahadur Karki because of his vegetable production. Total of 20 knowledge gained in the training to
Agriculture engagement in off-season leader farmers from 13 districts other farmers.
vegetable cultivation. participated in the training.
3 Baisakh Meeting of Executive Total of 11 functionaries The meeting was conducted with Following decisions were made by the
17, 2067 Committee from among 13 functionaries following agenda: executive committee:
of the executive committee i. Reorganization the executive i. The executive committee decided to
participated in the meeting committee expel two members- Mr. Som
ii. Formation of construction Bahadur Dangi and Mrs. Sarswoti
coordination committee Lamsal because these two

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members remained absent in three
successive meeting of the executive
committee. In place of these two
members Mr. Dhan Bahadur Karki
was appointed as joint secretary
and Mr. Madan Thapa was
appointed as member by
consensus decision.
ii. The resignation of Mrs. Geeta
Kharel was accepted and her
position of member was replaced
by Mr. Bhimlal Giri.
iii. A two member construction
coordination committee was
constituted to coordinate the
construction works in the system.
4 Baisakh General Gatthering at the WUA functionaries, The WUA functionaries, engineer The team decided to use five pumps to
18, 2067 Headworks to decide upon contractor, laborers and and the contractor observed the pump out the water to begin the
removal of water that engineer from the Jhapa amount of water that had emerged construction works beginning the next
emerged after excavation of Irrigation Development after the excavation of the site. The day morning
the site using excavator to be Division Office only possibility to begin the
able to lay down concrete for foundation construction was to drain
foundation construction out the water. The WUA
functionaries and the contractor
decided to use five pumps running
simultaneously to drain out the
water. They also decided to perform
Puja by sacrificing goat at the
headwork site.
5 Baisakh Beginning of Foundation WUA functionaries- all the The contractor and laborers laid The presence of the WUA functionaries
20, 2067 Construction at the 13 functionaries of the WUA down the steel in the foundation and was to ensure the quality of the
Headworks were present at the poured concrete in the proportion of construction works.
headwork site to observe the 1:3:6 in the foundation. The work

26 | P a g e
construction of the continued until 9:00 p.m. in the
headworks evening.
6 Baisakh Continuation of the WUA functionaries- 8 Nos. The WUA functionaries have been Continued monitoring of the
21, 2067 Foundation Construction at (chairperson, vice- present at the construction site daily construction works by the WUA
the Headworks chairperson, secretary, joint to ensure quality of the construction functionaries was to ensure the quality
secretary and treasurer and works. On this day they noted that of the construction works.
3 members) and one general the labors have not been preparing
user from Block No. 2 Mr. the concrete with required
Mool Prasad Ojha proportion of sand, cement and
coarse aggregate. They immediately
raised the concern with the
contractor which was rectified.
7 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA The WUA functionaries at the The WUA functionaries were
22, 2067 Construction Works at the functionaries (5 Nos.) at the headwork construction continued to concerned for the quality of the
Headwork headwork construction site. be present to ensure quality of construction works at the headwork
construction works. On this day therefore they had decided to be
secretary and treasurer could not present at the headwork site without
come because they had to go to break.
attend a meeting of drinking water
committee but they came in the
morning to inform others about their
engagement for the day before
going to attend the meeting.
8 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA WUA functionaries continued Continued monitoring of the
23, 2067 Construction Works a the functionaries (8 Nos.) at the monitoring of the construction construction works to ensure quality of
Headwork headworks works at the headwork site. They construction.
observed that the proportion of the
cement in the preparation of
concrete for the construction of
under sluice was not proper. This
was immediately corrected with the
intervention of the WUA
functionaries

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9 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA WUA functionaries monitored the Continued monitoring the ensure the
24, 2067 Construction Works at the Functionaries (7 Nos.) at he construction works. quality of the construction works
Headwork headwork
10 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of Mr. Ran Bahadur Construction works for the weir Continued presence of the WUA
25, 2067 Construction Works at the Basnet coordinator of the construction started. functionaries to ensure quality of
Headwork construction work at the site construction works.
11 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA Mr. Surendra Kumar Jha, engineer at WUA functionaries noted the absence
26, 2067 Construction Works at the Functionaries (4 Nos.) at the Jhapa Irrigation Development of some of the functionaries who were
Headwork construction site. Division came to supervise the absent on this day without any
construction works. information.
12 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA Alongside of the WUA functionaries Continued presence of the WUA
27, 2067 Construction Works at the Functionaries (7 Nos.) at the other users from Block No. 5 and functionaries to ensure quality of the
Headwork construction site. Block No. 2 also came to observe the construction works. Even other users
construction works. seemed to be concerned with the
construction quality and they came to
observe the construction works
voluntarily.
13 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA Continued monitoring of the
28, 2067 Construction Works at the Functionaries (5 Nos.) at the construction works by the WUA
Headwork construction site functionaries
14 Baisakh Observation/Supervision of Six persons from Irrigation The DOI officials who had come for
29, 2067 the Construction Works by Division Office had come on the supervision appreciated the
the Officials from Irrigation observation/supervision speedy construction works at the
Development Division Office mission. WUA Functionaries site. They also appreciated the
(5 Nos.) were present at the continued involvement of the WUA
site. in the construction supervision.
15 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA The WUA functionaries noted the Continued monitoring of the
30, 2067 Construction Works at the Functionaries (5 Nos.) absence of other functionaries who construction works to ensure quality of
Headwork were supposed to come for the construction.
monitoring works.
16 Baisakh Continuation of the Presence of WUA The head of Irrigation Division Office
31, 2067 Construction Works at the functionaries (3 Nos.) and site engineer came on an
Headwork observation/supervision visit to the

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site. On this day the construction
work continued only for half of the
day and all the labors went on leave
after 12:00 noon.
17 Jyestha Initiation of Construction of WUA Functionaries- The labors laid down steel in the Continued monitoring of the WUA to
12, 2067 Foundation in the Main Canal Chairperson, Secretary and 5 foundation and poured concrete ensure construction quality
other members
18 Jyestha Interaction Program WUA Chairperson with 12 The discussion was concentrated to The WUA functionaries were made
22-23, organized by National other functionaries strengthening the activities of the aware of the roles of NIFUWAN and its
2067 Federation of Irrigation participated in the District level entities of the programs for supporting irrigation
Water Users Association- interaction program along federation water users association in different
Nepal (NIFUWAN) with other members of parts of the country
District level entities of
NIFUWAN from Ilam and
Jhapa District
19 Jyestha Training Program on Total of 41 farmers and WUA The farmers were provided The training was focused to
27, 2067 Improved Agricultural functionaries participated in information on improved practices transformation of cropping system in
Practices organized by the training. Farmers were of crop production for forthcoming the area with the introduction of
District Agricultural involved from each of the 7 monsoon season. The farmers were improved production inputs and
Development Office of Jhapa blocks of the irrigation also provided seeds of improved practices. The participation of farmers
system crop cultivars from all the seven blocks of the system
was expected to facilitate in
disseminating the knowledge among
other farmers through peer interaction.
20 Jyestha Training Program on WUA Total of 19 functionaries and The training was focused to The training was expected to making
28, 2067 Capacity Building and farmers participated in the developing resource mobilization the WUA capable of generating and
Resource Mobilization training. These included 5 plan in the irrigation system. The managing financial resources from
organized by Irrigation functionaries of the WUA functionaries were provided within the system.
Division Office of Jhapa executive committee, information on ways and means of
Chairperson of block level generating irrigation service fee (ISF)
committees from 6 blocks and its management in the system
and 8 other farmers
21 Asar 2, Heavy rainfall damaging the The extent of damage The labors engaged in the WUA making continued watch on the

29 | P a g e
2067 PCC works in the main canal assessed by 3 functionaries construction works were mobilized construction work and making prompt
of the WUA immediately to repair the damage. action in taking up corrective
after the rainfall measures.
22 Asar 4, Meeting of WUA Executive The meeting was attended No business could be taken up in the The reason for absence of the
2067 Committee by Chairperson, Vice- absence of needed quorum of the functionaries in the meeting was too
Chairperson and Vice- functionaries present in the meeting. pressing works in the monsoon
Secretary and two members cropping for most farmers.
of the executive committee
23 Asar 5, Damage to protection wall at Damage inspected by Vice- Initiative taken by the WUA in Continued initiative of WUA in making
2067 the intake due to heavy Chairperson and other two reconstructing the damaged portion prompt action in correcting the
rainfall members of the executive of the protection wall damages.
committee
24 Asar 8, Heavy rainfall damaging the Damage inspected by the Initiative made in removing and WUA making prompt response in the
2067 camp made at the Chairperson, Vice- transporting the construction events of damages/disasters with the
construction site Chairperson and two materials stored in the camp to a aim of minimizing the possible
members of the executive safe distance. consequences of the damage.
committee
25 Asar 12, Monitoring Visit of Personnel Chairperson, Vice- The visit was focused to assessing Continued initiative of WUA in
2067 from Irrigation Division Chairperson and Secretary of the damage caused to the monitoring of the construction works
Office, Jhapa WUA and engineers and construction works and making alongside of the personnel from
overseers from Irrigation corrective measures for smooth irrigation office.
Division Office undertaking of the construction
works
26 Asar 22 Interaction Program Functionaries of WUA from The session was focused to sharing The information shared by the
and 23, Organized by National Tanting and other three of historical context of the functionaries of NIFUWAN was
2067 Federation of Irrigation irrigation systems- Poliya, development of NIFUWAN and its expected to be disseminated among
Water Users Association Puwa-Majhuwa and roles in strengthening/empowering the farmers and functionaries of other
(NIFUWAN) Taalkhara Irrigation Systems irrigation water users associations in WUAs through peer exchanges.
participated in the the country
interaction session
27 Bhadra 2, Information sharing for The farmers in Block 1 Information relating to initiation of The aim of the information sharing was
2067 starting saving program by participated in the session saving program was discussed with to motivate the farmers in starting
the farmers organized by the farmers. saving program leading to the

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Sahara-Nepal, an NGO development of farmers cooperative in
supporting the farmers in the irrigated area.
livelihood improvement
programs
28 Ashwin 4, Meeting of WUA 13 functionaries of the WUA The meeting was organized as a WUA taking initiative for planned
2067 functionaries participated in the meeting. planning meeting wherein the WUA execution of the development
Other invitees present on finalized the programs for fiscal year programs in the system, including the
the occasion were extension 2067/2068 in consultation with programs of promotion of
officer of DADO-Jhapa, other stakeholders. The decisions improvement agricultural practices in
representative of Sahara- made in the meeting were relating the area.
Nepal and chairperson of to:
adjoining Paliya Irrigation i. Finalizing the programs for fiscal
System year 2067/2068.
ii. Identifying training needs on
improved agricultural practices
to be undertaken by the
Agricultural Service Center.
iii. Identification of 4 crop
demonstration site for the
forthcoming winter season.
iv. Mr. Sitaram Dhital was released
from the position of the
secretary of the system.
29 Ashwin 7, Meeting of WUA Executive Eight of the 13 functionaries The meeting was focused to deciding
2067 Committee participated in the meeting upon the plans for the distribution of
improved seeds of maize and wheat
and vegetables to the farmers.
30 Ashwin 8, Meeting of Water Users Total of 38 farmers The farmers decided to start a The initiative was focused to starting a
2067 Group in Block 1 participated in the meeting compulsory saving program in this small saving and credit program by the
Block by contributing Rs. 10 per users group.
month.
31 Ashwin 9, Meeting of Water Users Total of 40 farmers along The farmers decided to start a
2067 Group in Block 3 with five executive members compulsory saving program in the

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of the block committee block.
participated in the meeting
32 Ashwin Meeting of Saving Credit The members of the group, The group has already extended the
10, 2067 Program of Triveni Women WUA functionaries and membership to 101 women
Group Sahara-Nepal participated in members with total saving amount
the meeting of Rs. 3,300. The group decided to
advance credit among the members
with this amount.
33 Kartik 12, Observation Visit of WUAs Farmers on visit together The WUA functionaries shared their
2067 from Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur with WUA functionaries from experiences with the physical
and Sankhuwasabha to Tanting Irrigation System infrastructure improvement works
Tanting undertaken with the support under
CMIASP and also initiative being
made relating to saving programs
and dissemination of improved
agricultural practices.
34 Chaitra Extension Ag. program District Ag. Dev. Office 3 years extension of Ag. Dev. Continue agriculture extension works
19, 2068 (DADO), Jhapa Program in pocket area which is supported by district office
35 Chaitra Agriculture committee DADO, Jhapa. Committee: Formation of Agriculture 220 kg of sample seeds distributed for 5
20, 2068 1) Madan Thapa Committee blocks in Tanting I.S. Involvement of
2) Kul Prasad Khatiwada NGOs
3) Tek Bahadur Khadka 1) Heifer International
2) Sahara Nepal
36 Baisakh WUA meeting WUA members Operation & Maintenance of Default maintenance of canal by
02, 2069 Irrigation System contractor who was involved in
construction works
37 Baisakh Handover of physical WUA and Contractor Completion of construction works Contractor agreed to maintain
05, 2069 structure structures for 3 years onward.
38 Baisakh Main Canal cleaning work Users from the system Labor contribution for canal desilting Those who were not present in labor
12, 2069 work contribution were fined in cash.
39 Baisakh Women Agriculture 32 women from different Formation of Janamilan Ag. The cooperative is doing Dairy,
17, 2069 Cooperative agri. blocks Cooperative vegetable farming, fund raising and
loan disbursement for Ag. Activities.

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40 Baisakh WUA meeting WUA members Strengthening & Development of They plan request in District
19, 2069 physical structures Development office, Jhapa
41 Baisakh Meeting with research Research team: Interaction with farmers Development of Agriculture in irrigated
19, 2069 experts 1) Orihama Guchi- JAICA, agriculture
Japan
2) Bhim Man Basnet Ag.
Expert
3) Narayan Gurung Ag.
Expert
4) Er. Nityananda Jha
Eastern I. D. D. No. 1
Jhapa
42 Baisakh Cattle farming campaign Chetana Multi-Purpose Cattle raising within the village Free distribution sample goat to Dalit
20, 2069 Cooperative nearby chure-hill families and 400 vaccines distributed in
the village
43 Jestha 02, WUA meeting WUA members Discussion on: Regular meeting of WUA
2069 1. Tree plantation at headwork Protection work for headwork site
2. Evaluation of WUA Monitoring of account maintain by Mr.
3. Nomination 7 block committee Lal Bahadur Shrestha
44 Jestha 04, Distribution of Seeds Main Committee CMIASP provided 300kg Paddy seeds Proportional distribution of seeds in 7
2069 for WUA for demonstration and blocks in the command area.
agriculture extension work in Motivation for Vegetable Farming
Irrigation System Marginal farmers (women, dalit)
received some Chichens for livestock
raising
45 Jestha 08, Formation of Block WUA and farmers Chairman of 7 Blocks are: Collection of Irrigation Fee (Due from
2069 Committee Block-1 absent 2064 to 2068).
Block-2 Tek Bahadur Khadka Resource collection for system
Block-3 Hasta Bahadur Siwa operation
Block-4 Tukhu Dhimal
Block-5 Lal Bahadur Shrestha
Block-6 Dhanendra Budhathoki
Block-7 Kul Prasad SKhatiwada

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46 Jestha 13, Community forest in Dahijhoda Community Conservation and Utilization of Utilization of forest product like wood,
2069 Irrigation System Forest, ArjunDhara VDC community forest. firewood, fodders for cattle
47 Jestha 18, Loan for agriculture purposes Chetana Multipurpose 16 farmers start Turmeric Cultivation The local cooperative has capital of
2069 Cooperative in 10 kaththa (0.50ha) land for about 70-80 lakh.
demonstration. Helping farmers in agriculture activities.
Provision of loan of Rs. 50,000.0 for Demonstration and distribution of
member only within the system. agriculture samples.

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Annex 6
Process Documentation of Ikudha Irrigation Sub-projects

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Location and Context

1.1.1 Location
Ikudha Irrigation System is a Farmer Managed irrigation system (FMIS). It is located in the Godawari
VDC (ward no 1 and 3) and Thaiba VDC (ward no 1, 2, 3 and 4) of Lalitpur district in Bagmati zone in
the Central Development Region. The system lies within Godavari Khola Basin.

The irrigation command area is easily accessible through a black topped road from Lagankhel to
Badegaun about 6 km and then towards east about 20 minutes walk through a foot trail. Most of the
main canal reach and the branch canals can be approached through the existing village trail tracks.

1.1.2 Topography
The irrigation system is located in the periphery of Kathmandu valley on the left bank of the
Godavari Khola. It is located in the hill traces with land that slopes gently from north to south from
an elevation of 1425m to 1370m above msl. The soils are fertile and very much suitable for
agriculture.

1.1.3 Climate
The climate of the area is mainly tropical and humid. It has warm and humid climate during summer
and moderately high rainfall during the monsoon. There is no meteorological station in the
command area itself, however, the nearest meteorological station (about 8 km away) at Khokana
(Index No. 1073) is used as reference. The recorded data of precipitation, maximum and minimum
air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity of Khokana and evapo-transpiration of
Kathmandu airport (Index No. 1030) is used for the analysis of crop water requirement.

Following are some important hydro-meteorological observations:


Mean annual rainfall varies from 3.21 mm (min) in November to 443.29 mm (max) in July.
Average annual precipitation is 994 mm.
Mean monthly maximum temperature varies from 18.2oC in January to 28.4oC in June while
the minimum temperature varies from 1.3oC in January to 20.2oC in July. Relative humidity
varies from 87.2% in January to 54.6% in April. Similarly, the monthly evaporation rate varies
from 1.8 mm (min) in January to 5.5 mm (max) in May.

1.1.4 Soils
The soil texture is clayey loam at the middle and silty loam at the tail end of the command area and
soil reaction is slightly acidic with soil pH 5.9 and 6.20 at the middle and tail end respectively. The
nutrient content is medium with respect to the Nitrogen (0.14 and 0.17 percent), Potassium (172.8
and 264.0 Kg/ha) and Organic Matter (2.89 and 3.40 percent) respectively at the middle reach and
tail end of the command area. But the Phosphorus content is high with 100.85 and 104.05 kg/ha at
the middle and tail end of the command area.

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1.2 Physical Characteristics
The system consists of a temporary side intake, main canal of about 3 km in length and two
branch canals each of about 500m at the tail reach.
1.2.1 Intake
The intake of the system is called as
Rachantar Muhan. Intake lies in ward no-
3 of Godawari VDC. It is about 20
minutes walk from Kitini through a foot
trail. The old intake was a temporary
obstruction across the river made up of
locally available materials like stones,
bamboo, bushes, plastic bags filled with
sand and clay to divert water to canal. Canal
The intake used to be washed out at Temporary
times of high discharge in the river. So it Obstruction
required frequent repairs during every
monsoon season. Moreover, only a small River flow
portion of discharge in the river was
diverted to the canal by the low height
Figure 2:- Old Intake of the Canal System
temporary obstruction.
The present intake is a permanent structure constructed by CMIASP. Figure 2 shows the current
intake.
1.2.2 Main Canal
The system has a main canal of about 3 km in length. The canal runs across the command area
aligning itself parallel to the main road that links Godwari to Lagankhel. There are PCC linings in
some intermediate reaches of canal. Otherwise, it is mostly earthen and does not have uniform
cross-section along its length.
As there is no provision of proper outlets to lead water into fields, the canal is breached at places
which are probably done by the farmers themselves to divert water into their fields. There are no
proper crossings across the foot trails for efficient conveyance of water. No provision of drainage
system is seen, so spill flood water from areas of higher elevation left to the canal is likely to enter
the canal causing sediment
deposition.
1.2.3 Branch Canal
There are 2 branch canals, each of
about 500m in length, in the canal
network at the tail reach of the main
canal in Thaiba VDC.
1.2.4 Command Area
The command area of the system is
about 100 hectares of Thaiba VDC
ward no. 1-5 and Godawari VDC ward
no. 1-3. However, water supplied is
sufficient only during monsoon while most of the part in the tail reaches of canal remains dry during
winter. During spring, water flowing in the canal is very less so irrigation is hardly possible.

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1.3 Socio-economic Status of Water Users
1.3.1 Population Status
Ikudha Irrigation System serves 544 households (Thaiva VDC 344 and Godawari VDC 200). The
Bhramins and Chhetris (mainly Silwal and Bista) occupy the major proportion of population in
Godawari VDC while Newar community is dominant in Thaiba VDC. There are few Tamang families
in Godawari VDC. The proportion of different ethnicity in the users group is shown below.
Figure 3:- Ethnic Composition of Water Users

Dalits Bhramin & Tamang


2% Chhetri 3%
25%

Newars
70%

1.3.2 Land Holding Pattern


The average land holding size of the water users is about 2 to 3 ropanies. There are about 40
landless households. A significant number of households in Thaiba VDC have less than a ropani of
land. A person owns as much as 100 ropanies of land in Godawari VDC near the intake of the
system.
Table 3:- Land Holding Pattern of Water users
Landholding Category No of Households
Landless 40
Less than 1 ropani 80
1 5 ropani 500
Greater than 5 30

The land holdings ratios are about 5 to 8 ropani 10%, 0.5 to 1.5 ropani 75%, 0.25 ropani 10% and
land less 5%.
1.3.3 Agricultural Practices
Rice (in monsoon) and wheat (in winter) are the major crops harvested in the command area of the
irrigation system. During monsoon, all the fields is covered by paddy. In winter, besides wheat,
about 30% of fields are used for cultivation of other crops like vegetables, potato and mustard.
The main crop in summer season is Paddy 90 %. The winter season crops are mainly wheat 70%,
potato 10% and others 20%.

People remember at times when the canal is out of work, only two crops (rice and wheat) were
raised and the field remains fallow in spring. Now as the canal is rehabilitated, few farmers have
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started vegetable production. There are few nurseries for commercial production of vegetables at
present. Table 5 shows the productivity of crops by season and area.
Table 4: Crop coverage by season
Season Crops Area % of Remarks
(hectares) Area
Monsoon Rice 100 100
Winter Wheat 70 70
Mustard 5 5
Potato 10 10
Vegetables 15 15
Spring Vegetables 40 40% The field at tail reaches usually remains
fallow due to lack of water.

People usually produce local cultivars of rice and wheat. Majority of farmers sow Taichung and few
(about 20%) sow Pokhareli and Masinu.

Farmers mainly use Urea as fertilizer. Few farmers, in Godawari VDC, also use compost manures.
Composts are generally produced by farmers themselves. Table 6 shows the rate of application of
fertilizers used by farmers in the fields.

Table 6: Fertilizers used by Farmers


Rates of Application Remarks
Crops
High Low Average
Rice- Urea 3 Pathi 1 Pathi 2 Pathi/ropani
Compost 40 Doko/ropani
Wheat 4 Pathi 1 Pathi 2 Pathi/ropani

1.3.4 Agricultural Productivity


The average productivity of rice in the command area is about 5 muri per ropani and that of wheat is
about 2 muri per ropani. There are some areas in head reaches of canal where sufficient water is
available, that produces paddy as high as 10 muri per ropani. Table 6 shows the crop productivity
per ropani of land.
Table 7: Crop Productivity in the Command Area
Crop Productivity (Muri/Ropani) Remarks
Crop
High Low Average
Rice 9-10 3-4 5-6
Wheat 4 1 2

1.3.5 Economic Status of Water Users


The principal occupation of the water users is agriculture. However, agriculture alone is not enough
to support the family throughout the year. So, majority of households involve in more than one
occupation to earn their living.

Of the total, about 10 % are completely dependent on agriculture. About 46% of the population are
involved in government or private jobs along with the farming and 17% in farming and business. The
table below shows the occupation adopted by water users of the system.

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Table 5:- Occupation of Water Users
Population of % of Total Employed
Occupation
Water Users Population
Population below age of 18 327 18
Farming Only 183 10
Jobs only - 0
Farming + Jobs 846 46
Business only - 0
Farming + Business 314 17
Foreign Employment 88 5
Daily Wage Earner 92 5
Total 1850 100

Though agriculture is the main occupation of the people, the rearing of animals is less. There are
only few households rearing livestock in Thaiba VDC but more than 50% of households in Godavari
VDC rear cows. But the milk production is very low and cows are mainly reared for compost manure.
There are few poultry farms. The table below shows the number of households engaged in livestock
rearing.
Table 6:- Households engaged in livestock
No of households producing
Livestock Enterprise No of Households
marketable surplus
Cow 100 N/A
Goat raising 30 N/A
Poultry raising 7 N/A

The annual agricultural production of the households is not sufficient to sustain their yearly food
needs. There are only few households that produce surplus products, but the quantity of surplus is
very less. The nearby market is Badegaun and Godavari.

Majority of households are engaged in other occupation such as service and business to fulfill their
food demand. There are some households who work for daily wages to earn their living. The table
below shows the households by food sufficiency.

Table 7:-Households by food sufficiency


Food sufficiency Category No. of Households Remarks
Food Surplus (producing The food surplus is
10
Markatable surplus) practically very less.
Food sufficient for year round 10
Food deficit
> 6 months 400
3 - 6 months 150
< 3 months 30
Households depending on They are daily wage
40
supplemental earning earners.

1.3.3 Educational Level


About 95% of total population are literate. Enrolling the children into school is almost 100%. School
dropout rate is high at primary level at standards 1 and 2. The dropouts are then negligible but it

39 | P a g e
increases at secondary level at standards 7 and 8. The majority of students completing SLC enrol
themselves into higher secondary level of education. The trend of youths going abroad for foreign
employment is high after completing higher secondary level of education. There are only few people
who engage themselves to university education, doing their bachelors and masters degree.

There does not seem much difference in educating a girl and a boy child but the dropout rate at
secondary level is slightly greater for a girl child than for a boy child. The reasons could be to help
mothers with the household work.
Illiterate Literate
5% (informal)
5%
Primary
University Level Lower
Level 5% Secondary
16% Level
61%

Higher Lower
Secondar Secondar Higher
y Level y Level Secondary
32% 37% University Level
Level 31%
8%

Figure 3:- Educational Level of Water Users Figure 4:- Households by Educational Status

2. Evolution of Physical Infrastructure

2.1 History of Establishment of Irrigation System


The Ikudha Irrigation System has an age old history. No one remembers when the system was
started. People remember the system as Raj Kulo.

The system was mapped by the Department of Survey in 2022 B.S. There used to run 4 Ghattas
(water mills) lower to the intake of canal. So the canal in the head reach (in Gogawari VDC) is locally
named as Ghatte Kulo and the tail reach (in Thaiba VDC) is named as Ikudha.

Iku in newari means dizziness and Dha means canal. The canal got its name as Ikudha as the
length of canal is very wavy and one feels dizzy when walking along the length of the canal.

2.2 Major Rehabilitations till date


Some of the major rehabilitations done in the system are-
A. In 2038 B.S Intake was swept away by surging river. The two VDCs supported the
construction of intake by providing 3 gabions. The farmers contributed labor to construct
the intake.
B. In 2046 B.S., the intake was again destroyed. The farmers organized themselves to
rehabilitate the intake using stones, soil and other plastic materials for the construction.
C. In 2049 B.S., DWIDP provided 2 gabions for stabilizing the intake of the canal.

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D. In 2065 B.S., rehabilitation of intake and canal was done. Rs. 100 per house hold was
collected to carry out the work.
E. In Chaitra 2066 B.S., lining of the canal was done at parts where seepage was high. The VDCs
together contributed Rs. 1.25 lakhs for the lining of the canal.

2.3 Operation and Maintenance


A local Newar Guthi (a socio-cultural group) is most active committee in case of the maintenance of
the canal. The Guthi calls upon for the repair and maintenance work whenever need arises.
Generally people gather (atleast one from each household) whenever the Guthi calls and they
contribute in kind for the maintenance of the canal.

During the months of Jestha and Mangsir, each year, cleaning and maintenance of the intake and
canal is carried out. The Guthi fixes the date. Every household contributes for the job either in cash
or labour. Generally, at least one person from each house works voluntarily. The house failing to
come for the work generally help with cash but there is no any rule of penalty for the house not
being present during the job. When Guthi calls upon for any work, no one hesitates to participate,
though the household may not be the user of the canal.

The intake, as it is temporary, is usually swept away during high discharge in the river (during
monsoon). So intake needs to be reconstructed every year. Intake is repaired almost every year at
the beginning of monsoon, using the local materials by the farmers themselves. Sometimes, the VDC
and DDC provide some funds for the maintenance of the intake system. In the year 2065 B.S., a total
of 1Lakhs and twenty five thousand rupees was provided by the two VDCs i.e. Thaiba and Godavari
VDC, for the rehabilitation of the intake.

2.4 Allocation and Distribution of Water


No rules have yet been developed for the water allocation and distribution. As the general practice,
the farmers in the head reaches of canal extract water from the canal first. The turn then gradually
shifts towards the corresponding fields at lower reaches. The fields at the tail reaches get water only
after fields at the upper reaches get sufficient water. The farmers manage their plantation time
accordingly.

There is no any means or rule to ensure the equity and timeliness in distribution of water. The fields
at the tail have to wait for their turn which comes only after the field, upstream to it, gets water.
The fields at the tail end may even remain dry, if water in the canal is less.

There is no dispute for water distribution. The occurrence of minor conflicts is common during
distribution of water. The conflicts usually occur at times of low discharge of water, when two or
more farmers want to irrigate the field at the same time. The conflicts are managed by the farmers
themselves under mutual understandings.

3. Water Users Association


3.1 Formation of WUA
The WUA of Ikudha Irrigation System was formed and registered in 2063 B.S. under Water Resource
Act at District Water Resource Office. The first executive member consisted of 11 members with Mr.
Suresh Bajracharya as the President.

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In 2063, JICA and DOI together became interested to build permanent intake system for the canal.
Till then there were no any organized group of water users. But a registered WUA was mandatory
under the rules and regulation of DoI. So the farmers organized themselves into WUA to attract the
attention and to carry out the administrative works. The WUA executive committee was then
formed with the members who are capable to deal, communicate (in English) with the
representative of JICA. After the formations of the 1st executive committee, membership forms
were distributed among the water users and WUA was formed.
3.2 Functionaries of WUA
After the first General Assembly of WUA in 2065 B.S., new executive committee was formed headed
by Mr. Suresh Bajracharya again. The committee was then enlarged to 17 members. The tenure of
the present committee is 3 years which will come to end in 2068 B.S.

There is a provision of electoral system to choose the executive members of WUA. But the present
functionaries were selected under mutual understandings and negations. The members of the
present Executive member are:
Table 8:- Functionaries of Executive Committee
Engagement in
S.N. Name of Functionary Position Remarks
WUA (years)
1 Suresh Bajracharya President 5 Continued from last tenure
2 Ram Maharjan Vice-President 2
3 Babu Ram Maharjan Secretary 5 Continued from last tenure
4 Gyanlal Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
5 Jog Bahadur Maharjan Member 2
6 Krishna Govinda Maharjan Member 2
7 Babu kaji Maharjan Member 2
8 Sarita Maharjan Member 2
9 Nani Chori Bajracharya Member 2
10 Sabitri Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
11 Laxmishova Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
12 Tatwo Maya Shrestha Member 2
13 Rabindra Silwal Member 2
14 Binod Silwal Member 2
15 Puskar Maharjan Member 2
16 Ganga Ram Maharjan Member 2
17 Shova Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure

3.3 Working of WUA


WUA seems to be passive in the operation and maintenance of canal system. As it was formed to
establish an institutional body to initiate the construction of intake, it is primarily concerned on
matters related to it. There is no any role of WUA in the water allocation, distribution and dispute
management between the water users.

The meeting of the executive committee is called when needed. The date of the meeting is called
upon by the President and Secretary. The WUA has no office of its own. The venue of the meeting is
usually the office of Thaiba VDC. The meeting, at present, is particularly concerned with the
construction of the intake system. The information about the progress in the process involved is
42 | P a g e
shared by the president and secretary to other members. The bidding of the project of intake
construction is completed recently. The WUA now has to deposit a refundable sum of Rs. 72,000/-
for the construction to start. The executive committee has now to decide how to manage the fund.

At present, an 11 member construction committee, headed by Mr. Suresh Bajracharya, is recently


formed to look after the construction of the canal intake which is supposed to be started shortly.

The general assembly of the users is called every 3 years. The date of the assembly is fixed by
president and secretary with discussion with other members of the committee. The general
assembly decides and elects members for new executive committee.

The water users seem to be indifferent of the functioning of WUA. The major operations and
maintenance of canal is done under the call of local Newar Guthi (socio-cultural group). Moreover,
WUA seems to be politically driven as the executive members are also selected under political
negotiations. WUA is not getting the attention and active participation of the direct beneficiaries of
the irrigation system.

4. CMIASP Interventions in Ikudha


4.1 Improvement of Physical Infrastructure
Ikudha Irrigation System required urgent construction of a permanent intake system and a proper
canal layout. Hence, through the project, a permanent headworks has been constructed for a flood
discharge of 52 cumecs. A single orifice type side intake with cut-off (1.5m depth) in river bed
throughout the 12m river width was constructed. The level of the main canal at intake site has been
maintained at 1543.75 m while the average bed level of the river is at 1543.79m. The width of the
trap bed of side intake is 1.5 m and the height is 1.0 m. The pond level is at 1544.06 m.

The orifice of size 0.9m wide and 0.25 m deep has been proposed. The crest level of the orifice was
set at 0.1m above the river bed to check the excess inflow of water and sediments. A trash rack of
size 1.1m wide and 0.4m height has been constructed in front of orifice to prevent entry of gravel
and floating debris into the canal. The length of downstream launching apron is 3.0m.

For the stabilization of the river course up and down stream of the intake approximately 6m river
bank protection works has been provided. The protection works included the reshaping of the
riverbanks and raising the level of the both banks. Gabion mattresses have been used to reshape the
river banks. Downstream protection works have also been carried out especially to protect the head
reach of the main canal and to reduce risk of headworks failure due to piping, uplift and scouring
and thus increasing the overall stability of the headworks site.

The total length of the main canal is 3.2 km whereas idle length is 0.15 km. There are 1 Branch and 2
sub-branch canals off-taking from the main canal. The main canal (discharge capacity of 0.15m3/s)
has been reconstructed over its full length. Most part of it (ch 0+000 to 2+240) has been lined.
Reshaping has been carried out to create a uniform cross section. The bed width of the main canal is
0.5-0.7 m with free board 0.15-0.3 m. The canal slope varies from 0.0014 to 0.04. Side slope of the
canal is 1:0.5 at the earthen portion and 1:0 for lined portions.

The different hydraulic structures constructed in the main canal are as follows:
Orifice at the intake
Settling Basin and Spillway

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Foot slabs
Division Box
Pipe Outlets
Canal Protection structures etc.

Available source has been utilized. Headworks, Lining works (1km) concrete and brick. Water
operation is going on properly.

4.2 Capacity Building of WUAs


Capacity development of the WUAs relating to operation and management functions and delivery of
irrigation services was planned in Ikudha under CMIASP.

No rules exist for water distribution. Trainings are provided by the District Agriculture Office. By
Agriculture Department many trainings have been conducted. Trainings are attended by many
farmers but it not brought is use.

Field visit to Charikot, Ramechap, and Jiri taken by CMIASP to observe what kind of works has been
done.

4.3 Improvement in Agriculture Technology


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. Improved varieties of potato received. It was expected that
they will also receive fertilizer but fertilizer was not received.

A farmers cooperative has been formed by the local farmers. Farmers are only for name, not real
farmers. Only rice is taken serous, not other crops.

Commercialized non-seasonal vegetable has scope. Mushroom cultivation and floriculture. Barahi
Agriculture Cooperative and Youth Agriculture Cooperative.

4.4 Initiative of Market Promotion and Income Generation


CMIASP also aimed at diversification of income opportunities of water users and their livelihood
improvement by market promotion, women participation, micro-credit and income generating
activities.

Production is consumed by the users itself. Hence there is no problem of marketing. Not much done
in terms of market promotion and women participation.

4.5 Overall Impact of CMIASP Interventions


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. Some improvements have been reported in terms of
introduction of new agricultural technologies and verities of crops in Ikudha Irrigation Sub-project.

44 | P a g e
5. Multifunctional Engagements of the WUA
5.1 Assessment of Present Status of WUA Engagement
WUA has not yet been involved in any cooperative activities or any other social welfare
programmes. And it seems that they do not realize any need of such activities. They have the
concept that there are lot of organizations, NGOs and private sectors to conduct those activities.
After the formation of WUA, DoA and DoI have conducted few training programs to the members
such as:
Training on construction and accounting by DoI
Exchange visit to FMIS by DoI
Distribution of seeds by DoA

5.2 Suggestions for Enhancing Multifunctional Engagement


The following suggestions can be made for enhancing engagement of WUA in multiple functions:
The existing Water Users association should be strengthened by increasing the involvement
of the farmers who are the direct beneficiaries of the canal system.
Technical support is to be provided to the WUA to develop a yearly operational and
maintenance plan of the system. Proper rules and regulations and scientific water
distribution system should be developed to ensure the equity and timeliness in water
allocation between the fields.

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Annex 7
Chronicle of Development of Ikudha WUA

S/N Date Event Who Involved Process Outcome/Expected Outcome


1. Falgun 14, Inauguration of the Contractor, engineers and The WUA functionaries together The outcome of this meeting at the
2066 construction works in Iku functionaries of the WUA with the engineers and the intake was that WUA functionaries
Dha Irrigation System. The and community organizer contractor engaged in the together with engineers and the
land clearing at the site of construction works discussed contractor developed strategy for land
the intake was started together the strategy to undertake clearing and undertake the
beginning Falgun 21, 2066 the construction works envisaged construction works.
under CMIASP support
2. Chitra 7, Beginning of construction Contractor, engineer and The construction of the new intake The new intake is expected to reduce
2066 of intake structure technicians from Irrigation was started. The water flow from the losses and minimize the repair and
Division Office, the source was diverted to be able maintenance needs.
Functionaries of WUA to create a condition for the
construction works at the intake to
proceed.
3. Chaitra 7, Meeting of WUA Executive All the functionaries of The agenda of the meeting was to The meeting nominated two persons to
2066 Committee WUA and Community nominate two persons to attend a attend the operation and management
Organizer training on operation and training at Hetauda.
management at Hetauda
4. Baisakh 3, Meeting of WUA Executive 11 Functionaries of WUA The agenda of the meeting was to All the 11 functionaries of the WUA
2067 Committee nominate persons to attend a attended the leadership training.
leadership training organized by
National Federation of Irrigation
Water Users Association.
5. Baisakh 15, Beginning of concrete Engineer, contractor and The process of laying the concrete at
2067 laying at the intake community organizer the intake started after completing
the steel works.
6. Baisakh 16, Inspection of the Site engineer, contractor, Mr. Vijaya Raj Upadhyaya inspected
2067 construction works by Mr. community organizer and the construction works undertaken
Vijaya Raj Upadhyaya from one WUA functionary and gave instruction to the site
CMIASP deputed for the inspection engineer and contractor

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of the construction works
7. Jyestha 9- Training on construction WUA Functionaries, water The two days training on The WUA functionaries and water users
10, 2067 management and quality users, engineers and construction management and were provided information on use of
control sociologist from Irrigation quality control was organized by different construction materials and
Division Office Irrigation Division Office. their proportions for use in different
construction works and the mechanism
of supervising the construction works
by the WUA. The training also included
discussion on process of formulation of
rules and regulation of WUA and ways
and means of resource mobilization.
8. Jyestha 25, Meeting of WUA Executive Functionaries of WUA, The meeting was conducted with The meeting decided to call the general
2067 Committee Community Organizer and three agenda. The first agenda of assembly of the users on Jyestha 29,
the Members of Advisory the meeting was to call the general 2067 at 7:00 a.m. at the premise of
Committee assembly of the users. The second Buddha H.S. School. The meeting also
agenda related to provision of piped decided to carry out a walkthrough of
outlets in the branch canals. The the canal on Jyestha 27, 2067 to decide
third agenda related to on the locations for the provision of
development of walk way along the pipe outlets.
canal
9. Jyestha 29, General Assembly of Users Total of 52 persons were In the general assembly the plans The general assembly provided a forum
2067 present in the general for water distribution upon for the users to obtain information on
assembly that included completion of construction works the planned construction works in the
functionaries of WUA, was discussed with the water users. irrigation system. They were also
water users, contractor and Mr. Santosh Kumar Poudel from provided information on distribution of
representatives or Irrigation Irrigation Division Office shared his irrigation water upon completion of the
Division Office experiences of working in similar construction works.
rehabilitation and improvement
works in Khageri and Panchkanya
Irrigation Systems in Chitwan
District.
10. Asar 1-4, Lining of the main canal Construction works in the main Lining in the canal expected to
2067 canal started along the old minimize the losses in the system.

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alignment of the main canal.
11. Asar 7, Monitoring visit of the The personnel involved in The persons in the monitoring visit Monitoring visit of the key personnel in
2067 personnel from Irrigation the monitoring visit inquired about the progress in the the irrigation division office to ensure
Division Office included head of the construction works. Mr. Narayan quality construction works.
irrigation division office and Bahadur Bista, who is a member in
senior divisional engineer the WUA, and community organizer,
and other engineers Ms. Anu Maharjan, briefed the team
about the construction progress.
The team made a system
walkthrough and instructed the
contractor to improve the
construction quality at a number of
locations.
12. Asar 7-10, Continued work of canal The construction involved canal bed
2067 lining in the main canal in PCC and RCC construction of the
bank with rectangular main canal
section
13. Asar 10-11, Participation of WUA The participants in the The workshop was essentially The significant outcome of the
2067 functionaries in a training/workshop were focused to assessing the progress in workshop has been that it provided
training/workshop three functionaries of WUA the construction works in the opportunity of sharing among the
organized at Hetauda and the community system and the farmers coming from six irrigation
organizer deputed in the problems/constraints encountered. systems undergoing rehabilitation and
system. The workshop was improvement under CMIASP.
attended by WUA
functionaries from six
irrigation systems
undergoing rehabilitation
and improvement under
CMIASP in three District-
Lalitpur, Dhading and Parsa
14. Asar 14, Monitoring visit of A team of personnel led by The objective of the monitoring visit
2067 personnel from Irrigation Mr. Surendra Mehar was to inspect the progress made in
Division Office Shrestha came for a accomplishing the construction of

48 | P a g e
monitoring visit of the the intake for the operation of the
irrigation system. system in the forthcoming monsoon
cropping
15. Asar 20, Canal Operation for the WUA decided to operate WUA worked out the canal With the construction of the intake and
2067 Cultivation of Rice the canal beginning the 3rd operation plan which was conveyed lining of the main canal in the critical
week of Asar. The farmers to all the users. section, the losses in the system had
in the area had started been significantly reduced. The delivery
pressurizing the WUA to of irrigation was started from head to
deliver water in the canal so tail end of the system. With more
that they could undertake dependable irrigation supply, farmers
planting of monsoon rice. could accomplish the planting of
Since the portion of the monsoon rice on time. The farmers
main canal at the intake were in general happy with the
was still to be completed, progress made in accomplishing the
PVC pipe was installed to construction of the intake and the main
convey water to this canal.
portion.
16. Bhadra 3, Visit of personnel from Personnel from IDMAC IDMAC is the NGO involved in The meeting led to decision to conduct
2067 IDMAC involved Mrs. Devaki supporting the farmers and WUA in a farmers meeting on Bhadra 5, 2067
Shrestha and Mrs. Ikudha in starting livelihood to sort out the plans for livelihood
Rajeshwori Basnet. They improvement activities improvement programs.
interacted with the key
functionaries of the WUA
17. Bhadra 5, Farmers Meeting The farmers meeting was The meeting was focused to The initiative made in organizing this
2067 attended by total of 21 assessing the progress made in meeting was expected to be
farmers, WUA functionaries accomplishing the construction instrumental in sensitizing the WUA
and personnel from IDMAC works in the system. The personnel and the users to the need of enhancing
and INPIM-Nepal from IDMAC sensitized the users on their engagements in the maintenance
the need enhancing the resource and upkeep of the system upon
mobilization capacity from within completion of the construction works.
the system so that WUA could
undertake the maintenance and
upkeep of the system on its own

49 | P a g e
upon completion of the construction
works. They also shared with the
farmers as to how the WUA could
ensure representation of the
women, dalits and people of ethnic
minorities in the decision making.
18. Kartik 16, Training on Repair and Irrigation Division Office Mr. Surendra Mehar Shrestha, the The training was expected to be
2067 Maintenance of the System organized a training on Chief of Irrigation Division Office beneficial in capacitating the WUA to
organized by Irrigation repair and maintenance of showed the users a documentary on undertake repair and maintenance of
Division Office the system that was Indonesian farmers initiative on the system.
attended by 13 operation and management of
functionaries of the WUA irrigation system. He also shared
with them methods of water
division for proportional division of
water among the farmers.
19 Falgun 6,7 Sishipur Mahotsav Lalitpur district farmers Agriculture Production Exhibition Demonstration of agriculture
& 8 , 2068 production like Mushroom, Fruits &
Flowers
20 Falgun 30, Agriculture Tour 24 participants from DADO Visiting Mahakal I.S. Baluwa VDC, Knowhow of commercial farming of
2068 Lalitpur; CMIASP, WUA of Kathmandu for commercial Tomato, Mushroom, Strawberry,
Ikudha I.S. & WUA of agriculture farming Cauliflower and Potato. Utilization of
Tileswar I.S, small farm for cash crops
21 Chaitra 11, Meeting with WUA 3 INPIM/Nepal members 12 Development WUA after system- Agricultural activities and Maintenance
2068 functionaries of WUA and 5 rehabilitation works. of the system.
social workers The executive meeting decided to form
5 members subcommittee for main
canal de-silting works.
And also form 5 members
subcommittee for preparation for WUA
General Assembly Meeting within
Baisakh 2069.
22 Chaitra 26, Canal walk through with 1 INPIM/Nepal member and Physical condition of system and Water availability and distribution from
2068 WUA farmers farmers operation of canal for agriculture head to tail of the system.

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activities
23 Chaitra 28, Monitoring of irrigation Er. Vijaya Raj Upadhya from Canal walk through from head to tail Improvement of main canal and
2068 system from CMIASP and CMIASP; Er. Dipendra and discussion with WUA members observation of agriculture practices in
Irrigation Division Office, Laudari and Division Chief irrigated field
Lalitpur Sarita Dawadi from Division
Office.
24 Baisakh 1- Main Canal Desilting or WUA and farmers Maintenance work Cleaning of canal.
4, 2069 cleaning works For good delivery of water from source
to tail end of command area
25 Baisakh 21, District Level Farmers Visit DADO Lalitpur, farmers Agricultural activities in 4 districts: Sharing of knowledge with farmers
2069 1. Nuwakot from different districts.
2. Rasuwa Knowhow of Agricultural Practices
3. Dhading Adopted in different climatic and
4. Kathmandu ecological areas.
26 Baisakh, New varieties of seed and Agriculture Service Center, Changing of crops with new varieties Some samples of seed were distributed
2069 Agriculture Practices Taukhel, Lalitpur and techniques for its adoption to some farmers for demonstration
purpose.
Farmers will be benefitted by adopting
high value crops.
27 Ashad 15, Rice Day Program (Dhan WUAs from different Farmers from Kathmandu, Importance of Rice in Nepalese
2069 Dibas) irrigation systems Bhaktapur & Lalitpur participated in Agriculture
The program was chaired assembled at Kavresthali, the festival.
by Joint secretary Mr. Kathmandu to mark the
Ananda Ratna Bajracharya festival
from MoA, Nepal
28 Ashad, Distribution of Ag. Phulchoki Ag. Cooprative Supply of Ag. Fertilizers to local There was shortage of Ag. Inputs in
2069 Fertilizers and WUA farmers monsoon.
The cost of Urea per 50 kg pack was Rs.
1125.0
29 Ashad 28, Formation of Farmers Local Ag. Cooperatives and Members of working Committee: The Association organized farmers for
2069 Association farmers 1. Chairman- Chiribabu Shrestha commercial farming and other
2. Secretary- Mangal Maya agriculture activities.
Shrestha The Association manages agriculture

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3. Treasurer- Tatwa Maya Shrestha inputs, markets of agriculture products
4. Member- Ramdevi Shrestha and coordinates with line agencies.
5. Member- Chirimaya Putwar
6. Member- Ram Kumari Maharjan
7. Member- Hari Sharan Maharjan
8. Member- Dil Bahadur Shrestha
9. Member- Jog Bahadur Shrestha
10. (Phulchoki Ag. Cooperative)
11. Member- Om Krishna Shrestha
(Bishnudevi Ag. Cooperative)

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Annex 8
Process Documentation of Sikharkatteri Irrigation System

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Location and Context

1.1.1 Location
Shikharkatteri Irrigation Sub-project (Shikhar Kateri Sinchai Kulo) is located between the latitude and
longitude of 270 38 51N to 270 39 11N and 850 33 08E to 850 35 05E in Raviopi VDC (ward no
1, 2 and 5) of Kabre district, Bagmati zone, Central Development Region. It lies within Chhahre Khola
Basin. Jitmale, Daije, Tinmure, Janbate and Syaraute villages lie in the command area of the system.

The project area is easily accessible through a gravel motorable road, 6 km North - East from
Banepa, which is 30 km East from Kathmandu. Most of the main canal reach and the branch canals
can be approached through the existing village trail track. Headwork site is 3.5 Km North West from
the Karkipati. The nearest market is at Banepa.

1.1.2 Topography
The irrigation system is located in the periphery of Kathmandu valley on the left bank of the
Chhahare Khola. The elevation of the area is about 1110 1100 m above MSL. The source of
irrigation water is Chhahare Khola and the scheme is in its right bank. The source is perennial. But
the volume of water decreases significantly as rainy season becomes over. The community forest is
the main watershed area for this stream. It's about 3 km north from intake. However, the river does
not dry up completely since its long stretch is fed by perennial springs.

1.1.3 Climate
The project area has three distinct seasons: spring, monsoon, and winter. It climate is mainly sub-
tropical and humid. It has hot and humid climate during summer and moderately high rainfall during
the monsoon. There is no meteorological station in the project area. Hence, Panchkhal station which
records data of precipitation, air temperature (maximum and minimum), wind speed and relative
humidity is used as reference. Evapo-transpiration of Kathmandu is used for the analysis of crop
water requirement. The mean monthly records of the Evaporation, Sunshine, Wind Speed, Rainfall
and temperature are given in Table 1
Table 9 : Mean Monthly value of different Meteorological Parameters
Meteorological Tot
Period Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Parameters al
Rainfall (mm) 1997- 16.1 69.5 136.4 250.4 242.6 106.1 18.7 846.
0 0.00 0.00 6.15 0.00
80% Reliable 2006 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 06
Max. 1999- 21.0 23. 27 30. 31. 32.4 31.5 31.6 31.0 29. 25. 22.
Temp.0(C) 2006 4 91 .7 6 66 1 1 3 5 23 86 18
Min. 1999- 4.27 6.2 8. 13. 17. 21.0 22.3 20.9 15. 10.
0
Temp. (C) 2006 8 38 81 39 54 9 22.4 2 2 6 33 7.7
1999- 91. 89. 78 74. 77. 78.3 84.6 85.3 85.2 88. 90. 94.
Humidity (%) 2006 71 51 .4 85 59 6 3 2 6 32 43 56
Wind speed 1999- 2.6 4. 4.9 5.5 3.3 2.2 1.6
(Km/hr) 2006 1.8 7 1 6 1 4.84 4.38 4.11 3.8 2 8 8
0.0 0. 16. 69. 136. 250. 242. 106. 18. 6.1 0.0
ET0(mm/day) 0 0 00 15 56 40 40 60 10 70 5 0
Source: DHM & PDSP

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Mean monthly value (average) of different Meteorological parameter of Panchkhal
Latitude: 270 41 Longitude: 850 38 Elevation: 0865 m

The following are some important hydro-meteorological observations:


Precipitation:
Mean annual rainfall varies from 3.43 mm minimum in Nov to 313 mm maximum in July
Temperatures:
Mean monthly maximum: - varies from 21.04oC in January to 32.41 oC in Jun
Mean monthly minimum: - varies from 4.28oC in January to 22.4 oC in July
Relative humidity: - varies from 94.57% in December to 74.85% in April
Evaporation:
Minimum: - 1.8 mm
Maximum: - 5.51 mm in May

1.1.4 Soils
The soil texture of the command area is found to be loam at middle reach and clay loam at the tail
end of the command area. The soil reaction is acidic in nature with pH value of 4.8 and 5.25 at the
middle and tail end respectively. The nutrient content of the soil is low to medium with respect to
Nitrogen (0.09 - 0.14 %), and Organic Matter (1.89 - 2.66 %), while phosphorus and potassium is
medium to high with 39.51 - 136.34 Kg/ha and 158.4 - 336.0 kg/ha respectively at the middle reach
and the tail end of the command area. The soil is suitable for irrigated agriculture. The will be
brought to required nutrient level with optimum application of organic and chemical fertilizer.

1.2 Physical Characteristics


The system consists of a temporary side intake, main canal of about 3 km in length and two
branch canals each of about 500m at the tail reach.
1.2.1 Intake
The intake of the system is called as Rachantar Muhan. Intake lies in ward no-3 of Godawari VDC. It
is about 20 minutes walk from Kitini through a foot trail. The old intake was a temporary obstruction
across the river made up of locally available materials like stones, bamboo, bushes, plastic bags filled
with sand and clay to divert water to canal. The intake used to be washed out at times of high
discharge in the river. So it required frequent repairs during every monsoon season. Moreover, only
a small portion of discharge in the river was diverted to the canal by the low height temporary
obstruction.
1.2.2 Main Canal
The system has a main canal of about 3 km in length. After that, branching starts. The entire system
(main canal and branch canal) is earthen. It runs from sloppy topography and friable soil. So seepage
is one of the problems that the system is facing. The problem of washing out obstruction, deposition
of sand and gravel in the intake site, bursting out of canal occur more frequently during rainy
season. There is no structure made to regulate inflow in canal which creates overflow of water from
canal during flooding. Sometime the intake site is eroded heavily and becomes nuisance to divert
water while there is low flow.
As there is no provision of proper outlets to lead water into fields, the canal is breached at places
which are probably done by the farmers themselves to divert water into their fields. There are no
proper crossings across the foot trails for efficient conveyance of water. No provision of drainage

54 | P a g e
system is seen, so spill flood water from areas of higher elevation left to the canal is likely to enter
the canal causing sediment deposition.
1.2.3 Branch Canal
There are 2 branch canals, each of about 500m in length, in the canal network at the tail reach of
the main canal in Thaiba VDC.
1.2.4 Command Area
The command area of the system is about 100 hectares of Thaiba VDC ward no. 1-5 and Godawari
VDC ward no. 1-3. However, water supplied is sufficient only during monsoon while most of the part
in the tail reaches of canal remains dry during winter. During spring, water flowing in the canal is
very less so irrigation is hardly possible.

1.3 Socio-economic Status of Water Users


1.3.1 Population Status
The Shikhar Kateri Water Users mostly are Brahmin/Chettri (about 90%). Remaining are Tamang,
Newar, and Dalit in the proportion of 5%, 3% and 2% respectively.

Caste/Ethnicity No of households % of total hh (population) Remarks


Brahmin/Chhetri 90 90
Newar 3 3
Tamang 5 5
Lower cast 2 2
Others

Only one occupation of WU is agriculture and most of the farmers produce cereal only for
subsistence. Almost all people have not other profession except farming and its mix type of farming
system i. e. almost all household have reared livestock for compost and to their own necessity (meat
and milk).

Among 100 HHs, only two persons are involved in teaching job. Youths of 45 50 HHs have
departed for foreign employment. About 50 households have to go in daily wages for alternative
earnings.

Occupation of Water Users has been summarized as follows:


Occupation No of households Percent of total Remarks
households/population
Farming only 32 32
Jobs (Govt or private) 2 2 Teaching
Farming + Job No --
Farming + Business 2 2
Business only No --
Foreign employment 45 45
Daily wage earner 50 50
Others No No

1.3.2 Land Holding Pattern


The average land holding size of the water users is about 2 to 3 ropanies. There are about 40
landless households. A significant number of households in Thaiba VDC have less than a ropani of
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land. A person owns as much as 100 ropanies of land in Godawari VDC near the intake of the
system.
Table 10:- Land Holding Pattern of Water users
Landholding Category No of Households
Landless 40
Less than 1 ropani 80
1 5 ropani 500
Greater than 5 30

The land holdings ratios are about 5 to 8 ropani 10%, 0.5 to 1.5 ropani 75%, 0.25 ropani 10% and
land less 5%.
1.3.3 Agricultural Practices
Rice (in monsoon) and wheat (in winter) are the major crops harvested in the command area of the
irrigation system. During monsoon, all the fields is covered by paddy. In winter, besides wheat,
about 30% of fields are used for cultivation of other crops like vegetables, potato and mustard. The
main crop in summer season is Paddy 90 %. The winter season crops are mainly wheat 70%, potato
10% and others 20%.

People remember at times when the canal is out of work, only two crops (rice and wheat) were
raised and the field remains fallow in spring. Now as the canal is rehabilitated, few farmers have
started vegetable production. There are few nurseries for commercial production of vegetables at
present. Table 5 shows the productivity of crops by season and area.
Table 11: Crop coverage by season
Season Crops Area % of Remarks
(hectares) Area
Monsoon Rice 100 100
Winter Wheat 70 70
Mustard 5 5
Potato 10 10
Vegetables 15 15
Spring Vegetables 40 40% The field at tail reaches usually remains
fallow due to lack of water.

People usually produce local cultivars of rice and wheat. Majority of farmers sow Taichung and few
(about 20%) sow Pokhareli and Masinu.

Farmers mainly use Urea as fertilizer. Few farmers, in Godawari VDC, also use compost manures.
Composts are generally produced by farmers themselves. Table 6 shows the rate of application of
fertilizers used by farmers in the fields.

Table 6: Fertilizers used by Farmers


Rates of Application Remarks
Crops
High Low Average
Rice- Urea 3 Pathi 1 Pathi 2 Pathi/ropani
Compost 40 Doko/ropani
Wheat 4 Pathi 1 Pathi 3 Pathi/ropani

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1.3.4 Agricultural Productivity
The average productivity of rice in the command area is about 5 muri per ropani and that of wheat is
about 2 muri per ropani. There are some areas in head reaches of canal where sufficient water is
available, that produces paddy as high as 10 muri per ropani. Table 6 shows the crop productivity
per ropani of land.
Table 7: Crop Productivity in the Command Area
Crop Productivity (Muri/Ropani) Remarks
Crop
High Low Average
Rice 9-10 3-4 5-6
Wheat 4 1 2

1.3.5 Economic Status of Water Users


The principal occupation of the water users is agriculture. However, agriculture alone is not enough
to support the family throughout the year. So, majority of households involve in more than one
occupation to earn their living.

Of the total, about 10 % are completely dependent on agriculture. About 46% of the population are
involved in government or private jobs along with the farming and 17% in farming and business. The
table below shows the occupation adopted by water users of the system.

Table 12:- Occupation of Water Users


Population of % of Total Employed
Occupation
Water Users Population
Population below age of 18 327 18
Farming Only 183 10
Jobs only - 0
Farming + Jobs 846 46
Business only - 0
Farming + Business 314 17
Foreign Employment 88 5
Daily Wage Earner 92 5
Total 1850 100

Though agriculture is the main occupation of the people, the rearing of animals is less. There are
only few households rearing livestock in Thaiba VDC but more than 50% of households in Godavari
VDC rear cows. But the milk production is very low and cows are mainly reared for compost manure.
There are few poultry farms. The table below shows the number of households engaged in livestock
rearing.
Table 13:- Households engaged in livestock
No of households producing
Livestock Enterprise No of Households
marketable surplus
Cow 100 N/A
Goat raising 30 N/A
Poultry raising 7 N/A

The annual agricultural production of the households is not sufficient to sustain their yearly food
needs. There are only few households that produce surplus products, but the quantity of surplus is
very less. The nearby market is Badegaun and Godavari.
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Majority of households are engaged in other occupation such as service and business to fulfill their
food demand. There are some households who work for daily wages to earn their living. The table
below shows the households by food sufficiency.

Table 14:-Households by food sufficiency


Food sufficiency Category No. of Households Remarks
Food Surplus (producing The food surplus is
10
Markatable surplus) practically very less.
Food sufficient for year round 10
Food deficit
> 6 months 400
3 - 6 months 150
< 3 months 30
Households depending on They are daily wage
40
supplemental earning earners.

1.3.3 Educational Level


About 95% of total population are literate. Enrolling the children into school is almost 100%. School
dropout rate is high at primary level at standards 1 and 2. The dropouts are then negligible but it
increases at secondary level at standards 7 and 8. The majority of students completing SLC enrol
themselves into higher secondary level of education. The trend of youths going abroad for foreign
employment is high after completing higher secondary level of education. There are only few people
who engage themselves to university education, doing their bachelors and masters degree.
There does not seem much difference in educating a girl and a boy child but the dropout rate at
secondary level is slightly greater for a girl child than for a boy child. The reasons could be to help
mothers with the household work.
Illiterate Literate
5% (informal)
5%
Primary
University Level Lower
Level 5% Secondary
16% Level
61%

Higher Lower
Secondar Secondar Higher
y Level y Level Secondary
32% 37% University Level
Level 31%
8%

Figure 3:- Educational Level of Water Users Figure 4:- Households by Educational Status

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2. Evolution of Physical Infrastructure

2.1 History of Establishment of Irrigation System


Shikhar Kateri Irrigation Sub-project is oldest system in that location, its history is less than one
decade. At beginning, the users had practiced of diverting water from stream by putting obstruction
of stone and twigs of trees. Later on they have made semi-permanent type of structure i. e. stone
gabion.

Later on the gabion diversion weir in Chhahare Khola became collapsed due to flood in the stream.
Currently they construct a temporary obstruction of local bushes, boulders and polythene bags filled
with sand which is more vulnerable and washed out as flood occurs. The intake requires frequent
repair during the every monsoon season and Water Users contribute themselves in terms of kind
(one labour per households) and cash contribution on the basis of area.

2.2 Major Rehabilitations till date


Some of the major rehabilitations done in the system are-
F. In 2038 B.S Intake was swept away by surging river. The two VDCs supported the
construction of intake by providing 3 gabions. The farmers contributed labor to construct
the intake.
G. In 2046 B.S., the intake was again destroyed. The farmers organized themselves to
rehabilitate the intake using stones, soil and other plastic materials for the construction.
H. In 2049 B.S., DWIDP provided 2 gabions for stabilizing the intake of the canal.
I. In 2065 B.S., rehabilitation of intake and canal was done. Rs. 100 per house hold was
collected to carry out the work.
J. In Chaitra 2066 B.S., lining of the canal was done at parts where seepage was high. The VDCs
together contributed Rs. 1.25 lakhs for the lining of the canal.

2.3 Operation and Maintenance


A local Newar Guthi (a socio-cultural group) is most active committee in case of the maintenance of
the canal. The Guthi calls upon for the repair and maintenance work whenever need arises.
Generally people gather (atleast one from each household) whenever the Guthi calls and they
contribute in kind for the maintenance of the canal.

During the months of Jestha and Mangsir, each year, cleaning and maintenance of the intake and
canal is carried out. The Guthi fixes the date. Every household contributes for the job either in cash
or labour. Generally, at least one person from each house works voluntarily. The house failing to
come for the work generally help with cash but there is no any rule of penalty for the house not
being present during the job. When Guthi calls upon for any work, no one hesitates to participate,
though the household may not be the user of the canal.

The intake, as it is temporary, is usually swept away during high discharge in the river (during
monsoon). So intake needs to be reconstructed every year. Intake is repaired almost every year at
the beginning of monsoon, using the local materials by the farmers themselves. Sometimes, the VDC
and DDC provide some funds for the maintenance of the intake system. In the year 2065 B.S., a total
of 1Lakhs and twenty five thousand rupees was provided by the two VDCs i.e. Thaiba and Godavari
VDC, for the rehabilitation of the intake.
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2.4 Allocation and Distribution of Water
No rules have yet been developed for the water allocation and distribution. As the general practice,
the farmers in the head reaches of canal extract water from the canal first. The turn then gradually
shifts towards the corresponding fields at lower reaches. The fields at the tail reaches get water only
after fields at the upper reaches get sufficient water. The farmers manage their plantation time
accordingly.

There is no any means or rule to ensure the equity and timeliness in distribution of water. The fields
at the tail have to wait for their turn which comes only after the field, upstream to it, gets water.
The fields at the tail end may even remain dry, if water in the canal is less.

There is no dispute for water distribution. The occurrence of minor conflicts is common during
distribution of water. The conflicts usually occur at times of low discharge of water, when two or
more farmers want to irrigate the field at the same time. The conflicts are managed by the farmers
themselves under mutual understandings.

3. Water Users Association


3.1 Formation of WUA
The WUA of Shikharkatteri Irrigation System was formed and registered in 2063 B.S. under Water
Resource Act at District Water Resource Office. The first executive member consisted of 11
members with Mr. Suresh Bajracharya as the President.

In 2063, JICA and DOI together became interested to build permanent intake system for the canal.
Till then there were no any organized group of water users. But a registered WUA was mandatory
under the rules and regulation of DoI. So the farmers organized themselves into WUA to attract the
attention and to carry out the administrative works. The WUA executive committee was then
formed with the members who are capable to deal, communicate (in English) with the
representative of JICA. After the formations of the 1st executive committee, membership forms
were distributed among the water users and WUA was formed.
3.2 Functionaries of WUA
After the first General Assembly of WUA in 2065 B.S., new executive committee was formed headed
by Mr. Suresh Bajracharya again. The committee was then enlarged to 17 members. The tenure of
the present committee is 3 years which will come to end in 2068 B.S.

There is a provision of electoral system to choose the executive members of WUA. But the present
functionaries were selected under mutual understandings and negations. The members of the
present Executive member are:
Table 15:- Functionaries of Executive Committee
Engagement in
S.N. Name of Functionary Position Remarks
WUA (years)
1 Suresh Bajracharya President 5 Continued from last tenure
2 Ram Maharjan Vice-President 2
3 Babu Ram Maharjan Secretary 5 Continued from last tenure
4 Gyanlal Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
5 Jog Bahadur Maharjan Member 2
6 Krishna Govinda Maharjan Member 2
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7 Babu kaji Maharjan Member 2
8 Sarita Maharjan Member 2
9 Nani Chori Bajracharya Member 2
10 Sabitri Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
11 Laxmishova Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure
12 Tatwo Maya Shrestha Member 2
13 Rabindra Silwal Member 2
14 Binod Silwal Member 2
15 Puskar Maharjan Member 2
16 Ganga Ram Maharjan Member 2
17 Shova Maharjan Member 5 Continued from last tenure

3.3 Working of WUA


WUA seems to be passive in the operation and maintenance of canal system. As it was formed to
establish an institutional body to initiate the construction of intake, it is primarily concerned on
matters related to it. There is no any role of WUA in the water allocation, distribution and dispute
management between the water users.

The meeting of the executive committee is called when needed. The date of the meeting is called
upon by the President and Secretary. The WUA has no office of its own. The venue of the meeting is
usually the office of Thaiba VDC. The meeting, at present, is particularly concerned with the
construction of the intake system. The information about the progress in the process involved is
shared by the president and secretary to other members. The bidding of the project of intake
construction is completed recently. The WUA now has to deposit a refundable sum of Rs. 72,000/-
for the construction to start. The executive committee has now to decide how to manage the fund.

At present, an 11 member construction committee, headed by Mr. Suresh Bajracharya, is recently


formed to look after the construction of the canal intake which is supposed to be started shortly.

The general assembly of the users is called every 3 years. The date of the assembly is fixed by
president and secretary with discussion with other members of the committee. The general
assembly decides and elects members for new executive committee.

The water users seem to be indifferent of the functioning of WUA. The major operations and
maintenance of canal is done under the call of local Newar Guthi (socio-cultural group). Moreover,
WUA seems to be politically driven as the executive members are also selected under political
negotiations. WUA is not getting the attention and active participation of the direct beneficiaries of
the irrigation system.

4. CMIASP Interventions in Shikharkatteri


4.6 Improvement of Physical Infrastructure
Shikharkatteri Irrigation System required urgent construction of a permanent intake system and a
proper canal layout. Hence, through the project, a permanent headworks has been constructed for a
flood discharge of 52 cumecs. A single orifice type side intake with cut-off (1.5m depth) in river bed
throughout the 12m river width was constructed. The level of the main canal at intake site has been
maintained at 1543.75 m while the average bed level of the river is at 1543.79m. The width of the
trap bed of side intake is 1.5 m and the height is 1.0 m. The pond level is at 1544.06 m.

61 | P a g e
The orifice of size 0.9m wide and 0.25 m deep has been proposed. The crest level of the orifice was
set at 0.1m above the river bed to check the excess inflow of water and sediments. A trash rack of
size 1.1m wide and 0.4m height has been constructed in front of orifice to prevent entry of gravel
and floating debris into the canal. The length of downstream launching apron is 3.0m.

For the stabilization of the river course up and down stream of the intake approximately 6m river
bank protection works has been provided. The protection works included the reshaping of the
riverbanks and raising the level of the both banks. Gabion mattresses have been used to reshape the
river banks. Downstream protection works have also been carried out especially to protect the head
reach of the main canal and to reduce risk of headworks failure due to piping, uplift and scouring
and thus increasing the overall stability of the headworks site.

The total length of the main canal is 3.2 km whereas idle length is 0.15 km. There are 1 Branch and 2
sub-branch canals off-taking from the main canal. The main canal (discharge capacity of 0.15m3/s)
has been reconstructed over its full length. Most part of it (ch 0+000 to 2+240) has been lined.
Reshaping has been carried out to create a uniform cross section. The bed width of the main canal is
0.5-0.7 m with free board 0.15-0.3 m. The canal slope varies from 0.0014 to 0.04. Side slope of the
canal is 1:0.5 at the earthen portion and 1:0 for lined portions.

The different hydraulic structures constructed in the main canal are as follows:
Orifice at the intake
Settling Basin and Spillway
Foot slabs
Division Box
Pipe Outlets
Canal Protection structures etc.

Available source has been utilized. Headworks, Lining works (1km) concrete and brick. Water
operation is going on properly.

4.7 Capacity Building of WUAs


Capacity development of the WUAs relating to operation and management functions and delivery of
irrigation services was planned in Shikharkatteri under CMIASP.

No rules exist for water distribution. Trainings are provided by the District Agriculture Office. By
Agriculture Department many trainings have been conducted. Trainings are attended by many
farmers but it not brought is use.

Field visit to Charikot, Ramechap, and Jiri taken by CMIASP to observe what kind of works has been
done.

4.8 Improvement in Agriculture Technology


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. Improved varieties of potato received. It was expected that
they will also receive fertilizer but fertilizer was not received.

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A farmers cooperative has been formed by the local farmers. Farmers are only for name, not real
farmers. Only rice is taken serous, not other crops.

Commercialized non-seasonal vegetable has scope. Mushroom cultivation and floriculture. Barahi
Agriculture Cooperative and Youth Agriculture Cooperative.

4.9 Initiative of Market Promotion and Income Generation


CMIASP also aimed at diversification of income opportunities of water users and their livelihood
improvement by market promotion, women participation, micro-credit and income generating
activities.

Production is consumed by the users itself. Hence there is no problem of marketing. Not much done
in terms of market promotion and women participation.

4.10 Overall Impact of CMIASP Interventions


CMIASP also aimed at enhancing the productivity of irrigated agriculture by improving the
agricultural technology and practices. Some improvements have been reported in terms of
introduction of new agricultural technologies and verities of crops in Shikharkatteri Irrigation Sub-
project.

5. Multifunctional Engagements of the WUA


5.3 Assessment of Present Status of WUA Engagement
WUA has not yet been involved in any cooperative activities or any other social welfare
programmes. And it seems that they do not realize any need of such activities. They have the
concept that there are lot of organizations, NGOs and private sectors to conduct those activities.
After the formation of WUA, DoA and DoI have conducted few training programs to the members
such as:
Training on construction and accounting by DoI
Exchange visit to FMIS by DoI
Distribution of seeds by DoA

5.4 Suggestions for Enhancing Multifunctional Engagement


The following suggestions can be made for enhancing engagement of WUA in multiple functions:
The existing Water Users association should be strengthened by increasing the involvement
of the farmers who are the direct beneficiaries of the canal system.
Technical support is to be provided to the WUA to develop a yearly operational and
maintenance plan of the system. Proper rules and regulations and scientific water
distribution system should be developed to ensure the equity and timeliness in water
allocation between the fields.

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Annex 9
Chronicle of Development of Shikharkatteri WUA

S/N Date Event Who Involved Process Outcome/Expected Outcome


1. Chaitra 27, 2066 Meeting of WUA Executive WUA Functionaries and The executive committee The expected outcome was
Committee Community Organizer decided to call general assembly dissemination of relevant
of the users on Baisakh 5, 2067 information among the users for
to disseminate the information informed decision making.
concerning proposed
rehabilitation and improvement
under CMIASP, the processes
thereto and the resource
mobilization needed on part of
the users.
2. Baisakh 3, 2067 Meeting of WUA Executive WUA Functionaries, The officials disseminated the The outcome of the meeting was
Committee water users and three information relating to clear designation of the
officials- Mr. Bal Mukund proposed physical infrastructure responsibilities among the
Karmacharya, Mr. Suraj improvement works under contractor, WUA and water users
Upreti and Mr. Bhupraj CMIASP. and the kinds of work and their
Upreti from Irrigation volume to be accomplished by each
Division Office who came The proposed infrastructure party.
to attend the meeting. works included works involving
Rs. 11,210,382 to be
accomplished by the contractor
that included:
i. Construction of a permanent
headwork.
ii. Escape structure- 2 Nos.
iii. Equiduct- 4 Nos.
iv. Super Passage+ Inlet - 4 Nos.
v. Super Passage- 8 Nos.
vi. Humepipe culvert- 1 No.
vii. Outlet- 10 Nos.

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viii. Division Boxes- 4 Nos.
ix. Canal Lining- 1250m

Works involving Rs. 2148799 to


be accomplished by WUA which
involved filling of gabion boxes
at the intake and construction of
retaining wall.

All earthworks in the canal to be


carried out by the users involving
Rs. 633,970 by mobilizing
voluntary labor.
3. Baisakh 5, 2067 General Assembly of the WUA Functionaries (10 The WUA functionaries The users showed their
Users Functionaries) and 60 informed the users the details of commitment to contribute the
water users. the plan of the physical voluntary labor as and when
infrastructure improvement required. This meeting has been
works proposed under CMIASP useful in disseminating among the
assistance and the kinds of users pertinent information relating
works to be accomplished by to the physical infrastructure
contractor, WUA and voluntary improvement works under CMIASP
labor contribution required on and hence motivating them for
part of the users. participating in the proposed works.
4. Baisakh 15-16, Leadership Development WUA Functionaries from The training was conducted by This training was expected to be
2067 Training Organized by Sikharkateri and Terso two resource persons- Mr. Rabi instrumental in the development of
National Federation of Kulo participated in the Chitrakar and Ms. Sarika Gurung WUA in Sikharkateri Irrigation
Irrigation Water Users training organized at who discussed with the WUA System in the days to come.
Association (NIFUWAN) Redcross Building at functionaries the importance of
Banepa. The key understanding of group
functionaries of dynamics and process of
NIFUWAN and personnel evolution of leadership in
from Irrigation Division community based organizations.
Office were also present The need of developing

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on the occasion leadership from within the
system consistent to the
hydraulic boundary was
discussed. The characteristics of
good leader was also shared
with the participants.
5. Baisakh 29, 2067 Agricultural Planning The workshop was The workshop was focused to This workshop was expected to
Workshop organized by attended by 8 developing agricultural plan for develop coordination between
Agricultural Service Center functionaries of WUA the year 2067-2068. The farmers and the agricultural service
at Panchkhal and farmers from participants were provided center in dissemination of
Sikharkateri and eight information on the support agricultural technology, knowledge
members of from program of the District and inputs in the command area of
Panchkhal Women Agricultural Development the irrigation system.
Producers Group Office. Based on this
information the participants
worked out the demand for
improved seed, fertilizer and
other production inputs in their
respective areas.
6. Asar 11, 2067 Meeting of WUA Executive WUA Functionaries In the meeting the progress of
Committee the construction works
undertaken in the system prior
to Asar 11, 2067 was assessed
by the functionaries. They also
decided to identify the
shortcoming in the construction
works accomplished and
communicate it to the Irrigation
Division Office for corrections.
7. Asar 3-8, 2067 Workshop on Progress of The workshop was In the workshop the community The outcome of the workshop was
Physical Construction organized with joint organizers of the respective in developing awareness of the
Works undertaken with initiative of District irrigation systems provided the participants with regards to the
CMIASP Support Agricultural information relating to progress envisaged support programs under

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Development Office and in the physical construction CMIASP.
Irrigation Division Office works in each system. The
at Hetauda. The workshop was used as the
workshop was attended forum in sharing with the
by Community Organizer participants the support
and two other farmers programs under CMIASP and the
from the irrigation kinds of works envisaged
systems undergoing relating to physical
rehabilitation and infrastructure development,
improvement under agricultural support services and
CMIASP in Dhanusa, livelihood improvement under
Mahottarai, Nuwakot the project.
and Kavrepalanchok
Districts.
8. Asar 13, 2067 Interaction Program Total of 15 functionaries This interaction meeting was This interaction meeting was
organized by Irrigation of WUA and farmers organized on the request of the expected to be instrumental in
Division Office of from Sikharkateri users who briefed the personnel intensifying the monitoring of the
Kavrepalanchok District participated in the from the Irrigation Division Irrigation Division Office in the
interaction meeting Office about the progress in the physical infrastructure works in the
physical construction works system.
accomplished in the system and
their concerns on the quality of
construction. The officials of the
Irrigation Division Office
provided the information
relating to construction works
planned in the system and those
remaining to be accomplished.
Both the parties agreed to
conduct joint monitoring of the
system to ensure quality of the
construction works
accomplished.

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9. Shrawan 13, 2067 Meeting of the WUA Functionaries of the The WUA executive committee
Executive Committee Executive Committee assessed the progress made in
the construction works
accomplished in the system at
the end of Asar, 2067 which is
the end of the fiscal year. The
WUA functionaries also
identified the shortcomings in
the construction works including
those unaccomplished by the
contractor as per the plan. The
functionaries identified the
need of gabion protection works
at the intake that was not
developed by the contractor.
The meeting decided to
communicate the contractor
that the contractor had not
carried out any construction
work at the intake after Asar 28,
2067.
10. Shrawan 21, 2067 Meeting of WUA Executive Total of 9 functionaries The meeting was focused to
Committee of the WUA executive assessing the damage caused to
committee participated the irrigation canal with the
in the meeting construction of a road. The
meeting decided to make a
request to the Irrigation Division
Office for construction of a
culvert at the road crossing.
11. Shrawan 23, 2067 Joint Monitoring of the The joint monitoring of The joint team assessed The decision made to correct some
progress in the construction the construction work shortcomings in the of the works accomplished at the
works in the system was carried out by construction works intake has been outcome of the
personnel from accomplished at the intake and concern raised by the WUA on the

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consulting team of decided to instruct the construction quality and the
CMIASP, Irrigation contactor to re-do some of the initiative made in pursuing this with
Division Office of works. the Irrigation Division Office from
Kavrepalanchok and time to time. The Irrigation Division
WUA functionaries Office also agreed to instruct the
contractor to accelerate the work.
The site supervisor deputed by the
contractor at the intake site was
changed on the request made of
the WUA. The earlier site supervisor
was found by WUA not delivering
the responsibility to the satisfaction
of the WUA.
12. Bhadra 17, 2067 Consensus to undertake the Site Engineer (Mr. Presence of hard rock at the
construction of aqueduct Purushottam construction site was found to
based on the characteristics Upadhyaya), WUA limit the depth of the
of the sie Chairperson, Community foundation excavation to much
Organizer and lesser than 3 m in place of
Contractor proposed 3m foundation
excavation. The plan of
construction at the site was
altered to match with the site
characteristics with the
consensus decision of Irrigation
Division Office, Contractor and
WUA functionaries.
13. Bhadra 28, 2067 Construction of R.C.C. Weir Presence of site engineer The concrete works in the The construction of permanent weir
at the Intake Mr. Purshottam construction of the weir at the a the intake was expected to reduce
Upadhyaya, WUA intake was completed on this the need for constructing
Chairperson and date. Site engineer from the temporary diversion structure at
Association Organizer Irrigation Division Office and the intake year after year.
WUA Chairperson were present
at the construction site for the

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whole day on this date to make
sure that good quality concrete
is poured at the site.
14. Ashwin 6, 2067 Meeting of WUA Executive WUA Functionaries The WUA functionaries The decision to communicate the
Committee reviewed the physical status of physical construction
construction works works in the system to the users
accomplished in the system was expected to motivate them for
prior to Ashwin 5, 2067. It was their increased participation in the
decided to communicate the system. In the works accomplished
accomplishments in the physical at the intake, the WUA noted, that
construction works to the users the participation of other users in
by calling general assembly of monitoring and supervision works
the users on Aswin 16, 2067. had been much lesser than
expected. The WUA expected that
dissemination of information in the
general assembly would motivate
other users to take active part in
the construction works relating to
main canal lining that was expected
to commence shortly.
15 Falgun 12, 2068 Observation tour to Honey DADO, Dhulikhel Participants were from Production of cash crops like
Agriculture, Jitpur Phedi organized the trip. 13 farmers from ShikharKateri tomato, green vegetable, pumpkins.
IS, 13 farmers from Tesro Kulo IS They can harvest these vegetables
and government officers from for one year. New methods of
DADO and Ag. Service Centers. agriculture can make more profits.
They had also visited a Green- Honey agriculture was established
House at Dhulikhel for modern by one farmer who learned this
agriculture. technology from Israel.
Learning by doing is good practice.
16 Falgun 22, 2068 Meeting with INPIM/N WUA Functionaries and Condition of I.S. after After rehabilitation works, farmers
team INPIM/N team completion of rehabilitation started 2 to 3 crops per year.
1. Suman Sijapati works. On 2068/07/02, the canal breached
2. Ram Hari Monitoring of WUA activities at one section causing loss of 1.5

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Sharma and their problems. Ropani paddy field. The WUA
3. Ranjana demanded more lining works in the
Shrestha main canal. The farmers are busy in
agricultural activities than before.
Future agriculture program was
discussed for the system.
17 Chaitra02, 2068 Agricultural Soil DADO, Dhulikhel Soil samples from Irrigation Agricultural soil properties and its
Examination Ag. Service Center, System command area were mineral contents were thought to
Panchkhal (Horticulture) examined at Panchkhal centre. farmers.
3 VDCs: 1. Rabiopi, 2. Selection of crop as per the soil
Hokse, 3. Panchkhal property.
18 Chaitra11, 2068 Compost manure DADO, Dhulikhel Demonstration of construction Improvement of existing compost
improvement program organized the program. of compost pit and its process of pit of farmers by protecting direct
Ag. Service Center decomposition. sun light and water. Construction of
1. Badri Sharma Improvement of present 10 sample compost pit in subsidized
2. Ram Krishna farmers manures they have rate. How to retain good quality
Shrestha been using. manures in their neighbourhood.
WUA Functionaries
19 Chaitra12, 2068 CMIASP team site visit after CMIASP Team Condition of irrigation system Condition of infrastructure
construction work 1. Vijaya Raj Upadhyaya after construction work. developed in the system.
2. Dipendra Operation and Maintenance of Quality of construction work carried
3. Shanta canal. by contractor.
WUA functioneries Irrigation management in the The main canal is fully operational
Farmers system. for 6 to 7 month. And the rest of
Construction Committee the month is difficult due to
seepage in earthen canal and
available water at source.
The farmers have demand for more
canal lining works.

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Annex 10
Case 1: Soyam Irrigation System, Ilam

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Soyak Irrigation System is located in ward no. 3 of Soyak Village Development Committee (VDC),
Ilam district. It is situated in the south-west of Ilam Bazaar and the altitude is 800-900 meters above sea
level. The command area of the irrigation system lies in the corner between Puwa Khola and Mai Khola,
but the irrigation intake is in the Tarde Khola. The climate is moderate and slightly warmer than Ilam
Bazaar. Access to the region is quite difficult; there is no road for cars to the village, but this is changing.
The VDC is constructing a road in the area; so, in one year Soyak 3 should be accessible by vehicle.

The economic status of most of the farmers is more or less the same. They are not rich but they have
enough resources and opportunities to make a good living. There are two rich farmers in Soyak. The
difference between them and the other farmers is that they have a lot of land, but they do not live in
Soyak 3 anymore but in Ilam Bazaar. The local farmers in Soyak 3 are highly dependent on agriculture. It
is their main and often the only source of income.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The main canal of Soyak Irrigation System is of 2.5 km length. The first part of the main canal is 1.5 km
long and runs through a conserved forest (Figure 1). After the main canal, the irrigation system splits
into two branch canals through a division structure (Figure 2). The irrigation system provides water for a
total of 19 households/users. Five small households are situated at the beginning of the main canal and
the other households get water from two secondary canals.

Figure 1: A Stretch of the Main Canal Figure 2: Division Structure of Soyak

The irrigation system was supported under the Mechi Hills Development Project (MHDP) in 1987-1992.
This project was financed and supervised by SNV Netherlands and the Nepal Government. MHDP
rehabilitated 20 different irrigation systems in the Mechi hills. Before the intervention of the MHDP,
only a small private canal existed in that area. An organized system of irrigation did not exist, and the
local farmers were deprived of irrigation facilities. After the irrigation system was rehabilitated, the
farmers got a lot of benefits. The canals were lined by MHDP and maintenance is being carried out by
the WUA. After the re-visit and evaluation in March 2012, it was found that the state of the canal is
gradually deteriorating. Leakage due to earthquakes, crabs, cattle grazing and road construction is a
grave problem and is the main reason for the water shortage (Figure 3 and 4). After the closure of
MHDP, very little external assistance was obtained, and the users of the system were not capable of
dealing with the problems themselves.

Figure 3: Leakage due to Road Construction Figure 4: Condition of the Outlets

1.3 Socio-economic Context


The ethnic composition in ward no. 3 of Soyak VDC is quite mixed (Figure 3). These different ethnic
groups live separately. There is a Limbu community, representing 35% of the users, living near the
conserved forest at the initial stretch of the canal. They have little irrigated land (khet), only one Ropani
each. This low landholding in the command is not only because of the restrictions to agriculture in the
conserved forest, but also because they have more bari lands above the canal. At the secondary canals,
Chhetris and Brahmins represent 65% of the users. These farmers own more land than the Limbu
community upstream; the difference can be seen in figure 3. The average landholding is 20-30 Ropani.
There are also two big fields with tea, although the owners of these cultivated lands live in Ilam Bazaar.

Ethnic composition Soyak Landholdings per ethnic group

13%
35%
Chhetri Chhetri
50% Brahmin Brahmin
51%
36%
Limbu Limbu
15%

Figure 5: Ethnic Composition and Landholdings Distribution per Ethnic Group


The main crops in the area are rice,
maize and wheat. The canal is operated
for almost 12 months a year; so some
farmers harvest rice twice a year.
Coverage of rice is considered as the
biggest return from the irrigation
system. Farmers told that before the
project, the region was neglected and
shameful in the eyes of people from
other VDCs solely because they could
not grow rice in Soyak 3. Nowadays,

Figure 6: Cultivation of Spring Rice in Soyak 3


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however, due to the irrigation system, the productivity in Soyak 3 has increased enormously, and the
people can cultivate a lot of different crops. Women are also participating, especially in vegetable
cultivation.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


The WUA of Soyak Irrigation System was formed by MHDP at the very beginning of the project activities.
In accordance with the project policy, the WUA was formed and a maintenance fund was created along
with the irrigation system so that the system could function on its own, without external assistance. The
WUA was formed in 1990, and in 2000 it was registered at the National Federation of Irrigation Water
Users Associations Nepal (NFIWUAN). One of the members of the executive committee obtained
training from the MHDP about the ins and outs of leading and organizing an irrigation system. The
chairman of the executive committee also obtained the training in Soyak, and he is still the chairman.
Although every two years there are elections, he is chosen every time, because the users trust him and
he has the expertise to organize the system in a proper way. In 2000, another farmer was elected as
chairman; but he was relieved of his position after a few months, and the former chairman was again
asked to take care of his old duties.

2.2 Functionaries
The executive committee of the WUA consists of 7 functionaries, where three positions are reserved for
women farmers. The functionaries in the executive committee are elected in the General Assembly of all
the 19 users for a 2 year term. The WUA consists of seven functionaries, namely: chairman, secretary,
treasurer, vice-chairman and three members. The committee meetings are not fixed but the system is so
small that the executive committee can meet whenever needed. The committee gathers all the users
twice a year to discuss the maintenance, irrigation pattern and other points of interest.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


The main responsibility of the WUA is to operate and maintain the Soyak Irrigation System so that the
farmers receive assured irrigation supply. They organize maintenance works, and resolve when there are
conflicts, and try to maintain equity in water distribution. The WUA is also in-charge of the maintenance
fund. It is supported by the existence of written rules and a constitution. The WUA has got the authority
to punish and bail the people if they disobey the rules, do not participate in the maintenance or if they
manipulate the water distribution.

The farmers are mobilized by the WUA when the system needs maintenance. Farmers contribute
amounts in proportion to their landholdings (Ropani). The differences between the various types of
maintenance activities are explained in Table 1. The distinction between annual, routine and
disaster/emergency maintenance, and the difference between before and after the existence of the
WUA is clearly stated in the table.

Table 1: The Maintenance Structure in Soyak Irrigation System


Maintenance 2012 1980s
Annual There are three cleaning sessions a year. These There was no organized
are in Jestha and Bhadau (before the paddy maintenance in the 1980s. The canal
irrigation) and in Magh (for the maize and wheat was private and maintenance was
irrigation). All farmers shall contribute according done by farmers themselves when
to size of their landholding in Ropani. needed

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1-9 Ropani 0.5 labour days per session
10-24 Ropani 1 labour day per session
25-50 Ropani 2 labour days per session
Routine For routine emergency maintenance, the There was no organized
emergency executive committee will decide who will maintenance in the 1980s. The canal
contribute and how much. This is again done on was private and maintenance was
the basis of individual landholding size (Ropani). done by farmers themselves when
needed
Disaster All users will contribute to the maintenance There was no organized
emergency and, if needed, the Maintenance Fund will be maintenance in the 1980s. The canal
used. Currently, the Maintenance Fund has NRs was private and maintenance was
15,000. The executive committee, in done by farmers themselves when
cooperation with all users, will decide when to needed.
use the maintenance fund.

The WUA also writes proposals/requests to different organizations (Department of Irrigation,


Department of Agriculture, District Development Committee, etc.). This task is done by the secretary
who writes about two proposals each year. In the past years, the WUA has been quite successful in
gaining external assistance. Due to the urgency caused by canal water leakages, different organizations
have provided some support. The figures can be seen in Table 2.2.

Table 2: External Assistance


When Who How much For what
1999 DoA 75,000 NRs Repair of the intake. Gabions to protect the canal from the river.
Cement for leakage
2007 DoA 75,000 NRs Cement and gabions to repair leakage
2010 VDC 5,000 NRs Cement to repair the leakage caused by road construction
2012 DoA 35.000 NRs Cement for leakage repair

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


The water diverted by the Soyak Irrigation System is used in multiple ways. The main goal is to use the
water for agricultural purposes. Although the water is used for several other purposes, irrigation is by far
the key use. Water is mainly used to irrigate rice, wheat and maize. Some farmers are also keeping fish.
Water from the canal is used to fill and refresh the ponds. The cattle of the related household also
benefit from the canal water. It is not necessary for the cattle to walk all the way down to the river to
drink water. Water is also used for cultivating vegetables nearby the houses. Potatoes, tomatoes,
cucumbers and other vegetables are easily cultivated with the help of the irrigation system. Moreover,
the water is also used to wash clothes and clean the toilet/bathroom.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


The WUA is an authority in the Soyak Irrigation System. Its authority permeates much further than just
the irrigation system. Almost all the agricultural problems and difficulties are discussed within the
executive committee. It encourages the community members and gives them advice in selecting the
right crop varieties, improved crop cultivation practices and in dealing with different agriculture related
problems. The main focus of the WUA is the sustainability of the Soyak Irrigation System.

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3.3 Livelihood Changes
The livelihoods of the farmers in Soyak 3 have changed significantly due to the irrigation system.
Cultivation of rice bears a social status symbol in the rural Nepali culture; so, the irrigation system was
able to establish the pride of rice cultivation for the farmers in the area. A lot of other crops could also
be cultivated due to the assurance of irrigation water as and when required for the crops. Only the
cultivation of maize and millet was possible before the existence of the irrigation system. Nowadays, the
cropping system in Soyak 3 is much more diversified. The farmers grow rice, maize, wheat, potatoes,
vegetables, tea, mustard and cardamom.

Women have also benefited a lot from the Soyak Irrigation System and the WUA. They now get more
time to grow vegetables around the house. This is because the women do not need to go to the river
anymore to fetch water for the cattle and for washing clothes. This is a huge benefit, because now the
women can also really participate in the agriculture and still take care of the children. Growing
vegetables is a new source of income for the farmers, especially the women.

The Soyak Irrigation System also introduced institutional changes in Soyak 3. The WUA was also able to
improve the situation of access to the area. Due to the proposal writing activities of the WUA, the
organizations at the district level are well also acquainted with Soyak 3.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


One of the strongest points of the Soyak Irrigation System is its size. The system is small and there are
only 19 users; so, all the users know one another. This is quite difficult in a very big system; so, it is a real
advantage for the Soyak Irrigation System. The benefit from it is that the users never experience
conflicts about water distribution or maintenance.

The other merit of the system is that the construction of the system was carried out in a proper and well
organized manner by the MHDP. Even after twenty years of use, some parts of the concrete canals are
still in good condition! Timely formation of the WUA in the system is also a strong point of the Soyak
Irrigation System. Moreover, the WUA is playing an important role in the communication among the
users, because it arranges discussions with all the households/users at least twice a year. The other
strong point of the system is that the WUA can write good proposals for acquiring external assistance.
There have been successes in receiving several external assistances.

The system also has some weaknesses. Leakage


from the canals is a great weakness of the Soyak
Irrigation System. Leakages occur due to
different causes and the farmers and the WUA
have a difficult time in trying to tackle this
problem. In fact it is one of the weak points of a
lot of irrigation systems in the region and not
just Soyak 3. Another weakness is that the
farmers do not have sufficient knowledge about
constructing good canals. There is only one
member who has the proper knowledge. If he
leaves or dies, the farmers may not be able to
Figure 7: Damage of Canal due to Earthquake maintain the system any more. More training

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and education is needed to ensure a bright future for the Soyak Irrigation System.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The case of Soyak has clearly indicated that the farming communities can benefit a lot from the
construction of such irrigation infrastructure. It exemplifies how the irrigation system can benefit the
users and bring significant changes in their livelihood. Although the state of the canal seems to be
deteriorating nowadays, it can be easily concluded that the canal has ushered in economic growth since
the initial years, and that the standard of living of the users is still higher than before the Mechi Hills
Development Program (Figure 8). A subject for further research could be the effectiveness of
interventions like the MHDP.

Figure 8: Standard of living in Soyak 3

The case study also indicates that in the present context, it is increasingly becoming difficult for FMISs to
maintain and keep the canal working on their own. They are dependent on the help of external
organizations. The question that can be raised is, To what extent is it possible to help all systems in
Nepal in this way?

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Annex 11
Case 2: Tokha Chandeshori Irrigation System, Kathmandu

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Tokha Chandeshwori Rajkulo is a farmers managed irrigation system located in Kathmandu district
of Bagmati zone in the central region of Nepal. It was developed to irrigate ward numbers 2 and 6 of
Tokha Chandeshwori VDC and ward numbers 1, 2 and 5 of Tokha Saraswoti VDC. It lies 9 km north of
Kathmandu at the foot hill of Shivapuri on the lap of Shivapur Rastriya Nikunja at an elevation of 1346 m
from average mean sea level. The average and minimum temperature noted are 310C and 20C
respectively. A moderate sub-temperate climate, widespread in the Mahabharata Range, is prevalent in
the area.

Figure 1: Intake and Main Canal of Tokha Chandeshwori Rajkulo

The system was designed to divert water from the Chandeshori River and to convey it through a main
canal of about 3 km to irrigate about 60 ha of land. Most stretches of the canal have been designed
either with concrete lined section or with steel pipe section. The terrain of the command area is sloping
to flat having fertile and sandy soil.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The system is reported to have a very long history. Even though the exact date of initiation is not known,
it is believed that from ancient times the farmers in the area constructed, extended and managed the
system based on their requirement. The system was operated and maintained under the strict vigilance
of "Talukdar", "Jimwal", "Dartawal" and their instructions or orders were equal to rules/regulation or
law of the system. The system was maintained through farmers participation as labor contribution
ordered by these fore-runners. In B.S. 1918, during King Surendra Bir Bikram Shah's reign, water supply
systems and ponds were constructed in Tokha Town. During the same time, the irrigation system was
also extended, rehabilitated and maintained. Then onwards, the operation and maintenance remained
in the hands of the dominant farmers. Sharing of water thus could not be equitable and fair. Only the
head reach and influential farmers utilized the irrigation facilities abundantly whereas the tail end
farmers faced acute shortage of water. Because of such unfair utilization of irrigation facilities prevalent
within the system, a request for the construction of intake and canal was submitted by Lieutenant Gajraj
Shrestha to the Canal Department in B.S. 2021. Thus, the Canal Department appraised and constructed
intake and canal strengthening works in B.S. 2021 (Figure 3.1). The Department further appointed two

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water guards (Dhalpa) on monthly wage basis for routine operation and maintenance of the system. The
Village Panchayat certified the attendance of these staff and sent it to the Department for the payment
of their salary. Thus operation and maintenance through government support continued and the system
functioned smoothly until B.S. 2038.

From B.S. 2038, the Department employed Dhalpas were removed from the system. As there were no
formal or informal water users groups in existence, the regular operation and maintenance of the
system was carried out on the basis of mutual understanding among the users. In the course of time, as
the water became more scarce, gradually the "might is right" paradigm took over, and only the strong
and influential farmers were privileged to utilize the irrigation facilities. Because of such a biased trend
in using the irrigation facilities, most of the farmers lost interest in regular maintenance; and, as a
consequence, the system deteriorated further and further. As a result, the system became completely
defunct in B.S. 2053/54. Once again, at the initiation of Captain Gajaraj Shrestha, Kathmandu District
Development Committee agreed to provide financial support to the system through the formation of
rajkulo water users committee for the maintenance of the system. The committee carried out and
completed the maintenance works of the system. However, this committee could not function and
continue further. Due to lack of farmers interest and continued support from the government, the
system again could not be operated and maintained smoothly.

1.3 Socio-economic Context


In ancient times, Tokha used to be called as Jaypur. It is estimated that the settlement in the location
started about 828 years before the beginning of Bikram Sambat. In Newari 'tu' means sugarcane and
'khya' means growing or cultivated land; thus Tokha was a famous place for sugarcane cultivation and
production of "chaku", a popular local sweet.

The historic town of Tokha had about 400 households as core residents and about 300 households in the
periphery. Thus, in ancient times, it also used to be locally called as "serofero (surroundings) of 700
households".

The Newars are the local dominant residents of the area. Among the Newars, the main inhabitants are
Shrestha, Dangol, Maharjan, Manadhar, Napit, Karmacharya, Kusle, Khadgi, Pode and Joshi. These local
communities have their own traditional values, festivals, culture and traditions. Although everyone
speaks Nepali, Newari is the main language spoken in the community. The past and present
occupational status of the people of the area is tabulated and depicted in Table 3.1 and has been
illustrated through a bar diagram in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.1: Occupational Engagement of Local People before and present


Before Present
S. No. Description
Male/Female (%) Female (%) Male (%) Total (%)
1 Agriculture 95 39.6 22.7 62.3
2 Business 0 6.0 6.7 12.7
3 Job Holder 0 4.8 5.7 10.5
4 Labor 5 0.3 14.2 14.5
5 Industry 0 0 0 0

The data clearly reveals that the community is moving away from agriculture and gradually moving
towards business and other employment in government and non-government agencies and joining the
work-force as labors.

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100

80

60

40 Before (%)
Present (%)
20

Figure 2: Different Occupational Involvement of the Users before and present

Despite the changing trend, agriculture still remains the most common occupation of the inhabitants of
the area. The targeted users of the irrigation system (about 400 households) mostly comprise of
medium class farmers with an average landholding of 0.56 to 1.03 ha. Traditional and subsistence
farming practices prevail in the command area. Customary plowing, usage of traditional farming tools
and labor management are still the routine practice. Modern techniques of irrigated agriculture are
apparently not yet introduced in the area. The major crops grown in the command area are monsoon
paddy, wheat and maize and millet in the rain-fed uplands. Production of each crop is shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Crop Production in the Command Area


Crop Production (Muri/ropani) Production (Ton/Ha)
Paddy 5 4.86
Wheat 2 2.72
Maize 2 2.72
Millet 1 1.31

Presently, only about 43 Ropani at the head reach of the system receives irrigation facility and remaining
1,110 Ropani having no groundwater possibility depends only on rainfed farming practices. Thus,
considerable reduction in agricultural productivity has been noted as outlined in Table 3. There has been
significant reduction in crop yield, cropping intensity and cropping pattern.

Table 3: Crop Production in the Command Area after the Shutdown of the Canal
Crop Production (Muri/Ropani) Production (Ton/Ha) Remarks
Paddy 2 1.94 Rainfed, monsoon paddy
Wheat 1 1.36 75% land uncultivated

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Figure 3: Crop Cultivation and Harvesting in the Area

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


Despite the formation of water users committee in B.S. 2054, the committee could not be registered.
Because of the unorganized and mismanaged nature of the committee, multifunctional water use
activities could not be initiated in the project.

2.2 Functionaries
Consensus could not be built for the formation of an executive committee of the WUA. Hence, no
appointed members were assigned any functions.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


The farmers in the area lack ownership of the system. Hence, they have not taken any responsibility in
any of the irrigation activities of the system. Later, when the system itself became defunct, there was no
need to conduct any activities.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


There is no water to be used for multiple purposes.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


The WUA is not observed to be engaged in multi-functional activities in terms of agriculture.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


Farmers have to purchase staple food grains and vegetables from the nearby markets after the
complete shutdown of the irrigation system. Because of this, irrigated agricultural livelihood has shifted
towards foreign remittance and mainly daily wage based labor income oriented livelihood. No significant
improvement on livelihood for the average family has been noticed in the command area. The following
Table 3.4 depicts the household food deficit situation in the project area.

Table 4: Household food deficit situation in the command area


S. No Food Situation No of Households
1 Food surplus 14
2 Sufficient for 12 months 25
3 Sufficient for 9-12 months 100
4 Sufficient for 6-9 months 75

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5 Just sufficient for 2-3 months 186

Figure 4: Rapid Urbanization of Tokha

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


The reasons for the gradual shutdown of the Rajkulo were: first, withdrawal of the support from the
Canal Department by removing the water guards from the project; second, lack of institutional
development and capacity of water user's committee. Thirdly, as the male inhabitants of Tokha Town
were famous for skilled manpower that worked outside from ancient times, it was mostly the women
folk who were involved in farming activities. Further, the major source of income to the community was
not from the agricultural sector but the local skilled manpower working inside and or outside the project
area. Fifth, unreliable and inadequate irrigation facilities, lack of timely fertilizers, lack of agricultural
services were also some of the pertinent concerns accounting for the diminishing interest of the farmers
in sustaining the irrigation infrastructures, and the prevalent farming practices. Furthermore, the most
important and interesting is the extensive water utilization by Lipikot, Pasikot, Vasamthali, Bishnu VDC,
Tokha Chandeshwori VDC, Tokha Sharaswoti VDC and individually Tara Bahadur (Retired Army General).
As a consequence, the source river remains dry or in a water deficit state for irrigating the Rajkulo
command area. Thus, because of inadequate availability and poor management of water, the farmers
have demolished the Rajkulo canal and constructed a motorable road over it thereby initiating roadside
building construction leading to urbanization of the area. It appears that the local farmers have shifted
from agriculture to other livelihood professions.

Adequate farm land for irrigated agriculture is still available in the Tokha Chandeshwori Irrigation
System and in Chandeshwori VDC despite the rapid urbanization. Currently, the majority of farmers
practice rainfed agriculture. Farmers are unable to maximize agricultural benefits because of the poor
and unreliable irrigation facility and the highly uncertain and unpredictable rainfall in the area.
Government investment for reliable and sustainable agriculture development in the area has been
unsuccessful largely due to the lack of adequate water and irrigation facilities. Crop intensification and
diversification to improve the livelihood of the farmers remains unattended, and the local youth is
compelled to explore difficult jobs outside. The youth work force, the most capable and resourceful
manpower of the country is drained to perspire for paltry income in the scorching heat of the Middle
East, Malaysia and similar countries. The remaining elderly people seem to be continuing with the

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traditional subsistence farming practices and the productivity of the land has declined considerably over
the years. Thus the economic status and livelihood of the project has been observed as frail and
discouraging. The cropping intensity has significantly declined and the command area mostly remains
fallow or crop free during the winter season. Because of declining irrigation facilities, once the food
sufficient households, now have to purchase agricultural supplies for their daily livelihood. The project is
so near to the capital, and yet it remains like a "shadow below the light.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The Tokha Chandeshwori Irrigation System has become completely defunct due to lack of water users
unity and lack of awareness on water rights and access to water source. The once irrigated and irrigable
land now remains mostly uncultivated and dry. No attempts have been made to restore the
functionality, reliability and sustainability of the system. The water users are still unaware or reluctant to
approach various governmental and non governmental institutions and stake holders working for
irrigation management to improve their system.

There have been no livelihood impact studies and initiatives on changing/shifting traditional use of
water for irrigation to domestic utilization for water supply in the recent years. It appears that prior
appropriation and riparian rights of the system have been lost. The locals have closed and demolished
the canal and have constructed a road over it. Moreover, there has been rapid increase in construction
of buildings. Farmers are not at all encouraged by the government to promote modernized agriculture
by assisting them for reliable irrigation supply, improved variety seeds, fertilizers and agricultural
extension services.

However, there are still possibilities to protect the water source, catchment and intake to divert water
into the system to manage reliable irrigated agriculture by improving the canal and structures. But this
has not been foreseen, and the local youth is ever increasingly slipping into foreign lands, and the
elderly people living in the project are involved in mere subsistence agriculture. In summary, in a
traditional or agency managed irrigation system like the Tokha Chandeshwori Rajkulo Irrigation System,
a proper and active water users organization is indispensable for the timely operation, maintenance,
fair water distribution and overall technical, financial and social management in order to maximize the
utilization of scant water resources. Otherwise, mismanagement within the project appears a very costly
burden in terms of foregone benefit on the local community.

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Annex 12
Case 3: Bagkhore Irrigation System, Surkhet

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Baghkhor Irrigation System is situated in Kalyan VDC, ward no 4 of Surkhet district. The command
area lies on the right side of the Bheri River and 28 km east of the district headquarter, Surkhet. The
irrigation system can be accessed easily either through the Birendranagar-Dhuliyabit-Baghkhor route
(distance 28 Km), which is a gravelled road, or through Birendranagar-Dhuliyabit-Chhinchu-Jahare-
Baghkor (distance 45 Km) route, which is metalled up to Jahare and gravelled beyond that.

The source of the water is the Gum khola. The river is in boulder stage, and so is of eroding nature. The
area falls under the hydrological region no 2 of the regional hydrograph. The catchment area of the river
at headworks site is about 9.2 km2 and is mostly covered by sparsely mixed forest. The discharge of the
stream is adequate to feed the canal even for the winter and spring seasons. The discharge of the river
measured on 24 May 2010 was 135 l/sec.

This command area of the irrigation system lies on the right bank of the Bheri River. It is a fertile sloping
terrain having an average slope of about 50. Geographically, the command area is located at latitude of
280 30' 00"N to 280 31' 20"N and longitude of 810 43' 45"E to 810 46' 00"E and at 541 m above mean sea
level. The terrain of the command area is terraced and sloping gently towards the South. The main canal
alignment follows a contour, commanding left side of the canal. The soil observed in the command area
is loamy with fairly high percolation rates which are well suited to the irrigation of a wide range of crops,
such as rice, wheat, maize, vegetables, pulses, oilseeds and potato.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The Baghkhore Irrigation System is a farmer managed irrigation system constructed by the farmers in
2038 BS under the leadership of Nar Bahadur Sonata, Keshar Bir Rana and Jham Bahadur Brikatti. At that
time, they all worked very hard by mobilizing the labour resources of all the beneficiaries of the scheme.
They organized an informal water users committee to manage the works and mobilize resources. At that
time, the intake was built at some location upstream in the same river.

The irrigation system diverts water from the Gum Khola by run-of-the-river gravity flow to irrigate 40 ha
of is cultivable area. The Gum Khola originating from the northern Mahabharata hills is perennial, and it
flows towards the south and merges into the Bheri River and ultimately into the Karnali River.

Figure 1: Intake Point at Gum Khola Figure 2: Covered Canal at Initial Stretch

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The water diverted to the system is first collected in a pond and then distributed to the different areas.
The whole command area has been divided into four nala (Branch Canals). In each nala, one nala
committee has been formed which manages the distribution of water through a panipale. The panipale
keeps records of the time table for water distribution. In the winter season, water is distributed through
a rotation system. The temporary diversion at the headworks site and temporary water conveyance
structures in the system caused the farmers to face operation problems annually, and could not deliver
the desired results from agricultural because of the unreliability of the canal supply.

1.3 Socio-economic Context


The settlements in the area are in Kalyan VDC ward no. 4 of Surkhet district. These settlements are
reported to be quite old and are said to have been established after the eradication of Malaria in the
area. Houses are scattered within the village. The total households and the population of the current
command area are found to be 126 and 631 respectively. The average household size is 5.

Agriculture is the main occupation of


92% of the economically active
population, and the remaining is
reported to be engaged in other kind of
services. The agricultural practice is
traditional and subsistence level in the
command area. Mostly wheat, maize and
paddy are grown and the production for
commercial purposes is almost negligible
except for a few households that sell
surplus quantities, mostly paddy within Figure3 Agriculture is the Mainstay of the Population
the community.

The Magars (Janajati) are the main


inhabitants of the sub-project area
comprising about 73% of the population The
Dalits are the next largest group comprising
25%. Concerning gender issues, few women
were found active in social activities.
However, both men and women have
contributed equally in economic activities.

The average landholding size is estimated Figure 4 Ethnic Composition


to be about 0.43 ha. Household
classification by size of land operation
revealed that only about 2% of households
are landless; 63% fall in the marginal (less
than 0.5 ha. land operation) category, 32%
in the small (operating between 0.5 and 1.0
ha. of land) category, and 3% in the medium
(between 1 ha. and 1.5 ha.) category.

Figure 5 Landholding Pattern

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2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


The Baghkhor Irrigation System has a single tier organization of the Water Users Association (WUA). The
WUA was formed by a general assembly of all water users. It was registered on 2067/10/05 under the
prevailing Irrigation Regulation at the Irrigation Development Division, Surkhet. After registration of the
WUA, it has also been endorsed by the District Water Resources Committee (DWRC) for coordination
with District Development Committee (DDC) and other related agencies.

2.2 Functionaries
Formally, in this system, there is a single-tiered WUA. However, in practice, they have four Nala
Samittees under the WUA executive committee. The executive members of the WUA are represented
through Nala Samittees. The Executive Committee comprises of eleven members headed by Mr. Dev
Bahadur Rana. Among them, there are four (4) females; nine (9) Janajati and two (2) dalits.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


The roles and responsibilities of the WUA of the Bagkhore Irrigation System are well defined both
through their own constitution as well as their traditional rules and regulation for the operation and
maintenance of the system, resources collection and mobilization for regular repair and maintenance,
and emergency maintenance of the canal system. They have their own rules for water acquisition,
allocation, distribution and application for irrigation in the field. The main role and responsibilities of the
WUA are to regulate the operation and maintenance of the system, conduct regular monthly meeting
and gather a general assembly as per the constitution of the WUA.

The Bagkhore WUA has a traditional practice for maintenance of the canal. As per their customs,
Panipale is responsible for emergency minor maintenance works. If some heavy damage occurs in the
canal system, the Panipale will inform the WUA representatives, and the WUA manages and executes
the maintenance works by mobilizing the labor resources of the users communities. Normally regular
maintenance of the main canal is done once a year before the rainy crop. Each and every beneficiary has
to go for cutting and cleaning of the canal and intake for maintenance. If someone is absent in the
Jharali (cleaning of main canal), then he has to pay 100/day as a penalty. In winter, they go for
maintenance of the canal on a fortnightly basis during the occasions of ausi and purnima. The Nala
Committee keeps the record of attendance of labor contribution and informs the beneficiaries when to
go for maintenance works. They have initiated to raise membership fee and Irrigation Service Fees (ISF)
for O&M. They also have the practice
of levying a penalty for defaulters.

The WUA has recently initiated to


enroll membership with a fee Rs. 10
for each new member and an ISF of at
the rate of Rs. 2.00 per year per kattha
of land. The system is operated
through 4 numbers of nala (Branch
canal). The WUA nominates two
persons as panipale for operation and
maintenance. The responsibilities of
the panipales are as follows:
Operate the canal early in the
Figure 6: Water Flow in the Canal

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morning and closing it in the evening.
Look after and safeguard the canal system.
Manage the distribution of irrigation water at field level.
Minor repair and maintenance of the canal system.
In case of occurrence of big damages in the canal system, inform the WUA for resources
mobilization and maintenance of the canal.

Panipales are elected through the meeting of General Assembly of the WUA in the month of Jestha of
each year. The panipale gets paddy from each household for his services. If a household uses two pathis
of seed for paddy crops in his land, then it has to pay four pathis of paddy to the panipale as
remuneration. They collected the paddy from all beneficiaries at harvesting time. The overall operation
and maintenance of the system is managed by the Nala Committee.

All the command area has been divided into four nalas (Branch Canals). Each nala committee manages
distribution of water through its panipale. The Panipale keeps records of time table for water
distribution. In the winter season, they distribute water by a rotation system. The decision taken for
water allocation and distribution for this winter season as follows:
Nala No. 1 gets water for 3 days and 3 nights
Nala No. 2 gets water for 3 days and
Nala No. 3 gets water for 3 days and 3 nights
Nala No. 4 gets water for 3 days and 3 nights

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the system and Multi functional engagement of the WUA
Previously there was hardship in fetching
safe drinking water. With the initiative of the
existing WUA, NEWAH has supported a
drinking water supply and sanitation scheme
for 128 households of this area. Under this
program, women are involved in different
income generation activities through the
saving and credit program. The awareness
level of this area has been increased; thanks
to the health and hygiene program. Most of
the households have constructed toilets.
They also use water for growing vegetables
in the kitchen garden. This provides extra Figure 7: Domestic Water Supply System
income by selling vegetables and also
enhances the consumption of vegetables in
the household.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


The farmers in the area had to rely on the
local money lenders for their credit needs.
Realizing the need, the WUA decided to
initiate a saving and credit cooperative on

Figure 8: Vegetable Cultivation


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Asar 10, 2067, which was named Samriddhi Krishi Saving and Credit Cooperative Ltd. At the beginning,
the cooperative started with 43 members with an initial share capital of Rs. 45,000. It now has 262
members out of which females number 128 and males 134. Its capital has also grown to almost Rs.
1,350,000. It invests in buying fertilizer, seed, goat rearing, pig farming, poultry farming, etc. at an
interest rate of 14 %. The office of the WUA is also located in the building owned by the members of this
cooperative at Ward No. 4 of Kalyan VDC. These cooperatives invest in seed production, vegetable seed
production, pig farming and bee-keeping in close coordination with DADO office.

The co-operative has an executive committee consisting of 11 functionaries for policy and management
decisions. Three sub-committees under the executive committee have been formed with specific
responsibilities. These include: i) loan sub-committee consisting of 5 members responsible for finalizing
and approving the loan request of the farmers, ii) accounts and monitoring sub-committee comprising
of 3 members responsible for monitoring the activities and progress of the cooperative, and iii)
education sub-committee with 5 members responsible for educating and awareness building of the
farmers on saving schemes and undertaking promotional programs.

The co-operative has started different types saving schemes for the people in the area, serving the
interest of clients of different age groups and occupations. These include: monthly savings, children
savings, and special savings. The number of people maintaining different kinds of saving accounts in the
cooperative as of 2012 is shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Members and saving amount in the Saving Schemes of the Cooperative
S. No. Type of Saving Scheme Total Members Saving Amount NRs
1. Capital Share 262 313,000.00
2. Monthly Saving 262 786,000.00
3. Children Saving 30 50,000.00
4. Special Saving 25 200,000.00
Total 1580 1,349,000.00

Farmers of the Baghhor Irrigation System have also formed a community forest group in 2049 and
registered it as the Baghkhor Community Forest in 2050 B.S. This is the first community forest in Surkhet
district. This year, it also received an award of the best community forest in the district. There are
altogether 150 hh as members in the community forest. In coordination with the District Forest office,
the committee has started harvesting of kurilo and Bet in the forest area. Besides, they are involved in
nursery preparation and plantation of trees in the protected area. The main source of income of the
committee is the sale of forest products. They charge Rs. 500 for all new members. They have appointed
a ban heralu for taking care of the forest and informing members about meetings and others works. The
ban heralu gets Rs. 1,500 per month as remuneration. Samudayic farmer users are getting swaula,
firewood, timber (wood) and grass from time to time from the community forest. The Samudayic forest
users committee helps the local schools in construction of building and other necessary supports. Due to
the samudayic forest, the forest has been protected and incidents of landslide have been reduced.
People of the area are getting a lot of benefit from the forest, and it has also contributed to enhancing
the socio-economic status of the local community.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


The livelihood pattern of the beneficiaries of the system has changed gradually. Apart from cereal
production, people have started to engage in vegetables seed production, beekeeping, poultry form, pig
farming and goat farming with the support of the loan provided by their own saving and credit

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cooperative, DADO and other local NGOs, due to which, the income levels have increased. One of the
key factors for changing livelihood is the reliability of the system, availability of water at the right time in
the right amount as per the requirement of the crop.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


The WUAs executive committee is active and has been properly managing the operation and
maintenance of the irrigation system. The WUA is engaged in multiple functions such as cooperative and
forestation programs. They have developed and strictly follow their rule and regulation for resource
mobilization for the regular operation and maintenance of the system. WUA have their own office and
maintain the necessary documents. They have maintained transparency by maintaining meeting
minutes, financial record keeping and regular auditing of the WUA, and conducting general assembly
once every year and regular monthly meetings. The saving habit of the farmers has increased. The
saving and credit cooperative has been managed and run effectively. Farmers are actively involved in
vegetable production, vegetable seed production and their sales with the support of DADO through
ICWMP/IWRMP. The WUA have played a key role in coordinating with the stakeholders for bringing in
development programs. The Cooperative supports the farmers in vegetable seed production, goat
farming, bee-keeping, mushroom farming, pig farming and poultry farming by providing loan, due to
which income of farmers have been increased.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The key lessons learned from the Bagkhor Irrigation System are as follows:

Irrigation is not only a technical phenomenon; it is a socio-technical phenomenon for the


application of water in the right amount at the right time, in the right place. The sustainability
of an irrigation system is mostly dependent on the institutionalization of the WUA which in
turn is dependent on the reliability, responsibility, accountability and transparency of its
functions. Reliability, responsibility, accountability and transparency of the WUA is in turn
dependent on the right person in the right place selected in the right way i.e. capability of the
executive committee of WUA.

An irrigation system should be demand-led and water users should be involved from its initial
stage (identification, feasibility survey, design and cost estimate) to the implementation stage.
This ensures that the irrigation system is farmer friendly.

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Annex 13
Case 4: Kankai Irrigation System, Jhapa

1 Introduction
1.1 Location and context
The Kankai Irrigation System (KIS) lies in Jhapa District of Mechi Zone in the Eastern Development Region
of Nepal. The irrigation system is easily accessible through the East West highway, and is located 85km
east of Biratnagar and 30km southwest of Bhadrapur.

The system lies in the Terai plains with gently slope from north to south. The command area lies mainly
towards the south of the East-west Highway, and within the Kankai River in the east and Krishna River in
the west extending all the way up to the border with India. Its total command area is about 7,000 ha
that includes 7 VDCs namely: Satashidham, Shivagunj, Panchgachhi, Mahabhara, Dharampur, Topgachhi
and Baigundhura.

The climate of the area is mainly sub-tropical and humid. It has a hot and humid climate during summer
and moderately high rainfall during the monsoon. The average maximum temperature in the area is
38C and minimum temperature is 7C. The recorded data of precipitation, maximum and minimum air
temperature, wind speed, relative humidity of Gainde Station have been used for the analysis of crop
water requirements.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The irrigation system is fed by the perennial Kankai River having a catchment area of 1190 sq. km. The
discharge in the River ranges from 5,200 to 7.74 cumecs.

The headworks of the system consists of a 126 m long diversion weir and 34 m long main canal. There
are 22 Secondary Canals of a total of 74km length, 54 Sub-secondary Canals and 199 Tertiary Canals. The
designed capacity of the main canal is 10.3 cumecs. A Feasibility Study of the irrigation scheme was first
carried out in 1970 and, through a loan assistance from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the first
phase of construction work for 5,000 ha was initiated in 1971 and completed in 1981. Similarly, the
second phase of 3,000 ha was initiated in 1981; but due to various reasons like social obstructions to the
canal alignment and need of additional cross drainage structures, only 2,000 ha could be achieved by
the end of 1991. Hence, even though the system has a potential of 8,000 ha, only 7,000 ha could be
achieved. Apart from this, the diversion weir constructed during the first phase was damaged by flood,
and rehabilitation works had to be carried out from 1983 to 1986. From 2009, command area extension
of Secondary Canals (SC) 17 to 21 and essential structural improvement works as part of the Irrigation
Management Transfer (IMT) is underway through the World Bank funded Irrigation and Water
Resources Management Project (IWRMP).

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Figure 4: Headworks and Main Canal of Kankai Irrigation System

1.3 Socio-economic Context


Eight different caste and ethnic groups, namely: Rajbansi, Tajpuria, Bahun, Chhetry, Rai, Limbu, Newar,
Gurung, and Dalits reside in the command area. Among them, Rajbansi and Tajapuria comprise the
majority (30%), Chhetri (26%), Brahmin (20%), Limbu (12%), Rai (7%) and others including Dalits are 5%.
The average literacy rate in the area is 50%. Of them, women's share is relatively lower (45%) in
comparison to men (55%).

Overall, 80% of the population is dependent on agriculture and remaining 20% is engaged in other
sectors like enterprises and services. The average landholding size is about 1 ha per household.

Most of the farmers cultivate crops like paddy, wheat, maize, mustard, pulses along with potato and a
few grow fresh vegetables. Cropping cycles are practiced in three seasons namely summer, winter and
spring. Paddy is the dominant produce and is cultivated in two seasons: spring and summer, while wheat
and maize are mainly cultivated in the winter. The average production per hectare of these crops in the
command area is: spring paddy - 4.5 ton/ha, summer paddy - 3.9 ton/ha, wheat - 2.5 ton/ha, maize - 4
ton/ha, vegetables 17.5 ton/ha and pulses 0.6 ton/ha. Although the situation of cropping intensity is
different under the command area of each branch canal, the average is calculated as 200%. Both organic
and chemical fertilizers are used but chemical fertilizer is more prevalent.

Figure 2: Rice Cultivation in the KIS Command Area

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2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


After the formulation of the Irrigation Policy 1992 (2049 BS), Joint Irrigation Management practices were
initiated in a number of agency managed irrigation systems. Based on the policy, KIS was registered on
December 24, 1993 (Paush 9, 2050 BS) as one of the pioneer WUAs with its three tier organizational
structure comprising of main committee, branch committee and tertiary committee under the
Association Registration Act 1977 (2034 BS) at the District Administration Office, Jhapa.

The WUA, since its establishment, has completed 4 elections in 1995 (2052 BS), 2001 (2058 BS), 2006
(2063 BS) and 2011 (2068 BS), and elected executive committees and is functioning as a democratic
institution.

2.2 Functionaries
The current organizational structure of the WUA has three tiers with a 199 member General Assembly
(GA) as an apex body with policy making authority. As an overall responsible body for irrigation
management functions, a 31 member Main Committee (MC) is formed with representation of lower
tiers and GA. 22 Branch Committees (BC) and 199 Tertiary Committees (TC) are formed to look after
their respective branch and tertiary canals.

The tertiary committees are formed through direct election from the farmers along with one
representative for the affiliated branch committee and one general assembly member. The structure of
the tertiary committee is designed based on irrigated area. Generally, 9, 11 and 13 member committees
are formed along with the chairperson, vice chairperson, secretary and treasurer for 25-50 ha, 51-100
ha, and more than 101 ha area respectively. These committees are mainly responsible for all the
activities of irrigation management in their respective canals.

Based on the command area, 5 to 17 member BCs, are formed in each branch canal by representatives
from the TCs. Along with the election/selection of functionaries, BCs also send a representative as
member for the MC.

The MC, comprising of 31 members, is formed through election of 4 key functionaries and 4
representatives like women, Dalits and Janajatis from the GA to maintain the social diversity and to
nominate representatives from all the 22 BCs with an ex-officio member from the previous chairperson.
MC is the main executive body of the WUA; hence, the overall responsibility of irrigation management
of the system lies on it.

The GA is the apex policy making body of the WUA comprising of 199 representatives elected from the
tertiary canals. Generally, the responsibilities of GA are:
to elect 4 key functionaries namely the Chairperson, Vice chairperson, Secretary and Treasurer;
to prepare the policies and provide directives;
to endorse the actions of MC; and
to approve budget and annual progress reports.

The executive committees of each tier sit once a month to discuss over canal management issues like
operation, maintenance, water allocation and so on. The MC has a fixed schedule for its regular
meeting. They meet on the 5th of each Nepali month. The GA, in general, is convened once a year. The
tenure of the WUA of four years duration.

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The WUA has prepared a number of norms, rules and regulations and ratified through the GA to govern
its functions smoothly. Some of these, for example, are irrigation service fee (ISF) regulations, canal
maintenance regulations, administration and financial regulation, which are now under implementation.

The WUA has the provision of awarding membership to individual farmers. Membership can be achieved
with Rs 10 as membership fee and should be renewed annually for eligibility. Currently there are 3,500
members.

Figure 3: WUA's Account and Administration Keeping Documents

Figure 4: Women Participating in Income Generating Training


2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA
Around 500 NRs million equivalent including both fixed and movable assets is under the ownership of
the WUA out of which 200 thousand NRs is currently balanced at the bank account. Physical
infrastructures as well as mechanical equipments used for canal operation and maintenance are also the
property of the WUA.

The responsibility for irrigation water distribution is delineated between the Irrigation Division Office
(IDO) and WUA. The headwork is managed by the IDO, and it carries out the canal operations of the
main canal. All the responsibilities of irrigation management including the main canal, branch and
tertiary canals are under the WUA.

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Based on the water availability at the headworks, a water management schedule is developed. Only
65 % command area is being irrigated in the winter and spring seasons; hence, the whole command area
is divided into two parts. There is an alternative schedule annually for the cultivation of spring paddy.
Accordingly, there is a weekly schedule for winter crops.

The WUA has fixed the ISF rate at NRs 300/ha per crop. However, the collection performance is very
low. Although the target was fixed as 1.2 million, last year only NRs 300 thousand was collected. The
centrally collected ISF is allocated shares to different tiers as TC 40%, BC 20%, MC 20%, canal
maintenance fund 10% and rest 10% as revenue to the government treasury. With improvement in
irrigation performance, it is anticipated to raise the ISF rate to NRs 800 based on funds required for
operation and maintenance in the near future. The farmers seem positive to pay provided that irrigation
performance is improved.

There is a general practice of canal maintenance, but not limited to, twice a year in November and May.
NRs 300/ha per crop/ (two main crop) is being collected as Maintenance Fee and the canal is maintained
using the collected Maintenance Fee. Generally, the well-off farmers pay the maintenance fee and the
poor farmers work on wage basis and also thereby earn their livelihood.

The MC in general prepares annual programs and budget with its sources of income and mechanisms for
collection and submits to the GA for approval. The GA discusses its appropriateness and approves it as it
is or with changes, if deemed necessary.

As a mechanism for hearing of grievances, the respective executive committees are primarily
responsible. If the grievances cannot be resolved, the respective upper tiers hear the appeal. The MC is
the final authority to resolve all the grievances related to irrigation management.

Figure 5: Irrigation Management Transfer Ceremony


To oversee the canal improvement activities undertaken by the IWRMP, the WUA has formed a
committee which regularly monitors the work quality and its progress. The farmers themselves are also
very insightful and are fulfilling the role of watch dog. Besides, activities are reviewed on occasional
basis.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use


The main propose of the irrigation system is to supply water for irrigation, and all infrastructure has
been developed accordingly. Therefore, there seems limited scope for other uses of water beyond

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irrigation. Even though people are using the canal water to supplement rural livelihood necessities like
washing, bathing, drinking (while tubewells are not able to supply the drinking water during heavy
drought), feeding animals and add on fisheries pond during dry seasons, these uses are minimal in terms
of the volume of water and are also not regulated by the WUAs.

Figure 6: WUA Meeting of Kankai Irrigation System

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


Even though it is desired that WUAs perform multifunctional roles in irrigated agriculture and provide
other support services like supply of fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, and market facility to the farmers and
contribute both in raising the productivity of agriculture produce and raise the income of farmers, this
has not yet come into full practice in the KIS. The WUA is mature with experiences of more than 18
years but multi-functionality is still in a rudimentary stage. However, effort in this direction is on-going
and it is commonly discussed among the WUA members to promote the role and function of the WUA
and widen its services beyond irrigation to other sectors like womens empowerment, income
generating activities, etc. These activities are planned in coordination and collaboration of different
governmental and nongovernmental organizations and local elected bodies and can be expected to
materialize in the days to come.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


The WUA has been working for the last 18 years and has been performing various important works for
the betterment of the farmers of KIS. According to the farmers of KIS, they are now getting more timely
water service. The WUA has reported the following positive impacts on the livelihood of the farmers in
the KIS command area:
1. Early paddy was introduced by the concerned agriculture agencies, and overall management
and replication and water management work was done by the WUA. Thus, early paddy is gaining
popularity as a major crop among other crops and the farmers are getting substantial benefit
from early paddy with valuable contribution of the WUA. The production of early paddy is very
high, and is thus very helpful in changing the farmers economic condition from subsistence to
surplus.

2. The average production of traditional crops is increasing and new crops, especially vegetables
are also being introduced. Modernization in agriculture along with market linkages is being
promoted by the WUA. As a result, the living standard of the people is changing rapidly and
prosperity is increasing due to the WUA activities like water management, and proper operation
and maintenance of the irrigation system.

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3. Due to various awareness raising activities, peoples' ownership towards the irrigation system
has increased. Thus, people are contributing towards improving the irrigation system and
following the irrigation schedule and other rules determined by the WUA. As a result, farmers
are saving time and earning more money.

4. Gender awareness is increasing due to the active participation of women in the WUA. It became
possible because of women's participation in WUA activities like decision making, training
program and positive discrimination in the WUA through legal arrangements.

5. WUA is playing a very important role to accomplish the proposed IMT Program and its activities
more effectively. Regular monitoring of the IMT activities is being carried out by the WUA. As
result, farmers are benefited because of the effectiveness of the program.

6. Incoming generating activities are being conducted through the active participation of the WUA
with other line agencies. These activities are helping the farmers to increase their economic
status directly.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


The WUA, during its 18 year life span has exhibited many strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of
the WUA are enumerated as follows:
1. WUA operating as an institution: A number of institutional mechanisms are gradually being
adapted, which include: regular meetings, decision making based on rigorous discussions,
organization of the GA each year as per the provisions of the constitution, democratic exercise,
transparency, regular auditing and ratification through the GA, distribution and renewal of
membership, development of different regulations and implementation, proper documentation
of records and accounts, regular election of executives and grievances hearing mechanisms, and
so forth. All these are in the process of institutionalization.
2. Capable leadership: All the members of the WUA believe in their capable leadership and elect
their leaders accordingly. Credible leadership is one of the reasons for the WUA's institutional
development.
3. Use of water: In comparison to other irrigation systems, irrigation water is considered as an
'economic good' and the WUA is trying to collect ISF based on the principle of recovery of the
cost of operation and maintenance. In order to manage water efficiently and equitably as much
as possible through the application of different water use mechanisms, for example, an
alternative schedule is in practice. It can be considered as a good sign for the sustainability of
the system.
4. Active, conscious and liberal farmers: The members are always alert about the performance of
the WUA and are watching its activities closely. If any things seem suspicious or mismanaged,
the GA members always alert and provide necessary feedbacks for timely correction. If they find
anything logical and innovative, they are also supportive of such steps on the part of the WUA.
5. Challenge bearing capacity: The WUA also has the capacity to face the challenges. IMT, a
challenging task, is owned by the farmers. This has pressurized the WUA to take up the
challenge as an opportunity and implement it. Many challenges have been shouldered till date.
Hence, it is observed that the WUA has developed a good challenge bearing capacity with
considerable resilience.

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6. WUA and party politics: An interesting case of the relationship between party politics and the
WUA can be noted here. Since the last 4 elections, candidates are nominated based on political
party affiliation. Elections are held among the political parties; but interestingly enough, there
seem to be no effects of party politics when an election is over. No signs of clashes between
winner and defeated candidates are observed after the election. It is a common understanding
among the users that their WUA should not be affected by party politics.
7. Sense of ownership: The system has gone through different management regimes like
government management, joint management and now IMT is being implemented. Whatever
management regimes have been adopted, the farmers are always found responsible with a
sense of greater ownership. There is a feeling that the system is for the betterment of their
livelihoods; therefore, they are taking challenges and trying to improve the irrigation
infrastructures for better irrigation performance.
8. Gender issue: The WUA seems more responsive towards gender issues in comparison to other
WUAs of large irrigation systems. There is representation of women in each tier of the WUA.
Generally, the women of this system are active and involved in a large number of activities.
Women representatives of the WUA are carrying out innovative works and they present
themselves proudly in executive committee meetings.
9. Compatible with time and changes: Most of the rules and regulations of the WUA are amended
and developed as needed to respond to the changes in both internal and external situations.
This is one characteristic of institutionalization.
10. Social acceptability: Social acceptability is one vital ingredient of institutions. The WUA, though
its activities is getting acceptability from its farmers.

Despite the great deal of strengths, it is observed that the KIS WUA also has many weaknesses, some of
which are as follows:
1. Decision implementation: In spite of many good decisions taken by the WUA, some of these
have not been properly implemented. Decisions themselves do not bring any changes but
concerted action which is sometimes lacking with this WUA.
2. Coordination with local bodies: Despite ample opportunities to bring synergies in collaboration
and coordination with local and district based organizations through resource sharing; these
have not been translated into action meaningfully.
3. Activeness of all executive committees: There is a good organizational structure in place;
nevertheless, all the committees are not equally functional, which is a requirement for a
successful WUA.
4. Reward and punishment: A reward and punishment mechanism, which is the one most
important factor for institutional strengthening seems to be lacking. Albeit there are a few
provisions, but they lack implementation.
5. Lack of remuneration: There are lots of tasks for executives expected to be performed in a
voluntary basis. Lack of minimum remuneration and incentives seems to be adversely affecting
their performance.
6. Membership distribution: A report has highlighted that there are 17 thousand households of
farmers in the command area of which 7 thousand are potential for membership; none-the-less,
there are only 3,500 members.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The lessons that can be replicated to other WUAs can be drawn as:
An image of a democratic and impartial institution that is being developed among the farmers is
exemplary. As institutional development, many norms, rules and regulations are developed to

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manage the WUA functions that can be a lesson for those irrigation systems which are under
joint management.

Activeness and invariable watch dog function of the farmers is one reason that the functionaries
are being accountable and following the norms and values of the WUA.

The social capital that is formed is one key asset of the WUA. Social trust, a robust network, and
rules and regulations play a vital role in managing the institution smoothly.

The process of planning, for example, preparation of the annual plan and budget by the MC
executive committee and ratification of it through the GA is well entrenched. The GA supports
to prepare practical and realistic plans.

Good governance that can be reflected through transparency, accountability and participation
makes any peoples institution more credible.

Many practices exercised by the KIS WUA may have been manifested or no; nonetheless, if these are
explored and replicated there is no doubt that it will support in improving the participatory irrigation
management practices specifically in large agency managed irrigation systems of Nepal.

Conclusion
The WUA has the capital of a number of strengths, and is moving ahead by learning through past
experience and preparing practical strategies to address the newly emerged challenges. Although there
are lots of weaknesses and challenges that have been realized, these can be resolved with the
motivation and sense of ownership buttressed by the notion of our canal, our water. A dynamic,
committed and accountable leadership is a must to drive the institution that can learn from the past and
develop strategies with a vision for adopting new initiatives and addressing the emerging challenges.
There is enormous potential with the WUA to manage the irrigation system, especially a large one as an
exemplary model.

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Annex 14
Case 5: Panchakanya Irrigation System, Chitwan

1 Introduction
In 1994, the Department of Irrigation (DOI) and farmers cooperated progressively to accomplish new
ways of users participation in Panchakanya Irrigation System (PIS). This resulted in the creation of a new
Water User Association (WUA) and complete system turn-over in 1997. Since 1998, the WUA has
expanded with more members in the general assembly and it added sub-branch committees to its
structure. It also achieved high levels of women participation, which is an exception in Nepal. In 2001, 98
of the 106 posts (92%) in lower level committees were held by women; 21 of the 56 posts (38%) in
branch committees, and 1 of the 15 (7%) in the main committee (Khanal, 2003).

However, the WUA of PIS has recently experienced setbacks in users participation. These setbacks can
be traced back to the water share system introduced for WUAs by the DOI as part of irrigation
management transfer policies (DOI, 1994). The share system for water distribution is proportional water
allocation based on land size, meaning that all farmers with land in the command area have an equal
(proportional) right to water. Based on this principle of equity, the share system is the organizational
basis for the WUA. The pitfall of this model is that levels of users participation in the WUA almost
certainly decline, when the share system fails to function.

The following observations were made during the research in PIS between 2009 and 2011:
The share system for water distribution is not strictly followed.
The main committee of the WUA has been reduced in size, and does not play a critical role in
day-to-day water distribution and system management.
Abolishment of lower level committees, notably 31 sub-branch committees.
Drastic reduction of formal women participation in the WUA.
Increased inequity in water distribution between head and tail-end farmers.

These observations come as an unpleasant surprise, as


PIS remains a model of success for irrigation
management transfer in Nepal. For instance, in 2010, a
television crew of the Information and Communication
Office of the Department of Agriculture in coordination
with DOI made a short documentary on PIS for Nepal
Television, to show the WUA as an example of good
practice (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The Chairman of WUA giving an Interview
about the Success of PIS

1.1 Location and context


PIS is located in Chitwan district. The climate of Chitwan is sub-tropical, with a wet season, winter
season, and dry (spring) season. The annual rainfall is about 2000 mm of which 75% falls in the
monsoon. Rainfall in other months is erratic both spatially and temporarily. In these conditions,
irrigation is critical to secure crops from rainfall failure in the monsoon, and the spring season. Crops
grown are rice in the monsoon; maize, mustard, wheat and pulses in the winter and early paddy in the
dry season.

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The system is designed for 600 ha (Figure 2). Its source are springs that flow into the Khageri River. The
system has an overflow weir that contains a small and largely silted reservoir, and supplies a 5 km long
main canal, 8 branch canals and 10 direct outlets. In reality, according to WUA records, in the period
1998-2008, the irrigated area was about 260 ha in the monsoon and maximum 100 ha in the spring.
Generally, farmers relied on multiple sources for irrigation (ground water, springs, ghols). So, in practice,
a larger area was irrigated, particularly in the monsoon when farmers divert water from field to field.

Figure 2: Canal layout of Panchakanya Irrigation System (Source: Khanal, 2003)

1.2 Historical development


An indigenous irrigation canal was constructed by the Tharus more than 200 years ago. Until the 1960s,
a Tharu headman, or jimindar (landlord), was assigned by the kings government to administer the lands
and collect tax. In this context, allocation of water resources was a matter decided by the jimindar, and
irrigation canals were built in virtue of the king. Hence, the name of the canal was raj kulo (kings canal).
The chautari operated as a secretary. He kept the records for tax collection and supervised irrigation
works. He was assisted by the samonya (messenger), who called farmers for banwari (dam
building/canal cleaning). Despite the feudal relationships of the jimindar system, Tharu society in
Chitwan was fairly egalitarian, and todays irrigation practices still reflect some of Tharus effective
organizational capacities, such as strong leadership.

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Up to the 1980s, hill migrants, new to the area, mostly from Brahmin and Chettri (B/C) castes, followed
the jimindar system, but Tharus soon lost control over irrigation. Migrant farmers organized among
themselves to secure a bigger share of water resources, and they approached the government for
system expansion and rehabilitation. In 1974, the system was then taken over by the state under the
Chitwan Irrigation Project. Construction activities followed in 1977 (intake) and 1984 (canal lining). In
1988, it were these farmers (and not the Tharu) that were acknowledged by the DOI as an (informal) ad-
hoc WUA, thereby authorizing, knowingly or unwittingly, that B/C farmers had captured water resources
previously controlled by Tharu. From then on, the WUA coordinated affairs with the dhalpa (gate
operator) of the DOI for water distribution.

In 1995, system rehabilitation was again carried out under the Irrigation Management Transfer Project
(IMTP).

1.3 Socioeconomic context


In 1996, 88% of the farmers were owner-cultivator in PIS with an average landholding of 0.67 ha. In
2010, this number had declined to 0.57 ha on average. Hill migrants obtained land through settlement
in the 1960s and 1970s, thereby displacing land and water use practices of Tharu, such as the grazing of
large cattle herds. By 2000, the Tharu population had shrunk to 25% in the PIS command area compared
to 95% in 1970 (Shukla et al., 1999). In 2010, about 74% of the farm households in PIS had some other
source of income than farming (job, private business, dairy farming, pensions, and daily labor). Literacy
rates are high in PIS, and close to 98% of children (under 18 years) went to school.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


The Tharus were the first to organize irrigation in PIS, followed by B/C farmers who had taken over
control of irrigation (Table 1). In 1988, a WUA was formed, but things remained much the same. There
was no constitution or written rules and the jimindar, and later the chairman of the WUA, used to
decide on water rotation.

Table 1: Development of irrigated area in Panchakanya


System/ project Management model Design Monsoon Winter Spring
command (ha) (ha) (ha)
area (ha)
Raj kulo Tharu (jimindar) 100 100 - -
CIP (1977) DOI & B/C farmers 600 300 Rainfed n/a
CIP (1984) DOI & B/C farmers 600 400 Rainfed n/a
1988-1993 DOI & WUA 600 265 Rainfed 13
After IMTP (1997) WUA 450 265 Rainfed 60
1998-2008 WUA 450 260 Rainfed 100
Source: Khanal, 2003 and records of WUA (collected by Garcia-Landarte Puertas, 2010)

This situation changed radically after 1994 under the IMTP project. The existing WUA was not just
formalized, but farmers were introduced to the water share system which was completely alien to
them. Water had always been allocated based on the principle of first-come-first-serve, crudely
following crop water requirements. This meant that head-end farmers had privileged positions in the
system. The share system disrupted this situation. Available water was to be divided in shares related
to land size in the (design) command area. In PIS, one water share was related to one kattha (0.033 ha).

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According to the share system, all farmers with land (head-end and tail-end farmers) have an equal
(proportional) right to water, and are entitled to represent the WUA (Figure 3). For this model, a multi-
level WUA was created, and users participation and representation in various committees of the WUA
was based on shares and land size (Figure 4). In 1997, there was one member in the general assembly of
the WUA for every 15 bigha (10 ha), representing the users of 300 shares (note: one user can have more
shares).

Figure 3: Model of WUA based on the share system (Source: Manual of DOI, 1994)

Figure 4: Users Participation in the WUA based on the Share System (Source: Manual of DOI, 1994)

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Table 2 shows that a completely new multi-tiered WUA was created in 1994 to implement the share
system and assure users participation at all levels. Essentially, the situation has remained unchanged
until today, but it shows that the WUA expanded steadily in the period 1994-2008, but underwent a
decline after 2009.

Table 2: Development of the WUA of Panchakanya


Year General Main Branch & Outlet committees Sub-branch
Assembly committee Branch Outlet committees
committee committees (outlet groups)
1988-1993 - 11 - - -
1994-1997 45 13 9 - -
1998-2000 110 16 8 10 31
2001 89 15 8 10 31
2008 198 16 8 10 31
2009-present 53 12 8 5 -
Source: Khanal, 2003 and our field work

2.2 Functionaries
To make the share system and the WUA work, extensive training of farmers was required. Trainings
included share system development, administration and financial management, as well as construction
management, awareness programmes on IMTP and women users sensitization trainings. The result was
that the WUA assumed full responsibility in 1997 for system management, and the karyadal (work force)
was created to replace the dhalpa for canal operation and water distribution. In the new WUA structure,
members of the various committees had an active role in irrigation management. For instance, requests
for irrigation water were collected by functionaries in each branch and then forwarded to the main
committee. Here, a schedule was made and communicated to farmers.

Women were particularly active in the sub-branch committees of the WUA. For instance, in 2001, more
than 500 women mobilized in a campaign to stop encroachment on the canal embankment (Khanal,
2003). Farmers still acknowledge womens efforts which led to increase in WUA-membership and the
collection of irrigation service fees (ISF) and other compulsory WUA fees.

Two factors were critical for the share system to work, and to assure users participation and womens
involvement in the WUA:

Visionary leadership: In the period 1994-2004, the chairman and secretary formed a couple that
provided strong leadership for the WUA. They were supporters of the Nepali Congress and United
Marxist Leninist (UML) respectively, and the chairman had first negotiated with the government in 1974
for system expansion. Both chairman and secretary were able to overcome concerns of head-end
farmers about their privileged access to water, and were considered credible among farmers for their
transparency in decision making and financial matters. In 2004, the chairman resigned, and the
secretary became the chairman of the WUA up to 2008.

NGO involvement for women empowerment: The NGO Women Plus was critical for womens
involvement in water management. In 2000, the NGO initiated the Women Helping Group (WHG) for
capacity development in agriculture by means of training and credit facilities (Khanal, 2003). This
committee was linked to the WUA, and women came to dominate the sub-branch committees, positions
which were not considered attractive by male farmers.

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2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA
After 2009, the situation changed. The decline of the WUA coincided with elections in the main
committee. UML and Maoist supporters had a conflict about key positions in the WUA, and intimidation
of voters was reported. Eventually, the former vice-chairman, leader in the Tharu community and
Maoist supporter, became the new chairman. After elections, the size of the WUA was reduced
dramatically; sub-branch committees were abolished, and the number of members in the general
assembly declined from 198 to 53 (Table 6.2). Clearly, the WUA struggled to overcome political rivalries
without its experienced leaders-couple, but closer inspection reveals that the decline of the WUA is
more deeply rooted in the failure of the share system.

Figure 5 shows records of the WUA on the shareholder area and the actual irrigated area in the period
1998-2008. It reveals that the water share system was never strictly adhered to, and during our
research, we found that the share system was no longer guiding water distribution. The top-line in
Figure 6.5 shows the area irrigated in terms of water shares. It shows that the shareholder area
increased in the period 1998-2008 from 310 ha to 390 ha, meaning that the system expanded and more
users were included in the WUA. However, the second line from the top shows that the actual irrigated
area in the monsoon was maximum 260 ha in the same period. Figure 6.5 also shows that early paddy
(spring rice) has slowly replaced maize as the favorite crop for the spring. The maximum area for early
paddy is about 100 ha, because it has higher crop water requirements than maize.

450

400

350
Shareholder area (ha)
300

250 Monsoon (ha)

200 Total spring (ha)


150
Spring Rice (ha)
100
Spring maize (ha)
50

Figure 5: Water Shares and Irrigated Area in PIS in 1998-2008 (Source: Records of WUA of PIS (collected
by Garcia Landarte-Puertas, 2010)

Initially, we had expected that the shareholder area would be closer to 450 ha, that is, the area for
system rehabilitation under the IMTP project (Khanal, 2003). We assumed that the shareholder area and
the irrigated area in the monsoon would be the same (more or less). Still, based on our observations, we
consider an irrigated area of 260 ha in the monsoon as rather low. Yet, even when knowing this, it is
clear that the shareholder area was never really related to existing irrigated areas. This means that
actual water distribution in PIS relied more on visionary leadership, than on organizing users in a multi-

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tiered WUA. This also suggests that complex WUAs based on the share system, without leadership to
foster consensus among farmers on water distribution, are destined to fall apart. Hence, in 2010, 76% of
the farmers in PIS reported water conflicts, particularly in the spring season.

In practice, head-end farmers have maintained their privileged position. This can be illustrated with a
case of water theft in the spring of 2006 by farmers of branch canal 1. According to the share system
and the WUA rules, available water in the spring is to be proportionally allocated over the branch canals,
from head to tail. This results in restricted areas that can be cultivated for early paddy (maximum 100 ha
in the total system). Officially, farmers were to request for irrigation water, and their turn was allocated
by the WUA through a water coupon (Figure 6.6). For that spring season, the WUA decided to irrigate
from tail to head to safeguard fair distribution of water. Yet, in practice, head-end farmers were not
restricted by water coupons and they felt privileged to use water first. They opened the cross-regulator
in the main canal with a fake key which they had made overnight.

Theory: water coupon Practice: fake key to open gate

Figure 6.6: Water distribution in PIS (Source: Record of WUA).

In this case, the WUA intervened to stop water theft, but the WUA has never been able to guarantee
tail-end farmers their share of water. Many tail-end farmers have continued paying WUA fees to claim
water, but clearly such a situation cannot continue for long, and this is reflected in the abolishment of
the water coupon system in 2009 and the decline of the WUA.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the system


Water in the canal was used for domestic purposes of washing, as well as for cattle drinking, and the
WUA played an active role to keep the canal clean, particularly women water users. Unfortunately,
women participation in the WUA has declined.

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3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of the WUA
Despite the decline of the WUA, we identified multiple functions of the WUA:

Women Helping Group: In 2000, the WHG was established, and women became very active in the WUA.
By 2010, women participation had declined dramatically, presumably already before the abolishment of
the sub-branch committees in 2009. We are not sure why women participation was already declining
before 2009, but we assume that it is related to the NGO Women Plus no longer backing up the
initiatives of the WHG, and to the overall decline of the WUA. We only witnessed one group of women
in 2010 which was called ad hoc by the vice-chairman of the main committee of the WUA (a Tharu
woman), to act as a (fake) womens group. This was done, because the film crew of the Department of
Agriculture was keen to show women participation in PIS for Nepal Television (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Women called ad hoc for a television interview to act as a fake womens group (May 2010).

Ground water use: There is increased ground water use in the area, particularly in the head-end of the
system, where ground water tables are most favorable. For instance, in 2010, we found 42 (shallow)
wells in branch canal 1 for irrigation. The WUA owned three pumps for rent to extract ground water
from wells (not from the canal).

Vegetables market: The WUA has secured government support for a new vegetables market in 2008,
built near the highway that crosses the command area of PIS (Figure 8). The WUA is in charge of the
market, and selling of vegetables started in 2011.

Figure 8: Vegetables market (May 2010)

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3.3 Livelihood Changes
There is no doubt that irrigation water continues to be important for farming, both at subsistence level
and for the production of surplus for the market. It is however difficult to establish what the exact
contribution of irrigation has been to the overall changes in livelihood patterns of the inhabitants in the
area. Two things are important here. First, the command area of PIS is irrigated by multiple sources of
water; canal irrigation from PIS, ground water, ghols and other streams. It is almost impossible to assess
what the precise impact is of the supply of water through the system of PIS.
Second, the benefits of irrigation are distributed unequally in the command area. Head-end farmers rely
more on water supply of PIS than tail-end farmers. Hence, the impact of irrigation water from PIS on the
livelihood of head-end farmers is much more significant than on livelihoods of tail-end farmers.
That having said, it is important to acknowledge that irrigation supply of PIS allowed many farmers in
the area to sustain their livelihood in the last decade. As our data show, the average plot size has
declined, and Nepal underwent turbulent political and economic changes in the last years (Chitwan had
its share of civil war violence). These circumstances make farming an increasingly difficult exercise in
Nepal, and it is not uncommon that farmers have to abandon their fields. The observation that such
cases were hardly reported to us, reveals that irrigation works as a safety net, and prevents farm
households to slip into a situation of (landless) poverty.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case


4.1 Merits and Demerits
It is unclear whether the recent setbacks will turn the Panchakanya WUA really into a failure. We
observed that the decline of the WUA has not resulted (yet) in system failure. Apparently, what happens
in the WUA has little to do with the daily irrigation practices in the system. In our view, this does not
mean that the concept of users participation should be abandoned; it implies that a formal multi-tiered
WUA is not necessarily the best model to organize users participation in irrigation. For instance, clear
water distribution rules are crucial for the system to function well, but it is strong and respected farmer
leaders maintaining transparency and sustaining consensus on rules, rather than equal and formal
participation of all users in the WUA, that makes the system work.
In spite of the decline of the WUA, yields have remained relatively high in the period 2009-2011, that is,
4.6 ton/ha for monsoon rice and 3.6 ton/ha for early paddy, and the maximum possible area was
irrigated in the spring (about 100 ha). Furthermore, ISF collection rates were reported around 53% in
2009. These can be considered merits of the system (and of the WUA). In assessing these data, it is not
very useful to maintain that PIS is a system of 600 ha (see for example the Database for Irrigation
Development in Nepal of the DOI, 2007, p.11 under Chitwan). First, this number is inconsistent with
DOIs latest and more realistic design area of 450 ha for PIS under the IMTP project (1995-2002) (Khanal,
2003). Second, the 600 ha may be irrigated in the monsoon, but not necessarily with surface water from
PIS. The data of the WUA show that the area irrigated by PIS in the monsoon is about 260 ha in practice
and about 390 ha in theory (see figure 4 above). The remaining 210 to 340 ha in the command area is
fed by rain water, drains, springs, ghols and/or ground water in the monsoon.

4.2 Lessons Learned


Based on the assessment of the case of PIS, there are some lessons for WUAs in Nepal:
In PIS, the water share system was alien to existing forms of farmer organization. This was (and is)
often similar for other irrigation systems in Nepal, both in the Terai and in the hills. Nepal has an
enormous variety of traditions of FMIS, and existing forms of farmer organization are deeply

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rooted in land tenure arrangements, agricultural practices and culture. Hence, old patterns are
likely to re-surface over time, and influence new policy models of users participation in WUAs.
If the water share system is considered critical for Nepals policies on irrigation management
transfer (IMT) and participatory irrigation management (PIM), then sustained government support
for WUAs in terms of training and capacity building are best taken into account for
implementation. The case of PIS shows that physical infrastructure is not necessarily the problem;
farmers are capable of raising funds for maintenance.
Visionary leadership is critical for WUAs, particularly to overcome political rivalries and conflicts
between head and tail-end farmers, regardless how well organized a WUA is. This aspect has
received little attention up to now in policy discussions, presumably because it is difficult, if not
impossible, to create visionary leaders. Trainings can help, but in the end, a leader needs to earn
respect among farmers, and that takes time, commitment and perseverance. Hereby, it is
important to know that leadership is governed by cultural norms. For instance, leaders are
typically (tall) senior men, and this has implications for women participation in irrigation
management. Women leaders, particularly young and ambitions women, tend to face much more
challenges than leaders with the male gender.
The case of PIS also shows that user participation is governed by caste, ethnicity and gender.
Government interventions in Nepal, in this case PIS-system expansion and rehabilitation by the
DOI in the 1980s, were instrumental in dispossessing indigenous (Tharu) communities of water
resources, while entitling B/C migrant farmers to irrigation water. Such histories are complex and
contested, particularly when assessed for matters of (political) redress in times when increased
water use, agricultural intensification and encroachment of the source area of PIS by new settlers,
have created strong competition for water resources. However, it does explain why Tharu leaders
were first marginalized in the WUA, and are now keen to secure leadership positions. This
example also shows how complex it is to create visionary leadership. Based on work that studied
relations between Tharu and B/C communities in Chitwan (Guneratne, 1994), we doubt whether
B/C farmers previously in control of key positions in the WUA, will eventually accept Tharu
leadership in the WUA.
References
DOI. 1994. Share system development and administration for water user associations. Irrigation
Management Division. Department of Irrigation (DOI).
Garcia-Landarte Puertas, Diego. 2010. In the name of need. The study of technology and performance in
a farmer managed irrigation in the Terai of Nepal. Master thesis of the Irrigation and Water Engineering
Group submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Science in International Land and Water
Management at Wageningen University.
Guneratne, Arjun. 1994. The Tharus of Chitwan: Ethnicity, class and the state in Nepal. A dissertation
submitted to the faculty of the division of the social sciences in candidacy for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy. The University of Chicago.
Khanal, Puspa Raj. 2003. Engineering participation. The process and outcomes of irrigation management
transfer in the Terai of Nepal. Wageningen University Water Resources Series
Shukla, Ashutosh; Jay Prakash Dutta, Bharat Devkota and Karun Chandra Ghimire. 1999. Diagnosis of
process and performance of irrigation management transfer in Panchakanya Irrigation System. Process
documentation no.7. A collaborative research program of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
(IAAS), the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and the Department of Irrigation (DOI).

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Annex 15
Case 6: Chattis Maujha Irrigation System, Rupandehi

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Chattis Maujha Irrigation System is located in the terai region of Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone,
Western Development Region of Nepal. The system
is 80 km noth-east from Lumbini, the place where
Lord Buddha was born. The elevation of the
command area is about 150m. The average annual
rainfall is about 1700 mm in Bhairahawa/Butwal
area.

The system includes two wards of Butwal


Municipality and Shankanagar, Karhiya, Anandavan,
Makhar, Madhwaliya and Gangoliya VDCs in centre
of district. The climate is hot. The source is Tinau
River and the main canal is 14 km. The intake point
is at Kanyadhunga and it is extended upto Thatheria
of Gangoliya VDC. The Tinau River has an extremely
varied flow discharge throughout the year. The
Tinau River Diversion to Chattis Maujha Irrigation
Canal is associated with 60 maujha (village) and 169
kulara (water allocation unit). There are 30,000
households and the total command area is 3,500 ha.
The upper reach command area is a coarse alluvial
deposit and the infiltration rates are high. The tail
command area is low land with high water table.

Figure 1: Layout Map of Chattis Maujha Irrigation System

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The system was built by farmers about 200 years ago to divert water from the left bank of Tinau River at
the town of Butwal. Before this it was a forest. The Tharus are the oldest inhabitants of terai. They are
the ones who started cultivation in this area clearing jungle into agricultural land. In the beginning,
during Rana regime in Nepal, in leadership of Chheda Tharu the system was started for four villages
namely Thatheria, Sakrahawa, Kanpara and Kumari gaon in between 1846 to 1863. The system name
was Kumari Kulo. About 50 years after construction of the canal, Rana prime-minister, Chandra Shamser
gave Colonel Mr. Tej Bahadur Malla tax free land grand in appreciation of his service to the government.
He started living there. He controlled much of the land and the Tharu people continued cultivation and
managed irrigation systems.

Similarly, Rana prime minister donated 1,200 ha of land to Mr. Ram Mani Acharya-Dixit, who built
todays Manigram. Then these two influential people started cultivation bringing labors from hill area
and neighboring Bihar (India). The human settlement started in this area with development of irrigation.
At the same time, they demolished forest and turned into agricultural land. After eradication of Malaria
from the tarai, the hill people started migrating to this farm land. Then the local inhabitants started

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clearing forest from south to north in this area. And they assembled 6 Maujha (small villages) in
Manigram area and 30 Maujha from Kumari and formed 36 Maujha for irrigation management works.

In the year 2067/68 B.S., DOI has constructed a low head permanent diversion structure at head work
site. The structure is now able to divert 10 cumecs water during monsoon season. As a result, there has
been a significant reduction in the labor requirement in terms of diverting water. However, this has
resulted in increase in about 2 km of main canal length along the river. Hence, the users are still facing
some difficulties of canal leaks.

Figure 2: Current Diversion Structure (Low Crest Weir) of Chattis Maujha

1.3 Socio-economic Context


The Tharu people who built the first canal are now a minority. The Tharus own about 25 percent of the
land in the tail. The majority of new settlers are from hill districts in north of the command area. The
number of Tharus is decreasing. Now, the ethnic composition is mixed. The caste group comprises of
Brahmin, Chhetri, Tharu, Magar, Gurung and Dalit. A large number of new settlers are retired from
service in either the British or Indian Army and are receiving pensions.

The household members are engaged in agriculture, business and services. The people are also engaged
in foreign jobs abroad. The hill migrated people are in majority in Butwal, ShankerNagar, Anadavan,
Karhiya villages; whereas in Makrhiya, Gangoliya and Madhwaliya villages; the Tharu and Madhesi are in
majority. The majority of jamindar (big landlord) is decreasing because of land fragments. The
sukumbasi and land less people are also living here. These people are engaged in labor works for
agriculture and others. The majority of people are in agricultural works. The land holding is small to
large. The major crops grown here are Rice, Wheat, Mustard, Lentils and Maize. They have sufficient
agriculture products for livelihood. They trade surplus products in market. Farmers in the Chattis
Maujha Command Area have good market access. The average production of major crops are 4 to 4.5
t/ha rice and 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha wheat.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


The WUA was existing from the very beginning of the system. A constitution of The Chattis Mauja I.S.
was first written in the 1950s, major revision in 1979 and the full text of the constitution with
amendments made up to 1989. The users have established their own rules and regulations for system
operation and maintenance. The formal WUA was registered in 2054 B.S. in Nepal Government. The

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tenure of WUA is for 3 years. Every year they have a General Assembly (GA) of 676 representatives, 4
each from 169 Kulera (water allocation unit). The 60 Mauja Mukhtiyar (member) represent all Maujas,
one working committee and one account committee. They hold two general meetings in a year and
more if they feel necessary.

2.2 Functionaries
They have a 13 member Executive Committee (EC). The committee comprises of Chairman, Vice
chairman, Secretary, Account coordinator and two members nominated from mass meeting and seven
from blocks within the command area. The EC members are responsible for irrigation system. This
committee nominates representative and general members for 16-36 Mauja System. The 16-36 Mauja
System is the combination of two irrigation systems namely 16 Mauja I.S. and 36 Mauja I.S.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


WUA has the overall responsibility of operation and maintenance of the canal system. This is one of the
largest farmers managed irrigation system in Nepal. The main source of this irrigation system is Khara
(penalty or fines) from Kulara (i.e. labor for irrigation work). The rules and regulations are very strict in
this system. They have two types of works in canal operation. First is the main canal cleaning and second
Shir Kulai (regular canal operation). Once in a year, they organize labor force for main canal cleaning.
Each Mauja has to manage kulara (labors) in definite length of canal and time in respective Mauja for
canal cleaning works. This is called Maujani Nath (work for water). Those who do not finish works in
time, they have to pay fines. Shir Kulai is carried throughout the year. The beneficiaries are called any
time for labor work for irrigation purposes. Those who do not attend kulara (or for their contribution
works) they have to pay in cash. The cash collection from Khara is the major source of income in this
system. This is very typical and strong WUA for system operation and maintenance since a long.
Nowadays, the WUA is collecting some revenues from sand and gravel from the main canal. To some
extent, they get some financial support from NGOs and District Development Committee.

Figure 3: WUA Office of Chhatis Maujha

The WUA have no permanent resource. The WUA have employed 3 staff, One Meth Mukhtiyar (office
manager) and two Sipahi (messenger and guard). They are responsible daily works in the system. The
Meth Mukhtiyar takes care of canal operation-plan and office administration works. The Sipahi does
security of canal, deployment of labors and deliver message to the Maujas. Due to variable water flow in
Tinau River and less water available in winter season, they have adopted two water distribution systems
in main canal. In monsoon season, they allow continues water in whole system. During winter, they

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distribute water in rotational basis to all the Maujhas. The water distribution system is equitable to
command area with time interval. This is called Uljha Pani Lagaune in the local language.

Figure 4: Resource Mobilization at Chattis Maujha

Before, the users had to construct temporary diversion with bush and stone in the Tinau River for
irrigation purposes. They had to mobilize a large no. of labors for river diversion-work. Now, they have
low head permanent diversion structure at head work site. After construction of the river dam, the main
canal length has been increased. Some stretch of main canal is along the river. So they are facing
problems like canal breaching, canal leaks and sometime property loss.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


The water diverted to the Chattis Maujha Irrigation System is primarily used for agricultural purposes.
Also water is used for some additional purposes like feeding animals, some small business houses
nearby the canal. This is not significant. During the winter, the farmers are delivering water in rotational
basis.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


Beyond the operation and maintenance of the irrigation system, the WUA of Chattis Maujha has been
observed to have engaged in some other activities like social mobilization works within the system. They
have shown a good example of system operation by the farmers only. They perform demonstration of
self sustained farmers managed irrigation system. However, at the level of the individual farmers, there
have been some efforts to diversify their income. Some of them have started to do poultry farming,
animal farming and small agro based industry like food packing with the support of loan provided by
their local saving and credit cooperative, commercial banks and NGOs due to which income levels have
been increased.

The WUA is also thinking of diversification of their organization. They are forming one cooperative to
organize their farm trades like agriculture inputs, seeds, agriculture products and credit facilities.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


Good performance of the irrigation system has given way to much change in the livelihood of the
farmers in Chattis Maujha. The farmers in the area are cultivating crops; namely rice, wheat, maize,
mustard, lentils, linseed and vegetables. Monsoon Rice is main important crop. Wheat is major winter

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crop. Many farmers plant mango, guava papaya, lemon, jackfruit, litchi trees near their houses.
Primarily, fruit and vegetables are grown for home consumption. Some farmers are doing commercial
fruits and vegetable farming. The access to market out here is easy. So, the farmers do see good scope
for expansion of fruits and vegetable cultivation.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merit and Demerits


Merits:
i. Users are well disciplined and they have ownership feeling.
ii. They are operating such a large irrigation system with their own resource.
iii. They have good practice in Irrigation Water Management.
iv. There is possibility of shifting traditional agricultural practices in to cash crop cultivation.
v. The organization structure of WUA should be simple; and the leaders must be dedicated and
honest for organization.
vi. The temporary diversion has been changed to low head diversion structure and river protection
works made easy for canal operation. The WUA saved labors which they could utilize it for other
purposes.
Demerits:
i. They are not used to follow modern irrigation practices
ii. Water availability is limited during the winter season
iii. Lack of regular resources

4.2 Lessons Learned


The following can be outlined as the lessons learned from the case study:
The ownership feeling must be realized for success.
The farmers have devised rules for governing system operation and maintenance.
The importance of communication has been realized for canal operation.
The penalty for being absent during maintenance.
The importance of irrigation allocation encourages compliances to the rules in use.
The water distribution type defines the water management in irrigation system. The Chattis
Maujha I.S. has established proportional distribution system in the main and branch canals.
The WUAs rules for mobilizing resources are good.
The irrigation allocation to the Maujhas and the farmers responsibilities for the system seems
equitable that is why they are willing to invest for O & M of the system.
Irrigation is a highly profitable enterprise for the Chattis Maujha I.S.
The socially built values and norms in the irrigation system could play a vital role in the success
of the irrigation system.
The engagement of WUAs in multifunctional activities is only possible when the irrigation
system itself is showing good performance and it is making significant contribution in terms of
agriculture production and overall productivity.

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Annex 16
Case 7: Tallo Madebung Irrigation System, Taplegunj

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Tallo Medebung Irrigation System, running 700m downstream of the Mathlo Medebung Irrigation
Canal, is located at 6 km north east from Fungling Bazar and lies at 1824 m above mean sea level. This
system serves the irrigation facilities to all the wards of Fungling VDC except ward no. 6. From the
district headquarters, this irrigation system can be accessed through the earthen road where vehicular
access is possible only during fair weather.

The command area of this irrigation system lies on the northern part of Fungling-Siddidanda earthen
road (approximately 8 km) sloping towards north-west and spreading upstream of the Tamor River. The
terrain of the command area is terraced and undulating. The canal alignment follows a contour,
zigzagging from east to west. The soil observed in the command area is loamy with a fair mix of sandy
soil. The soil condition offers suitability to irrigation of a wide range of crops, such as rice, wheat, maize,
vegetables, mustard and potato along with cash crop, mainly cardamom. The intake surroundings are
slightly affected by landslide. The area falls under hydrological region no 1 of the regional hydrograph.
The catchment basin is mostly covered by sparsely mixed forest. The discharge of the stream is
adequate enough to feed the canal even for winter and spring seasons.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The Tallo Medebung irrigation system is a farmer managed irrigation system constructed by the farmers
in 2032 B.S. under the leadership of Mr. Bhim Bahadur Shrestha, the then Pradhan Pancha during
Panchayat regime. At that time, NRs. 60,000 was allocated from the District Panchayat. With this sum,
Shrestha propelled the earthen canal construction (10 km) by mobilizing the people from outside the
village as far as Khejinim (4 miles away from Fungling) following the non-cooperation from the
community within. Later, succeeding Pradhan Panchas including Prajapati Kafle continued this task.
From 2056 B.S., concrete lining works started. Before the construction of this canal, the whole area had
only pakho keti such as Filingo, millet etc.

The irrigation system diverts water from the Hirewa Khola located at Simle, Medebung by run-of-the-
river gravity flow to irrigate 300 ha of is cultivable area. The Hirewa Khola is a perennial stream and five
more rivulets, namely, Harewa, Penepa, Chuchera, Gasyang Kholso and Khasini Khola at different
locations downstream contribute in the increase in the canal discharge.

Figure 1: Intake at Hirewa Khola Figure 2: HDPE Pipe along Landslide Zone

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1.3 Socio-economic Context
The settlements in the area almost cover the Fungling VDC where lies the district headquarters too. It is
reported that people from Lhasa had inhabited this region and thus human settlements upstream of the
Tamor River were expanded. Lhasa and the surroundings are collectively known as Bhot and the people
living there were thus called Bhote (inhabitants of Bhot). As people from Lhasa had settled in this region,
the settlements were popular as Bhote Basti (Bhote settlements) later on. Believed to have been 400
years old with five successive generations, these settlements are scattered within the village. The total
households and the population of the current water users of the irrigation system are found to be 1,400
and 7,000 respectively. The average household size is 5.

Janajati constitute 46% population followed by Bramhin/Chhetri (42%). Limbus (30%) are the major
Janajati population whereas other compositions under this category are: Gurung (6%), Tamang (5%), Rai
(3%) and Newar (2%). On the other hand, Dalits form 12% of the population. Having fair hold of the
Janajati population and its influence around, women are outgoing and frank. Concerning to gender
issues in social activities, womens role is not that visible. However, both men and women contribute
equally in economic activities.

The average landholding size is estimated to be about 0.41. Household classification by size of land
operation revealed that only about 2% of households are landless; 3% fall in the marginal (less than 0.5
ha. land operation) category , 0 % in the small (operating between 0.5 and 1.0 ha. of land) category, and
95% in the medium (i.e. between 1 ha. and 1.5 ha.) category.

Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood of the people in the area that constitutes 90% of the
economically active population and the remaining is reported to be engaged in other kind of services.
Still 40% cultivable land is based on traditional agricultural practice and subsistence farming. Wheat,
maize and paddy are the main crops being grown and millet, oat and mustard are also sparsely
practiced. However, remaining 60% of the command area has a promising future. Cardamom cultivation
is emerging as a cash crop with rapidly expanding cultivation. The average population has food
sufficiency for only six months.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


On 13/02/2056 B.S., the first general assembly was held under the chairmanship of Prajapati Kafle, the
then VDC Chairman in which 208 beneficiaries took part. Later on 05/06/2056 B.S., an ad hoc committee
comprising of 15 members was formed from the gathering held under the chairmanship of Kafle himself
in which 97 beneficiaries were present. The committee managed the irrigation activities including
division of works and mobilization of resources. It was later registered on 27/02/2067 B.S. at Eastern
Sub Division Office, Panchthar. Office stationed at Ward-2, Medebung, Taplejung.The Tallo Medebung
irrigation system has a single tier organization of the WUA. The WUA was formed by a general assembly
of all water users. After registration of WUA, it has also been endorsed by the District Water Resources
Committee (DWRC) for coordination with the District Development Committee (DDC) and other related
agencies.

2.2 Functionaries
The Executive Committee comprises of 15 members headed by Mr. Ram Baral. Among them, there are 3
females; and 2 dalits. In addition, a Patronage Committee having 4 members, Monitoring and
Supervision Committee having 4 members and an Advisory Committee with 5 members have also been
constituted to support and streamline the WUA activities. In addition, a Cash Collection Committee with

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7 members and a Community Contribution Committee with 25 members have also been formed. The
renewal process of WUA and annual auditing are also carried out timely.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


As explicitly mentioned in the WUA constitution of the Tallo Medebung Irrigation System, the roles and
responsibilities of the WUA are well defined. Rules and regulations for the operation and maintenance
of the system, resources collection and mobilization for regular repair and maintenance and emergency
maintenance of canal system are moderately followed. They have their own rules for water acquisition,
allocation, distribution and application for irrigation in the field. The WUA is mainly responsible for
regulating the operation and maintenance of the system, conducting regular meetings and annual
general assembly as mentioned in the constitution of the WUA. Recently, the disunity among the WUA
members caused by political interference has slightly affected its smooth functioning, thereby not fully
carrying out the roles and responsibilities by different members.

Among the major external resources, NRs. 998,000 had been received from the District Irrigation Office,
(DIO) Taplejung in 2057 B.S. During fiscal year 2066-67 B.S., NRs.125,000 has been received from DDC,
Taplejung; NRs. 100,000 from the DIO, 3,95,000 from the District Technical Office and some material
help (35mm) pipe from the District Agricultural Development Office, Taplejung. The financial resources
have been utilized for mainly canal lining and gabion protection of the source and the fragile zone
around it. There is no surplus fund in the name of the WUA at present.

No Panipale (caretaker) has been assigned in this system but the WUA members themselves are
responsible for day-to-day inspection of the canal up to the intake. Indeed, two committee members are
rotationally taking up this responsibility day-wise. The frequency of maintenance increases naturally
during monsoon and thus the WUA members are extra cautious and careful in assessing the condition of
the canal accordingly. If need arises for minor emergency maintenance works, the WUA members
themselves carry them out. In case of heavy damage or major maintenance in the canal system, the
beneficiaries at large are informed and mobilized to carry out the maintenance works. Additional labor
resources from elsewhere in the vicinity are also employed as per requirement.

Regular maintenance of the main canal is done twice in a year; before the monsoon paddy during
June/July and before the winter crops (mainly for irrigating cardamom) during November/December.
Beneficiaries from every HH are obliged to have labor contribution for canal cleaning and other
maintenance including the intake. If someone fails to participate in the cleaning of the canal and other
maintenance, then s/he has to pay a penalty as per the prevailing daily labor wage. The WUA collected
NRs. 25 annually as membership fee from those beneficiaries who opted for membership in the
beginning and those who later became members were charged NRs. 50. There is clear cut system of
Irrigation Service Fees (ISF) based on the cultivated crops. NRs. 50 is collected per Ropani of land in case
of cardamom cultivation; NRs. 20 for crops such as paddy, maize and wheat; NRs. 30 for fruits and NRs.
20 for vegetable farming. Though not in practice, they are planning to adopt levying penalty for
defaulters soon.

The command area is longitudinally expanded. While descending down from the intake, irrigation water
is added to the original source, Hirewa khola at different intersections through five rivulets. The time
table for water distribution is on rotational basis starting from head to tail. The WUA members keep
records of the timetable for water distribution. During winter, the WUA role in rotational water
distribution is of much important.

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Figure 5: Water Flow through Lined Canal Section

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

In the present context of integrated development, using excess water beyond irrigation is the need of
the hour on the part of WUA. The WUA of Tallo Medebung has numerous such avenues.

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


Water from this canal is mainly used for irrigation purposes. During the monsoon, it is used in the paddy
fields while during the winter it is used for irrigating cardamom. However, some water is also used for
fish farming on individual basis (Figure 8.4). Annually, Mr. Kamal Yangden, the owner of the pond is
earning NRs. 80,000 from fish farming. There are five brick kilns in operation in this area and this
irrigation water is used by four of these kilns. However, neither the owner of the fish pond nor the
owners of the brick kilns are made liable to pay for using irrigation water by the WUA. The irrigation
water is also used for livestock purpose, washing clothes and other sundry domestic uses.

Figure 6: Water Pond for Fish Farming

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3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA
Paddy plantation and cardamom cultivation have significantly increased with the construction of the
Tallo Medebung canal. Thus, the WUA is observed to be moving towards increasing use of water for
cash crops. Institutionally, the WUA of Tallo Medebung itself has not diversified its activities beyond
irrigation. However, diversification is distinctly observed in terms of individual efforts towards fish
farming, brick kilns, etc.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


There is a significant change in the livelihood pattern of the beneficiaries with the upgrading of this
irrigation system. The almost fallow land before canal upgrading has ushered in a marked change in the
cropping pattern. Earlier, only maize, millet and wheat were grown in this region. Now-a-days, paddy
during the monsoon season is the principal crop. Cardamom cultivation has massively increased these
days with the management of round the year irrigation facility. Of late, even paddy plantation is
curtailed in some fields, thus making room for cardamom cultivation. Besides, the cultivation of fruits,
mainly orange, has shown a visible presence. With the availability of adequate water in the time of need
as per the requirement of the crop, the beneficiaries have also reaped more benefits from vegetable
farming in addition to cereals.

Figure 7: Cardamom Cultivation around Canal

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merit and Demerits


Based on the information collected about this case, there are both positive and negative aspects of this
irrigation system and its WUA. They are enumerated hereunder:

Merits
Livelihood Enhancement through New Cropping Pattern: With the upgrading of this canal, the
traditional cropping pattern has been changed. The fallow lands are fully cultivated. Paddy plantation is
widely practiced during the monsoon. Cardamom cultivation is gaining huge momentum keeping in view
its financial benefit. Fruits and vegetables are increasingly cultivated. This change has enhanced the
peoples livelihood by many fold.

Good Prospect of Multi-functionality of the WUA: Having the potential of using irrigation water for other
different purposes, the WUA is committed to diversify its activities beyond irrigation. Fish farming
initiated at individual level can be expanded among many other beneficiaries. In addition, there is the

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prospect of generating electricity at least for running peltric sets utilizing the head available from some
vertical drops along the canal alignment. Cooperatives currently running in the community can also be
brought under the umbrella of the WUA. Depots for improved seed, manure and other requirements;
fish farming, running cooperatives are viable multi-functionality activities that this WUA is keenly
looking forward to initiating soon.

Concern for Sustainability of the System: WUA has realized the need to generate regular financial
resources to set up an O&M fund.

Good Prospect of Fund Generation: The WUA have several options for fund generation. The WUA can
charge some fee to the owners of the water ponds. Similarly, fund generation can also be made from
the owners of brick kilns. Cooperatives currently running in the community can also be brought under
the umbrella of the WUA.

Demerits
Landslide at Canal Head: The landslide of Hangdewa VDC of Taplejung district is considered as the
largest one in the region. The canals head section is affected by this landslide zone and irrigation water
along almost 500m length is brought through a 250mm HDPE pipeline supported by four concrete
pillars. The downstream sections are supported with gabion walls. However, the topography is fragile
and vulnerable; and the alignment is marshy. Thus, construction of robust structures is the only durable
solution of this problem instead of the investment annually done in the form of gabion protection. Due
to the financial crunch and lack of technical knowhow, the WUA is bearing the brunt of landslide every
passing year.

Lack of Systematic O&M: With a 10 km long canal having 5 rivulets merging into the source Hirewa
Khola at different intersections, its operation and maintenance needs to be systematic. The WUA of this
system has no reserve fund for operation and maintenance (O&M). In case of emergency maintenance,
it will be difficult for the WUA to mobilize manpower and resources. The WUA has not appointed any
Panipale for water distribution, inspection of canal including the intake and other necessary tasks.

Political Intervention in the WUA: With excessive link with the external agencies and inflow of financial
resources, there seems to be increasing political interference in the WUA. Consequently, the WUA is
guided by vested interests that seem to be detrimental for the sustainability of this irrigation system.

4.2 Lessons Learned


From the case of Tallo Medebung, we can learn several lessons, some of which are outlined below:
The case has illustrated that the investment in upgrading of the canal system results in
significant returns in terms of scope of changes from traditional cropping pattern to a more cash
crop based cropping pattern.

Having the potential of using irrigation water for other different purposes, the WUA is
committed to diversify its activities beyond irrigation. Depots for improved seed, manure and
other requirements; fish farming, running cooperatives are viable multi-functionality options
that this WUA is keenly looking forward to initiating soon.

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Annex 17
Case 8: Subedar Ko Kulo, Sindhupalchok

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Subedar ko Kulo Irrigation System is located in Dhap village, Thakpaldhap VDC ward number 2, 3
and 4 of Sindhupalchok District. It is situated in the north east of Melamche Bazaar at about 5 hours
walking distance. There is already a motorable road up to this VDC now and this site is located near the
Indrawati Hydro Power Project.

The command area of the irrigation system lies at the altitude of about 1320 meters above sea-level. It
lies in the range between the Alpine and Subtropical climatic zone.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


In the year 2017 B.S., the irrigation system known as the Subedar ko Kulo was through the initiative of
Subedar Dal Bahadur Sapkota, an Ex Indian Army Soldier, at the cost of Rs. 700 and labor contribution.
The canal was completed in 4 months and was of 1 km length. This Soldier made other two irrigation
systems in this village and he is a much respected person in the Indrawati belt.

The source of the system is Handi Khola, a major tributary of the Indrabati River. The water is conveyed
through the main canal of 2 km length to irrigate about 20 ha (433 Ropani) land and benefitting 150
households, total population 1369.

Figure 1: Diversion and Intake Point of Subedar ko kulo Irrigation System

Figure 2: Initial Stretch of the Main Canal of Subedar ko Kulo

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In 1987, this system was rehabilitated by the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS) from a
Ford foundation action research project. Dr. Bob Yoder and Dr. Prachanda Pradhan were also involved in
this project from IIMI side. WECS spent about one lakh rupees in this project and the major civil works
were construction of retaining walls, rock cutting and canal lining in the seepage prone zone (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Covered Canal and Retaining Wall Constructed by WECs

The works were carried out in a participatory mode from the design stage to construction stage. It was
done in Amanat basis. WUA mobilized skilled and unskilled labour and WECS purchased construction
material and tools and also paid to the labors.
1.3 Socio-economic Context
The ethnic composition in Dhap village is quite mixed. It basically comprises of a mix of three separate
groups: Bahun/Chhetris, Tamangs and Newars. The Bahun/Chheris are the largest in terms of number,
followed by Tamangs and then by Newars (Figure 9.4). These different ethnic groups live separately. The
Bahun / Chheris are more advantaged as live at the head reach of the canal and own relatively more
land than the Tamangs or the Newars. Among the users the highest land holding 6 Ropani and lowest
landholding 12 Anna.

Bahun / Chettri Tamang Newar


7%

32%

61%

Figure 4: Ethnic Composition of the Water Users of Subedar to Kulo

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The cropping pattern significantly varies with elevation. Rice, maize and vegetables are grown in the low
elevation areas while potato, millet and beans are grown in the higher elevation areas. The following are
the most prevalent cropping pattern of the area:
Rice Mustard Rice
Rice Potato Rice
Rice Mustard Maize
Rice Wheat - Rice
Due to the assured availability of water and fertile soil, the area is relatively sound in terms of
agricultural production. The following are the average production rate of the prevalent crops:
Rice: 3-5 Muri/Ropani
Mustard: 10 15 Pathi/Ropani
Wheat: 15- 20 Pathi/ Ropani
Maize: 15 25 Pathi/ Ropani

Figure 5: Rice Production in the Command Area of Subedar to Kolu I. S.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


The WUA was formed in the year 2041, at the beginning of the rehabilitation works. The WUA members
were Chairman Jit Bahadur Chapagain, Deputy Chairman Ambar Bahadur Waiba, Secretary Harkha
Bahadu Waiba, members Jit bahadur Khatri, Nema Gyalbo, Dorje Waiba, Sur Bahadur Waiba and Jit Man
Gole. They were very dedicated persons for the village. The first chairman was the son of the soldier
who established the system.

2.2 Functionaries
The executive committee of the WUA consists of 7 functionaries where two positions are allocated to
women farmers. The functionaries in the executive committee are elected in the general assembly of all
the users for a 3 year term. The committee meetings are not fixed but the system is so small that the
executive committee can meet whenever needed. The committee gathers all the users twice a year to
discuss the maintenance, irrigation pattern and other points of interest.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


The main roles and responsibilities of the WUA are to control and organize the maintenance, to mediate
when there are conflicts and to make sure that there is an equal water distribution. The WUA is also in-

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charge of the maintenance fund. The WUA also has the authority to punish and bail the people if they
disobey the rules, do not participate in the maintenance, or if they manipulate the water distribution.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


The water diverted by the Subedar ko Kulo Irrigation System is used in multiple ways. The main goal is to
use the water for agricultural purposes. Although the water is used for several other purposes, irrigation
uses by far the largest volume of water. Water is mainly used to irrigate rice, maize, wheat and potato.

Besides the use for crop production, water is also used to running two watermills for grinding flour.
Moreover, it is also used for micro-hydro electricity production. For this purpose, in B.S. 2055 an ad-hoc
committee was form in the leadership of Mr. Purushottom Poudel for the production of electricity in the
area. A loan of Rs. 10 lakhs was taken by the farmers by depositing their land ownership documents in
the Agriculture Development Bank. District Development Committee gave Rs. 3 lakhs. Thankpal Dhap
VDC gave 3 lakhs and the remaining amount was born by District Energy Committee. Total expenditure
was Rs. 39,65,000. As a result 2057 Fagun 24 the people were able to receive electricity in 285
households. Now 293 households are using electricity. Its capacity is of 27 Kwatt.

Total 150 households use water for irrigation purposes while about 285 households use electricity. The
users have to pay Rs. 50 per watt fees. Shares have been distribution to 150 people. In 2069/4/20
central grid has been connected. Hence, this micro hydro project is now in troubled waters.

Figure 6: The Powerhouse and Penstock Pipe for Hydroelectricity Generation

The cattle of the related household also benefit from the canal water. It is not necessary for the cattle to
walk all the way down to the river to drink water. Moreover, the water is also used to wash clothes and
to clean the toilet/bathroom.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


The WUA in Subedar ko kulo Irrigation System is engaged in multiple functions. Almost all the
agricultural problems and difficulties are discussed within the executive committee. The WUA
encourages the community, and it also gives them advice on how to deal with different problems and
about what kind of crops could be grown and in which pattern they should do that.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


The livelihoods of the farmers in Subedar ko kulo have changed drastically for the better because of the
irrigation system. Cultivation of two crops of rice in the area was possible due to the existence of the

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irrigation system. This was not the only change in the area. A lot of crops could be cultivated due to the
presence of the irrigation system, and its consequent assurance of irrigation water as and when required
for the crops. Before the new irrigation system came, only maize and millet were possible; nowadays,
the farmers in the area grow rice, maize, wheat, potatoes, vegetables, and mustard. Because of lack of
market, the farmers there have not moved into commercial vegetable cultivation.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


One of the strongest points of the Subedar ko kulo Irrigation System is that there is cohesion amongst
the water users. This was also facilitated by the relatively small size of the system. The WUA is playing an
important role in this communication amongst the users, because they arrange twice a year a discussion
with all the households/users of the system. Their benefit from it is that they never experience conflicts
about water distribution or maintenance. The other merit of the system is that the rehabilitation of the
system was carried out in a proper and well organized way by WECS through the guidance of IWMI.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The major lessons learned from the case study of this system are related to the management of a
Farmer Managed Irrigation System. The case illustrates how good leadership and the effort of even a
signal individual can make a lot of difference. It also indicates how the WUA can go on adding one thing
after another if there is cohesion among the members.

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Annex 18
Case 9: Golai Jiula Irrigation System, Bajhanj

1 Introduction

1.1 Location and Context


The Golai Jiula Irrigation System lies in Luyanta Village
Development Committee (VDC) of Bajhang District.
The VDC lies along the Seti River in an elongated form
and is an adjoining VDC of the District headquarter.

Golai Jiula has been providing irrigation facility to the


farmers of ward no 1-4 of Luyanta VDC and a few
farmers from Hemantabada VDC.

Figure 1: Location Map of Golai Jiula I. S.

The command area is situated along


Side Intake
the left bank of the Seti River which is
primarily plain terraces. The Bauli Gad
is the source of water for the irrigation
system. It is a perennial non-snow fed
river. The catchment area of the river
Canal alignment is about 150 Sq. Km. and the discharge
of the stream was found to be 3,234
lps (10 April 2010). The catchment area
of the river lies in mountainous and
Command area high land terrain. Its land cover mainly
comprises of forest, cultivated land
and grazing land and has rocky and silt
loam textured soil having moderate
Figure 2: Layout of the Golia Jiula I. S. infiltration.

The gross command area of the project is about 70 hectares and approximately 7 % of the gross
command area is either covered by settlements, roads and vegetation. However, the cultivable
command area is estimated to be about 65 hectares and has sufficient soil depth suitable for agriculture.

1.2 Irrigation System and its Development


The story associated with this irrigation system is quite interesting. Previously, the present command
area was totally rain-fed. There is a temporary stream named Golai gad flowing east to west from its
command area. It remains totally dry in winter and it used to receive flood water after heavy rainfall in
July-August. Farmers built a small temporary canal from Golai gad. However, it was not able to solve the
problems of the inhabitants of this area as it became operational only during the time of flooding when
the river level rose above a certain level. The farmers then tried to build another canal with the source
as the Seti River which irrigated less than 25% of the present command area. But the sad part of this
scheme was that more than 75% of the canal section was being washed away by the flood of the Seti

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River annually. So, the major job of the farmers of this area was construction and reconstruction of the
damaged canal system throughout the winter (2-3 month).

As time passed, the villagers started thinking about all possible alternatives as they wanted a permanent
solution to this problem. However, they failed in every step. In the midst of such efforts, they planned to
construct a new canal from another source (Dungri gad) which they assumed would be able to irrigate
the whole command area. This was not going to be so easy as it required a lot of resources and labor
because a complete new canal system had to be constructed and most part of the canal alignment
would lie in difficult and rocky terrain. In spite of the challenges, one fine day about five decades ago,
after a series of internal meetings, the villagers decided to bring water from the Dungri gad to Golai Jiula
at any cost. All the stakeholders showed unity and commitment to the decision. They unanimously
trusted the leadership of the then prominent local leader (then Pradhanpancha) Late Mr. Moti Ram
Khati who contributed immensely later on. His dedication and the unity of the local people materialized
their dream after two years. They succeeded in bringing water of the Dungri gad to Golai Jiula (Present
Command Area) on their own labor strength and indigenous technological idea. All the inhabitants were
overwhelmed by getting timely irrigation, and they operated canal system perfectly for 4 to 5 years.
They also established the necessary rules and regulations (for operation and maintenance, canal
clearance, penalty, etc). Unfortunately, heavy landslides occurred along the canal alignment which
washed away more than 200 meter section of the canal in difficult terrain. It became quite impossible to
reconstruct this system by local efforts, and hence this system became totally dysfunctional. All the
dreams of the farmers again reverted to the pre-project situation.

Much later, after frequent requests from the local people, the DOI took the initiative to revive this
scheme under the Nepal Irrigation Sector Program (NISP). However, on the one hand, sufficient water
was not available in the Dungri gad and, on the other, the issue of water right also surfaced heavily
during this time. The technicians then surveyed the source of the Seti River near the Dungri gad as an
alternative and found it to be technically feasible. A few years after the survey, the project was
incorporated in the annual program of the DoI for implementation. Due to the time lag, survey had to be
carried out again, and unfortunately it showed that the bed level of the Seti River had lowered
significantly thereby not allowing the water to flow smoothly. It did not seem to work even when the
proposed intake was shifted 1 km upstream along the Seti River. This situation again discouraged the
local people. They again started looking for other alternate sources for their irrigation. They reported
that there was one other alternative and that was to use an existing canal system for Chainpur VDC and
make a considerable extension of it. However, this required the permission of the local users of
Chainpur, which was not easy. Moreover, there was the technical complexity of maneuvering a river
crossing and the possibility of increment in the cost per hectare due to construction of the crossing
structure (Suspension Bridge).

The local people organized a number of meetings amongst the users of Chainpur and finally reached an
agreement which envisaged various terms and conditions. The two main conditions were: 1) The
existing canal must be doubled in capacity and lining must be done in the canal section up to Chainpur
and 2) Golai people will get irrigation water only after irrigating the Chainpur area. At the same time, the
local people also requested the District Development Committee (DDC) to give permission to use the
existing suspension bridge to cross the pipe over the Seti River. The DDC finally agreed to provide the
use of the old suspension bridge (the Government has now constructed a new suspension bridge to
replace the old one) for pipe crossing purpose. This considerably decreased the cost, and finally the
project entered into the implementation stage.

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Thus in BS 2055, construction of the Golai Jiula Irrigation Subproject started under the NISP of the DOI,
and it was completed in BS 2058. Despite an investment of around 7 million NRs, many works in the tail
part including one super-passage structure remained incomplete during the construction period.

The irrigation system consists of a temporary


diversion at the intake point, one pipe
aqueduct crossing over the Seti River, stone
masonry lining and earthen canal alignment.

The canal alignment crosses Chainpur


Bazaar, and it is also used as drainage. So
blockage in the pipeline crossing is one of
the main problems of this system. Due to the
garbage from the city area, the pipe
aqueduct gets blocked from time to time.
There is an old suspended bridge which gives
the passage for the pipe aqueduct. The canal
Figure 3: Canal Alignment of Golia Jiula I. S. from 0+000 to 0+780 km is in good condition
and running properly. Similarly, the canal
from chainage 1+980 to 2+800 km, which is lined by stone masonry is also in good condition.

Presently, the irrigation system is partially functioning and providing irrigation facility to a small part of
the command area. No major investments have been made in the system during the past 12 years. The
system still faces many shortcomings like absence of a permanent diversion structure at the intake,
frequent pipe blockage, old suspension bridge and poor condition of canal system. The farmers
themselves are running the system by mobilizing their own resources in the form of labor and cash. But
this scheme is included in the medium irrigation program for rehabilitation, and recently the bidding
process has been completed. It is expected that all the problems will be solved in due course, and this
system will provide irrigation services throughout the whole command area.

1.3 Socio-economic Context


The total households of farmers in the command area were found to Table 1 Ethnic Composition
be 502 and the total population 3,213 (1,640 male and 1,573 female). Caste Population %
The proportion of ethnic composition is more or less similar to the
district as a whole. Bhramin, Chhetri, Thakuri and Dalit (Kami, Sarki, Bhramin 867 27
Damai, oad, Okheda, etc.) are the major inhabitants of this area, Chhetri 1350 42
where Chhetris are the dominant social group. Data reveals that there Thakuri 321 10
are 42 % Chhetris, 10% Thakuris, 27% Bhramin and remaining 21% Dalit 675 21
Dalit population. Total 3213 100

The main occupation of the people is crop Table 2 Existing Cropping Pattern and Yield
cultivation. However, some people are engaged S.N. Crops Cropped Cropping Yield
in business and government services, etc. A few area (ha) Intensity (%) (ton/ha)
belonging to occupational castes still follow
1. Paddy 60 92.31 2.0
their traditional job such as tailoring, smith
craft, carpentry, etc. The economy of the area 2. Wheat 30 46.15 1.50
is basically subsistence type. 3. Potatoes 10 15.38 4.00
4. Maize 15 23.07 1.50
Paddy and wheat are the major crops while Total 115 176.92
Source: FWISD No. 3, 2012
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maize, potato and vegetables are supplementary crops grown in the area. Paddy is cultivated in Khet
(low land) and wheat, maize and potato in Bari (non- irrigated up land). The average yield of the major
crops grown in the command area and the existing cropping intensity are presented in the adjacent
table.

Organic manure is applied on the field in the form of Farm Yard Manure (FYM). FYM used in the field
contains very little nutrient value. Most of the nutrients are lost due to weathering during storage in the
open space. The quantity of FYM is also not adequate to meet the requirement of the crops on the field.
Therefore, chemical fertilizers like Urea and Complex are applied on wheat, paddy and vegetables. A few
farmers use agro-chemicals in the form of insecticides, pesticides and herbicides to protect the crops
from harmful pests, insects and weeds.

Livestock farming and horticulture are also other major means of subsistence. People use most of the
production for household consumption. A few families locally sell their farm produce (grain and
vegetables) but its volume is not considerable. After receiving irrigation services, some farmers have
shown interest in crop diversification. Consequently, a few households have started vegetable farming
and are making a good income. The trend of vegetable farming is anticipated to escalate gradually in the
future because of the existing local market and high market value of vegetable produce.

2 Water Users Association

2.1 Formation and Evolution


Prior to the NISP, the command area was only partially irrigated from the temporary canal from the Seti
River which used to be washed away every year due to flood. During those times, the farmers
established an informal Kulo Samiti under the leadership of a prominent social worker. They also
established a set of rules and regulations on labor contribution, water distribution, water delivery
workforce, penalty, etc. The Interesting point at this juncture is that the informal committee was very
powerful and able to compel all members to follow the agreed rules and regulations, and everybody
complied with them accordingly.

The present Water Users Association (WUA) was initially registered with the District Water Resources
Committee, and now it is registered in the Irrigation Development Sub- Division no. 3, Bajhang. The
WUA was registered during project implementation period under the NISP. The WUA is formed by
mutual consensus, and it sometimes functions as a social organization for other works too.

2.2 Functionaries
The present WUA has an executive committee of 11 members. It is headed by Mr. Jog Bahadur Khati as
President and includes other functionaries like Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. There are three
women members and two dalit members in the committee. The committee members represent the
head, middle and tail part as well as all wards in the command area.

More than three committees have already spent their tenure in the past, and the tenure of the
incumbent is up to the next one year.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities of WUA


The WUA has the overall responsibility of operation and maintenance of the canal system. However,
after government intervention, old indigenous practices of canal operation and maintenance have been
found to be gradually losing their ground. The WUA is becoming more dependent on government
assistance. The farmers are observed to be reluctant to follow the decisions of the WUA because most

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of them have not been getting irrigation services since a few years.

There is no practice of irrigation service fee collection in this system. The WUA has followed the socially
recognized practices implied prior to the NISP with alternate schemes in which the Kulo Samiti used to
mobilize compulsory labor contribution for maintenance and collection of remuneration for water
guards, locally called Kulalchya, in kind (grains) during the time of crop harvesting. One Kulalchya was
employed since a few years, and he has the limited responsibility of monitoring water delivery in the
main canal and watching the pipe blockage. He has been getting NRs 2,000 per month during the canal
operating seasons. The WUA collect some amount in cash to pay the Kulalchya. Similarly, the beneficiary
farmers are mobilized twice in a year (winter and summer) to clear and maintain the canal system.

The WUA mobilizes labor for the regular operation and maintenance of the canal system and temporary
diversion of water from the source. Farmers have been unwillingly participating in those activities due to
the poor irrigation service limited to the farmers of the head reach. Beneficiary cooperation was very
impressive at the beginning, and, on the basis of past experience, it can be said that the beneficiaries are
capable to contribute their share for the rehabilitation of this scheme as before. They are also
committed for all the required contribution (Labor, ISF) in the future, if the WUA will be able to provide
reliable irrigation service.

Currently, this irrigation system has been providing limited services to the command area. The WUA
annually decide to clean the canal system before cultivation, and only a few people who are getting
irrigation water participate in such maintenance work. Sometimes, they manage alternative funds from
different agencies such as DDC, VDC, NGOs, etc. if large investments are needed. They have deposited
some amount in the WUA treasury from such sources and have been utilizing it to pay the remuneration
of the Chaukidar and internal expenses of the WUA. The Chaukidar delivers water up to the pipe
aqueduct after irrigating the land of Chainpur area. The WUA itself is responsible to deliver water from
the point of the pipe crossing to the command area. They irrigate the land turn by turn.

3 Multi-functionality of WUA

3.1 Multiple Water Use in the System


The water diverted to the Golai Jiula Irrigation System is primarily used for agricultural purposes.
Although the water is used for some additional purposes at the head reach like feeding animals, this is
not significant due to the overall scarcity of water.

3.2 Multi-functional Engagement of WUA


The WUA of Golai Jiula has been observed not to have been engaged in other activities beyond the
operation and maintenance of the irrigation system. The most probable reason for this is that they have
not been able to achieve much success with the irrigation system itself. However, at the level of the
individual farmers, there have been some efforts to diversify their income. Some of them have started
to do beekeeping, poultry form, pig farming and goat farming with the support of the loan provided by
their own saving and credit cooperative and the DADO and other local NGOs due to which the income
level has been enhanced.

3.3 Livelihood Changes


The poor performance of the irrigation system has not given way to much change in the livelihood of the
farmers in Golai Jiula. The farmers in the area are still cultivating mainly traditional crops, namely rice,
wheat, maize and potatoes. Although, some farmers have shown interest and started vegetable farming,
the number of farmers is still limited and the scale at which they have been able to do so is also limited.

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However, provided that reliable and sufficient water is available, the farmers do see a good scope for
the expansion of vegetable cultivation and vegetables seed production in the area. This is reflected by
the interest that is generated by the level of income that the few innovative farmers have been able to
get by cultivating vegetables and selling them in the local market.

4 Overall Assessment of the Case

4.1 Merits and Demerits


As a whole, the WUA of Golai Jiula Irrigation System was found not to be working very effectively.
Hence, it has been graded as a failure case in terms of multi-functionality. However, like all irrigation
systems, this system and its WUA also have their own strengths (merits) and weaknesses (demerits).
They are outlined below:

Merits:
i. The command area is very much suitable for crop production in terms of soil texture and
topography.
ii. There is abundant water in the Bauligad, and the irrigation water demand graph of Chainpur
area is falling down every year.
iii. Farmers are aware of the importance of irrigation water, and they are willing to make
contributions for the sake of receiving water.
iv. A good scope for a much better irrigation facility for the whole command area exists after the
system is rehabilitated under the medium irrigation program
v. There is possibility of shifting the traditional agricultural practices to cash crop cultivation
because of market availability and an attractive market price of the agricultural products
vi. The command area is highly accessible. It lies within half an hour walking distance from the road
head, irrigation office and agriculture office. The WUA could easily get the technical knowhow
and extension services from different agencies
vii. For Bajhang district, which is one of the least developed and food deficit districts of Nepal, this is
one of the few potential areas where there is some possibility of increasing food production for
the district. Except for a few valleys and river side plains like this, most parts of the district have
difficult terrain not very suitable for agriculture. Hence, the irrigation system serves not only to
meet the basic food requirement of the district but also contributes to the regional balance in a
district falling behind in development.
Demerits:
i. The canal is passes through a market area, and it is slowly transforming into a drainage which
brings all the garbage of the market area that causes bursting and choking of the canal and pipe
aqueduct. This could lead to adverse effects in the health of crops and livestock in the future if
this drainage problem is not addressed properly.
ii. The present WUA is not active so far and not working for overall institutional development and
the development of the WUA as a self sustained entity.

4.2 Lessons Learned


The following can be outlined as the lessons learned from the case study:

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i. This system, in a sense, is merely an extension of the Chainpur Irrigation System. This sets an
example of how it is possible to provide irrigation facility to a water scarce area if the WUA
seeks meaningful coordination with other WUAs where there is sufficient water.
ii. Many irrigation systems become useless due to massive urbanization in the command area. In
this case also, Chainpur is the district headquarters, and the process of urbanization is highly
speeding up. The previous command area is being used to construct buildings and other urban
infrastructures. If the present speed of urbanization will continue for a few years, there will be
no more agricultural land. Then, there will be no need of irrigation water as such. So it could be
a good lesson for other similar areas where already developed irrigation infrastructures in an
urbanizing area could be utilized to irrigate adjacent parts.
iii. This case brings home the lesson that socially inbuilt values and norms in irrigation could
deteriorate after government intervention and a dependency syndrome could be developed if
the concerned agency is not able to prepare and implement an institutional development plan
side by side with canal construction.
iv. The case also indicates that engagement of the WUAs in multifunctional activities is only
possible when the irrigation system itself is showing good performance and it is making a
significant contribution in terms of agriculture production and overall productivity.

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Annex 19
1
Check-list for Diagnostic Analysis

The objective of this task is to carry out a diagnostic analysis of the prevalent conditions in the selected
CMIASP Irrigation System and to identify the prevalent opportunities and constraints in the system so
that effective backstopping support to the WUA can be provided especially in terms of the institutional
development and expansion of their role in multifunctional activities. Based on the outcome of this
diagnostic analysis a backstopping support activity will be designed and executed to facilitate WUAs to
take multifunctional roles.

A combination of different methodologies will be used in this process of information collection for
diagnostic analysis. These include: field observations, personal interview with farmers, group discussions
and discussion with WUA executive committee. After collection of all the necessary information from
the field, a wrap up meeting will be held with the concerned WUA in the presence of CMIASP field level
staff. Upon their return, the diagnostic analysis team will submit a report including all the information
included in this checklist as well as their recommendation for the future backstopping mission.

Information of the Diagnostic Analysis Mission Team:


Name of the irrigation system:
Address:
Date of initiation and completion of field work:
Names of the team members:

1. General Context

a. Source of irrigation scheme:

b. Year of initiation and completion of initial construction:

c. Agencies involved in the construction:

d. Reasons/rationale for the development of the irrigation scheme:

e. Years of major rehabilitation /improvement/modernization of scheme their outcomes:

f. Existing total command area:

g. Existing irrigation coverage area by season (Monsoon, Winter, Spring):

h. Nearest market for supply of inputs and sale of agricultural commodities:

1
The points outlined here are meant to guide the backstopping mission team during their discussion with the WUA
for the diagnosis of opportunities and constrains of the selected irrigation system. The idea is that these points
should not be forgotten, however the team does not have to limit themselves to this checklist and can also ask
other questions as relevant in the context.

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i. Existing number of user households by caste/ethnicity:

j. Year of formation of Water Users Association:

k. Year of registration of WUA:

2. Present Physical condition of irrigation system

a. Are the irrigation infrastructures in proper condition?


If not, what is the problem?

b. What are the initiatives taken to solve these problems?

c. What worked and what did not work?


If worked, what is the reason?

If not worked, why? What is the reason?

d. Are headwork, main canal, field channels in proper condition?


If not, what is the reason?

e. What are the main problems after recently completed rehabilitation work supported by CMIASP?

f. What could be the best possible options to keep the infrastructures in proper condition in their
opinion?
Solutions Initiation and support

3. Operation and maintenance

a. How is it operated (mechanisms/ arrangement of irrigation system operation)?


Is the irrigation scheme being operated properly?

b. Are the arrangements made by the WUA working or not?


If not, why?

c. What are the problem perceived by farmers and WUA members?

d. What are the mechanisms for maintenance (Irrigation service fee/ maintenance fee collection, labor
mobilization bases and others)?

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e. Are (financial) resources being collected properly?
If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of collection, lacking of person to
collect, farmers not paying, etc.)?

f. Are the labor mobilized properly?


If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of taking leadership, lacking of person
to collect, farmers not paying, lacking trust.)?

g. What were the initiatives they have taken?

h. What initiatives worked and what did not work?


If worked, what was the reason?

If it did not worked, why it did not worked?

i. What are the problems perceived by farmers and WUA executives?

j. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

4. Institutional Condition

a. What are the provisions for WUA functioning (rules, regulations, norms for executive committee
formation, membership, meeting, general assembly and others)?

b. Is WUA executive committee formed/reformed and all the functionaries are fulfilled?

c. Is it meeting regularly as per rules set and fulfilled the need of farmers properly? (operation and
maintenance, water allocation, distribution, resource mobilization, other input like seeds, fertilizer,
pesticides, extension services, technology and linking market to sell the agriculture commodities: discuss
each and take the note for all including others)

d. Are General Assemblies regularly convened and passed actions, future plans, problems and
potentiality faced by the WUA thoroughly discussed?

e. Are other mechanisms (different committees for example) developed in past working properly?
If not, what are the reasons they could not properly? (Discuss and take note for each GA,
executive committee and other mechanisms)

f. What they initiated to resolve the faced problems?

g. What initiatives worked? What did not work?


If it worked, what was the reason?

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If it did not worked, why? What are the reasons?

h. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

5. Agriculture Performance/Production

a. What are the mechanisms developed to improve the yield and increase production?

b. Is the productivity of existing cereal crops increased with improved irrigation services?

c. Are any high value agriculture commodities/cash crops being produced in the command area?
If yes, how is the production? Has it increased?

d. Has the number of farmers engaged in high value agriculture commodity are increased?
If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?

e. What were the initiatives taken to increase production?

f. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If it worked, what was the reason?

If it did not work, why? What are the reasons?

g. What, in their perception could be the best solutions and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

6. Input supply

a. Are there any mechanisms for input supply needed to the farmers?
If yes, what are these? And, who is providing these services (Cooperative, WUA, private service
provider)?

b. Are there any problems in input supply?


If yes, what are these problems?

c. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

d. Are there any opportunities to engage WUA in these activities?


If yes, how can it be managed?

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7. Business and marketing

a. Is there any market facility and opportunity to sale any agriculture commodity?
If yes, how far is it and how is it operated?

b. Are there any commodities that are sold in the market (may be informal)?
If yes, what are these commodities? How much are these selling?

If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?

c. What were the initiatives taken for increase production?

d. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If worked, what was the reason?

If not, why it did not work? What are the reasons?

e. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

8. Multifunctionality

a. Is the WUA engaged in multifunctional role in present condition?


If yes, what are these functions and how is it functioning?

If it is functioning properly, what are the reasons?

If it is not, what are the reasons?

b. Are there any opportunity to engage WUA in multifunctional role?


If yes, how?

c. Is the irrigation water also being used for other functions?


If yes, what are these? And how is it performing?

d. What could be the possible options for improve these functions for better livelihood of farmers?

Include any issues related to performance of irrigation system and irrigated agriculture system and any
options solutions for these issues.

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Annex 20
Diagnostic Analysis of Ikudha Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Diagnostic Analysis Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Ikudha I. S.


Address: Badigaon VDC-1, 2, 3, 4 & 5, Thaiba VDC-3, Godawari VDC-3; Lalitpur
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 13-14 October, 2012
Names of the team members: Rajendra Bir Joshi

1. General Context

a. Source of irrigation scheme: Godawari River

b. Year of initiation and completion of initial construction: Initiation 2066 B.S; Completion 2068
B.S.

c. Agencies involved in the construction: Irrigation Division Office, Kathmandu; WUA &
Contractor

d. Reasons/rationale for the development of the irrigation scheme: Temporary diversion, Canal
seepage, shortage of water

e. Years of major rehabilitation /improvement/modernization of scheme their outcomes: 2068 B.S.

f. Existing total command area: 100 ha

g. Existing irrigation coverage area by season (Monsoon, Winter, Spring):


Season Crop coverage, ha Percent of CA
Monsoon 100 100
Winter 100 100
Spring 5 5

h. Nearest market for supply of inputs and sale of agricultural commodities: Thaiba , Banfe gaon
(1 km)

i. Existing number of user households by caste/ethnicity:


S No Caste No of Households % of Total Population
1 Newar 468 72
2 Bahun/Chhetri 97 15
3 Chhetri 65 10
4 Tamang 20 3
Total 650 100

j. Year of formation of Water Users Association: 2059

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k. Year of registration of WUA: 2060, District Water Resource Committee

2. Present Physical condition of irrigation system

a. Are the irrigation infrastructures in proper condition? Yes, track road is not enough within the
command area

b. What are the initiatives taken to solve these problems?


Discussion within the WUA

c. What worked and what did not work?


If worked, what is the reason?
If not worked, why? What is the reason?
Lack of budget in VDC

d. Are headwork, main canal, field channels in proper condition? Yes


If not, what is the reason?

e. What are the main problems after recently completed rehabilitation work supported by
CMIASP?
Open free outlets in main canal.
Agriculture extension work for production and market
Awareness among the users for canal cleaning work

f. What could be the best possible options to keep the infrastructures in proper condition in their
opinion?
Solution Initiation and support
Ownership feeling among the users WUA
Timely maintenance of canal WUA

Water management plan.


Timely maintenance of canals
Immediate maintenance of damage canal

3. Operation and maintenance

a) How is it operated (mechanisms/ arrangement of irrigation system operation)?


Is the irrigation scheme being operated properly?
Yes.
By WUA and farmers.

b) Are the arrangements made by the WUA working or not?


Yes.
If not, why?

c) What are the problem perceived by farmers and WUA members?


No problems now.

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d) What are the mechanisms for maintenance (Irrigation service fee/ maintenance fee collection,
labor mobilization bases and others)?
ISF collection is not implemented now.
Farmers are paying Land Revenue of Rs. 60.0 per ropani in VDC. This amount also includes
ISF. This is not enough for canal operation.
VDC is providing fund for canal maintenance.

e) Are (financial) resources being collected properly? No


If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of collection, lacking of person to
collect, farmers not paying, etc.)?
VDC supporting cash for canal maintenance.
lacking of mechanism
lacking of person to collect

f) Are the labor mobilized properly? No


If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of taking leadership, lacking of person
to collect, farmers not paying, lacking trust.)?
lacking of mechanism
lacking of leadership

g) What were the initiatives they have taken?


Commercial farming

h) What initiatives worked and what did not work?


If worked, what was the reason?
Agriculture Groups for commercial farming.

If it did not worked, why it did not worked?

i) What are the problems perceived by farmers and WUA executives?


All executives of WUA are not active.
There is a mistrust among executives and farmers.

j) What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support
WUA Office Management DoI/VDC/WUA
Social problems WUA/VDC

4. Institutional Condition
a. What are the provisions for WUA functioning (rules, regulations, norms for executive committee
formation, membership, meeting, general assembly and others)?
9 members committee, 3 years tenure
General Assembly can rectify constitution.
Meeting not regular, as per need
General Assembly - once in a year
Regulations not prepared on writing

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Membership not implemented
Rules - ok

b. Is WUA executive committee formed/reformed and all the functionaries are fulfilled?
Yes. Mass meeting

c. Is it meeting regularly as per rules set and fulfilled the need of farmers properly? (operation and
maintenance, water allocation, distribution, resource mobilization, other input like seeds,
fertilizer, pesticides, extension services, technology and linking market to sell the agriculture
commodities: discuss each and take the note for all including others)
Meeting conducted as per need.
Operation & Maintenance
Supply of Ag. Inputs
Markets to sell Ag. commodities
Operation and Maintenance of canal
Coordination with line agencies

d. Are General Assemblies regularly convened and passed actions, future plans, problems and
potentiality faced by the WUA thoroughly discussed?
Yes.

e. Are other mechanisms (different committees for example) developed in past working properly?
Yes,
They form working committee to resolve problems.
If not, what are the reasons they could not properly? (Discuss and take note for each GA,
executive committee and other mechanisms)

f. What they initiated to resolve the faced problems?


Seed and fertilizer distribution to farmers

g. What initiatives worked? What did not work?


If it worked, what was the reason?
Committee for annual canal maintenance
If it did not worked, why? What are the reasons?

h. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support
Labor mobilization WUA

5. Agriculture Performance/Production
a. What are the mechanisms developed to improve the yield and increase production?
Farmers are trying to change traditional agriculture practice.
Ag. Service Center supporting farmers for commercial farming.
Observation tour
b. Is the productivity of existing cereal crops increased with improved irrigation services?
Production has been increased after irrigation service.

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c. Are any high value agriculture commodities/cash crops being produced in the command area?
Yes, (Flower, Mushroom, Tomato etc.)
If yes, how is the production? Has it increased?
Production is encouraging.

d. Has the number of farmers engaged in high value agriculture commodity are increased?
Yes,
Farmer groups are consulting Ag. Service center for high value crops. They have
started cultivation of vegetables.
If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?

e. What were the initiatives taken to increase production?


Some young farmers are organizing for cash crop cultivation.
Farmers are consulting experts from Ag. Service Center and DADO as well.

f. What initiatives worked what not worked?


Farmers networking for Ag. Activities.

If it worked, what was the reason?


If it did not work, why? What are the reasons?

g. What, in their perception could be the best solutions and who can initiate that?

Solution Initiation and Support


Farmers Networking for production WUA/Farmers Group/DADO/ASC
Cropping Intensity WUA/ Farmers Group

6. Input supply
a. Are there any mechanisms for input supply needed to the farmers?
Yes.
If yes, what are these? And, who is providing these services (Cooperative, WUA, private service
provider)?
Fulchoki Cooperative
Ag. Service Center, Taukhel

b. Are there any problems in input supply?


Yes
If yes, what are these problems?
Market availability of Ag. Inputs

c. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Timely supply of Seed and Inputs through Cooperatives and WUA

d. Are there any opportunities to engage WUA in these activities?


Yes
If yes, how can it be managed?
WUA and local Cooperatives can manage agriculture market.

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7. Business and marketing
a. Is there any market facility and opportunity to sale any agriculture commodity?
Yes.
If yes, how far is it and how is it operated?
Thaiba 1 to 2 km, Lagankhel 6 km

b. Are there any commodities that are sold in the market (may be informal)?
Yes.
Green Vegetables Rs. 5 to 10; Tite Karela Rs. 30 to 40; Tomato Rs. 30 to 40
Traders collect vegetables and sale it in local market.

If yes, what are these commodities? How much are these selling?
Paddy, Wheat, Vegetables (karela, parwal, lauki, cauli, green-vegetables etc). Supply
one truck vegetables

If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?
Most of the farm product used in family consumption.

c. What were the initiatives taken for increase production?


Plastic Green House for vegetable production.

d. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If worked, what was the reason?
Ag. Field which is close to road, they had good opportunity for transport of Ag.
Production to market.

If not, why it did not work? What are the reasons?


Access road to Ag. Field.

e. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Production of high value crops through initiation of WUA and cooperatives

8. Multifunctionality
a. Is the WUA engaged in multifunctional role in present condition?
No multifunctional WUA activity

If yes, what are these functions and how is it functioning?

If it is functioning properly, what are the reasons?

If it is not, what are the reasons?


Executive members are not active in Ag. Activities.

b. Are there any opportunity to engage WUA in multifunctional role?


If yes, how?
They have to be trained.

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c. Is the irrigation water also being used for other functions?
If yes, what are these? And how is it performing?
Fishery pond

d. What could be the possible options for improve these functions for better livelihood of farmers?
Supply of Seed and Fertilizers in time.
Reliable water supply
Transformation Ag. New technology
Training to farmers

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Annex 21
Diagnostic Analysis of Tanting Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Diagnostic Analysis Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Tanting Kali Khola Irrigation System


Address: Arjun Dhara VDC
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 30th to 31st August
Names of the team members: Ashik Sahani

1. General Context

a. Source of irrigation scheme: Tangting-Kali Khola

b. Year of initiation and completion of initial construction:

c. Agencies involved in the construction: CMIASP, DOI

d. Reasons/rationale for the development of the irrigation scheme:

e. Years of major rehabilitation /improvement/modernization of scheme their outcomes: 2066/12/23

f. Existing total command area: 200ha

g. Existing irrigation coverage area by season (Monsoon, Winter, Spring): 200ha (All season)

h. Nearest market for supply of inputs and sale of agricultural commodities: Birtamod (Southeast
about 14km) and Sanischare (East about 4 Km)

i. Existing number of user households by caste/ethnicity:


S No Caste No of Households % of Total Population
1 Bahun /Chettri 191 76
2 Danuwar 15 6
3 Scheduled caste 12 5
4 Dhimal 9 4
5 Rai 8 3
6 Tamang 4 2
7 Rajbansi 4 2
8 Magar 3 1.2
9 Newar 3 1.2
10 Chaudhari 2 0.6
Total 251 100

j. Year of formation of Water Users Association: 2060

k. Year of registration of WUA: 19/04/2062

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2. Present Physical condition of irrigation system

a. Are the irrigation infrastructures in proper condition? Yes


If not, what is the problem?
The handle of head regulator at intake was stolen.

b. What are the initiatives taken to solve these problems?


Effort was made to identify the thief at local level.

c. What worked and what did not work?


If worked, what is the reason?

If not worked, why? What is the reason?


It was impossible to identify the thief and lost handle was not recovered.

a. Are headwork, main canal, field channels in proper condition?


Yes.
If not, what is the reason?

b. What are the main problems after recently completed rehabilitation work supported by
CMIASP?
There are no major problems in the recently completed rehabilitation work supported
by CMIASP, but farmer felt that there should be few footbridge constructed in the
system where its necessary.

f. What could be the best possible options to keep the infrastructures in proper condition in their
opinion?
S.N Solutions Initiation and support
1 Regular cleaning and maintenance of canal. WUAs and farmers
2 Animals are not allowed to graze near the canal and WUAs and farmers
also no trees are allowed to chopped.
3. Farmers are not allowed to cultivate or slice the land WUA and farmers
50 cm either side of canal.
4. If possible more funds will be searched for WUA / possible DDC, VDC or
improvement of system other organization.

3. Operation and maintenance


a. How is it operated (mechanisms/ arrangement of irrigation system operation)?
The irrigation system is operated by WUA central committee.
Water is distributed evenly to all block (i.e. 7 blocks) during monsoon.
During lean flow period i.e. on March & April, it is distributed in rotation fashion.
Is the irrigation scheme being operated properly?
Yes.

b. Are the arrangements made by the WUA working or not?


Yes. If not, why?

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c. What are the problem perceived by farmers and WUA members?
No problems.

d. What are the mechanisms for maintenance (Irrigation service fee/ maintenance fee collection,
labor mobilization bases and others)?
Collection of Irrigation service fee at the rate of Rs. 10 per Kattha, the collected amount is
invested in maintenance of canal system in which farmers are unable to perform task. For
example: At the confluence of Kalikhola and Tangting where some earthworks are to be
performed but due to heavy amount of work, WUA raised Rs 5/Kattha and excavator was
used for the work.
Regular canal cleaning is carried by farmers of each block in block level and all farmers are
involved in cleaning of main canal from head works to tail.

e. Are (financial) resources being collected properly?


Yes. (Only irrigation service fee is collected)

If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of collection, lacking of person to
collect, farmers not paying, etc.)?

f. Are the labor mobilized properly?


Yes, it is mobilized basically twice a year for canal cleaning and maintenance.

If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of taking leadership, lacking of person
to collect, farmers not paying, lacking trust.)?

g. What were the initiatives they have taken (in term of operation and maintenance and its
improvement)?

h. What initiatives worked and what did not work?


If worked, what was the reason?
If it did not worked, why it did not worked?

i. What are the problems perceived by farmers and WUA executives?

j. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

4. Institutional Condition

a. What are the provisions for WUA functioning (rules, regulations, norms for executive committee
formation, membership, meeting, general assembly and others)?
WUA functions as per the rules and regulation mention in Bidhan.

b. Is WUA executive committee formed/reformed and all the functionaries are fulfilled?
Yes.

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c. Is it meeting regularly as per rules set and fulfilled the need of farmers properly? (operation and
maintenance, water allocation, distribution, resource mobilization, other input like seeds,
fertilizer, pesticides, extension services, technology and linking market to sell the agriculture
commodities: discuss each and take the note for all including others)
Yes.
Meeting is organized on 2nd day of each month and emergency meeting is held as per
requirement.
Farmers in this system especially lag seeds and fertilizers during cropping period. So,
seeds obtained for District Agriculture office is distributed by WUA equitably to all the
farmers.

d. Are General Assemblies regularly convened and passed actions, future plans, problems and
potentiality faced by the WUA thoroughly discussed?
Yes.

e. Are other mechanisms (different committees for example) developed in past working properly?

If not, what are the reasons they could not properly? (Discuss and take note for each GA,
executive committee and other mechanisms)

f. What they initiated to resolve the faced problems (in the institutional development aspects)?

g. What initiatives worked? What did not work?


If it worked, what was the reason?
If it did not worked, why? What are the reasons?

h. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

5. Agriculture Performance/Production

a. What are the mechanisms developed to improve the yield and increase production?
Better irrigation facility.
Improved and high quality seeds
Required amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Mechanization (Modern) as well as traditional methods.

b. Is the productivity of existing cereal crops increased with improved irrigation services?
Yes.

c. Are any high value agriculture commodities/cash crops being produced in the command area?
No.
If yes, how is the production? Has it increased?

d. Has the number of farmers engaged in high value agriculture commodity are increased?

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If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?
No, high value agriculture commodity are produced because of low land area.

e. What were the initiatives taken to increase production?


The initiatives taken by farmers and WUA to increase production are given as:
Improved seed quality.
Availability of fertilizers.
Better irrigation facility.

f. What initiatives worked what not worked?


All the above initiatives worked.
If it worked, what was the reason?
District Agriculture Office provides high quality seeds which is equitably distributed
and sometimes farmer do not get seeds in time for sowing.
Fertilizers are available in nearby market area (Sanichare & Bitramode) but sometimes
there may be scarcity of it in market.
Irrigation facility constructed by DOI-CMISP has improved the water required to field.
Proper WUA intervention in all the above activities has led to better functioning of
system.
If it did not work, why? What are the reasons?

g. What, in their perception could be the best solutions and who can initiate that?
S.N. Solutions Initiation and support
1. Proper market availability of seeds or timely distribution WUA/ DAO
of seeds by DAO, Jhapa.
2. Proper market availability of fertilizers or WUAs WUA/ Local business
intervention in opening of fertilizer dealership. person.

6. Input supply
a. Are there any mechanisms for input supply needed to the farmers? No.
If yes, what are these? And, who is providing these services (Cooperative, WUA, private service
provider)?

b. Are there any problems in input supply? Yes.


If yes, what are these problems? Fertilizers and seeds timely not achieved.

c. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
S.N. Solutions Initiation and support
1. Request DAO for timely distribution of seeds and WUA/ DAO
fertilizers.
2. Establish fertilizers and seed dealers under WUAs WUA
committee as cooperative concept.

c. Are there any opportunities to engage WUA in these activities?


Yes.

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If yes, how can it be managed?
By creating a committee under WUAs to take care of all the activities performed by
dealer.

7. Business and marketing

a. Is there any market facility and opportunity to sale any agriculture commodity?
No.
If yes, how far is it and how is it operated?

b. Are there any commodities that are sold in the market (may be informal)?
Yes.

If yes, what are these commodities? How much are these selling?
Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Potato, Vegetables.

If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?

c. What were the initiatives taken for increase sales of commodity?


No any initiatives are taken to increase sales of commodity by WUA.
Rather farmer independently take their commodities to nearby markets for sale.

d. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If worked, what was the reason?

If not, why it did not work? What are the reasons?

e. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
S.N. Solutions Initiation and support
1. Easy access of transportation to nearby market area even WUA.
though they have good road network. WUA is willing to
raise 50%of total cost of tractor along with trailer if any
organization incurs the other 50%.

8. Multifunctionality
a. Is the WUA engaged in multifunctional role in present condition?

If yes, what are these functions and how is it functioning?

If it is functioning properly, what are the reasons?

If it is not, what are the reasons?

b. Are there any opportunities to engage WUA in multifunctional role?


If yes, how?

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c. Is the irrigation water also being used for other functions?
If yes, what are these? And how is it performing?

d. What could be the possible options for improve these functions for better livelihood of farmers?

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Annex 22
Diagnostic Analysis of Sikharkateri Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Diagnostic Analysis Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Sikharkatteri Irrigation System


Address: Raviopi, Kabhre
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 1st to 3rd July 2012
Names of the team members: Suman Sijapati, Rajendra Bir Joshi & Ranjana Shrestha

1. General Context

a. Source of irrigation scheme: Chhahare Khola

b. Year of initiation and completion of initial construction: initiated in 2058 and commissioned
2068
The idea of initiation of Shikhar Kateri Irrigation System was emerged in 2058 B. S. with the
leadership of Mr Bed Prasad Bajgain of Syaraute of Raviopi VDC and has been leading the committee
as chairman from beginning (except last year). At beginning there were only 50 users and the
command area is also small (about 1000 ropani). Farmers of that area wanted to increase
productivity of land for better livelihood. So they became ready to construct canal. After 90 days
labour contribution, they become success to construct canal. Labour contribution was done one
labour per households for the 90 days. At that time the rate of labour was Rupees 75 per day.

Later on the WUs requested District Water Resource Committee (DWRC), and District Agriculture
Office (DADO) Kavre for the financial support. The WUA performed registration in DWRC and got
support of Rs 50,000.0 and Rs 25,000.0 respectively from DWRC and DADO, Kavre. Later on they got
additional support of Rs 500000.0 from Department of Irrigation. They used all these financial
support for the following rehabilitation and maintenances.

Year of Reason Who supported Users' Outcome


rehab and how contribution
2061 for repair DDC Kavre, cash 1 labour per HHs Intake and canal improved
for 15 days

2063 for repair DADO, Kavre 1 labour per HHs Intake and canal improved
cash for 4 days

2063 For Department of Not Available Gabion, about 11 m lining,


rehabilitation Irrigation, cash rehabilitated eroded part of
canal by landslide

c. Agencies involved in the construction: DOI, Irrigation Division

d. Reasons/rationale for the development of the irrigation scheme: Irrigation facility improvement

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e. Existing total command area: 150 ha (100 households) (3000 Ropani)
f. Existing irrigation coverage area by season (Monsoon, Winter, Spring):
Season Crop coverage, ha Percent of CA
Monsoon - Rice 150 100
Winter wheat (70), mustard (10), potato (20) 100 67
Spring - 23 15

g. Nearest market for supply of inputs and sale of agricultural commodities: Kathmandu (32 km)

h. Existing number of user households by caste/ethnicity:


S No Caste No of Households
1 Bahun 63
2 Chettrai 12
3 Newar 10
4 Dalit 9
5 Janjati 6
Total 100

i. Year of formation of Water Users Association: 2064

j. Year of registration of WUA: 2068

2. Present Physical condition of irrigation system

a. Are the irrigation infrastructures in proper condition?


Side Intake constructed semi-permanent (right bank)
Main Canal: 3km earthen
Branch Canal: four, 2000-2500 m (total)
Few structures are proposed
If not, what is the problem?
The source is perennial but the volume of water decreases significantly as rainy season
becomes over. The community forest is the main watershed area for this stream. It's about 3
km north from intake.

b. What are the initiatives taken to solve these problems?


Farmers are taking care of the community forest.

c. What worked and what did not work?


If worked, what is the reason?
If not worked, why? What is the reason?
Farmers lack ownership feeling

d. Are headwork, main canal, field channels in proper condition?


Headwork operating properly
WUA planning to extend the command area
If not, what is the reason?

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e. What are the main problems after recently completed rehabilitation work supported by
CMIASP?
Rehabilitation work is undergoing.
Plan for collecting some money for hiring of individual for canal supervision

f. What could be the best possible options to keep the infrastructures in proper condition in their
opinion?

3. Operation and maintenance


a. How is it operated (mechanisms/ arrangement of irrigation system operation)?
Is the irrigation scheme being operated properly?
Canal operation turn by turn in general and understanding with users.

b. Are the arrangements made by the WUA working or not? Yet to be tested
If not, why?

c. What are the problem perceived by farmers and WUA members?


No problems regarding functioning of WUA.

d. What are the mechanisms for maintenance (Irrigation service fee/ maintenance fee collection,
labor mobilization bases and others)?
Canal clearance once in a year before temporary river diversion.

e. Are (financial) resources being collected properly?


Not sure if the farmers are ready to contribute their share. So, if everyone is ready to pay
they will hire canal supervisor. If not, labor mobilization.

If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of collection, lacking of person to
collect, farmers not paying, etc.)?

f. Are the labor mobilized properly?


They do mass meeting for contribution works.

If not, what is the problem (lacking of mechanism, lacking of taking leadership, lacking of person
to collect, farmers not paying, lacking trust.)?

g. What were the initiatives they have taken?

h. What initiatives worked and what did not work?


If worked, what was the reason?
WUA is working properly.

If it did not worked, why it did not worked?

i. What are the problems perceived by farmers and WUA executives?


No problem with farmers participation depending on the level of awareness.

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j. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

4. Institutional Condition
a. What are the provisions for WUA functioning (rules, regulations, norms for executive committee
formation, membership, meeting, general assembly and others)?
WUA constitution prepared from sample

b. Is WUA executive committee formed/reformed and all the functionaries are fulfilled?
All executives members sub-committee members are working but not very active

c. Is it meeting regularly as per rules set and fulfilled the need of farmers properly? (operation and
maintenance, water allocation, distribution, resource mobilization, other input like seeds,
fertilizer, pesticides, extension services, technology and linking market to sell the agriculture
commodities: discuss each and take the note for all including others)
Once in month.
WUA meeting as per need.
General Assembly once in a year
They have well maintained records of labor mobilization, canal maintenance works,
resource collection, sub-committee formation, water allocation, roles of executives
member

d. Are General Assemblies regularly convened and passed actions, future plans, problems and
potentiality faced by the WUA thoroughly discussed?
Yes, once in a year.

e. Are other mechanisms (different committees for example) developed in past working properly?
Construction and Maintenance Committee
Executive Committee for seeds and fertilizer

If not, what are the reasons they could not properly? (Discuss and take note for each GA,
executive committee and other mechanisms)

f. What they initiated to resolve the faced problems?


No such big problem

g. What initiatives worked? What did not work?


If it worked, what was the reason?
If it did not worked, why? What are the reasons?

h. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support

5. Agriculture Performance/Production
a. What are the mechanisms developed to improve the yield and increase production?
Carrot and Spinage seed. Wheat seed.

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b. Is the productivity of existing cereal crops increased with improved irrigation services?
Farmers feel they will have positive impact of irrigation facility.

c. Are any high value agriculture commodities/cash crops being produced in the command area?
Rice Jiremasino, Tichin, Pokhrel
Wheat Hybrid did not work
Maize Hybrid did not work
Vegetables Potato, Simi, Sag

If yes, how is the production? Has it increased?

d. Has the number of farmers engaged in high value agriculture commodity are increased?
Very few farmers engaged in high value crops

If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?
Traditional attitude
Lack of irrigation facility

e. What were the initiatives taken to increase production?


No initiation taken so far

f. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If it worked, what was the reason?
If it did not work why? What are the reasons?

g. What, in their perception could be the best solutions and who can initiate that?
Solutions Initiation and support
Increase farm production through better WUA/IDD
irrigation management

6. Input supply
a. Are there any mechanisms for input supply needed to the farmers?
Yes.
If yes, what are these? And, who is providing these services (Cooperative, WUA, private service
provider)? No organized efforts to supply agriculture inputs

b. Are there any problems in input supply?


Yes
If yes, what are these problems?
Chemical Fertilizer supply is not in good position.
The cost of fertilizers are high

c. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?
Timely supply of Inputs through Local Cooperatives/WUA/NGOs

d. Are there any opportunities to engage WUA in these activities? Yes


If yes, how can it be managed?

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Initiation of cooperative for vegetable collection centre

7. Business and marketing


a. Is there any market facility and opportunity to sale any agriculture commodity?
Yes.
Rice is sold to Kathmandu. Wheat is locally used

If yes, how far is it and how is it operated?


Access to Market for agriculture products is easy.

b. Are there any commodities that are sold in the market (may be informal)? Yes.
If yes, what are these commodities? How much are these selling? Ginger and Fruits (Orange)
Only 5-7 households produce marketable surplus rice. But the respondents do not have idea
regarding quantity. They sell their surplus amount as wages or sell in market. The nearby market
is Banepa. Except rice there is no surplus cereal production. Few water users also sell milk in
nearby village tea shops. Regarding potato and other vegetables WUs sell those commodities
either in Banepa or whole sellers of Kathmandu.

If not, what is the reason (lack/not proper use of inputs like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer,
technology, farmers initiative, etc.)?
Most of the farm product used in family consumption.

c. What were the initiatives taken for increase production?


They are thinking of crop diversification.

d. What initiatives worked what not worked?


If worked, what was the reason?
Vegetables collection centre and cold storage has been planned.

If not, why it did not work? What are the reasons?

e. What could be the best solutions they perceived and who can initiate that?

8. Multifunctionality
a. Is the WUA engaged in multifunctional role in present condition?
There is a possibility of engaging WUA in activity like a cooperative in future.
If yes, what are these functions and how is it functioning? Use of water for livestock
If it is functioning properly, what are the reasons?
If it is not, what are the reasons?

b. Are there any opportunity to engage WUA in multifunctional role?


If yes, how?
There is a possibility of WUA as a Multifunctional organization.
Storage facility for farm products
c. Is the irrigation water also being used for other functions?
If yes, what are these? And how is it performing?
No

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d. What could be the possible options for improve these functions for better livelihood of farmers?

Include any issues related to performance of irrigation system and irrigated agriculture system and any
options solutions for these issues.
Trainings on improved agriculture technologies

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Annex 23
Diagnostic Analysis of Neurenipani Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Neurenipani Irrigation System


Address: Shaktikhor - 8, 9 VDC, Chitwan
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 16 to 17 March 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya and Ram Hari Sharma

1. General Introduction

The headworks of Neurenipani Irrigation System lies at approximately 3km north-east from Shaktikhor
Bazar and the water source of this system is Kair Khola. Being implemented under Central Irrigation
Division Office, Chitwan, the construction work is near completion. There is no WUA package of
construction works and construction is carried out by contractor.

Figure 8: Headworks of Neurenipani IS

With the upgrading of intake and initiation of the lining of main canal, the command area has been
extended to 133 ha from the existing 77 ha. 435m RCC lining and 810m stone soling have been carried
out.

The WUA has been registered in District Water Resource Committee, Chitawan on 1 Falgun, 2063. WUA
is managing its office at a room at Dharapani provided by Ilaka Forest Office. Arjun Subedi, CO
designated by divisional office is rending service as Office Assistant as well.

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WUA is coordinating with District Agricultural Development Office (DADO), Chitawan. Farmers were
benefitted by Free Soil Test Camp of DADO and this office assisted them to get seeds of different
vegetables as well as lime in 50% discount.

Figure 9: Interaction with Neurenipani WUA

2. Multi-functionality

At present, there is no multi-functional activities undertaken by WUA. However, there are few such
scopes. They are:

a. Fish farming
As the sand is porous type, there is leakage of water from the surface. Hence, WUA is thinking over
jurisdiction initiating fish farming with plastic sheets on the surface. DADO is also coordinating with
WUA in this regard.

b. Water Mill
There are two water mills in operation with the use of the irrigation water but WUA is yet to bring the
operators of WUA under its.

c. Water Collection Pond


Realizing the water scarcity for winter crops in the tail section, monsoon water collection with plastic
pond is very much imperative.

3. Conclusions

a. The interest of DADO is high to promote this area as the pocket of vegetable production. Hence
WUA needs to coordinate accordingly.
b. WUA should charge the owners of water mills in order to increase its income and bring them
under its management fold.

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c. WUA should guarantee irrigation facility to the farmers of tail section and for this strict
rotational system should be enforced. Otherwise, these farmers will disconnect themselves
from the scheme enhancing groundwater pumping.
d. WUA chair should be proactive for mobilizing all members of WUA and coordinating them for
other activities whatsoever.

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Annex 24
Diagnostic Analysis of Balan Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Balan Irrigation System


Address: Hardiya-6, 7 Bauna VDC, Saptari
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 27 to 29 March, 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya & Ram Hari Sharma

1. General Introduction

Balan Irrigation System serves two wards of Bauwa VDC stretching over 325 ha (approx). The headworks
is nearly at 14 km distance from Kadmaha along East-West Highway. It is fed by perennial Chuhade
Kholsi.

During the visit of INPIM team, the beneficiaries expressed their resentment against the irrigation
division for not addressing their demands. They have a demand of increasing the height of headworks so
as to ensure irrigation water flow to all sections of the command area. As per the Engineer attending the
meeting, revised estimate has been submitted ensuring the major corrections and adding some more
structures such as wing walls and VRBs. The construction of headworks and cross drainage structures
was ongoing during the visit. However, lining works as per design was near completion.

Fig 1: Inspection of Headworks Construction; Fig 2: Canal Lining Works

The community under this scheme has mixed ethnicity. Tharus are the leading population followed by
Bramhins and Chhetries. There is neither good coordination between WUA and beneficiaries at large on
one hand nor among committee members themselves. Due to distrust and suspicion, community

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monitoring on works carried out by contractor is negligible. Neither is there any regular meeting of the
committee. There is serious doubt over the sustainability of this scheme.

Figure 3: Community Interaction Underway at Balan IS

2. Multi-functionality

Internal suspicion and conflict has rendered the WUA passive and there is no future plan as to multi-
functional activities. Most of the participants in the meeting were skeptic on the smooth irrigation
facilities through this scheme even after the completion of allocated works.

3. Conclusions

a. The WUA chair should play proactive role in winning the confidence of beneficiaries in genral and
WUA members in particular. Regular meeting of WUA is a must in this regard.
b. WUA should depute its members in the regular monitoring of the construction works being carried
out.
c. WUA should be active in coordinating with Divisional Office.

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Annex 25
Diagnostic Analysis of Khahare Chuwabote Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system:Khahare Chuwabote Irrigation System


Address: Khahare, Thechambu-5, Taplejung
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 22-26 March 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya and Ram Hari Sharma

1. General Introduction

The headworks of Khahare Chuwabote Irrigation System lies at approximately 1.5km south-east from
Kabeli at Thechanbu-5, Taplejung along Mechi Highway. The source of this system is Chapleti (Khahare
Khola). As per the local elders, a small ditch was dig in the beginning so as to provide drinking water to
the cattle. With the rise in new settlements in this periphery, the ditch was later improvised and
gradually it took shape of current system. The moderate upgrading works of this scheme was completed
on 15/11/2070. Though the scheme is running, leakage problem is inspected at many stretches and
there are few sections which are landslide-prone.

As a matter of fact, WUA is lagging behind in coordinating with village and district and regional level line
agencies. All the members of the committee are not active. Because of massive out-migration of youths,
the system is lacking the much-needed innovation and institutional boost. Being fertile area and having
irrigation facility, the famers can take advantage of intensive vegetable farming and they have no
inconvenience for market access as well. For this, WUA should initiate the coordination with DADO,
Taplejung.

2. Multi-functionality

There are some areas where WUA can expand its activities. Fish farming is such potential area. With the
utilization of percolated irrigation water, fish farming can be sustained. WUA is planning to star two
water mills as well. On the other hand, there is sufficient head available to generate electricity launching
a micro-hydro. In doing so, there is no impact at all for irrigation.

3. Conclusions

a. WUA should initiate regular monthly meeting and the leadership should orient itself in
activating its members with proper division of roles and responsibilities.
b. WUA should consult and coordinate the external agencies within and beyond district for seeking
support in diversifying its activities.
c. WUA should update the land and socio-economic data

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Annex 26
Diagnostic Analysis of Bataha Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Bataha Irrigation System


Address: Raghopur- 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9; Sitapur- 5, 6 VDCs, Siraha
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 30 March to 1 April 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya and Ram Hari Sharma
ame of the irrigation system: Balan Irrigation System

1. General Introduction

Bataha Irrigation System is almost 2km south from Mirchaiya Bazar of Siraha and serves approx 224 ha
of Raghopur and Sitapur VDC of Siraha. Bataha river is the source of the scheme which doesnt have
reliable water for irrigation round the year.

Figure 10: Display Board with Salient Features of Bataha IS

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The construction works of this scheme is quite slow and is at the beginning stage. There is serious
conflict of WUA with both the Divisional Office and Contractor. In fact, WUA is governed by few
influential people with vested interest and community consultation is almost non-existent.

Figure 11: Chief of ERID, Biratnagar giving Instructions Coinciding INPIM Team Visit

2. Multi-functionality

No meeting is held with full members of the committee and there is equally disappointing situation of
transparency to come into effect. Hence, tThere is no room for multi-functionality to come into reality at
this stage of conflict..

3. Conclusions

d. The WUA chair should play proactive role in coordinating with Divisional Office and Contractor on
one hand and beneficiaries at large on the other hand.
e. Regular meeting of WUA is a prerequisite to build confidence among the stakeholders.

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Annex 27
Diagnostic Analysis of Ahkusi Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Ahkusi Irrigation System


Address: Gonarapura 1, 3 VDC, Mahattori
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 18 to 21 March 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya & Ram Hari Sharma

1. General Introduction

The headworks of Ankushi Irrigation System lies at approximately 2km north-east from Jaukh Chowk
under Sada VDC of Mahottari along Bardibash-Jaleshwor Highway. As per the local elders, construction
of this irrigation system was initiated by Saint Ratan Das in 2007 BS utilizing the income accrued from
the land of Guthi (religious trust). The scheme serves Gunapurwa VDC with East Canal and Sada, Koluwa
Bajra, Ankar, Bhataulia VDCs with West Canal. Both canals are fed by Ankushi river.

Being implemented under Irrigation Division, DOI, contractors construction works are near completion.
Side Intake is under construction. The major other structures include: Foot bridge 4 Nos., Division Box
2Nos., Syphon 1 No., West Canal 3.33 km, West Branch 8.28 km, East Canal 2.2 km, East Branch 9.94
km.

Figure 12: Headworks of Ankushi IS under Construction

There is good coordination among Divisional Office, Contractor and WUA and all are committed in
executing construction works soon and WUAs role is encouraging as well. The WUA has been registered

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in District Water Resource Committee in Jeth, 2062. WUA conducts regular monthly meeting and
members of the WUA have good rapport and coordination. Decision is unanimously taken and conflict is
settled accordingly.

Figure 13: Interaction with Various Stakeholders of Ankushi IS

WUA has initiated contact and coordination with District Agricultural Development Office (DADO),
Mahottari . DADO is eager to initiate training to leading farmers on various aspects of agriculture and
prospective crops including sugarcane. Training imparted by CMISP at Hetauda in last March was quite
effective for WUA to know various aspects of irrigation management.

2. Multi-functionality

Farmers were dependent upon the monsoon earlier and systematic irrigation has been initiated
recently. Hence, there is yet no initiation of multi-functional activities on the part of WUA. However,
WUA is inclined towards converting the scheme as cooperative incorporating some other activities as
well. There are 17 fish ponds which are fed by the Aushi irrigation water and WUA needs to streamline
them under its umbrella so that the income of WUA could be enhanced with the local contractors who
have taken up fish farming over there. For the timely available of agricultural inputs, WUA should start
storage of crops and allied facilities.

3. Conclusions
a. The interest of DADO is high to promote local famers through training and orientation. WUA
should take the initiative and coordinate accordingly.
b. WUA should charge the owners of fish ponds in order to increase its income and bring them
under its management fold.
c. WUA should include the educated youths in the irrigation management. This can be done with
their involvement in record keeping and documentation as well as information and data update
related to the scheme preferably through computer system.

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Annex 28
Diagnostic Analysis of Sindurekhola Binamare Duichango Irrigation System
(Information collected by the Backstopping Mission Team)

Name of the irrigation system: Sindurekhola Binamare Duichango Irrigation System


Address: Pauwathok Kakani, Nuwakot-8, Thanapani-5
Date of initiation and completion of field work: 6-8 April 2013
Names of the team members: Ganesh Khaniya & Ram Hari Sharma

1. General Introduction

The system is accessible via earthen motorable from Kakani along Trishuli-Shyaprubesi Highway.
Sindhure Khola is the perennial source of this scheme. The Being implemented under Central Irrigation
Division Office, the allocated construction work on the part of Contractor is near completion. WUA
package is completed. However, there is problem with construction quality in case of both contractor
and WUA.

There are two major sections along the canal alignment where soil erosion has cause damage and these
points will be great challenge of the irrigation through this canal if not repaired in time.

The WUA has been registered in District Water Resource Committee, Nuwakot on 23 Poush 2068. Puja
G.C is the CO designated by divisional office.

2. Multi-functionality

At present, there is no multi-functional activities undertaken by WUA. However, there are some
womens cooperation in operation. Fish farming and water collection pond are the prospective arena
which WUA can think to evolve it as multi-functional entity.

3. Conclusions

a. WUA needs to have regular monthly meeting and coordination among members and
beneficiaries should be promoted with proper division of roles and responsibilities as well as
maintaining transparency.
b. WUA should take initiative in diversifying its activities where it is possible such as fish farming
and water collection pond.
c. WUA should coordinate and inform Divisional Office as regards the critical erosion sections for
the sustainability of system.

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Figure 14: Headworks of Sindhurekhola Bimare IS

Figure 15: Lined Canal Section

Figure 3: Interaction with Neurenipani WUA

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