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COMPLETE REVISION

January 2009

Process Industry Practices


Piping

PIP PNC00005
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
November 1996 Issued January 2009 Complete Revision & Renumbering
February 2002 Complete Revision

Not printed with State funds


COMPLETE REVISION
January 2009

Process Industry Practices


Piping

PIP PNC00005
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems
Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................. 2
1.1 Purpose............................................ 2
1.2 Scope ............................................... 2

2. References .................................. 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices .............. 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards ........ 2
2.3 Government Regulations ................. 3

3. Requirements.............................. 3
3.1 General ............................................ 3
3.2 Design Conditions............................ 4
3.3 Design Practices .............................. 5
3.4 Hot Tapping ................................... 12
3.5 Piping Components........................ 12
3.6 Piping Flexibility ............................. 17
3.7 Piping Support ............................... 17
3.8 Specific Piping Systems................. 17
3.9 Fabrication, Assembly, and
Erection .......................................... 22

Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 22


PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for designing metallic piping systems to
ASME B31.3, Process Piping (hereinafter referred to as the Code).

1.2 Scope
This Practice provides requirements for piping systems arrangement, design
conditions, components, and joints. This Practice shall be used in conjunction with
the Code.
The requirements of this Practice are more stringent than the Code for the purpose of
standardization and not because the Code is considered unsafe.
Piping systems designed in accordance with other piping codes are not included in
this Practice.

2. References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references shall
be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein where
appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP PCCIA001 Design of Instrument Air Systems
PIP PNC00001 Pipe Support Criteria for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
PIP PNE00003 Process Unit and Offsites Layout Guide
PIP PNC00004 Piping Flexibility Analysis Criteria for ASME B31.3 Metallic
Piping
PIP PNE00012 Piping Examination and Leak Test Guide
PIP PNSC0001 ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Fabrication and Examination
Specification
PIP PNSC0011 Installation of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
PIP PNSC0021 Leak Testing of Piping Systems
PIP PNSC0035 Steam Tracing Specification
PIP REIE686 Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and
Installation Design
PIP Piping Material Specifications
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Petroleum Institute (API)


API 570 Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and
Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

API 602 Compact Steel Valves


API 614 Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil Systems for Special-
Purpose Applications
API 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API 2201 Procedures for Welding or Tapping on Equipment in Service
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII Pressure Vessels, Division 1
ASME B16.25 Buttwelding Ends
ASME B16.36 Orifice Flanges
ASME B16.47 Larger Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60
ASME B16.48 Steel Line Blanks
ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B31.3 Process Piping (Code)
ASME B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
ASME B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe
Crane Technical Publication
Crane Technical Publication 410 Flow of Fluids
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
NEMA SM-23 Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service
Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
MSS SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and
Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
2.3 Government Regulations

U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration


(OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 Control of Hazardous Energy Sources
(Lockout/Tagout)

3. Requirements

3.1 General
3.1.1 Piping systems shall be in accordance with this Practice and with all
applicable federal, state, and local laws.
3.1.2 New piping systems within the scope of this Practice shall be in accordance
with the Code.
3.1.3 Alterations to existing piping systems shall be in accordance with API 570.
Changes in service or in design conditions shall be considered alterations.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.1.4 Items that are normally fabricated from piping components (e.g., strainers
and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing,
distributing, and metering or controlling flow), if identified by the owner as
specialty piping (SP) items, shall be designed in accordance with this
Practice unless otherwise specified by the owner. Piping components such as
pulsation dampeners, surge bottles, condensate collection pots, and like
components may be furnished as piping, as permitted by ASME Section
V111, U-1.
3.1.5 Design of piping at machinery shall be in accordance with PIP REIE686 and
NEMA SM-23, as applicable.
3.1.6 All piping shall be identified by the owner as Category D, Category M, high
pressure, or normal fluid services as defined in the Code. Severe cyclic
conditions in accordance with the Code shall also be identified by the
owner.

3.2 Design Conditions


3.2.1 The internal and external design pressure and temperature of piping shall be
determined by considering the following conditions:
a. Normal operations
b. Start-up operations, including any start-up procedure, operation, routing,
etc.
c. Shutdown operations, including shutdown procedures, operations,
pumpout, etc.
d. Switching operations, including any cyclic regeneration, spare pump
switching, coke drum switching, etc.
e. Regeneration procedures
f. Equipment bypassing
g. Turndown operations
h. Pump shutoff (deadhead) pressure
i. Any control valve in a fully opened or closed position
j. Any block valve in a fully opened or closed position, except for locked
or car-sealed valves
k. Blocked exits
l. Equipment trip or shutdown
m. Upset conditions
n. Maintenance, repair, or neutralization procedures
o. On-stream or purging operations
p. Steamout or purging operations
q. Solar temperature effects
r. Heat-tracing effects

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.2.2 The design minimum temperature shall be determined by considering the


following:
a. Normal conditions
b. Expected autorefrigeration effects, including emergency depressuring.
Comment: The design minimum temperature shall be the coincidental
temperature where the pressure reaches 25% of the design
pressure.
c. One-day-mean low temperature in accordance with API 650, Figure 4.2

3.3 Design Practices


3.3.1 Basic Layout
Piping layout shall be in accordance with PIP PNE00003.
3.3.2 Piping
3.3.2.1. Underground Piping
1. Except for the following services, piping should be located
above grade:
a. Firewater supply systems
b. Cased road and tank dike crossings
c. Lines in concrete trenches
d. Oil-free compressed air lines
e. Lines with secondary containment and a leak-detection
method
f. Other lines as designated by the owner
2. All below-grade piping, including piping in trenches, shall be
protected from external corrosion.
3. Buried steel piping in hazardous materials service shall be
externally coated and cathodically protected.
4. The minimum cover over buried process piping shall be
18 inches (46 cm) in paved or unpaved areas and 30 inches
(76 cm) under paved roads except under a reinforced concrete
slab or other protective cover approved by the owner.
5. Sewers may be covered by this Practice if specified by the
owner.
3.3.2.2 Block Valve Bypasses
1. If required, a block valve bypass shall be shown on the
applicable Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&ID).
2. Bypasses shall be integral with the valve or installed in the
piping immediately adjacent to the valve.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.3.2.3 Dead Legs


1. A dead leg is a pipe section connected to a flowing stream where
the pipe section is not self-draining and is not normally flowing.
2. Piping layouts in all services shall be designed to eliminate the
presence of dead legs.
3. If dead legs cannot be avoided, either corrosion resistant
materials or an approved coating system shall be used for the
dead leg section.
4. Live dummy legs shall not be permitted.
3.3.2.4 Vibration
1. In locations where potentially severe vibration can occur, small
piping branches (i.e., NPS 2 and smaller) shall be adequately
designed to minimize its effects.
2. The following examples are acceptable practices/configurations
for minimizing the effects of vibration on small piping branches,
depending on the severity of the vibration:
a. Brace all nipples (with reinforcing pads if required).
b. Where bracing cannot be effectively provided, install
schedule 160 nipples with reinforcing pads.
c. Use an API 602 integrally reinforced extended body (IREB)
valve.
d. Brace all configurations that have a nipple between the
welding boss and the root valve.
3.3.2.5 Blind flanges shall be used as end closures on flanged ends and
valves, unless end caps are clearly required by design necessity.
3.3.2.6 Except for standard spectacle plates and blinds, flanged connections
with long exposed bolts for sandwiched components (e.g., wafer type
valves) should not be used in fire hazardous areas unless the bolting
is protected by a fire-resistant shield.
3.3.2.7 Jackscrews
1. Jackscrews shall be used to facilitate flange separation for
maintenance. Joint assemblies that often require frequent
separation include orifice plates, spectacle plates, spacers,
screens, and dropout spools.
2. Piping layout shall be designed such that flanges can be
separated without excessive force.
3. Jackscrews shall be accessible from both sides of the pipe.
4. For orifice flanges, jackscrews shall be installed at three- and
nine-oclock positions.
5. If flange separators are provided, jackscrews shall not be
required.

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.3.3 Isolation (Block) Valves


3.3.3.1 Block valves shall be provided at vessel and storage tank nozzles as
follows:
a. In piping at all nozzles below the maximum operating liquid
level of storage tanks
b. In a liquid draw-off line of a vessel containing 10,000 pounds
(4,550 kg) or more of a flammable liquid at the maximum
operating liquid level if the line does not contain a block valve
located within 30 feet (9 m) in a horizontal direction from the
vessel
3.3.3.2 Block valves shall be provided for piping crossing the plant limits
and operating unit limits as required for the planned operation,
isolation, and maintenance of the plant as directed by the owner.
3.3.3.3 If positive isolation is required or cross-contamination cannot be
tolerated, one of the following shall be used:
a. Blanks
b. Two block valves with a bleeder valve between them
c. A double-seated valve (e.g., expanding gate or plug, trunnion-
mounted ball, through conduit slab gate, etc.) with body bleeder
d. Removable spool
3.3.3.4 Valving of operating vent, drain, and sample connections shall have
one block valve as a minimum. Additional block valves shall be
provided as specified by owner.
Comment: Operating vent, drain, or sample connections are used
regularly when the source equipment or piping is in
service and/or pressurized.
3.3.3.5 Equipment that may be removed from service during unit operation
shall be furnished with single block valves with provisions for
blinding or blanking.
3.3.3.6 Small Piping Root Valves
1. For all process services, branches NPS 2 and smaller shall have a
root valve located as close as feasible to the run.
2. The root valve shall be no farther than three times the branch
diameter (except for insulated lines) measured from the far end
of the boss to the near end of the valve.
3. Unions shall not be installed in the pipe section between the
main pipe run and the root valve.
3.3.3.7 Flangeless valves shall not be used as the first block valve against
storage tanks or vessels containing hydrocarbons or hazardous
materials.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.3.3.8 See Crane Technical Publication 410 for information on sizing


valves.
3.3.4 Control Valve Manifolds
3.3.4.1 If specified, control valves shall be installed with a valved bypass
and a block valve on each side of the control valve.
3.3.4.2 As a minimum, block and bypass valves shall be provided in the
control valve manifolds for the following cases:
a. If loss of control function for a service could adversely affect
plant operations as determined by the owner
b. If shutdown of a service cannot be tolerated (e.g., fuel lines to
furnaces or boilers, steam reducing stations [main headers], etc.)
c. If the absence of blocks and bypass valves would inhibit start-up
efforts for a service as determined by the owner
3.3.4.3 Bleed Valves
1. Bleed valves shall be provided for each control valve manifold.
2. One bleed valve shall be located between the upstream block
valve and the control valve.
3. If specified by owner, an additional bleed valve on the
downstream side of the control valve shall be provided.
3.3.5 Vents, Drains, and Sample Outlets
3.3.5.1 Valved vent and drain connections shall be provided on all
equipment that is not self-venting or self-draining. Connections shall
be located on equipment, if practical, but may be located in
connecting piping if there are no blocks between the vent or drain
connections and the equipment.
3.3.5.2 Vent connections shall be provided for trapped high points of piping
and shall be in accordance with one of the following configurations:
a. Valved if required for operational purposes or removal of
process fluid
b. Plugged (valve omitted) if required for hydrostatic test purposes
3.3.5.3 Drain connections shall be provided for the low points of all lines
located above grade and shall be in accordance with one of the
following configurations:
a. Valved if required for operational purposes or removal of
process fluid
b. Plugged (valve omitted) if required for hydrostatic test purposes
3.3.5.4 Unless otherwise specified, vent, drain, and sample outlet
connections shall be NPS 3/4 minimum.
3.3.5.5 For services of fluids with suspended solids or of high viscosity
materials, all piping connections shall be NPS 1 minimum.

Page 8 of 22 Process Industry Practices


COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.3.5.6 Unless otherwise specified, operating vent and drain connections


shall be designed to drain liquid from equipment and piping in 2
hours or less.
Comment: Operating vents and drain lines are used regularly when
the source equipment or piping is in service and/or
pressurized.
3.3.5.7 Hydrocarbon vapors or mixtures of hydrocarbon vapors and other
vapors (e.g., steam) may be discharged to the atmosphere contingent
on adequate safety and environmental considerations.
3.3.5.8 All vents and drains open to the atmosphere shall be provided with
plugs or blind flanges.
3.3.5.9 Cooling shall be considered for sample outlets in piping or
equipment operating at 140F (60C) or greater. One cooler may be
used for multiple sample outlets.
3.3.5.10 Unless otherwise specified, for horizontal piping, sample
connections shall be located at the side of the pipe for liquids and at
the top of the pipe for gases.
3.3.5.11 If practical, discharge from drains emptying into open hubs
(e.g., drain cups or sumps) shall be visible from the location of the
drain valve.
3.3.5.12 If releasing controlled materials, operating vents and drain lines
shall discharge into a closed system as specified by owner.
3.3.6 Check Valves
3.3.6.1 Unless otherwise specified, check valves shall be provided in
discharge piping of centrifugal pumps.
3.3.6.2 Check valves shall be used where utility or chemical injection lines
are permanently tied into process lines or equipment.
3.3.6.3 A check valve shall not be used as a substitute for a block valve for
flow isolation purposes.
3.3.6.4 Check valves in vertical piping shall be installed for upward flow
only and shall be installed with a drain connection immediately
above the check valve.
3.3.6.5 If a lower pressure rated system flows into a higher pressure rated
system, a check valve shall be installed in the lower pressure
connection and the higher pressure rating shall extend to include the
check valve.
3.3.6.6 If a sudden loss of pressure in a higher pressure system could lead to
undesirable contamination from a lower pressure system, a check
valve shall be considered for the higher pressure system.
3.3.6.7 Except for check valves in intermittent service or check valves in
skid-mounted systems, for piping NPS 3 and greater, a turbulence-
free minimum distance of five pipe diameters upstream and two pipe

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

diameters downstream of every check valve should be maintained.


Pipefittings (e.g., elbows, reducers, tees, etc.) or flow-restricting
devices (e.g., orifices, control valves, etc.) should not be installed in
these zones.
3.3.6.8 See Crane Technical Publication 410 for information on sizing
check valves.
3.3.7 Blanks (Blinds)
3.3.7.1 The piping layout shall provide for the insertion of line blanks for
flanged equipment isolation for maintenance, inspection, testing, and
alternative operation.
3.3.7.2 If piping flexibility and equipment arrangement do not permit the
insertion of temporary maintenance blanks at convenient flanges,
permanent line blanks shall be provided in accordance with the
following:
a. At piping connections at equipment that can be physically
entered
b. At plant limits in process, utility, and auxiliary (e.g., fuel oil, fuel
gas) piping connected to other piping outside plant limits that
can be in use during shutdown of the plant
3.3.7.3 Figure-8 type blinds shall not be greater than 100 pounds (45 kg) or
NPS 12. Figure-8 type blinds within these limits are shown in
Table 1:
Table 1 Maximum Figure-8 Blind Sizes
Max. Figure-8
Class
Size (NPS)
150 and 300 12
600 and 900 8
1500 and 2500 6

3.3.7.4 Circular blanks or spacers shall be provided for blind sizes greater
than the limits of Section 3.3.7.3.
3.3.7.5 Circular blanks or spacers shall be used in place of figure-8 type
blinds for cold-insulated piping less than 70F (21C).
3.3.7.6 Commercially available blinding systems in accordance with the
Code shall be permitted.
3.3.7.7 See ASME B16.48 for guidance for the use of blanks in piping
systems.
3.3.8 Strainers and Filters
3.3.8.1 If strainers are not furnished as part of the equipment, strainers in the
piping shall be considered for the protection of the following
equipment:
a. Mechanical equipment in accordance with PIP REIE686

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

b. Steam traps and steam jet ejectors in steam inlet lines


c. Burners in main fuel oil supply piping
d. Upstream of low noise design control valves
3.3.8.2 If filters are not furnished as part of the equipment, filters shall be
provided in the piping for the protection of the following equipment:
a. Air supply piping for pneumatically actuated equipment
b. Air piping upstream of air dryers
c. Open-air intakes for blowers, compressors, or engines
3.3.8.3 Providing permanent strainers with plugged connections for the
installation of differential pressure measurement across the strainer
shall be considered.
3.3.8.4 Installation of spacer rings may be required after temporary strainers
are removed.
3.3.9 Utility Piping Connections to Process Equipment
3.3.9.1 Firewater systems shall not be connected to process equipment
except by using a temporary connection when the equipment is not in
operation and not under pressure.
3.3.9.2 Except for air or steam, permanent connections shall not be made to
process equipment operating above 212F (100C).
3.3.9.3 Water or steam shall not be permanently connected to equipment that
operates below 32F (0C).
3.3.9.4 Permanent connections without a break tank shall not be made
except if the required service is continuous or frequent (at least twice
per week) or is needed for emergencies.
3.3.9.5 If air is injected as a reaction agent, all of the following shall be
required:
a. The hydrocarbon/air mixtures shall not be permitted to enter the
flammable range unless otherwise required by the process
b. Instrumentation shall be provided to shut off the airflow if the
process flow fails
c. A restriction orifice shall be provided
3.3.9.6 For all components of permanent connections, the
pressure/temperature rating shall be suitable for either the process or
the utility service, whichever is more severe.
3.3.9.7 For temporary connections, the pressure/temperature rating of the
process side shall extend to the hose or breakaway spool.
3.3.9.8 If the process fluid requires internal lining or material other than that
used in the utility system, the lining or the material shall extend from
and include the check valve on the process side.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.3.9.9 Valves with bodies of gray cast iron, ductile iron, or low melting
point alloys (e.g., brass or bronze) shall not be used in a permanent
connection including the utility side.
3.3.9.10 The material selection of the valve bodies and trim in a permanent
connection shall be suitable for both the process and the utility
fluid.
3.3.9.11 Operator access shall be provided to the block valves on either side
and to the blind or breakaway spool of the connection.
3.3.9.12 Chain-operated valves shall not be permitted.

3.4 Hot Tapping


Hot tapping shall be in accordance with API 2201 and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147.

3.5 Piping Components


3.5.1 General
3.5.1.1 Recommended piping components are shown in the PIP Piping
Material Specifications. Other piping components and constructions
that are in accordance with the Code, although not mentioned in the
PIP Piping Material Specifications are permitted.
3.5.1.2 Minimum pipe size shall be NPS 3/4, except for the following
applications:
a. Category D fluid service
b. Individual instrument leads
c. Pump and compressor auxiliary piping
d. Steam tracing
e. Reduction at instruments or other equipment provided with
smaller than NPS 3/4 connections
3.5.1.3 Pipe sizes NPS 1-1/4, NPS 2-1/2, NPS 3-1/2, and NPS 5 shall not be used,
except for connections to equipment requiring these sizes and in jacketed
pipe systems. In such cases, the transition to standard sizes shall be made as
soon as practical.
3.5.1.4 Pipe sizes and schedules shown in the PIP Piping Material Specifications are
in accordance with ASME B36.10M and ASME B36.19M.
3.5.2 Pipe
3.5.2.1 Nominal wall thickness for carbon and low-alloy steel piping joined
by welding in new construction shall be, as a minimum, in
accordance with the following requirements:
a. Utility (Category D) fluid services
(1) For NPS 1/2 2: Not normally welded
(2) For NPS 3 6: Standard

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

(3) For NPS 8 32: 0.250 inch (6.4 mm)


(4) For NPS 34 and greater: Diameter/135
b. Normal and Category M fluid services
(1) For NPS 1/2 1-1/2: Extra strong
(2) For NPS 2 6: Standard
(3) For NPS 8 32: 0.250 inch (6.4 mm)
(4) For NPS 34 and greater: Diameter/135
3.5.2.2 Nominal wall thickness for nonferrous alloy and stainless steel
(> 13% Cr) piping joined by welding in new construction shall be, as
a minimum, in accordance with the following requirements:
a. For NPS 1/2 3/4: Schedule 40S
b. For NPS 1 and greater: Schedule 10S
3.5.3 Joints and Fittings
3.5.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, piping joints shall be of welded
construction. Flanges, unions, and threaded connections shall be used
minimally, except in Category D fluid services.
3.5.3.2 Butt-welded fittings shall be used for pipe greater than NPS 1-1/2,
except as required at equipment or control valve connections.
3.5.3.3 Butt-welded or socket-welded fittings shall be used for pipe sizes not
covered in Section 3.5.3.2, except as follows:
a. Threaded fittings may be used downstream of a welded or
flanged block valve to instruments, at equipment connections,
and for terminal vent and drain connections.
b. Threaded fittings may be used for Category D fluid services.
3.5.3.4 Socket-welded and threaded constructions should be avoided in
services if corrosion is accelerated in crevices.
3.5.3.5 For lube oil and seal oil lines, only butt-welded or flanged joints
shall be used between filters and equipment in accordance with
API 614.
3.5.3.6 Butt-welded piping systems shall have long radius elbows. Short
radius elbows may be used only if required because of space
limitations.
3.5.3.7 Flush bushings, close nipples, locknuts, street elbows, and street tees
shall not be permitted.
3.5.4 Branch Connections
3.5.4.1 Unless otherwise specified, branch connections shall be at a
90-degree intersection to the run pipe centerline.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.5.4.2 Unless otherwise approved by the owner, a welded branch


connection shall not be designed with an intersecting angle of less
than 45 degrees.
3.5.4.3 NPS 2 and Less
1. If the branch is the same size as the header, a straight tee shall be
used.
2. For headers NPS 2 and less, one of the following configurations
shall be used if the branch size is less than the header size:
a. Reducing tees
b. Straight tee with butt-welding reducer
c. Swage nipple
3. For headers NPS 3 and greater, branch connections shall be
provided with integrally reinforced branch connection fittings.
4. Integrally reinforced extended body (IREB) valves in accordance
with API 602 may be used for valved piping connections
(e.g., pressure gauges, vents, and drains).
3.5.4.4 NPS 3 and Greater
1. Branch connections shall be of all welded construction
(e.g., unreinforced fabricated tees, reinforced fabricated tees,
reducing tees, and forged integrally reinforced welded fittings).
2. If the branch is the same size as the header, a straight tee shall be
used.
3. Branch connections for piping at reciprocating equipment shall
be welding tees or forged integrally reinforced weld fittings.
3.5.4.5 Weep Holes
1. Weep holes of 1/4-inch (6-mm) diameter shall be provided in
reinforcing pads for branch connections, in wear pads, and in
support reinforcing pads if the pads cover welds that are not pipe
manufacturing seam welds.
2. Weep holes shall also be provided to vent gases on piping that
requires heat treatment after fabrication, or in special cases
where hydrogen buildup could occur.
3. Weep holes shall be packed with heavy grease.
3.5.4.6 Branch tables in the PIP Piping Material Specifications provide
reinforcing pads designed for full area replacement.
3.5.4.7 Branch tables in the PIP Piping Material Specifications are minimum
requirements. Other equal or better configurations may be selected to
suit a particular project need.

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.5.5 Valves
3.5.5.1 General
1. Ball, butterfly, and plug valves shall have gear operators in
accordance with the PIP Piping Material Specifications.
2. Block valves and bypass valves at control valve manifolds,
equipment, and pressure-reducing stations shall be of the higher
pressure rating.
3. For soft-seated valves, pressure-temperature ratings for the same
class valve may vary between manufacturers and may be lower
than the ratings shown in PIP Piping Material Specifications.
4. Screwed bonnet and screwed body valves shall not be used in
any hydrocarbon or hazardous material services unless the
bonnets/bodies are seal-welded.
5. Union bonnet valves shall not be used in any hydrocarbon or
hazardous material services.
3.5.5.2 Gate Valves
Gear operators are recommended for wedge gate valves for the
pressure ratings and sizes shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Gear Operator Applications for Gate Valves
Pressure Class Gate Valves Sizes (NPS)
150 14 and greater
300 12 and greater
600 and 900 8 and greater
1500 and greater 6 and greater

3.5.5.3 Check Valves


1. Dual- and single-plate wafer check and swing check valves shall
not be used in reciprocating pump and compressor suction and
discharge services or similar pulsating services.
2. In parallel pump or compressor systems, check valves installed
at the discharge of pumps or compressors should be of a nonslam
internal-spring-assisted type. Swing check valves should not be
used in this service.
3. For parallel pump systems with individual pump discharge
piping of NPS 20 and greater, a hydraulic analysis shall be
conducted to verify that the selected check valves have the
correct dynamic response to prevent slamming and limit pressure
surge to an acceptable level. The analysis shall include
consideration of the worst case operating mode scenario.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.5.5.4 Globe Valves


Gear operators are recommended for globe valves for the pressure
ratings and sizes shown in Table 3:
Table 3 Gear Operator Applications for Globe Valves
Pressure Class Globe Valves Sizes (NPS)
150 14 and greater
300 10 and greater
600 8 and greater
900 6 and greater
1500 4 and greater
2500 3 and greater

3.5.6 Flanges
3.5.6.1 Flanges NPS 24 and less shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5
for the listed materials.
3.5.6.2 Unless otherwise specified, steel flanges larger than NPS 24 shall be
in accordance with ASME B16.47, Series B.
3.5.6.3 The use of flanges in piping shall be minimized. Flanges shall be
typically used in the following applications:
a. At flanged equipment
b. At valves
c. At blanks
d. In removable sections of pipe
e. Where frequent dismantling of piping is required
f. Where piping lined with nonmetals or nonmetallic piping cannot
be bonded or otherwise joined
g. To provide for erection requirements
h. To allow for modifications in areas where welding is not
permitted
i. To provide clearance for dismantling of equipment
(e.g., compressors, reactor heads, etc.)
j. For maintenance cleaning, decoking, or slurry service
3.5.6.4 Slip-on flanges may be used in piping NPS 24 maximum for
Classes 300 and less at design temperatures 800F (430C) or less.
3.5.6.5 Lap joint flanges may be used in piping for Classes 300 and less at
design temperatures 500F (260C) and less.
3.5.6.6 Except for proprietary flanges, flange facing shall normally be
raised-face for Classes 150 through 2500.

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.5.6.7 Flat-faced flanges with full-faced gaskets shall be used for


connecting piping to flat-faced flanged valves and equipment
manufactured from nonductile materials.
3.5.6.8 Flange facing finish for cast iron, ductile iron, and bronze shall be in
accordance with MSS SP-6.
3.5.6.9 Flange facing finish for steel, nickel alloy, and other alloys shall be
in accordance with ASME B16.5.
3.5.6.10 Orifice flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.36.
3.5.6.11 Blind flanges shall not be drilled for connections (e.g., drain, vent)
unless a stress calculation in accordance with ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Appendix 2, shows that the
flanges shall not be overstressed.
3.5.6.12 For pipe of minimum wall thickness, the bore of welding neck
flanges shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the attached
pipe, and shall be in accordance with ASME B16.25 tolerances.
3.5.6.13 Except as stated in Section 3.5.6.14, the design thickness of the
flange hub at the welding end of flanges with a specified minimum
yield strength (SMYS) less than that of the attached pipe shall be at
a minimum equal to the pipe wall thickness multiplied by the pipe-
to-flange ratio of the SMYS if the SMYS ratio is from 1.0 to 1.5.
See ASME B16.5, Figure 14.
3.5.6.14 The bore of welding neck flanges of the lower SMYS may be equal
to the inside diameter of the attached pipe of the higher SMYS, if
calculations in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Appendix 2, show that the flanged joint shall
not be overstressed.
3.5.7 Gaskets
Gasket selection shall be in accordance with the individual PIP Piping
Material Specification.
3.5.8 Bolting
Bolting selection shall be in accordance with the individual PIP Piping
Material Specification.

3.6 Piping Flexibility


Piping flexibility analyses shall be in accordance with PIP PNC00004.

3.7 Piping Support


Piping supports shall be in accordance with PIP PNC00001.

3.8 Specific Piping Systems


3.8.1 Instrument Air
3.8.1.1 Instrument air systems shall be in accordance with PIP PCCIA001.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.8.1.2 Instrument air branch lines shall be taken from the top of the header.
3.8.1.3 Block valves shall be provided for branch connections less than
NPS 2 and shall be located at the header.
3.8.1.4 The main instrument air header size should be NPS 1-1/2, as a
minimum.
3.8.1.5 The instrument air supply to an individual user should be NPS 1/2, as
a minimum.
3.8.2 Plant Air
3.8.2.1 Plant air branch lines shall be taken from the top of the header.
3.8.2.2 Block valves shall be provided for branch connections less than
NPS 2 and shall be located both at the header and at the equipment.
3.8.3 Cooling Water
3.8.3.1 Block valves for every branch from cooling water supply and return
headers shall be located either at the header or at the equipment
being served.
3.8.3.2 Block valves shall not be provided in return lines operating at or
below atmospheric pressure unless needed for equipment or system
isolation.
3.8.3.3 If heat exchangers are provided with process isolation valves for
inspection and cleaning during plant operation, block valves shall be
provided in the cooling water inlet and outlet piping. In freezing
climates, an antifreeze bypass from the inlet to the outlet or other
means to prevent freezing shall be provided.
3.8.3.4 All aboveground cooling water supply and return branch lines shall
be connected to the top of the headers.
3.8.4 Utility Water
3.8.4.1 Utility water branch lines shall be taken from the top of the header.
3.8.4.2 Block valves shall be provided for branch connections less than
NPS 2 and shall be located both at the header and at the equipment.
3.8.5 Potable Water
3.8.5.1 Potable water shall not be connected to any other system unless
isolated in accordance with state and local requirements.
3.8.5.2 Connections to the potable water system shall be in accordance with
applicable ordinances and approved by the owner.
3.8.6 Steam and Steam Condensate Removal
3.8.6.1 Steam Headers
1. Steam headers shall run level or shall pitch downward in the
direction of steam flow.

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

2. A vertical rise required in the direction of steam flow shall be


designed with a vertical leg equipped with a drip leg at the low
point.
3.8.6.2 Steam Branch Lines
1. Steam branch lines shall be connected to the top of the headers.
2. Branch lines shall run level or pitch downward in the direction of
the steam flow.
3. A vertical rise required in the direction of steam flow,
downstream of the connection to the steam header, shall be
designed with a vertical leg equipped with a drip leg at the low
point.
4. Block valves shall be provided in the branch lines from the
steam headers located at and above the elevation of the steam
header and installed in such a manner that no pocket is formed
where condensate may collect.
3.8.6.3 Steam tracing shall be in accordance with PIP PNSC0035.
3.8.6.4 Steam traps discharging into the atmosphere shall be provided with
upstream block valves.
3.8.6.5 Steam traps discharging to a condensate collection system shall be
provided with both upstream and downstream block valves.
3.8.6.6 Condensate from vacuum steam systems shall be re-evaporated into
the system by means of a condensate flash pot or removed by
eductors, pumping traps, or other suitable means.
3.8.6.7 All steam traps shall be provided with an internal strainer or a
strainer located upstream of the trap. The strainer shall be equipped
with a blowdown valve piped to a safe location.
3.8.6.8 A steam separator or other means of condensate removal
(e.g., pumping trap) shall be provided in the steam piping to each
group of steam turbines operating on saturated steam and also to
each group of steam-driven reciprocating compressors and other
water-sensitive equipment.
3.8.6.9 A minimum of one steam trap shall be provided for each steam
separator, header drip leg, branch drip leg, and low point where
condensate may collect.
3.8.6.10 Each steam trap shall be sized and specified to operate at all
anticipated pressures and condensate loads for the installed location.
3.8.6.11 Steam traps shall be sized and specified to discharge
noncondensable gases at the maximum rates required to purge the
steam system of these gases.
3.8.6.12 Staged large and small steam traps may be required to handle large
flows of condensate from start-up and small flows of condensate
from normal operations.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.8.6.13 Steam-trap discharge and other condensate lines shall be


consolidated into headers and returned to the condensate collection
system.
3.8.6.14 Condensate discharge to the waste system may be made only if a
condensate collection system is not economically feasible or if
condensate is contaminated.
3.8.6.15 Drip legs equipped with steam traps shall be installed at the bottom
of steam headers at the following locations:
a. Dead ends of steam headers and branch lines
b. Low points
c. Upstream of risers and vertical legs
d. Upstream of expansion joints and raised expansion loops
e. Upstream of block, reducing, and control valves
f. Intervals of approximately 150 feet (45 m) in straight,
horizontal steam lines (i.e., without natural drainage points), but
not greater than 300 feet (90 m)
3.8.6.16 Provisions shall be made to protect steam and condensate lines from
freezing where freezing conditions are encountered. Freeze
protection shall include provisions for operating locations and
shutdown conditions.
3.8.7 Utility Stations
3.8.7.1 The following equipment shall have utility stations:
a. Pump and compressor areas shall have permanent utility stations
as follows:
(1) Stations shall have steam, water, air, and nitrogen outlets as
required for anticipated needs.
(2) Station spacing shall be such that equipment can be covered
with 50-foot (15-m) hose lengths.
b. Columns and vessels shall have steam, water, air, and nitrogen,
as required for anticipated needs.
c. Exchangers and furnaces shall be provided with steam, water,
air, and nitrogen connections as required for anticipated needs.
The locations of the connections shall be as specified by the
owner.
3.8.7.2 Each utility take-off connection for steam, water, air, and nitrogen
shall be located at the top of the horizontal main header or auxiliary
header.
3.8.7.3 Root valves shall be provided for each utility take-off connection
from a main header or auxiliary header that cannot be taken out of
service without shutting down a complete processing unit or
operating facility.

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COMPLETE REVISION PIP PNC00005
January 2009 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems

3.8.7.4 Each utility line shall be provided with an isolation valve just
upstream of the specified hose connector at the termination.
3.8.7.5 Pressure bleed-off valves shall be provided for each utility line in
accordance with the owners requirements.
3.8.7.6 Each utility line shall have a service nameplate indicating the
service.
3.8.7.7 The utility pipe and the ends of hoses provided with the station shall
be color-coded.
3.8.7.8 Color-coding and type of connectors shall be in accordance with the
owners location standard.
3.8.7.9 Hose connections, where applicable, shall be positioned
approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) above finished plant grade or above
platform of multilevel equipment. The piping shall be securely
bolted to a supporting structure.
3.8.7.10 If an overhead system for water or steam is used in a freezing
climate, either an additional block valve shall be provide at the
header or other measures shall be taken to ensure that the piping is
protected against freezing.
3.8.7.11 Hose connections to nitrogen systems shall have special fittings to
provide positive segregation from the air system.
3.8.7.12 The nitrogen system shall have a check valve at each connection
and at each utility station to prevent the introduction of air or
hydrocarbons into the nitrogen system.
3.8.7.13 Other requirements for utility stations shall be provided in
accordance with the owners location standard.
3.8.8 Burner Fuel Piping
3.8.8.1 Burner fuel piping shall be in accordance with the following
requirements:
a. Piping for fuel oil with viscosity greater than 20 centistokes shall
be arranged for continuous circulation of the oil through the
headers.
b. Fuel gas supply piping shall be arranged to produce equal
distribution of flow and to permit condensate drainage, unless
dry gas is assured.
3.8.8.2 If a safety shutdown valve is required in fuel piping at furnaces or
fired heaters, the valve shall have remote and local shutoff capability
and shall be located in close proximity (i.e., within 50 feet
[15 meters]) to the equipment.
3.8.8.3 An emergency shutoff valve in fuel piping at furnaces or fired
heaters shall be provided at a safe distance (i.e., minimum of 50 feet
[15 meters]) from the equipment.

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PIP PNC00005 COMPLETE REVISION
Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems January 2009

3.8.9 Heat Transfer Fluid Piping


3.8.9.1 The use of flanged and threaded connections should be minimized.
Welded construction should be used wherever possible.
3.8.9.2 Any connection that is expected to be disassembled shall be provided
with an upstream double block-and-bleed valve arrangement to
protect personnel.
3.8.9.3 Some heat transfer fluids can freeze at ambient temperatures. If
appropriate, heat tracing of the system should be provided to prevent
freezing of lines when the system is shutdown.
3.8.9.4 If the piping system is cleaned or flushed using a water solution, the
entire system shall be thoroughly dried.
3.8.9.5 Thermal fluids have a high coefficient of thermal expansion.
Provisions shall be made to safely absorb the increased volume of
thermal fluid at operating temperatures (e.g., an expansion tank).

3.9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection


Fabrication, assembly, and erection of piping systems shall be in accordance with
PIP PNE00012, PIP PNSC0001, PIP PNSC0011, and PIP PNSC0021.

Page 22 of 22 Process Industry Practices