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Frida Kahlo

Gannit Ankori*

Gannit Ankori is a professor of Fine Arts and Chair in Israeli Art at the Department of
Fine Arts, at Brandeis University. Ankoris focus lies within Mexican, Palestinian, and Israeli art
history. Her research pertaining to Frida Kahlo was facilitated by various scholarships, private
collections containing Kahlos work, and the National Museum of Women in the Arts. Her book
not only offers insight into Fridas personal life, and artistic influences, but writings by Kahlo.
Ankori introduces Frida by discussing factors, and insecurities throughout her life that made her
have a deeply immersive relationship with her art. Ankoris excerpts of Fridas writings about
herself, include how she perceived herself and her art, help readers decode why she had such a
biographical relationship within her work.

*Ankori, Gannit. Critical Lives : Frida Kahlo. London, GB: Reaktion Books, 2013. Accessed
November 13, 2016. ProQuest ebrary.
2

Lee Miller's Revenge on Culture: Photojournalism, Surrealism,

and Autobiography.

Caitlin S. Davis*

Caitlin S. Davis wrote her dissertation on the war photography of Lee Miller. She most
recently worked as a Research Associate in the American Art Department at The Newark
Museum. Davis explores Lee Millers beginnings with Man Ray as a model, to redefining war
time photography and implementing surrealistic content to her work. Instead of ignoring World
War II she incorporated it into her photography, along with the attitudes, and opinion of her
country. Davis discusses that her surrealistic background shows up in the objects she chooses to
photograph, and how she selected items destroyed by war to be portrayed.

*Davis, Caitlin S. "Lee Miller's Revenge on Culture: Photojournalism, Surrealism, and


Autobiography." Woman's Art Journal 27, no. 1 (2006): 3-9.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/20358065.
3
Surrealism and Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora

Carrington.

Janice Helland*

Janice Helland specialises in the late 19th-century arts and crafts movement in Britain
and Ireland, gender studies, and women in surrealism. She conducts her research with the
assistance of Department of Art History, University of Victoria. Helland delves into Carringtons
choice of iconography and how it contrasts to her male artists counterparts in Surrealism.
Helland discusses that Carringtons imagery was heavy with animals, which she used to
represent either herself or her relationships with others. Helland argues that one of the things that
set her apart from traditional surrealist, was that Carrington was more interested in magical
qualities in her work, versus Freudian psychology.

*Helland, Janice.. "Surrealism and Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora Carrington."
RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review 16, no. 1 (1989): 53-104.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/42630417.
4
Dorothea Tanning.

Carlo McCormick and Dorothea Tanning*

Carlo McCormick lectures and teaches extensively at universities and colleges around
the United States on popular culture, modern and contemporary art. He is a culture critic and
curator currently living in New York City. McCormick was able to interview Dorothea Tanning,
during this interview they confer on what it means to her to be a female surreal artist. Tanning
wishes to be recognized simply as an artist, and states that gender is not a factor for her.
McCormick explores with Tanning how shes categorized as a surrealist, but Tanning no longer
identifies as such. Tanning accepts this is apart of her artistic identity, however believes that
Surrealism is a philosophy, a way of life, and one she did not choose to explicitly follow.
Tanning speaks of how this set her apart from other artist during the movement.

*McCormick, Carlo, and Dorothea Tanning. "Dorothea Tanning." BOMB, no. 33 (1990): 36-41.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/40424069.
5

Meret Oppenheim - or, These Boots Ain't Made For Walking.

Edward D. Powers*

Edward D. Powers is an associate professor of modern and contemporary art. He received


his PhD at the Institute of Fine Arts. He was also a museum lecturer in the Education Department
of the Museum of Modern Art. His essays on Symbolism, Dada, Surrealism and Pop art have
appeared in a number of peer-reviewed journals. Powers discusses Oppenheims material choice,
the intent of how she used them and how they interact with the viewers. Powers argues that she
used objects that were of value (i.e. fur, leather, shoes etc) and transformed them into something
not necessarily useless, but challenges to redefine what is considered valuable or useful. Powers
states that Oppenheims validates herself as a Surrealist due to her desire for the objects she
created, and the ideas evoked.

*Powers, Edward D. "Meret Oppenheim - or, These Boots Ain't Made For Walking." Art History
24, no. 3 (June 2001): 358. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed November 13,
2016).
6
Louise Bourgeois in Conversation.

Suzanne I. Trimble*

Suzanne Isabella Trimble (aka Bella Land) is a British painter, writer and multimedia artist.
Raised in England and then the US, her research centers around art, poetry and behavioural
science. Trimble examines Bourgeois works, and the psychological elements found heavily
throughout. Trimble interviews Bourgeois and her contributions to not only Surrealism but
women in the artistic realm (she was the first female artist to be given a retrospective at the
MOMA). Bourgeoiss works produced had heavy Surrealistic tendencies (i.e. psychological
factors, the unconscious), and strong emotive qualities helped her defy categorization.

*Suzanne Isabelle Trimble Louise Bourgeois in Conversation. Third Text 23, no. 6
(December 6, 2009): 77988. doi:10.1080/09528820903371180 dummy note.
References: Women artists in the Surreal Movement

Ankori, Gannit. Critical Lives : Frida Kahlo. London, GB: Reaktion Books, 2013. Accessed
November 13, 2016. ProQuest ebrary.

Davis, Caitlin S. "Lee Miller's Revenge on Culture: Photojournalism, Surrealism, and


Autobiography." Woman's Art Journal 27, no. 1 (2006): 3-9.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/20358065.

Helland, Janice.. "Surrealism and Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora Carrington."
RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review 16, no. 1 (1989): 53-104.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/42630417.

McCormick, Carlo, and Dorothea Tanning. "Dorothea Tanning." BOMB, no. 33 (1990): 36-41.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/40424069.

Powers, Edward D. "Meret Oppenheim - or, These Boots Ain't Made For Walking." Art History
24, no. 3 (June 2001): 358. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed November 13,
2016).

Trimble, Suzanne I. Louise Bourgeois in Conversation. Third Text 23, no. 6 (December 6,
2009): 77988. doi:10.1080/09528820903371180 dummy note.
Contents
Introduction: Female Artists in the Surrealist Movement
Kallista Toconis

rida Kahlo
1. F
Gannit Ankori

2. Lee Miller's Revenge on Culture: Photojournalism, Surrealism, and


Autobiography.
Caitlin Davis

3. Surrealism and Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora Carrington.


Janice Helland

orothea Tanning.
4. D
Carlo McCormick and Dorothea Tanning

eret Oppenheim - or, These Boots Ain't Made For Walking.


5. M
Edward D. Powers

6. Louise Bourgeois in Conversation.


Suzanne Isabelle Trimble
Introduction

Female Artist in the Surrealist Movement

Kallista Toconis

Surrealism was an International cultural movement revolving strongly around literature


and art, that began in the early 1920s. This movement started after World War I and the societal
impact of Dada activities. In the beginning, it was centrally based out of Paris where Andre
Bretons developed experimental writings on the matter. Surrealist were concerned with
expressing the subconscious, and dreams, in often unnerving ways in varying medias. The need
to depict the subconscious was brought upon by Freudian psychological practices, and they
embraced eccentricity.
An aspect in the beginnings of Surrealism, is that it consisted entirely of male
contributors. Women were not included as a legitimate creative force in Surrealism except only
as muses. Women were depicted as symbols of sexuality, beauty, and other feminine assigned
qualities portrayed in works. Violence portrayed against the female form in Surrealistic pieces
are often considered to have misogynistic undertones. Another misogynistic tendency was that
they were not considered as artist with unique perspectives to offer until the 1930s. Female
artists faced challenges differentiating themselves between a legitimate artist, and a mans
creative influence.
The women artist that did emerge during this time, paralleled with Surrealisms steadily
growing International community. Artist in the movement were no longer Eurocentric, but
expanding North and South America, providing a globally inclusive development. Gaining a
wider audience lead to further acceptance and validation for women in Surrealism. Surreal artist
were politically involved during this time, and women involved were able to make their own
contributions.
Women Surrealist were not only able to translate their experiences based upon their
gender, which had initially been dismissed, but culturally as well. Women during this time not
only faced the difficulty of gaining recognition as artist, but constraining gender roles brought
upon by societal expectations. Some modernisations in the 1930s included viewing women
beyond housewives, and mothers, also allowed female artists to establish themselves.
The six articles featured in this anthology are arranged by selecting influential female
artists in the Surrealist movement. Each author is either a specialist pertaining to the artists,
modern art, gender studies or a combination. Unfortunately women involved in the movement
are not equally represented and emphasis focuses on more well known artist. Thus, I selected
particular female artist that challenged the representation of women at the time through their
works, their experiences translated into art, and the experimentation of techniques carried
throughout in their work.
Gannit Ankoris, Frida Kahlo, explores the artist's influences, her insecurities, along
with her works created, and how this affected her creative process. Caitlin Davis, Lee Miller's
Revenge on Culture: Photojournalism, Surrealism, and Autobiography, delves into her
beginnings as a muse, how she evolved into her an artist, and exploration of Surrealistic
techniques implemented into World War II photography. Janice Hellands, Surrealism and
Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora Carrington, compares and contrasts Carringtons
choice of Iconography at the time compared to her male counterparts.
Carlo McCormick, Dorothea Tanning, interviews the artist herself, her views of being
considered a surrealist, and the importance of experimenting with different media.Edward D.
Powers, Meret Oppenheim - or, These Boots Ain't Made For Walking writes about
Oppenheims intentional material selection, and how it affected the meanings of her pieces.
Finally, Suzanne Isabelle Trimble, Louise Bourgeois in Conversation, speaks with Bourgeois
and how her deeply psychological works, made her art difficult to define. These essays reflect
that these women shared similar qualities through Surrealistic influences, but contributed a valid
artistic perspective through their creative process, and viewpoints.
An Anthology of Female Artist in the
Surrealist Movement

Kallista Toconis

Modern Art 109

Professor Daniels

November 29th 2016