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CHAPTER 1

SIMPLE STRESSES AND STRAINS

Content:

Concept of strain and stress


Hooks Law
Stress Strain relationship
Elastic constants
Factor of safety
Stress and strain in three dimensions

Introduction:

In our day to day work we engineers come across different materials like cement, concrete, still
etc. which are used to complete our project. For selecting suitable material every one of us is
interested to know the strength.

The ability of element of the structure to resist its failure under the application of external force is
known as strength of material and the ability to resist deformation is known as stiffness of that
material.

It has been observed that the material first deforms and then failure takes place. A detailed study
of forces and their effects along with suitable protective measures is known as strength of
material.

Behavior of material:

Whenever force acts on body it undergoes deformation and some resistance to deformation. When
external force is removed the resistance force will vanish and body come back to original shape
and size. If is only possible if deformation due to external force is within certain limit. This limit
is known as Elastic Limit.

Elasticity:

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The ability of material to retain its original shape and size perfectly after removal of load is known
as Elasticity.

Elastic Limit:

Limit within which the body behaves perfectly elastic is known as Elastic Limit.

Stress:

Every material is elastic in nature thats why whenever external force acts on body, body undergoes
deformation. As a body undergoes deformation its molecule set up some resistance to the
deformation. Resistance per unit deformation is known as stress


Stress () = =

Unit: N/mm2 or MPa or GPa

Note: Tensile stresses will be treated as positive and compressive stress is treated as negative.

Strain:

Strain is the ratio of change in dimension to original dimension. Strain is denoted as (e). Strain is
a dimensionless quantity.


Strain =


Strain =


Strain =

+
Strain = =

Hooks Law:

It states that within elastic limit stress is directly proportional to strain.

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Mathematically,

Stress strain

=Ee

where E = Youngs Modulus


E = =


= and =

Where,

P = Force or Load

L = length of member

A = area of cross section

E = modulus of elasticity

Stress strain relationship for ductile Material:

By Hooks law within elastic limit stress is directly proportional to strain. From point O to A stress
is directly proportional to strain. Therefore point A is called as proportionality limit. After that, at
point B mild still regain its size and shape after removal of load. This point is called as elastic
limit. At point C stress remains constant and strain increases and material enters at plastic zone but
it can still regain its size and shape after removal of load. Point C is called as upper yield point and

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point D is called as lower yield point. As load increases it reaches at point E where he stress
becomes highest and it is called ultimate stress.

Every material has its own limit. Stress increases can crosses the permissible limit and breaks at
point F so point F is called as breaking point.

Stress strain relationship for brittle Material:

The initial point OA of the graph is straight line. It indicates that the stress is directly proportional
to strain, hence Hooks law is obeys. The stress corresponding to point A is called elastic limit. If
stress corresponding to point E is removed then wire regains its original length completely.

Numerical:

1) A bar of length 1.2 m extends through 3 mm under the action of axial pull of 2.5 kN.
Compute strain in material if diameter of bar is 20 mm. Find stress in bar.
2) A wooden bar of 8 m long, 100 mm wide and 120 mm thick is subjected to an action pull
of 50 kN and stretch is 4 mm. Calculate value of strain for the material
a. Stress
b. Strain
c. Modulus of elasticity
3) A short timber post of rectangular cross section has one post side of section is 2 times the
other and is loaded with 10 kN force when it contracts by 0.0525 mm foe 1 m length.
Modulus of elasticity is 12 Gpa. Calculate sectional dimensions of post.
4) A load of 10 kN is to be rest with the help of steel wire. Find the minimum diameter of
steel wire if stresses is not to exceed 100 MPa.

Factor of safety:

It is the ratio of maximum stress to the working stress.

maximum stress
Factor of safety = working stress

In case of ductile material failure of material occurs once it reaches plastic deformation hence
Factor of safety is based upon yield point stress.

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Yiels stress
Factor of safety = working stress

In case of brittle material Factor of safety depends upon ultimate stress.

ultimate stress
Factor of safety = working stress

Principle of Superposition:

According to principle of superposition when number of loads are acting on a body the
resulting strain will be sum of stress caused by each individual loads.

A = area of cross section which is same throughout

E = modulus of elasticity or Youngs Modulus

L1 = length of part AB, L2 = length of part BC, L3 = length of part CD

L = LAB + LBC + LCD


LAB = () ---------- (Tensile)


LBC = () ---------- (Compressive)


LCD = () ---------- (Compressive)

Numerical:

1) A bar having cross sectional area 1000 mm2 is subjected to axial force as shown in Figure
below. Find the total elongation of bar. Take E = 1.02 x 105 N/mm2.
2) A steel rod ABCD 5 m long and 25 mm in diameter is subjected to forces as shown in
Figure below. If value of Youngs modulus for steel material is 200 GPa. Determine its
deformation.
3) Find the total elongation of the bar as shown in Figure below. Area of bar 600 mm2 and E
= 200 MPa.
4) If a bar of uniform cross section of 50 mm x 50 mm is subjected to the forces as shown in
Figure below. Determine total deformation of bar. Take E = 1.02 x 105 N/mm2.
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5) Calculate total elongation of steel bar ABCD for a given Figure having cross sectional area
750 mm2 and subjected to axial forces as shown in Figure below. Take E = 2.10 x 105
N/mm2.

6) A steel bar ABCD of different section is subjected to an axial force as shown in Figure
below. Find the value of P necessary for equilibrium. Take E = 210 kN/mm2. Determine
total elongation of bar.

7) A slender bar ABCD of different section is subjected to an axial force as shown in Figure
below. Take E = 210 kN/mm2. Determine total elongation of bar.

8) A mild steel bar is in three parts each 20 cm long and diameter of each part AB, BC and
CD are 3 cm, 1.5 cm and 4.5 cm respectively. It is subjected to an axial pull of 4 ton then
find its elongation in three parts of bar. Also find ratio of greatest to least elongation. Take
E = 3 x 105 kN/mm2.

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Composite bar subjected to a load:

Figure 1
Composite bar subjected to axial load (P)

Where,

As = cross sectional area of steel

Ab = cross sectional area of brass

s = stress in steel

b = stress in brass

l = length of member

Es = Modulus of Elasticity of steel

Eb = Modulus of Elasticity of brass

Considering total load shared by steel and brass.

P = Ps + Pb ------------- (1)
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We know that,

Stress = load per unit area to deformation.

Load = stress x area

P = s As + b Ab

By Hooks Law,

Stress strain

=Ee


E= =


Strain in steel i.e. es = and Strain in brass i.e. eb =

Brass and steel tubes are joined in such a manner that the system equally extends or contracts as
one unit when subjected to tension or compression.

Strain in steel = strain in brass

es = eb

= ------------- (2)

From (1) and (2) we can solve any problem subjected to load carried by composite bar of section.

Numerical:

Type I:

1) A 250 mm long steel tube of 150 mm internal diameter and 15 mm thick is surrounded
closely by brass tube of same length and thickness. The tube carries an axial thrust of 100
kN as shown in Figure 2 below. Estimate load v\carried by each tube and amount of
sharing of each tube. Es = 200 x 103 N/ mm2and Eb = 100 x 103 N/ mm2.

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Figure 2
2) A reinforced concrete column of square section 300 mm sides has four reinforcing bar of
32 mm diameter one in each corner with its centre 56 mm from the edges as shown in
Figure 3. Find load carried by column if concrete can be stressed to 5 N/mm2. What is
corresponding stress in steel and reinforcement and what proportion of load is carried by
it? Modular ratio of steel to concrete is 18.

Figure 3
3) A mild steel bar 20 mm in diameter and 350 mm long is enclosed in a brass tube whose
external diameter is 35 mm and internal diameter is 30 mm. The composite bar subjected
to axial pull of 50 kN. Es = 200 GPa and Eb = 100 GPa. Find stress in bar and tube, as well
as extension of bar.
4) A reinforced concrete column of 230 mm x 530 mm is reinforced with six bar of 20 mm
diameter steel bars as shown in Figure below which is subjected to an axial load of 600
kN. Compute stress developed in each material. Consider Es = 200 GPa and Eb = 15 GPa.
5) A steel cylinder is enclosed in copper tube as shown in Figure below. The cylinder and
tube are compressed between rigid parallel plates. Find stresses in steel and copper. P =
525 kN, d = 125 mm and D = 250 mm. Es = 200 x 103 N/ mm2and Eb = 108 x 103 N/ mm2.

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Type II:

1) A steel rod of 32 mm diameter is placed in hollow Aluminum cylinder with internal


diameter 40 mm and external diameter 50 mm as shown in Figure below. The steel rod
projects 0.15 mm as shown. What maximum load can be apllied to the bearing plate? Es =
200 GPa and Eb = 120 GPa and s = 165 MPa and b = 85 MPa
2) A solid steel bar 600 mm long and 65 mm diameter is placed inside an Aluminum tube
having 70 mm inside diameter and 90 mm outside diameter. The Aluminum cylinder is 0.2
mm longer than steel rod and axial load of 700 kN is applied to bar and the cylinder so
rigid. Find stress developed in Aluminum bar and tube. Es = 210 kN/ mm2and Eb = 70 kN/
mm2.
3) Two steel rods and one copper rod each of 30 mm diameter together support a load of 30
kN as shown in Figure. Find stresses in each rod. Es = 205 GN/mm2 and Ec = 110 GN/mm2.
4) Following Figure shows round steel rod supported and surrounded by co-axial copper tube.
The upper end of rod is 0.2 mm below that of the tube and axial load is applied to a rigid
plate resting on top of the tube.
a. Determine the magnitude of maximum permissible load, if compressive stress in
rod is not to exceed 120 MPa and that in the tube not to exceed 20 MPa.
b. Find amount by which the tube will be shorten by load if compressive stress in tube
is same as that in rod. Es = 210 GPa and Ec = 105 GPa.

Compound bar subjected to change in temperature

L1= Length of bar AB

L2 = length of bar BC

A1 = Cross sectional area of bar AB

A2 = Cross sectional area of bar BC

E1 = Youngs modulus of AB

E2 = Youngs modulus of BC

t = Temperature in 0C

1 = Coefficient of linear expansion for AB

2 = Coefficient of linear expansion for BC

Free expansion due to change in temperature in a bar can be given by,

L = L t

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Free expansion in bar AB = L1 = L1 1 t

Free expansion in bar BC = L2 = L2 1 t

Total free expansion = L = L1 + L2 = L1 1 t + L2 1 t ------------- (1)

If compound bar is subjected to axial force P, then each segment will be subjected to same force
P.

Here suppose P1 be the axial force in segment AB and P2 is the axial force in segment BC

P1 = P2 = P

If total expansion is prevented then bar is subjected to compressive forces and compressive force
will be induced in bar.

L =

as part AB and BC are subjected to compressive force P total change in length is given by
11 22
L = 11 + 22 ------------- (2)

by equating 1 and 2 we can find force and stresses in bar.

Numerical:

1) Find thermal stresses when temperature is raised by 200C. Assume L1 = L2 = L, A1 = 2


A2. Take = 11.7 x 10-6 per 0C and E = 200 GPa.
2) A compound strut consists of brass portion AB of diameter 80 mm and steel portion BC of
diameter 45 mm as shown in Figure below. Support A and C are rigid. If temperature is
raised through 150C. then find force exerted on support B. Take s = 11.2 x 10-6 per 0C and
b = 20 x 10-6 per 0C. Es = 210 kN/mm2 and Eb = 85 kN/mm2.
3) A rod of total length 700 mm is fixed at its ends which is made up of two materials i.e.
steel and brass which are rigidly connected to each other. The brass bar is 40 mm in
diameter and 400 mm in length while the steel rod is 15 mm in diameter and 300 mm in
length. If temperature of bar is raised through 120 0C. Find force exerted on the support.
Take s = 11.6 x 10-6 per 0C and b = 20.1 x 10-6 per 0C. Es = 210 GPa and Eb = 81 GPa.

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THERMAL STRESSES AND STRAINS

A change in temperature of an object tends to produce change in its dimensions. It is a property of


material to expand or contract as per change in temperature. If these natural tendencies are allowed
then there is no strain and no stress is developed in the member.

If deformation of body is prevented, some stresses are induced in body. Such stresses are called as
thermal stresses and corresponding strain are called as thermal strain.

Thermal strains:

If temperature of an elastic body is changed and corresponding change in length is totally and
partially then strain set up in member is called as thermal strain.

Thermal Strain =

Thermal strains are usually reversible in nature since that member retains its original shape when
it is brought to original temperature.

Thermal stresses:

If a body allowed to expand or contract freely with rise or fall in temperature then no stresses are
induced in body. If these expansion or contraction is prevented then internal resisting forces are
developed. Stresses caused by these internal processes are called as thermal stresses. Stress
developed is in accordance with change in length prevented.

According to law of linear expansion, the strain in prismatic bar is proportional to change in
temperature.

Mathematically,

et

e = t -------------- (1)

Where, = coefficient of thermal expansion.



We know, e = =t

=t

= t L -------------- (2)

From Hooks Law

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Where, E = Youngs modulus

= t -------------- (3)

If P = internal resistive force

P=

P = t -------------- (4)

Numerical:

1) A bar is 2.5 m long at 150C. Find expansion of rod if temperature raised to 80 0C. If these
expansions are prevented find stresses in material. Take E = 100 GPa and = 0.0000120C.
2) A copper rod 1.8 m long is at temperature 120C.
a. Find extension of rod when temperature raised to 980C. Also find stress in rod.
b. Find contraction of rod if temperature is lowered by 00C. Also find stress in rod.
Take E = 115 GPa and = 17.2 x 10-60C.
3) A steel rod 20 mm in diameter, 300 mm long heated to 900C and at same time it is subjected
to pull P if total expansion of rod is 0.5 mm. What should be magnitude of force P?
Take = 12 x 10-60C and E = 210 GN/m2.
4) A steel rod AB of diameter 30 mm and length 700 mm is held in between two supports at
end A and B temperature of rod is raised uniformly from 260C to 640C. Assuming rod is to
stress free at 260C. Find
a. Thermal stress and strain if supports do not yield.
b. Thermal stress and strain if support yield by 0.21 mm and also find axial force in
support.
Take = 12.6 x 10-60C and E = 200 GN/m2.
5) Following Figure shows rod AB of length 700 mm. When a temperature of rod is 250C the
gap of BC is 0.5 mm. Determine
a. Thermal stress at 450C.
b. Temperature at which gap will just closed.
c. Stress and strain in rod when t = 980C Take = 16 x 10-60C and E = 100 GPa.

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Types of loaded bar:

1) Prismatic bar:
Bar having uniform cross section throughout length is called as Prismatic bar.
2) Non-Prismatic bar:
Bar having different cross section throughout length is called as Non- Prismatic
bar.
3) Composite Bar:
If cross section of bar made up of more than one material such bar is known as
composite bar.
4) Compound Bar:
Bar is having different material along its length is known as compound bar.
Compound bar may be Prismatic or Non-Prismatic

Concept of bar with different cross sections:

Figure 1

Where,

P = Tensile load or force acting on bar or rod

L1 = length of part AB, L2 = length of part BC, L3 = length of part CD

A1 = cross section of part AB, A2 = cross section of part BC, A3 = cross section of part CD

E = Youngs modulus or Modulus of Elasticity

I) Evaluation of stress:

For part AB, 1 =
1

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For part BC, 2 =
2


For part CD, 3 =
3

II) Evaluation of strain:

1
For part AB, e1 =

2
For part BC, e2 =

3
For part CD, e3 =

III) Evaluation of deformation:

For part AB, L1 = e1 x L1

For part BC, L2 = e2 x L2

For part CD, L3 = e3 x L3

Hence total deformation = L = L1 + L2 + L3

Numerical:

1) Following Figure 2 shows a bar consisting of three lengths. Find stresses in three parts and
total extension if axial pull of 50 kN is applied. Take E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2.

Figure 2
2) Find decrease in length of steel bar which is loaded as shown in Figure below. Take E =
2.1 x 105 N/mm2.

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Figure 3
3) A steel bar 600 mm long is 16 mm diameter for 200 mm of its length, 28 mm in diameter
for 160 mm of its length and 20 mm in diameter for remaining 240 mm as shown in Figure
4 below. It is subjected to an axial pull of 30 kN. Calculate extension of bar. Take E = 2.1
x 105 N/mm2.

Figure 4

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ELASTIC CONSTANTS

Longitudinal or Linear strain:

When a body subjected to axial load there is an axial deformation in the length of body. The ratio
of axial deformation to original length of body is known as longitudinal or linear strain.

Consider,

P = Tensile load acting on body

L = length of body

L =Deformation in length of body in direction of P



Linear strain =

Lateral strain:

Strain at right angle to direction of applied load is known as lateral strain.

Consider a rectangular bar of length L, breath b and depthd is subjected to an axial force P as
shown in Figure below. Length of bar will increase while breath and depth will decrease.

Consider,

L = increase in length

d = Decrease in depth

Longitudinal strain =


Lateral strain =


Lateral strain =

Note:

1) Lateral strain compressive in nature then Lateral strain tensile in nature and vise a versa.
Strength of Materials - I Page 17
2) Every linear strain in direction of load is composed of lateral strain of opposite kind in all
direction perpendicular to load.

Poissons Ratio () or():

When material is stressed within elastic limit ratio of lateral stain to longitudinal strain is
constant which is known as Poissons Ratio.
lateral stain
= longitudinal strain

Numerical:

1) Determine change in length, breadth and thickness of steel bar which is 4 m long, 30 mm
wide, and 25 mm thick and subjected to an axial pull of 35 kN in direction of length. Take
E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 0.8.
2) Determine the value of Youngs modulus and poisons ratio of metallic bar of length 40
cm, breadth 3.5 cm and depth 3.5 cm. When it is subjected to axial compressive load of
350 kN. Decrease in length is given as 0.075 cm and increase in breath is 0.003 cm.
3) A steel bar 2 m long, 20 mm wide and 10 mm thick is subjected to pull of 20 kN in direction
of length. Find change in length, breath and thickness if E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 0.3.
Volumetric Strain:

Change in length = L + L
Change in breadth = b + b
Change in depth = d + d
Original Volume = L x b x d

Final Volume = (L + L) (b + b) (d + d)

V = Original Volume Final Volume

V = Lbd [(L + L) (b + b) (d + d)]

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V = (Lb d + L bd + d Lb)

V = linear strain 2 linear strain

V = linear strain (1 -2)



ev = (1 -2)

Q) Find the Volumetric Strain circular rod subjected to axial force P along its length.


Original Volume = 4 L d2


Final Volume = 4 L (d + d) 2 - 4 L d2

V = Original Volume Final Volume



V = 4 L d2 [ 4 L (d + d)2 L d2 ]
4

V = linear strain 2 linear strain

V = linear strain (1 -2)



ev = (1 -2)

ev = Strain in length 2 (strain in diameter)

Note:

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Member subjected to loading in X and Y direction by means of passions ratio we can explain
Hooks Law of uniaxial loading to element subjected to state of biaxial loading.

Strain in X direction

Due to x = (T)


Due to y = (C)

Total strain in X direction



ex = - ------------- (1)

Strain in Y direction

Due to x = (C)


Due to y = (T)

Total strain in Y direction



ey = - ------------- (2)

Element subjected to state of Tri axial loading:

Strain in x direction

Due to x = (T)


Due to y = (C)


Due to z = (C)

Total strain in X direction



ex = - - ------------- (1)

Strain in Y direction

Due to x = (C)


Due to y = (T)


Due to z = (C)

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Total strain in Y direction

ey = - + - ------------- (2)

Strain in Z direction

Due to x = (C)


Due to y = (C)


Due to z = (T)

Total strain in Z direction



ez = - - + ------------- (3)

by adding 1, 2 and 3 we get



(ex + ey + ez) = - - - + - - - +


(ex + ey + ez) = + + (1 -2)

ev = Linear strain (1 -2)

Numerical:

1) A metallic bar 300 mm x 15 mm x 50 mm subjected to a force of 6 kN tensile, 8 kN tensile


and 15 kN tensile along X, Y and Z respectively. Determine change in volume of block.
1
Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 4.
2) A metallic bar 250 mm x 100 mm x 60 mm is loaded as shown in Figure below. Find
change in volume of bar. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and =0.3. Also find the change that
should be made in 3 MN load in order that there should be no change in volume of bar.
3) A steel rod 5 m long, 35 mm in diameter is subjected to an axial tensile load of 60 kN.
Determine change in length, diameter and volume of rod. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and
1
= 3.

Bulk modulus:

When body is subjected to mutually perpendicular like and direct stresses the ratio of direct stress
to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be constant for given material. When the
deformations are within the certain limit the ratio is known as bulk modulus and it is denoted as k.
Direct stress
K = volumetric strain

Strength of Materials - I Page 21



K=


K=

Relation between Bulk modulus and Modulus of Elasticity:

Consider a cube ABCDEFGH subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal and direct
stresses as shown in Figure below.


Strain in AB =


Strain in AB due to on AEHD and BFGC =


Strain in AB due to on DHGH and ABFE = -

Strain in AB due to on ABCD and EFGH = -


Total strain in cube = - -


= - -


= (1 -2)

V = L3

L = change in length

V = change in volume

Strength of Materials - I Page 22


V = 3L2 L

3L2 L
eV = = = 3 = 3 (1 -2)
3


k=


k=
3 (1 2)

E = 3 k (1 -2)

and
3k E
= 6

Numerical:
1
1) Calculate bulk modulus if E = 1.4 x 105 N/mm2 and passions ratio 3.
2) A bar of 40 mm diameter is subjected to a piull of 80 kN. The measured extension of gauge
length of 400 mm is 0.2 mm and change in diameter 0.005 mm. Calculate
a. Youngs modulus
b. Passions ratio
c. Bulk modulus

Shear stress:

Stress induced in a body when subjected to two equal and opposite forces whi9ch are acting
tangentially across the resisting section is known as Shear stress and is denoted by ()

=

Shear strain is nothing but distortion per unit length



=

Shear modulus:

It is a ratio of shear stress to shear strain when the material is loaded within elastic limit is known
as shear rigidity or shear modulus. It is denoted as C or G or N.

G =

Strength of Materials - I Page 23



G=

Principle of complementary shear stress:

It states that, a set of shear stress across a plane is always accompanied by set of balancing shear
stresses i.e. of same intensity across the plane and normal to end.

Strength of Materials - I Page 24


CHAPTER 2

COMBINED DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES

CONTENT:

1) Concept of direct, bending and combined stresses


2) Analysis of short column subjected to eccentric load
3) Concept of kernel or core of the section
4) Analysis of section subjected to eccentricity at both axes
5) Analysis of chimney subjected to wind pressure
6) Analysis of dams
7) Analysis of retaining walls

Theory questions:

Introduction:

Column:

1) Short column
2) Long column

Eccentric load is a load whose line of action does not coincide with axis of the section. The
eccentricity of load may be about one of the axis or about both the axes.

M = Pex MX = Pex

MY = PeY

CONCEPT OF DIRECT, BENDING AND COMBINED STRESSES

Consider a column subjected to load P at an eccentricity e from centroidal axis. Hence e is


known as eccentricity of the load as shown in Figure A.

Strength of Materials - I Page 25


To understand the concept of Direct and Bending stresses, apply along the axis of the column two
equal and opposite forces P. Due to application of these forces resultant effect is zero and there
is no effect on column. With the help of principle of superposition we will split the forces as shown
in Figure C and D.

In figure C load P is acting axially, therefore stresses induced is given by,



= which is known as Direct Stress.

In figure D two equal and opposite forces are acting at a distance e and will create couple and
couple will induce bending stress in cross section.

Hence an eccentric load will produce a direct as well as bending stress. As these stresses are normal
to cross section, hence these stresses may be algebraically added into a single resultant stress as
shown in Figure A.

ANALYSIS OF SHORT COLUMN SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOAD



1) Direct stress = (d) =
2) Bending stress = (b) =

The bending stress (b) due to moment at any point of the column section at a
distance y from neutral axis Y Y is given by,

=


b =


b =
( )


b =

3) Combined stresses or Resultant stresses:


R = d + b

R =


MAX = +


and MIN =

Strength of Materials - I Page 26


A= bd

M=Pe

Z=

3
I = Iyy = 12


Ymax = 2 = 2

3 2 2
Z= =
12 6

6
b = = 2

6
b = 2

6
b =

6
R =
6
R = (1 )

(The resultant stress along width of the column will vary by a
straight line law)
6
MAX = (1 + ) --------------- (1)

6
MIN = (1 ) --------------- (2)

as shown in Figure in above
Note: Compressive stresses are considered as positive (+ve) and tensile stresses are
considered as negative (-ve)

Numerical:

1) A rectangular section of width 200 mm and thickness or depth 175 mm carries a point
load of 300 kN as shown in Figure below. Determine Max and Min stresses on section
and draw stress distribution pattern.
2) In above problem if min stress on section is zero then find out min eccentricity of point
load and find corresponding resultant stresses.
3) If load is acting at an eccentricity of 50 mm from centroidal axis of column, find out
resultant stress and stress distribution pattern.

Strength of Materials - I Page 27


CONCEPT OF KERNEL OR CORE OF THE SECTION

The cement concrete columns are weak in tension and strong in compression hence the load must
be applied in this column in such a way that there should be no tensile stress induced in cross
section.

But when eccentric load is acting on column it will produce direct as well as bending stress. The
resultant stress at any point is algebraic sum of these two stresses.

1) RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION:

Consider a solid rectangular cross section of width b and thickness or depth das shown in
following Figure.

Due to eccentric load stresses are induced in column. For no tensile stresses in column direct stress
(d) should be greater than or equal to bending stress (b).

b d



Z=

3
= and x = 2
12

3
12 2
Z= = 6
2

2
Z= 6


e
6

CORE OR KERNAL OF SECTION:

The area within which the resultant load may be applies so as to avoid tensile stress is known as
Core or Kernal of section.

Strength of Materials - I Page 28


2) HOLLOW RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION:

Area (A) = BD bd

z=

3 3
I=
12 12


y= 2

3 3
z= 6

3 3
e 6 ()

3) CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION:

b d

Strength of Materials - I Page 29




3
z= 32


e8
4) HOLLOW CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION:

ANALYSIS OF SECTION SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRICITY AT BOTH AXES

Numerical:

1) A column 750 mm X 300 mm is subjected to an eccentric load of 120 kN as shown in


figure below. Find what is the Max and Min intensities of stresses in column.
2) A masonry pipe 3 m X 4 m supports a vertical load of 8 kN as shown in Figure below:
a. Find stresses developed at each corner.
b. What additional load should be placed at centre so that there is no tensile stress in
section.
c. What is stress at centre with additional load at centre.

Strength of Materials - I Page 30


CHAPTER 3
SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS FOR STATICALLY
DETERMINATE BEAM
Content:

Introduction
Types of Beams
a. Definition of Shear force & Bending Moment
b. Types of loading
c. Types of support
d. Statically determinate & indeterminate structure
e. Shear force Diagram & Bending Moment Diagram
Sign convention for shear force & Bending Moment
Important points for drawing shear force & Bending Moment Diagrams
S.F.D & B.M.D. for cantilever beams subjected to
a) Point load
b) UDL
c) UYL + Point loads
d) UVL
e) Couple
f) & Common findings
SFD & BMD for simply supported Beams subjected to
a) Point load
b) UDL
c) UVL
d) Trapezoidal
e) Couple
f) Inclined point load
g) & Common findings
Relation between Load, S.F. & B.M.

Strength of Materials - I Page 31


Shear force:
The algebraic sum of vertical forces at any section of a beam to the right or left of the
section is known as shear force.
Shear force diagram:
A S.F.D. is one which shows the variation of the S.F. along the length of the beam.

Bending moment:

The algebraic sum of Moments of all the forces acting to the right or left of the section is
known as bending Moment.

Bending moment diagram:

A B.M.D. is one which shows the variation of the B.M. along the length of the beam.
Sign conversions for shear force & bending moment:
1) Shear Force:
a) The shear force at a section will be considered positive when the resultant of the forces to
the left to the section is upwards or to the right of the section is downwards.
b) Similarly, the S.F. at a section will be considered negative if the resultant of the forces to
the left of the section is downwards, or to the right of the section is upwards.
2) Bending Moment:
a) The bending Moment will be considered positive when the Moment of the forces & Reactions
on the left portion is clockwise & on the right portion is anticlockwise.
b) The Bending Moment will be considered negative when the moment of the Forces &
Reactions on the left portion is anti-clockwise & on the right portion clockwise.
3) Important Points for driving S.F.D. & B.M.D.
a. Always consider left or right port of the section.
b. Add Forces (including reaction) normal to the beam on one of the portion.
Note:-
a) If right port of the section is chosen a force on the right port acting downwards is
positive. While a force on the right portion acting Upwards is negative.
b) IF left port of section is chosen, a Force on the Left port acting upwards is positive while
a Force on the left port acting downwards is Negative.

Strength of Materials - I Page 32


c) The positive values of S.F. & B.M. are plotted above the base line, & negative values
below the base line.
d) The S.F.D. Will increase or decrease suddenly i.e.by a vertical straight line at a section
where there is a vertical point load.
e) The S.F. between any two vertical loads will be constant & hence the S.F.D. Between
two vertical loads will be horizontal.
f) The bending Moment at the two supports of a simply supported beam & at the free end of
a cantilever will be zero.

Derivation:

Consider a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load having cross sectional
dimensions b and d. Consider two sections AB and CD at a distance dx apart as shown in Figure
below.

Strength of Materials - I Page 33


We know,

f= y

Due to moment (M) on face AB, the stress induced is given by,

= y

And due to Moment (M +dM) on face CD


(+)
= y

Now,

Force acting on face AB is given by,



FAB = A = ( y)A

Similarly force acting on face CD is given by,


(+)
FCD = A = ( y)A

Unbalanced force at a distance y from N.A. is given by

= FCD - FAB

=( y)A

Now,

Total unbalanced force (F) = ( y) A


=
(y)A

Strength of Materials - I Page 34



F = ------------------ (1)


Now shear stress (q) =

F =qA

F= q b (dx) ------------------ (2)

Equating (1) and (2)



q b (dx) =


q=


(Shear stress) q =

Strength of Materials - I Page 35


ASSIGNMENT 2

SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

CANTILEVER BEAMS:

1) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1

2) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2

3) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 3 below.

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS:

4) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

5) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

Strength of Materials - I Page 36


6) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

7) A beam of 20 m span, hinged at its both ends as shown in Figure below. Determine the
reaction at the ends and Draw SFD and BMD.

8) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

9) A beam AB of span 6m is simply supported its ends and carries an UDL of 2500 N/m over
a length of 3 m starting from its left end. The beam is also subjected to a clockwise couple
of 4000 Nm at the middle of its length. Find the max. Values of SF and BM and plot SFD
and BMD.

OVERHANG BVEAMS:

10) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

Strength of Materials - I Page 37


11) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

12) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

13) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

14) A 4 m long beam is shown in figure. It carries a load of 12 kN applied through a bracket
and also a UDL for 8 m length from reight end. Beam over hanges at right end. Draw SFD
and BMD. (12)

Strength of Materials - I Page 38


15) Sketch SFD and BMD for the beam as shown in Figure below.

16) Draw SFD and BMD for the beam shown in figure below giving all important values of
max SF and max BM

17) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

Strength of Materials - I Page 39


CHAPTER 4
BENDING STRESSES IN BEAMS
Content:

Bending stress
Simple bending or pure bending
Assumptions made in theory of pure bending
Classic flexural equation
Definition of section modulus
Application of bending equation
Moment of resistance

THEORY QUESTIONS

BENDING STRESSES:

The stress induced in the beam to resist the bending moment is known as bending stresses.

1) Whenever a beam is subjected to external transverse loading, the beam will bend. As the
beam bends resistance to the action sets up.
2) When every cross section is set up full resistance to bending moment acting on it the
process of bending will stop.
3) If bending moment is applied the resistance induced internally is bending stress.
4) The external force is shear force, and then the internal resistance is shear stress.
5) The bending stress is in the form of tension or compressive stresses in the cross section.
6) These stresses are normal stresses. The portion of cross section where bending are tensile
are known as tensile zone and where compressive are known as compressive zone.

PURE BENDING:

Consider a cantilever beam AB, fixed at A and free at B. At any cross section of beam, there is no
shear force. Bending moment at any cross is constant and i.e. M. This is the case of pure bending.

Strength of Materials - I Page 40


ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN THEORY OF PURE BENDING

1) Material is homogenous and isotropic.


2) Beam is straight before bending.
3) Beam has uniform cross section throughout its length.
4) Transverse section of beam which is plane before bending remains plane after bending.
5) The material is elastic, Hooks law is applicable.
6) Modulus of elasticity remains same in tension and in compression.
7) The effect of shear is totally neglected. Therefore the analysis is made for pure bending.
8) The beam is composed of infinite number of layers along its length. Each layer is free to
expand or contract independently of layer above or below to it.
9) The beam is initially straight and all longitudinal fibers bends in circular arc having
common centre of curvature.

CLASSIC FLEXURAL EQUATION

The flexural stresses will be maximum at extreme fibers i.e. maximum compressive stress will
be at extreme fiber and maximum tensile stress will be at extreme tensile fiber.


fc = yc


ft = yt

a) The cross section is subjected to sagging bending moment for finding moment of
resistance. Moment of resistance is capacity of cross section to resist the bending
moment.
b) The moment of resistance cannot be changed for a cross section and is always same for
the cross section.
c) The applied moment should be less than the moment of resistance.
d) If permissible stress in tension and compression are different, than the moment carrying
capacity in tension and compression is to be found separately by considering
respectively extreme fiber stresses and smallest one is accounted as moment capacity
of cross section or moment of resistance of cross section.

Strength of Materials - I Page 41


SECTION MODULUS:


Z=

It is the ratio of moment of inertia about neutral axis to the distance of extreme fiber from neutral
axis.

Section modulus for different cross sections:

1) Rectangular cross sections:

3
I= 12


ymax = 2


z=y
max

3
12 2
z= = 6
2

2) Hollow rectangular cross sections:

3 3
I= -
12 12


ymax = 2


z=y
max

3 3

12 12
z=
2

3) Circular section:

4
I= 64


ymax = 2

Strength of Materials - I Page 42



z=y
max


z=y
max

4
64 3
z= = 32
2

4) Hollow circular section:

4 4
I=
64 64


ymax = 2


z=y
max

4 4

64 64
z= = ( 4 -4 )
32
2

5) Triangular section:
3
I= 36

2
ymax = 3


z=y
max

3
36 2
z= 2 = 24
3

Strength of Materials - I Page 43


Numerical:

1) A beam having E = 2.9 105 N/mm2 is bent with radius of curvature 35 m under the effect
of bending moment of 6000 Nm. Calculate the moment of inertia of cross section.
2) A steel is bent into a circular arc of radius 10 m. If the plate section be 140 mm wide and
25 mm thick. Find the maximum stress induced and the bending moment which can
produce this stress. E = 2 x 105 N/mm2.
3) A cantilever beam is subjected to a force and a couple as shown in figure below. Determine
maximum tensile and compressive stress developed in beam and also draw the bending
stress distribution.
4) A cantilever beam of span 600 mm carries UDL of 6 kN/m from support to mid span. It
also carries a point load of 10 kN at the tip of cantilever. If the beam section is 50 mm wide
and 200 mm deep throughout the length. Determine maximum bending stress. Neglect the
self weight of beam.
5) Two 50 mm x 150 mm rectangular timber section are glued together to form a T section as
shown in Figure below. If a sagging bending moment of 6 kNm is applied to this beam at
the horizontal axis. Find the stresses at the extreme fiber.
6) A cantilever beam of length l and cross sectional area of side a is subjected to transverse
load of w per unit length. Find maximum bending stress in beam for the section as shown
in Figure below. Find the maximum bending stress of beam if cross section is placed as
shown in Figure B. Find relation between two stresses.
7) A timber beam of rectangular cross section of length 6 m is simply supported carries UDL
of 9kNm and point load of 20 kN at 4 m from left. If the depth is 2 times the width of beam
and bending stress is 6 N/mm2 find the suitable dimensions.
8) A rolled steel joist of I section has dimensions as shown in Figure below. This beam carries
an UDL of 50 kNm run over a span of 12 m, calculate the maximum stress produced due
to bending.
9) The cross section used in the figure is used as simply supported beam of span 5 m carrying
UDL of 15 kN/m. Find the stresses at a section which is at a distance of 1.5 m from any
support.

Strength of Materials - I Page 44


Numerical based on Moment of Resistance:

1) A grove in the form of triangle is cut symmetrically from a beam section as shown in figure
below. If the stress in bending is not to exceed 30 MPa. Find the safe UDL which the beam
can carry on a simply supported span of 4m.

2) Determine moment of resistance of a rectangular beam of cross section 600 mm x 300 mm


size of timber. If permissible bending stress is 2 N/mm2.
3) Determine moment of resistance of a T section having flange 75 mm x 15 mm and web 10
mm x 130 mm. Take bending stress 160 N/mm2.

Strength of Materials - I Page 45


CHAPTER 5
SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS
Content:

Definition of Torsion and shaft


Derivation of Torsion Formula
Concept of Torsional Rigidity
Power transmitted by shaft
Numricals
Centroidal
Sr. No. Section Area Distance Ixx IYY

1 bd 3 3
2 2 12 12

Theory Questions:

1) Draw shear stress distribution diagrams for following sections and show important values:
a. Rectangle section
b. Triangular section
c. Circular section
d. I-Section
e. T-section
2) Sketch the general shear stress profile for following Rectangle section and T section. (04)
3) Give the equation of shear stress with details of each term in it. (03)
4) The shear force acting on a beam at a section is F. The section of the beam is triangular
having base B and of an altitude h. The beam is placed with its base horizontal. Find
maximum shear stress and shear stress at NA. (14)

Strength of Materials - I Page 46


Sr. Cross section Shear stress qmax qavg qat
No. Distribution y

1. Rectangular Section

2. Circular Section

3. Triangular Section

Strength of Materials - I Page 47


Shear stress (q):

The stress produced due to shear force

Figure1

q=

The stress in any given section at a distance y from axis is given by




q=

Where,

F = shear force at the given section

A = moment of the area of the section about the level under consideration

b = width of the beam at the level under consideration

I = M.I. of the beam section about N. A.

q = Intensity of shear stress at the level under consideration

Strength of Materials - I Page 48


Table 1:

Sr Cross Section Shear stress qmax qavg qy


No Distribution
Diagram

Strength of Materials - I Page 49


SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION FOR DIFFERENT CROSS SECTIONS:

1) RECTANGULAR SECTION:


(Shear stress) q =

1
( ) (+ )
2 2 2
q=


q = 2 ( 2 ) ( + 2 )

2
q = 2I ( 4 2 )

2 2
At neutral axis (y = 0), q = 2I ( 4 ) = 8I

2 12 2
q= = = 1.5
8I 8 3


q = 1.5

qmax = 1.5 qavg

2 2
At top, (y = 2 ), q = (4 )=0
2I 4

Numerical:

1) A rectangular section 230 mm and 580 mm is subjected to shear force of 35 kN. Determine
the average shear stress and Maximum shear stress.
2) The average shear stress (qavg) at a section of simply supported beam of 150 mm X 380
mm is 0.45 N/mm2. Dteremine:

Strength of Materials - I Page 50


a. Shear stress in section.
b. Maximum shear stress.
c. Shear stress at a point on a section located at 35 mm above NA and 75 mm below
NA
3) A wooden beam 100 mm wide and 150 mm deep is simply supported over a span of 4 m.
If shear force at a section of beam is 4500 N, Find the shear stress at a distance of 25 mm
above NA.
4) A rectangular section 100 mm wide and 250 mm deep is subjected to a Maximum shear
force of 50 kN.
a. average shear stress (qavg)
b. Maximum shear stress.
c. Shear stress at a point on a section located of 25 mm above NA (Dec 2010) (10)
5) A beam of square section is used as a beam with one diagonal horizontal. The beam is
subjected to shear force (F) at a section. Find the maximum shear stress in the cross-section
of the beam and draw the shear stress distribution diagram for the beam.

2) TRIANGULAR SECTION:

The shear force acting on a beam at a section is F. The section of the beam is triangular having
base B and of an altitude h. The beam is placed with its base horizontal. Find maximum shear
stress and shear stress at NA. (14)


(Shear stress) q =

A = moment of the area of the section about the level under consideration

A = A ( ) x Distance of CG of triangle CEF about NA


1 2
A = 2 x 3 (h-x)

Strength of Materials - I Page 51


1 2
A =3 (h-x)

I = M I of the whole triangle section CAB about NA

b = Actual width at the level EF



b=

1 2
F (hx)
3
q=
I

1 ()
q=3


q = 3 (xh x2)

q (x = 0) = 0

q (x = h) = 0

2 22 42 22 2 2 8
q (NA) (x = ) = 3 ( ) = 3 = 27 = 3
3 3 9 9

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS:

To get maximum shear stress, differentiating following equation with respect to x ane equating
to zero.

q = 3 (xh x2)


(3 (xh x 2 )) = 0


(h 2x) = 0
3

h = 2x

x=2

2 2
q = 3 ( 2 )
4

2
q = 12

3
qmax =

Strength of Materials - I Page 52



Note: The shear stress is not maximum at the NA, but it is maximum at a depth of 2 from the top.
In all other cases the shear stress will be maximum at the NA.

Numerical:

1) A beam of cross section of an isosceles triangle is subjected to a shear force of 30 kN at a


section where base width 150 mm and height 450 mm. Determine:
a. Horizontal shear stress at NA
b. The distance from the top of the beam where shear stress is maximum and
c. Value of maximum shear stress.

The distance from the top of the beam where shear stress is maximum

Strength of Materials - I Page 53


CHAPTER 6
COMPOSITE BEAMS
(Flitched Beams / Bending stresses in composite Beams)

Content:

Introduction
Flitched Beam
Modular Ratio ( m )
Concept of Equivalent cross section
Moment of Resistant to Flitched Beams

Theory Questions:

1) Explain the term: Equivalent Section (03)


2) Define the term: Flitched Beam (02)
3) Explain the term: Moment of Resistance(03)

Introduction:

A section made up of two or more material joined together in such a way that they behave like a
single piece & each material cross section bends to the same radius of curvature. Such beams are
used when a beam of one material required is of large cross section which does not suite for the
space available.

Hence one material is reinforced with another material of higher strength in order to reduce the
cross section of the beam. This is known as Composite Section.

Definition:

A beam made up of two or more different materials assumed to be rigidly connected together &
behaving like a single piece is known as composite beam or wooden Flitched Beam.

Strength of Materials - I Page 54


The total moment of resistance of composite section will be equal to the sum of moment of
Resistance of Individual cross sections. Other examples of Composite beams are shown below.

Consider a composite beam as shown in fig above.

Let at a distance y from N.A the stresses in steel & wood are &

We know,

(Note: for composite sections at common surface strain is same)



= (e = )


= x


=m x (m = =Modular ratio)

Strength of Materials - I Page 55



Using =


M. R = x I


M.R = x I


= x I


& = x I

M.R = +

M.R = x I + x I (of whole section)


M.R = x I + x I


M.R = (mI + I )

Where (mI + I ) = ( Equivalent Moment Of Inertia of the cross section )

= mI + I

M= x (Equivalent section made up of wooden material)

Note:

1) Equivalent section is produced by using

I = mI + I

2) The composite section can be converted into equivalent section by multiplying the
dimensions of material of steel in the direction parallel to N.A. by m.

Numerical:

1) A flitched beam consists of a wooden joist 150mm wide & 300 mm deep strengthened by
a steel plate 12 mm thick &300 mm deep on either side of the joist is 7 N /mm 2,Find the
corresponding max stress attained in steel. Find the moment of resistance of the complete
section. = 2 x 105 N/mm2 & = 1 x 104 N/mm2

Strength of Materials - I Page 56


2) A timber beam 75 mm wide and 200 mm deep has 2 steel plates 8 mm thick and 160 mm
deep symmetrically attached to it on either side to form composite beam section. If the
maximum bending stress in timber is 8 MN/m2 find corresponding stress in steel and
moment of resistance. Es = 20 Ew.

3) A flitched beam consists of a wooden joist 100 mm wide & 200 mm deep, strengthened by
two steel plates 10 mm thick & 200 mm deep as shown in fig below. If the max stress in
wooden joist is 7 N/mm2. Find the corresponding Max stress attained in steel. Also find
the moment of resistance of composite section. Es=2 x 105 N/mm2 and Ew = 1 x 104 N/mm2.

Strength of Materials - I Page 57


CHAPTER 7
TORSION

Content:

- Definition of Torsion and shaft


- Derivation of Torsion Formula
- Concept of Torsional Rigidity
- Power transmitted by shaft
- Numricals

Theory Questions:

Definition of Torsion:

A torsional moment may be defined as resultant moment about polar or longitudinal axis to the
right or left of the section is known as torsional moment or twisting moment. When a tangential
force is applied to a shaft at the circumference of its transverse cross section, the shaft is said to be
subjected to twisting moment.
When prism bar is subjected to equal and opposite couple acting on two parallel planes at right
angles to the axis of bar, the cross section twists relative to each other and is said to be subjected
to torsion.

Definition of Shaft:

A member subjected to torsion is known as shaft. A circular shaft is used for power
transmission is an example of bar subjected to torsion.

Assumptions made in Torsion Theory:

1) Circular cross section before twisting remains Circular after twisting.


2) The shaft is straight and uniform throughout the section.
3) The shaft material is homogeneous and isotropic.
4) Plane section remains plane after twisting.
5) Radius of cross section remains plane after twisting.
6) The twisting moment applied in planes which are perpendicular to the axis of shaft.
7) The torsional stresses are well below the proportional limit of the material.

DERIVATION OF TORSIONAL FORMULA:

Consider a shaft of length L and radius R with one end fixed and subjected to torque T as
shown in Figure

Strength of Materials - I Page 58


Consider the deformation of line AB on surface of shaft. The cross section is distorted by angle
and line AB is distorted by angle .

Shear strain =


= = ---------------- (1)

We know the material obeys Hooks Law

= G

= ---------------- (2)

From (1) and (2)



=

G
=

G
=
---------------- (I)

Consider point C at a distance r from the centriodal axis due to twisting moment, the point C
will be distorted by the same angle and we can write the same shear stress induce at point C.

Strength of Materials - I Page 59


CC
= =

r
=

Gr
=

As the G, and L are constant

G = Torsional Rigidity

Therefore torsion is directly proportional to the distance of fibre from centroidal axis. Further it
shoes that is zero at CA and maximum at extreme fibre of the shaft

dF = Force on Elementary strip

= Stress x Area

Strength of Materials - I Page 60


= x a

Moment of force about polar axis

dT = dF x r

= x a x r


= r x a x r


dT = a x 2


T = = a 2


=
a 2

a 2 = J ----- (where J is Polar MI)



T= J

G
=

G
= = ---------------- (II)

Numerical:

1) A shaft running at 3 Hz has to transmit 120 kW. The shaft must not be stressed beyond 60
N/mm2 and must not twist more than 10 in length of 2 m. Select suitable diameter. Take G
= 80 GPa.
2) A solid shaft 100 mm Dia. Transmit 100 kW at 80 rpm. Calculate max. shear stress and the
angle of twist if G = 80 GPA and L 9 m.
3) A hollow shaft 250 mm external dia. And 160 mm internal dia. Rotates at 25 Hz. What
power can be transmitted if thr permissible T = 80 N/mm2. Also calculate the angle of twist
in 10 m length of shaft. Consider G = 80 GPa.

Strength of Materials - I Page 61


CHAPTER 9 (a)
THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

Content:

Introduction
circumferential stress
Longitudinal stress
circumferential strain
Longitudinal strain
Volumetric strain
Wire wound thin cylinders

Thin cylinder when Thickness of shell 20, where d is internal diameter

INTRODUCTION:

In day to day life we come across cylindrical tanks containing fluids like boiler, pipes, and steel
pipes tec. The cylinder which is having metal thickness very small as compared to its diameter is
known as thin cylindrical shell. For thin cylindrical shell, the thickness should be less than or equal
1
to 20 of its internal diameter.

Whenever the cylindrical shell is empty it is subjected t atmospheric pressure from inside as well
as outside. Hence, the resultant pressure is zero.

When the shell is subjected to internal pressure, its wall is subjected tensile stresses. The failure
of thin cylindrical shells may be in two ways. It may split in two through or into two cylinders.

When the thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal pressure the walls are subjected to two types
of stress i.e.

1) Circumferential (Hoop) stress


2) Longitudinal stress

Strength of Materials - I Page 62


1) Circumferential (Hoop) stress (fc):

The stress which acts in tangential directional to the circumference of cylinder is known as fc.
Consider a thin cylindrical shell subjected to an internal pressure P having internal diameter d
and length L and thickness t.

Bursting Force = Pressure x area = P x dL -------- (1)

Resisting Force = stress x area = fc x 2 x t x L -------- (2)

For the pipe to be in equilibrium (1) = (2)



fc =

Strength of Materials - I Page 63


2) Longitudinal stress (fc):


Bursting Force = Pressure x area = P x d2 x 4 -------- (1)

Resisting Force = stress x area = ft x d t-------- (2)

Circumferential (Hoop) stress (fc) equilibrium (1) = (2)


fL = f c =

3) Circumferential strain (ec):


ec =


ec =


ec = (1 )

= ec x d

Volumetric strain:

4 4 3
V = 3 r3 = 3 ( 2 )

Strength of Materials - I Page 64


3
V= 6

32
=
6

3l
ev = = = 3 ec
d


ev = 3 (1 )

= ec x d

CYNDRICAL SHELLS

Numerical:

1) A cylindrical shell 1 m long, 180 mm internal diameter, thickness of metal 80 mm is filled


with fluid at atm pressure. If an additional 2000 mm3 of fluid is pumped into the cylinder,
find the pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall of the cylinder and hoop stress in the
section. Take E = 2 x 105 and = 0.3.
2) A cylindrical shell 1500 mm diameter, thickness of 12 mm, 4 m long is subjected to an
internal pressure, 2 N/mm2. Find the hoop stress and longitudinal stress induced in cell.
Further determine change in diameter of shell. Take E = 2 x 105 and = 0.3.

SPHERICAL SHELLS


Bursting Force = Pressure x projected area = P x d2 x 4 -------- (1)

Resisting Force = stress x area = fc x d t-------- (2)

For the pipe to be in equilibrium (1) = (2)

Strength of Materials - I Page 65


Pd
fc = 4t

1
ft = 2 fc

Numerical:

1) A thin cylindrical shell 450 mm internal diameter, thickness 4 mm is full of an


incompressible fluid at atm pressure. Find the intensity of radial P exerted on wall of shell
if 2 x 103 mm3 of fluid is pumped in calculate hoop stress and .Take E = 2 x 105 and
= 0.25.

Strength of Materials - I Page 66


CHAPTER 9
STRAIN ENERGY

Content:
Strain energy
Strain energy due to: Axial Load
1) Gradually applied load
2) Suddenly applied load
3) Impact load
Strain energy due to
1) Bending Moment
2) Shear force
3) Torsional moment

Theory questions:

1) Define the terms : (03)


a. Proof Resilliance
b. Modulus of Resilliance:
2) What do you mean by Proof Resilliance? (03)
3) Obtain an expression for strain energy stored in a body when the load is applied with
impact. (13)
4) Explain the terms: (04)
a. Gradually applied load
b. Suddenly applied load
c. Impact load
5) Obtain an expression for strain energy stored in a body when the load is applied gradually.
(04)
6) Give the expression for strain energy due to axial force. (03)
7) Derive the equation of strain energy due to bending. (03)

Strain energy:

Whenever a body is strained, the energy absorbed by the body due to straining effect is known as
Strain energy

When the member is loaded, whether gradually or Suddenly or Impact, the bat deforms and work
is done. The material behaves like a perfect spring and oscillates about its mean position. If the
elastic limit is not exceeded this work stored in the member is Strain energy.

Strength of Materials - I Page 67


Resilliance:

The total Strain energy stored in the body is known as Resilliance. Whenever the applied force is
removed from the strained body, the body is capable of doing the work hence Resilliance can be
defined as the capacity of trained body for doing work on the removal of applied load.

Proof Resilliance:

It is defined as the maximum strain energy which can be stored by the body which can be stored
by the body without undergoing permanent deformation.

The energy stored in the body will be maximum when the body is stressed upto elastic limit.

Modulus of Resilliance:

It is defined as the proof Resilliance per unit volume.

Strain Energy stored due to Axial Force:

When a member is subjected to axial load, it undergoes axial deformation. Also the resistance is
set up in the member gradually within the limit of proportionality the relation between resistance
set up and deformation is always linear.

Strain energy u = Area of shaded diagram


1
= 2 l R

1
=2elA

1
=2eAl

1
=2eV

1
Strain energy u = Stress x Strain x Volume
2

1
=2V

Strength of Materials - I Page 68


1 2
=2 V

a) Gradually applied load:


1
W = External Work done = 2 P l
1
SE = Internal work done = 2 R l
But W = SE u
1 1
P l = 2 R l
2
P l = R l
P=A

=

b) Suddenly applied load:

1
W = External Work done = 2 P l
1
SE = Internal work done = 2 R l
But W = SE u
1
P l = 2 R l
2P = A
2
=

Stress in this case is twice the stress induced in the body by gradually applied load.

Strength of Materials - I Page 69


c) Impact Load:

W = P (h + l)
1
u = 2 R l
2
u = 2 AL
But W = SE u
2
P (h + l) =2 AL
2
2 = (h + l)
2 2
2 = +

2 2 2
- - =0

By quadratic equation,
2 4 2 8
= 2 42 + 4

2
= 1 +

2
= [1 + 1 + ]

Strain energy due to


1) Bending Moment
2
u = 0
2
2) Shear force
3 2
u = 20
3) Torsional moment
a) Solid shaft:
2
U = 4 volume
b) Hollow shaft
2 2 + 2
U = 4 [ ]volume
2

Strength of Materials - I Page 70


Numerical:

8) A beam of cross section 100 mm x 200 mm and span 6 m is subjected to an UDL of


intensity50 kN/m over the whole span. Find the strain energy stored due to bending if
Modulus of Elasticity is 2 x 105 N/mm2. (10) May 2014
9) A bar 100 cm in length is subjected to an axial pull, such that the maximum stress is equal
to 150 MN/m2. Its area of cross section is 2 cm2 over a length of 5 cm and for the middle
5 cm length it is only 1 cm2. If E = 200 GN/m2, Calculate the strain energy stored in bar.
(10)

10) A bar 100 cm in length is subjected to an axial pull, such that the maximum stress is equal
to 150 MN/m2. Its area of cross section is 2 cm2 over a length of 5 cm and for the middle
5 cm length it is only 1 cm2. If E = 200 GN/m2, Calculate the strain energy stored in bar.
(10)

11) A Beam 4 m long is simply supported at the ends and carries an UDL of 6 kN/m length.
Determine the SE stored in the beam. Take E = 200 GN/m2 and I = 1440 cm4.
12) For a beam of span L is simply supported at the ends and carries an UDL of w per unit
length. Determine the SE stored in the beam due to bending. (06)
13) A 300 mm long stepped bar A has a diameter 20 mm for a length of 100 mm and dia of
40 mm for remaining length. Another bar B made of same material gas dia of 30 mm
throughout the entire length of 300 mm. If the permissible stresses for the material are
same, compare the values of max SE stored in them. (10)
14) Calculate the resilience and resilience per unit volume of a bar 300 mm long, 50 mm wide
and 40 mm thick if a load of 100 kN was gradually applied to it. Take E = 200 GPa. (07)
15) Find the strain energy stored in the beam as shown in Fig. below.

16) A beam 4 m long simply supported at end and carries a UDL of 6 N/m. Determine strain
energy in beam. Take E = 200 GN/m2 and I = 1440 cm4.

Strength of Materials - I Page 71


ASSUMPTIONS OF LINEAR ELASTICITY

In order to evaluate the stresses, strains and displacements in an elasticity problem, one
needs to derive a series of basic equations and boundary conditions. Therefore, some basic
assumptions have to be made about the properties of the body considered to arrive at
possible solutions. The following are the assumptions in classical elasticity.

1. The Body is Continuous

Here the whole volume of the body is considered to be filled with continuous
matter, without any void. Only under this assumption, can the physical quantities
in the body, such as stresses, strains and displacements, be continuously
distributed and thereby expressed by continuous functions of coordinates in space.

However, these assumptions will not lead to significant errors so long as the
dimensions of the body are very large in comparison with those of the particles and
with the distances between neighbouring particles.

2. The Body is Perfectly Elastic

The body is considered to wholly obey Hooke's law of elasticity, which


shows the linear relations between the stress components and strain components.
Under this assumption, the elastic constants will be independent of the magnitudes
of stress and strain components.

3. The Body is Homogenous

In this case, the elastic properties are the same throughout the body. Thus, the
elastic constants will be independent of the location in the body. Under this
assumption, one can analyse an elementary volume isolated from the body and then
apply the results of analysis to the entire body.

4. The Body is Isotropic

Here, the elastic properties in a body are the same in all directions. Hence, the
elastic constants will be independent of the orientation of coordinate axes.

5. The Displacements and Strains are Small

The displacement components of all points of the body during deformation are very
small in comparison with its original dimensions and the strain components and
the rotations of all line elements are much smaller than unity. Hence, when

Strength of Materials - I Page 72


formulating the equilibrium equations relevant to the deformed state, the lengths
and angles of the body before deformation are used. In addition, when
geometrical equations involving strains and displacements are formulated, the
squares and products of the small quantities are neglected. Therefore, these two
measures are necessary to linearize the algebraic and differential equations in
elasticity for their easier solution.

Strength of Materials - I Page 73