study of strenth of materials

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study of strenth of materials

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Content:

Hooks Law

Stress Strain relationship

Elastic constants

Factor of safety

Stress and strain in three dimensions

Introduction:

In our day to day work we engineers come across different materials like cement, concrete, still

etc. which are used to complete our project. For selecting suitable material every one of us is

interested to know the strength.

The ability of element of the structure to resist its failure under the application of external force is

known as strength of material and the ability to resist deformation is known as stiffness of that

material.

It has been observed that the material first deforms and then failure takes place. A detailed study

of forces and their effects along with suitable protective measures is known as strength of

material.

Behavior of material:

Whenever force acts on body it undergoes deformation and some resistance to deformation. When

external force is removed the resistance force will vanish and body come back to original shape

and size. If is only possible if deformation due to external force is within certain limit. This limit

is known as Elastic Limit.

Elasticity:

The ability of material to retain its original shape and size perfectly after removal of load is known

as Elasticity.

Elastic Limit:

Limit within which the body behaves perfectly elastic is known as Elastic Limit.

Stress:

Every material is elastic in nature thats why whenever external force acts on body, body undergoes

deformation. As a body undergoes deformation its molecule set up some resistance to the

deformation. Resistance per unit deformation is known as stress

Stress () = =

Note: Tensile stresses will be treated as positive and compressive stress is treated as negative.

Strain:

Strain is the ratio of change in dimension to original dimension. Strain is denoted as (e). Strain is

a dimensionless quantity.

Strain =

Strain =

Strain =

+

Strain = =

Hooks Law:

Mathematically,

Stress strain

=Ee

E = =

= and =

Where,

P = Force or Load

L = length of member

E = modulus of elasticity

By Hooks law within elastic limit stress is directly proportional to strain. From point O to A stress

is directly proportional to strain. Therefore point A is called as proportionality limit. After that, at

point B mild still regain its size and shape after removal of load. This point is called as elastic

limit. At point C stress remains constant and strain increases and material enters at plastic zone but

it can still regain its size and shape after removal of load. Point C is called as upper yield point and

point D is called as lower yield point. As load increases it reaches at point E where he stress

becomes highest and it is called ultimate stress.

Every material has its own limit. Stress increases can crosses the permissible limit and breaks at

point F so point F is called as breaking point.

The initial point OA of the graph is straight line. It indicates that the stress is directly proportional

to strain, hence Hooks law is obeys. The stress corresponding to point A is called elastic limit. If

stress corresponding to point E is removed then wire regains its original length completely.

Numerical:

1) A bar of length 1.2 m extends through 3 mm under the action of axial pull of 2.5 kN.

Compute strain in material if diameter of bar is 20 mm. Find stress in bar.

2) A wooden bar of 8 m long, 100 mm wide and 120 mm thick is subjected to an action pull

of 50 kN and stretch is 4 mm. Calculate value of strain for the material

a. Stress

b. Strain

c. Modulus of elasticity

3) A short timber post of rectangular cross section has one post side of section is 2 times the

other and is loaded with 10 kN force when it contracts by 0.0525 mm foe 1 m length.

Modulus of elasticity is 12 Gpa. Calculate sectional dimensions of post.

4) A load of 10 kN is to be rest with the help of steel wire. Find the minimum diameter of

steel wire if stresses is not to exceed 100 MPa.

Factor of safety:

maximum stress

Factor of safety = working stress

In case of ductile material failure of material occurs once it reaches plastic deformation hence

Factor of safety is based upon yield point stress.

Yiels stress

Factor of safety = working stress

ultimate stress

Factor of safety = working stress

Principle of Superposition:

According to principle of superposition when number of loads are acting on a body the

resulting strain will be sum of stress caused by each individual loads.

LAB = () ---------- (Tensile)

LBC = () ---------- (Compressive)

LCD = () ---------- (Compressive)

Numerical:

1) A bar having cross sectional area 1000 mm2 is subjected to axial force as shown in Figure

below. Find the total elongation of bar. Take E = 1.02 x 105 N/mm2.

2) A steel rod ABCD 5 m long and 25 mm in diameter is subjected to forces as shown in

Figure below. If value of Youngs modulus for steel material is 200 GPa. Determine its

deformation.

3) Find the total elongation of the bar as shown in Figure below. Area of bar 600 mm2 and E

= 200 MPa.

4) If a bar of uniform cross section of 50 mm x 50 mm is subjected to the forces as shown in

Figure below. Determine total deformation of bar. Take E = 1.02 x 105 N/mm2.

Strength of Materials - I Page 5

5) Calculate total elongation of steel bar ABCD for a given Figure having cross sectional area

750 mm2 and subjected to axial forces as shown in Figure below. Take E = 2.10 x 105

N/mm2.

6) A steel bar ABCD of different section is subjected to an axial force as shown in Figure

below. Find the value of P necessary for equilibrium. Take E = 210 kN/mm2. Determine

total elongation of bar.

7) A slender bar ABCD of different section is subjected to an axial force as shown in Figure

below. Take E = 210 kN/mm2. Determine total elongation of bar.

8) A mild steel bar is in three parts each 20 cm long and diameter of each part AB, BC and

CD are 3 cm, 1.5 cm and 4.5 cm respectively. It is subjected to an axial pull of 4 ton then

find its elongation in three parts of bar. Also find ratio of greatest to least elongation. Take

E = 3 x 105 kN/mm2.

Composite bar subjected to a load:

Figure 1

Composite bar subjected to axial load (P)

Where,

s = stress in steel

b = stress in brass

l = length of member

P = Ps + Pb ------------- (1)

Strength of Materials - I Page 7

We know that,

P = s As + b Ab

By Hooks Law,

Stress strain

=Ee

E= =

Strain in steel i.e. es = and Strain in brass i.e. eb =

Brass and steel tubes are joined in such a manner that the system equally extends or contracts as

one unit when subjected to tension or compression.

es = eb

= ------------- (2)

From (1) and (2) we can solve any problem subjected to load carried by composite bar of section.

Numerical:

Type I:

1) A 250 mm long steel tube of 150 mm internal diameter and 15 mm thick is surrounded

closely by brass tube of same length and thickness. The tube carries an axial thrust of 100

kN as shown in Figure 2 below. Estimate load v\carried by each tube and amount of

sharing of each tube. Es = 200 x 103 N/ mm2and Eb = 100 x 103 N/ mm2.

Figure 2

2) A reinforced concrete column of square section 300 mm sides has four reinforcing bar of

32 mm diameter one in each corner with its centre 56 mm from the edges as shown in

Figure 3. Find load carried by column if concrete can be stressed to 5 N/mm2. What is

corresponding stress in steel and reinforcement and what proportion of load is carried by

it? Modular ratio of steel to concrete is 18.

Figure 3

3) A mild steel bar 20 mm in diameter and 350 mm long is enclosed in a brass tube whose

external diameter is 35 mm and internal diameter is 30 mm. The composite bar subjected

to axial pull of 50 kN. Es = 200 GPa and Eb = 100 GPa. Find stress in bar and tube, as well

as extension of bar.

4) A reinforced concrete column of 230 mm x 530 mm is reinforced with six bar of 20 mm

diameter steel bars as shown in Figure below which is subjected to an axial load of 600

kN. Compute stress developed in each material. Consider Es = 200 GPa and Eb = 15 GPa.

5) A steel cylinder is enclosed in copper tube as shown in Figure below. The cylinder and

tube are compressed between rigid parallel plates. Find stresses in steel and copper. P =

525 kN, d = 125 mm and D = 250 mm. Es = 200 x 103 N/ mm2and Eb = 108 x 103 N/ mm2.

Type II:

diameter 40 mm and external diameter 50 mm as shown in Figure below. The steel rod

projects 0.15 mm as shown. What maximum load can be apllied to the bearing plate? Es =

200 GPa and Eb = 120 GPa and s = 165 MPa and b = 85 MPa

2) A solid steel bar 600 mm long and 65 mm diameter is placed inside an Aluminum tube

having 70 mm inside diameter and 90 mm outside diameter. The Aluminum cylinder is 0.2

mm longer than steel rod and axial load of 700 kN is applied to bar and the cylinder so

rigid. Find stress developed in Aluminum bar and tube. Es = 210 kN/ mm2and Eb = 70 kN/

mm2.

3) Two steel rods and one copper rod each of 30 mm diameter together support a load of 30

kN as shown in Figure. Find stresses in each rod. Es = 205 GN/mm2 and Ec = 110 GN/mm2.

4) Following Figure shows round steel rod supported and surrounded by co-axial copper tube.

The upper end of rod is 0.2 mm below that of the tube and axial load is applied to a rigid

plate resting on top of the tube.

a. Determine the magnitude of maximum permissible load, if compressive stress in

rod is not to exceed 120 MPa and that in the tube not to exceed 20 MPa.

b. Find amount by which the tube will be shorten by load if compressive stress in tube

is same as that in rod. Es = 210 GPa and Ec = 105 GPa.

L2 = length of bar BC

E1 = Youngs modulus of AB

E2 = Youngs modulus of BC

t = Temperature in 0C

L = L t

Free expansion in bar AB = L1 = L1 1 t

If compound bar is subjected to axial force P, then each segment will be subjected to same force

P.

Here suppose P1 be the axial force in segment AB and P2 is the axial force in segment BC

P1 = P2 = P

If total expansion is prevented then bar is subjected to compressive forces and compressive force

will be induced in bar.

L =

as part AB and BC are subjected to compressive force P total change in length is given by

11 22

L = 11 + 22 ------------- (2)

Numerical:

A2. Take = 11.7 x 10-6 per 0C and E = 200 GPa.

2) A compound strut consists of brass portion AB of diameter 80 mm and steel portion BC of

diameter 45 mm as shown in Figure below. Support A and C are rigid. If temperature is

raised through 150C. then find force exerted on support B. Take s = 11.2 x 10-6 per 0C and

b = 20 x 10-6 per 0C. Es = 210 kN/mm2 and Eb = 85 kN/mm2.

3) A rod of total length 700 mm is fixed at its ends which is made up of two materials i.e.

steel and brass which are rigidly connected to each other. The brass bar is 40 mm in

diameter and 400 mm in length while the steel rod is 15 mm in diameter and 300 mm in

length. If temperature of bar is raised through 120 0C. Find force exerted on the support.

Take s = 11.6 x 10-6 per 0C and b = 20.1 x 10-6 per 0C. Es = 210 GPa and Eb = 81 GPa.

THERMAL STRESSES AND STRAINS

material to expand or contract as per change in temperature. If these natural tendencies are allowed

then there is no strain and no stress is developed in the member.

If deformation of body is prevented, some stresses are induced in body. Such stresses are called as

thermal stresses and corresponding strain are called as thermal strain.

Thermal strains:

If temperature of an elastic body is changed and corresponding change in length is totally and

partially then strain set up in member is called as thermal strain.

Thermal Strain =

Thermal strains are usually reversible in nature since that member retains its original shape when

it is brought to original temperature.

Thermal stresses:

If a body allowed to expand or contract freely with rise or fall in temperature then no stresses are

induced in body. If these expansion or contraction is prevented then internal resisting forces are

developed. Stresses caused by these internal processes are called as thermal stresses. Stress

developed is in accordance with change in length prevented.

According to law of linear expansion, the strain in prismatic bar is proportional to change in

temperature.

Mathematically,

et

e = t -------------- (1)

We know, e = =t

=t

= t L -------------- (2)

Where, E = Youngs modulus

= t -------------- (3)

P=

P = t -------------- (4)

Numerical:

1) A bar is 2.5 m long at 150C. Find expansion of rod if temperature raised to 80 0C. If these

expansions are prevented find stresses in material. Take E = 100 GPa and = 0.0000120C.

2) A copper rod 1.8 m long is at temperature 120C.

a. Find extension of rod when temperature raised to 980C. Also find stress in rod.

b. Find contraction of rod if temperature is lowered by 00C. Also find stress in rod.

Take E = 115 GPa and = 17.2 x 10-60C.

3) A steel rod 20 mm in diameter, 300 mm long heated to 900C and at same time it is subjected

to pull P if total expansion of rod is 0.5 mm. What should be magnitude of force P?

Take = 12 x 10-60C and E = 210 GN/m2.

4) A steel rod AB of diameter 30 mm and length 700 mm is held in between two supports at

end A and B temperature of rod is raised uniformly from 260C to 640C. Assuming rod is to

stress free at 260C. Find

a. Thermal stress and strain if supports do not yield.

b. Thermal stress and strain if support yield by 0.21 mm and also find axial force in

support.

Take = 12.6 x 10-60C and E = 200 GN/m2.

5) Following Figure shows rod AB of length 700 mm. When a temperature of rod is 250C the

gap of BC is 0.5 mm. Determine

a. Thermal stress at 450C.

b. Temperature at which gap will just closed.

c. Stress and strain in rod when t = 980C Take = 16 x 10-60C and E = 100 GPa.

Types of loaded bar:

1) Prismatic bar:

Bar having uniform cross section throughout length is called as Prismatic bar.

2) Non-Prismatic bar:

Bar having different cross section throughout length is called as Non- Prismatic

bar.

3) Composite Bar:

If cross section of bar made up of more than one material such bar is known as

composite bar.

4) Compound Bar:

Bar is having different material along its length is known as compound bar.

Compound bar may be Prismatic or Non-Prismatic

Figure 1

Where,

A1 = cross section of part AB, A2 = cross section of part BC, A3 = cross section of part CD

I) Evaluation of stress:

For part AB, 1 =

1

For part BC, 2 =

2

For part CD, 3 =

3

1

For part AB, e1 =

2

For part BC, e2 =

3

For part CD, e3 =

Numerical:

1) Following Figure 2 shows a bar consisting of three lengths. Find stresses in three parts and

total extension if axial pull of 50 kN is applied. Take E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2.

Figure 2

2) Find decrease in length of steel bar which is loaded as shown in Figure below. Take E =

2.1 x 105 N/mm2.

Figure 3

3) A steel bar 600 mm long is 16 mm diameter for 200 mm of its length, 28 mm in diameter

for 160 mm of its length and 20 mm in diameter for remaining 240 mm as shown in Figure

4 below. It is subjected to an axial pull of 30 kN. Calculate extension of bar. Take E = 2.1

x 105 N/mm2.

Figure 4

ELASTIC CONSTANTS

When a body subjected to axial load there is an axial deformation in the length of body. The ratio

of axial deformation to original length of body is known as longitudinal or linear strain.

Consider,

L = length of body

Linear strain =

Lateral strain:

Consider a rectangular bar of length L, breath b and depthd is subjected to an axial force P as

shown in Figure below. Length of bar will increase while breath and depth will decrease.

Consider,

L = increase in length

d = Decrease in depth

Longitudinal strain =

Lateral strain =

Lateral strain =

Note:

1) Lateral strain compressive in nature then Lateral strain tensile in nature and vise a versa.

Strength of Materials - I Page 17

2) Every linear strain in direction of load is composed of lateral strain of opposite kind in all

direction perpendicular to load.

Poissons Ratio () or():

When material is stressed within elastic limit ratio of lateral stain to longitudinal strain is

constant which is known as Poissons Ratio.

lateral stain

= longitudinal strain

Numerical:

1) Determine change in length, breadth and thickness of steel bar which is 4 m long, 30 mm

wide, and 25 mm thick and subjected to an axial pull of 35 kN in direction of length. Take

E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 0.8.

2) Determine the value of Youngs modulus and poisons ratio of metallic bar of length 40

cm, breadth 3.5 cm and depth 3.5 cm. When it is subjected to axial compressive load of

350 kN. Decrease in length is given as 0.075 cm and increase in breath is 0.003 cm.

3) A steel bar 2 m long, 20 mm wide and 10 mm thick is subjected to pull of 20 kN in direction

of length. Find change in length, breath and thickness if E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 0.3.

Volumetric Strain:

Change in length = L + L

Change in breadth = b + b

Change in depth = d + d

Original Volume = L x b x d

Final Volume = (L + L) (b + b) (d + d)

V = (Lb d + L bd + d Lb)

ev = (1 -2)

Q) Find the Volumetric Strain circular rod subjected to axial force P along its length.

Original Volume = 4 L d2

Final Volume = 4 L (d + d) 2 - 4 L d2

V = 4 L d2 [ 4 L (d + d)2 L d2 ]

4

ev = (1 -2)

Note:

Member subjected to loading in X and Y direction by means of passions ratio we can explain

Hooks Law of uniaxial loading to element subjected to state of biaxial loading.

Strain in X direction

Due to x = (T)

Due to y = (C)

ex = - ------------- (1)

Strain in Y direction

Due to x = (C)

Due to y = (T)

ey = - ------------- (2)

Strain in x direction

Due to x = (T)

Due to y = (C)

Due to z = (C)

ex = - - ------------- (1)

Strain in Y direction

Due to x = (C)

Due to y = (T)

Due to z = (C)

Total strain in Y direction

ey = - + - ------------- (2)

Strain in Z direction

Due to x = (C)

Due to y = (C)

Due to z = (T)

ez = - - + ------------- (3)

(ex + ey + ez) = - - - + - - - +

(ex + ey + ez) = + + (1 -2)

Numerical:

and 15 kN tensile along X, Y and Z respectively. Determine change in volume of block.

1

Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and = 4.

2) A metallic bar 250 mm x 100 mm x 60 mm is loaded as shown in Figure below. Find

change in volume of bar. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and =0.3. Also find the change that

should be made in 3 MN load in order that there should be no change in volume of bar.

3) A steel rod 5 m long, 35 mm in diameter is subjected to an axial tensile load of 60 kN.

Determine change in length, diameter and volume of rod. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and

1

= 3.

Bulk modulus:

When body is subjected to mutually perpendicular like and direct stresses the ratio of direct stress

to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be constant for given material. When the

deformations are within the certain limit the ratio is known as bulk modulus and it is denoted as k.

Direct stress

K = volumetric strain

K=

K=

Consider a cube ABCDEFGH subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal and direct

stresses as shown in Figure below.

Strain in AB =

Strain in AB due to on AEHD and BFGC =

Strain in AB due to on DHGH and ABFE = -

Strain in AB due to on ABCD and EFGH = -

Total strain in cube = - -

= - -

= (1 -2)

V = L3

L = change in length

V = change in volume

V = 3L2 L

3L2 L

eV = = = 3 = 3 (1 -2)

3

k=

k=

3 (1 2)

E = 3 k (1 -2)

and

3k E

= 6

Numerical:

1

1) Calculate bulk modulus if E = 1.4 x 105 N/mm2 and passions ratio 3.

2) A bar of 40 mm diameter is subjected to a piull of 80 kN. The measured extension of gauge

length of 400 mm is 0.2 mm and change in diameter 0.005 mm. Calculate

a. Youngs modulus

b. Passions ratio

c. Bulk modulus

Shear stress:

Stress induced in a body when subjected to two equal and opposite forces whi9ch are acting

tangentially across the resisting section is known as Shear stress and is denoted by ()

=

=

Shear modulus:

It is a ratio of shear stress to shear strain when the material is loaded within elastic limit is known

as shear rigidity or shear modulus. It is denoted as C or G or N.

G =

G=

It states that, a set of shear stress across a plane is always accompanied by set of balancing shear

stresses i.e. of same intensity across the plane and normal to end.

CHAPTER 2

CONTENT:

2) Analysis of short column subjected to eccentric load

3) Concept of kernel or core of the section

4) Analysis of section subjected to eccentricity at both axes

5) Analysis of chimney subjected to wind pressure

6) Analysis of dams

7) Analysis of retaining walls

Theory questions:

Introduction:

Column:

1) Short column

2) Long column

Eccentric load is a load whose line of action does not coincide with axis of the section. The

eccentricity of load may be about one of the axis or about both the axes.

M = Pex MX = Pex

MY = PeY

known as eccentricity of the load as shown in Figure A.

To understand the concept of Direct and Bending stresses, apply along the axis of the column two

equal and opposite forces P. Due to application of these forces resultant effect is zero and there

is no effect on column. With the help of principle of superposition we will split the forces as shown

in Figure C and D.

= which is known as Direct Stress.

In figure D two equal and opposite forces are acting at a distance e and will create couple and

couple will induce bending stress in cross section.

Hence an eccentric load will produce a direct as well as bending stress. As these stresses are normal

to cross section, hence these stresses may be algebraically added into a single resultant stress as

shown in Figure A.

1) Direct stress = (d) =

2) Bending stress = (b) =

The bending stress (b) due to moment at any point of the column section at a

distance y from neutral axis Y Y is given by,

=

b =

b =

( )

b =

R = d + b

R =

MAX = +

and MIN =

A= bd

M=Pe

Z=

3

I = Iyy = 12

Ymax = 2 = 2

3 2 2

Z= =

12 6

6

b = = 2

6

b = 2

6

b =

6

R =

6

R = (1 )

(The resultant stress along width of the column will vary by a

straight line law)

6

MAX = (1 + ) --------------- (1)

6

MIN = (1 ) --------------- (2)

as shown in Figure in above

Note: Compressive stresses are considered as positive (+ve) and tensile stresses are

considered as negative (-ve)

Numerical:

1) A rectangular section of width 200 mm and thickness or depth 175 mm carries a point

load of 300 kN as shown in Figure below. Determine Max and Min stresses on section

and draw stress distribution pattern.

2) In above problem if min stress on section is zero then find out min eccentricity of point

load and find corresponding resultant stresses.

3) If load is acting at an eccentricity of 50 mm from centroidal axis of column, find out

resultant stress and stress distribution pattern.

CONCEPT OF KERNEL OR CORE OF THE SECTION

The cement concrete columns are weak in tension and strong in compression hence the load must

be applied in this column in such a way that there should be no tensile stress induced in cross

section.

But when eccentric load is acting on column it will produce direct as well as bending stress. The

resultant stress at any point is algebraic sum of these two stresses.

Consider a solid rectangular cross section of width b and thickness or depth das shown in

following Figure.

Due to eccentric load stresses are induced in column. For no tensile stresses in column direct stress

(d) should be greater than or equal to bending stress (b).

b d

Z=

3

= and x = 2

12

3

12 2

Z= = 6

2

2

Z= 6

e

6

The area within which the resultant load may be applies so as to avoid tensile stress is known as

Core or Kernal of section.

2) HOLLOW RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION:

Area (A) = BD bd

z=

3 3

I=

12 12

y= 2

3 3

z= 6

3 3

e 6 ()

b d

3

z= 32

e8

4) HOLLOW CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION:

Numerical:

figure below. Find what is the Max and Min intensities of stresses in column.

2) A masonry pipe 3 m X 4 m supports a vertical load of 8 kN as shown in Figure below:

a. Find stresses developed at each corner.

b. What additional load should be placed at centre so that there is no tensile stress in

section.

c. What is stress at centre with additional load at centre.

CHAPTER 3

SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS FOR STATICALLY

DETERMINATE BEAM

Content:

Introduction

Types of Beams

a. Definition of Shear force & Bending Moment

b. Types of loading

c. Types of support

d. Statically determinate & indeterminate structure

e. Shear force Diagram & Bending Moment Diagram

Sign convention for shear force & Bending Moment

Important points for drawing shear force & Bending Moment Diagrams

S.F.D & B.M.D. for cantilever beams subjected to

a) Point load

b) UDL

c) UYL + Point loads

d) UVL

e) Couple

f) & Common findings

SFD & BMD for simply supported Beams subjected to

a) Point load

b) UDL

c) UVL

d) Trapezoidal

e) Couple

f) Inclined point load

g) & Common findings

Relation between Load, S.F. & B.M.

Shear force:

The algebraic sum of vertical forces at any section of a beam to the right or left of the

section is known as shear force.

Shear force diagram:

A S.F.D. is one which shows the variation of the S.F. along the length of the beam.

Bending moment:

The algebraic sum of Moments of all the forces acting to the right or left of the section is

known as bending Moment.

A B.M.D. is one which shows the variation of the B.M. along the length of the beam.

Sign conversions for shear force & bending moment:

1) Shear Force:

a) The shear force at a section will be considered positive when the resultant of the forces to

the left to the section is upwards or to the right of the section is downwards.

b) Similarly, the S.F. at a section will be considered negative if the resultant of the forces to

the left of the section is downwards, or to the right of the section is upwards.

2) Bending Moment:

a) The bending Moment will be considered positive when the Moment of the forces & Reactions

on the left portion is clockwise & on the right portion is anticlockwise.

b) The Bending Moment will be considered negative when the moment of the Forces &

Reactions on the left portion is anti-clockwise & on the right portion clockwise.

3) Important Points for driving S.F.D. & B.M.D.

a. Always consider left or right port of the section.

b. Add Forces (including reaction) normal to the beam on one of the portion.

Note:-

a) If right port of the section is chosen a force on the right port acting downwards is

positive. While a force on the right portion acting Upwards is negative.

b) IF left port of section is chosen, a Force on the Left port acting upwards is positive while

a Force on the left port acting downwards is Negative.

c) The positive values of S.F. & B.M. are plotted above the base line, & negative values

below the base line.

d) The S.F.D. Will increase or decrease suddenly i.e.by a vertical straight line at a section

where there is a vertical point load.

e) The S.F. between any two vertical loads will be constant & hence the S.F.D. Between

two vertical loads will be horizontal.

f) The bending Moment at the two supports of a simply supported beam & at the free end of

a cantilever will be zero.

Derivation:

Consider a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load having cross sectional

dimensions b and d. Consider two sections AB and CD at a distance dx apart as shown in Figure

below.

We know,

f= y

Due to moment (M) on face AB, the stress induced is given by,

= y

(+)

= y

Now,

FAB = A = ( y)A

(+)

FCD = A = ( y)A

= FCD - FAB

=( y)A

Now,

Total unbalanced force (F) = ( y) A

=

(y)A

F = ------------------ (1)

Now shear stress (q) =

F =qA

q b (dx) =

q=

(Shear stress) q =

ASSIGNMENT 2

CANTILEVER BEAMS:

1) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1

2) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2

3) Draw SFD and BMD for following cantilever beam as shown in Figure 3 below.

6) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

7) A beam of 20 m span, hinged at its both ends as shown in Figure below. Determine the

reaction at the ends and Draw SFD and BMD.

9) A beam AB of span 6m is simply supported its ends and carries an UDL of 2500 N/m over

a length of 3 m starting from its left end. The beam is also subjected to a clockwise couple

of 4000 Nm at the middle of its length. Find the max. Values of SF and BM and plot SFD

and BMD.

OVERHANG BVEAMS:

11) Draw SFD and BMD for beam as shown below.

14) A 4 m long beam is shown in figure. It carries a load of 12 kN applied through a bracket

and also a UDL for 8 m length from reight end. Beam over hanges at right end. Draw SFD

and BMD. (12)

15) Sketch SFD and BMD for the beam as shown in Figure below.

16) Draw SFD and BMD for the beam shown in figure below giving all important values of

max SF and max BM

CHAPTER 4

BENDING STRESSES IN BEAMS

Content:

Bending stress

Simple bending or pure bending

Assumptions made in theory of pure bending

Classic flexural equation

Definition of section modulus

Application of bending equation

Moment of resistance

THEORY QUESTIONS

BENDING STRESSES:

The stress induced in the beam to resist the bending moment is known as bending stresses.

1) Whenever a beam is subjected to external transverse loading, the beam will bend. As the

beam bends resistance to the action sets up.

2) When every cross section is set up full resistance to bending moment acting on it the

process of bending will stop.

3) If bending moment is applied the resistance induced internally is bending stress.

4) The external force is shear force, and then the internal resistance is shear stress.

5) The bending stress is in the form of tension or compressive stresses in the cross section.

6) These stresses are normal stresses. The portion of cross section where bending are tensile

are known as tensile zone and where compressive are known as compressive zone.

PURE BENDING:

Consider a cantilever beam AB, fixed at A and free at B. At any cross section of beam, there is no

shear force. Bending moment at any cross is constant and i.e. M. This is the case of pure bending.

ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN THEORY OF PURE BENDING

2) Beam is straight before bending.

3) Beam has uniform cross section throughout its length.

4) Transverse section of beam which is plane before bending remains plane after bending.

5) The material is elastic, Hooks law is applicable.

6) Modulus of elasticity remains same in tension and in compression.

7) The effect of shear is totally neglected. Therefore the analysis is made for pure bending.

8) The beam is composed of infinite number of layers along its length. Each layer is free to

expand or contract independently of layer above or below to it.

9) The beam is initially straight and all longitudinal fibers bends in circular arc having

common centre of curvature.

The flexural stresses will be maximum at extreme fibers i.e. maximum compressive stress will

be at extreme fiber and maximum tensile stress will be at extreme tensile fiber.

fc = yc

ft = yt

a) The cross section is subjected to sagging bending moment for finding moment of

resistance. Moment of resistance is capacity of cross section to resist the bending

moment.

b) The moment of resistance cannot be changed for a cross section and is always same for

the cross section.

c) The applied moment should be less than the moment of resistance.

d) If permissible stress in tension and compression are different, than the moment carrying

capacity in tension and compression is to be found separately by considering

respectively extreme fiber stresses and smallest one is accounted as moment capacity

of cross section or moment of resistance of cross section.

SECTION MODULUS:

Z=

It is the ratio of moment of inertia about neutral axis to the distance of extreme fiber from neutral

axis.

3

I= 12

ymax = 2

z=y

max

3

12 2

z= = 6

2

3 3

I= -

12 12

ymax = 2

z=y

max

3 3

12 12

z=

2

3) Circular section:

4

I= 64

ymax = 2

z=y

max

z=y

max

4

64 3

z= = 32

2

4 4

I=

64 64

ymax = 2

z=y

max

4 4

64 64

z= = ( 4 -4 )

32

2

5) Triangular section:

3

I= 36

2

ymax = 3

z=y

max

3

36 2

z= 2 = 24

3

Numerical:

1) A beam having E = 2.9 105 N/mm2 is bent with radius of curvature 35 m under the effect

of bending moment of 6000 Nm. Calculate the moment of inertia of cross section.

2) A steel is bent into a circular arc of radius 10 m. If the plate section be 140 mm wide and

25 mm thick. Find the maximum stress induced and the bending moment which can

produce this stress. E = 2 x 105 N/mm2.

3) A cantilever beam is subjected to a force and a couple as shown in figure below. Determine

maximum tensile and compressive stress developed in beam and also draw the bending

stress distribution.

4) A cantilever beam of span 600 mm carries UDL of 6 kN/m from support to mid span. It

also carries a point load of 10 kN at the tip of cantilever. If the beam section is 50 mm wide

and 200 mm deep throughout the length. Determine maximum bending stress. Neglect the

self weight of beam.

5) Two 50 mm x 150 mm rectangular timber section are glued together to form a T section as

shown in Figure below. If a sagging bending moment of 6 kNm is applied to this beam at

the horizontal axis. Find the stresses at the extreme fiber.

6) A cantilever beam of length l and cross sectional area of side a is subjected to transverse

load of w per unit length. Find maximum bending stress in beam for the section as shown

in Figure below. Find the maximum bending stress of beam if cross section is placed as

shown in Figure B. Find relation between two stresses.

7) A timber beam of rectangular cross section of length 6 m is simply supported carries UDL

of 9kNm and point load of 20 kN at 4 m from left. If the depth is 2 times the width of beam

and bending stress is 6 N/mm2 find the suitable dimensions.

8) A rolled steel joist of I section has dimensions as shown in Figure below. This beam carries

an UDL of 50 kNm run over a span of 12 m, calculate the maximum stress produced due

to bending.

9) The cross section used in the figure is used as simply supported beam of span 5 m carrying

UDL of 15 kN/m. Find the stresses at a section which is at a distance of 1.5 m from any

support.

Numerical based on Moment of Resistance:

1) A grove in the form of triangle is cut symmetrically from a beam section as shown in figure

below. If the stress in bending is not to exceed 30 MPa. Find the safe UDL which the beam

can carry on a simply supported span of 4m.

size of timber. If permissible bending stress is 2 N/mm2.

3) Determine moment of resistance of a T section having flange 75 mm x 15 mm and web 10

mm x 130 mm. Take bending stress 160 N/mm2.

CHAPTER 5

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Content:

Derivation of Torsion Formula

Concept of Torsional Rigidity

Power transmitted by shaft

Numricals

Centroidal

Sr. No. Section Area Distance Ixx IYY

1 bd 3 3

2 2 12 12

Theory Questions:

1) Draw shear stress distribution diagrams for following sections and show important values:

a. Rectangle section

b. Triangular section

c. Circular section

d. I-Section

e. T-section

2) Sketch the general shear stress profile for following Rectangle section and T section. (04)

3) Give the equation of shear stress with details of each term in it. (03)

4) The shear force acting on a beam at a section is F. The section of the beam is triangular

having base B and of an altitude h. The beam is placed with its base horizontal. Find

maximum shear stress and shear stress at NA. (14)

Sr. Cross section Shear stress qmax qavg qat

No. Distribution y

1. Rectangular Section

2. Circular Section

3. Triangular Section

Shear stress (q):

Figure1

q=

q=

Where,

A = moment of the area of the section about the level under consideration

Table 1:

No Distribution

Diagram

SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION FOR DIFFERENT CROSS SECTIONS:

1) RECTANGULAR SECTION:

(Shear stress) q =

1

( ) (+ )

2 2 2

q=

q = 2 ( 2 ) ( + 2 )

2

q = 2I ( 4 2 )

2 2

At neutral axis (y = 0), q = 2I ( 4 ) = 8I

2 12 2

q= = = 1.5

8I 8 3

q = 1.5

2 2

At top, (y = 2 ), q = (4 )=0

2I 4

Numerical:

1) A rectangular section 230 mm and 580 mm is subjected to shear force of 35 kN. Determine

the average shear stress and Maximum shear stress.

2) The average shear stress (qavg) at a section of simply supported beam of 150 mm X 380

mm is 0.45 N/mm2. Dteremine:

a. Shear stress in section.

b. Maximum shear stress.

c. Shear stress at a point on a section located at 35 mm above NA and 75 mm below

NA

3) A wooden beam 100 mm wide and 150 mm deep is simply supported over a span of 4 m.

If shear force at a section of beam is 4500 N, Find the shear stress at a distance of 25 mm

above NA.

4) A rectangular section 100 mm wide and 250 mm deep is subjected to a Maximum shear

force of 50 kN.

a. average shear stress (qavg)

b. Maximum shear stress.

c. Shear stress at a point on a section located of 25 mm above NA (Dec 2010) (10)

5) A beam of square section is used as a beam with one diagonal horizontal. The beam is

subjected to shear force (F) at a section. Find the maximum shear stress in the cross-section

of the beam and draw the shear stress distribution diagram for the beam.

2) TRIANGULAR SECTION:

The shear force acting on a beam at a section is F. The section of the beam is triangular having

base B and of an altitude h. The beam is placed with its base horizontal. Find maximum shear

stress and shear stress at NA. (14)

(Shear stress) q =

A = moment of the area of the section about the level under consideration

1 2

A = 2 x 3 (h-x)

1 2

A =3 (h-x)

b=

1 2

F (hx)

3

q=

I

1 ()

q=3

q = 3 (xh x2)

q (x = 0) = 0

q (x = h) = 0

2 22 42 22 2 2 8

q (NA) (x = ) = 3 ( ) = 3 = 27 = 3

3 3 9 9

To get maximum shear stress, differentiating following equation with respect to x ane equating

to zero.

q = 3 (xh x2)

(3 (xh x 2 )) = 0

(h 2x) = 0

3

h = 2x

x=2

2 2

q = 3 ( 2 )

4

2

q = 12

3

qmax =

Note: The shear stress is not maximum at the NA, but it is maximum at a depth of 2 from the top.

In all other cases the shear stress will be maximum at the NA.

Numerical:

section where base width 150 mm and height 450 mm. Determine:

a. Horizontal shear stress at NA

b. The distance from the top of the beam where shear stress is maximum and

c. Value of maximum shear stress.

The distance from the top of the beam where shear stress is maximum

CHAPTER 6

COMPOSITE BEAMS

(Flitched Beams / Bending stresses in composite Beams)

Content:

Introduction

Flitched Beam

Modular Ratio ( m )

Concept of Equivalent cross section

Moment of Resistant to Flitched Beams

Theory Questions:

2) Define the term: Flitched Beam (02)

3) Explain the term: Moment of Resistance(03)

Introduction:

A section made up of two or more material joined together in such a way that they behave like a

single piece & each material cross section bends to the same radius of curvature. Such beams are

used when a beam of one material required is of large cross section which does not suite for the

space available.

Hence one material is reinforced with another material of higher strength in order to reduce the

cross section of the beam. This is known as Composite Section.

Definition:

A beam made up of two or more different materials assumed to be rigidly connected together &

behaving like a single piece is known as composite beam or wooden Flitched Beam.

The total moment of resistance of composite section will be equal to the sum of moment of

Resistance of Individual cross sections. Other examples of Composite beams are shown below.

Let at a distance y from N.A the stresses in steel & wood are &

We know,

= (e = )

= x

=m x (m = =Modular ratio)

Using =

M. R = x I

M.R = x I

= x I

& = x I

M.R = +

M.R = x I + x I (of whole section)

M.R = x I + x I

M.R = (mI + I )

= mI + I

M= x (Equivalent section made up of wooden material)

Note:

I = mI + I

2) The composite section can be converted into equivalent section by multiplying the

dimensions of material of steel in the direction parallel to N.A. by m.

Numerical:

1) A flitched beam consists of a wooden joist 150mm wide & 300 mm deep strengthened by

a steel plate 12 mm thick &300 mm deep on either side of the joist is 7 N /mm 2,Find the

corresponding max stress attained in steel. Find the moment of resistance of the complete

section. = 2 x 105 N/mm2 & = 1 x 104 N/mm2

2) A timber beam 75 mm wide and 200 mm deep has 2 steel plates 8 mm thick and 160 mm

deep symmetrically attached to it on either side to form composite beam section. If the

maximum bending stress in timber is 8 MN/m2 find corresponding stress in steel and

moment of resistance. Es = 20 Ew.

3) A flitched beam consists of a wooden joist 100 mm wide & 200 mm deep, strengthened by

two steel plates 10 mm thick & 200 mm deep as shown in fig below. If the max stress in

wooden joist is 7 N/mm2. Find the corresponding Max stress attained in steel. Also find

the moment of resistance of composite section. Es=2 x 105 N/mm2 and Ew = 1 x 104 N/mm2.

CHAPTER 7

TORSION

Content:

- Derivation of Torsion Formula

- Concept of Torsional Rigidity

- Power transmitted by shaft

- Numricals

Theory Questions:

Definition of Torsion:

A torsional moment may be defined as resultant moment about polar or longitudinal axis to the

right or left of the section is known as torsional moment or twisting moment. When a tangential

force is applied to a shaft at the circumference of its transverse cross section, the shaft is said to be

subjected to twisting moment.

When prism bar is subjected to equal and opposite couple acting on two parallel planes at right

angles to the axis of bar, the cross section twists relative to each other and is said to be subjected

to torsion.

Definition of Shaft:

A member subjected to torsion is known as shaft. A circular shaft is used for power

transmission is an example of bar subjected to torsion.

2) The shaft is straight and uniform throughout the section.

3) The shaft material is homogeneous and isotropic.

4) Plane section remains plane after twisting.

5) Radius of cross section remains plane after twisting.

6) The twisting moment applied in planes which are perpendicular to the axis of shaft.

7) The torsional stresses are well below the proportional limit of the material.

Consider a shaft of length L and radius R with one end fixed and subjected to torque T as

shown in Figure

Consider the deformation of line AB on surface of shaft. The cross section is distorted by angle

and line AB is distorted by angle .

Shear strain =

= = ---------------- (1)

= G

= ---------------- (2)

=

G

=

G

=

---------------- (I)

Consider point C at a distance r from the centriodal axis due to twisting moment, the point C

will be distorted by the same angle and we can write the same shear stress induce at point C.

CC

= =

r

=

Gr

=

G = Torsional Rigidity

Therefore torsion is directly proportional to the distance of fibre from centroidal axis. Further it

shoes that is zero at CA and maximum at extreme fibre of the shaft

= Stress x Area

= x a

dT = dF x r

= x a x r

= r x a x r

dT = a x 2

T = = a 2

=

a 2

T= J

G

=

G

= = ---------------- (II)

Numerical:

1) A shaft running at 3 Hz has to transmit 120 kW. The shaft must not be stressed beyond 60

N/mm2 and must not twist more than 10 in length of 2 m. Select suitable diameter. Take G

= 80 GPa.

2) A solid shaft 100 mm Dia. Transmit 100 kW at 80 rpm. Calculate max. shear stress and the

angle of twist if G = 80 GPA and L 9 m.

3) A hollow shaft 250 mm external dia. And 160 mm internal dia. Rotates at 25 Hz. What

power can be transmitted if thr permissible T = 80 N/mm2. Also calculate the angle of twist

in 10 m length of shaft. Consider G = 80 GPa.

CHAPTER 9 (a)

THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

Content:

Introduction

circumferential stress

Longitudinal stress

circumferential strain

Longitudinal strain

Volumetric strain

Wire wound thin cylinders

Thin cylinder when Thickness of shell 20, where d is internal diameter

INTRODUCTION:

In day to day life we come across cylindrical tanks containing fluids like boiler, pipes, and steel

pipes tec. The cylinder which is having metal thickness very small as compared to its diameter is

known as thin cylindrical shell. For thin cylindrical shell, the thickness should be less than or equal

1

to 20 of its internal diameter.

Whenever the cylindrical shell is empty it is subjected t atmospheric pressure from inside as well

as outside. Hence, the resultant pressure is zero.

When the shell is subjected to internal pressure, its wall is subjected tensile stresses. The failure

of thin cylindrical shells may be in two ways. It may split in two through or into two cylinders.

When the thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal pressure the walls are subjected to two types

of stress i.e.

2) Longitudinal stress

1) Circumferential (Hoop) stress (fc):

The stress which acts in tangential directional to the circumference of cylinder is known as fc.

Consider a thin cylindrical shell subjected to an internal pressure P having internal diameter d

and length L and thickness t.

fc =

2) Longitudinal stress (fc):

Bursting Force = Pressure x area = P x d2 x 4 -------- (1)

fL = f c =

ec =

ec =

ec = (1 )

= ec x d

Volumetric strain:

4 4 3

V = 3 r3 = 3 ( 2 )

3

V= 6

32

=

6

3l

ev = = = 3 ec

d

ev = 3 (1 )

= ec x d

CYNDRICAL SHELLS

Numerical:

with fluid at atm pressure. If an additional 2000 mm3 of fluid is pumped into the cylinder,

find the pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall of the cylinder and hoop stress in the

section. Take E = 2 x 105 and = 0.3.

2) A cylindrical shell 1500 mm diameter, thickness of 12 mm, 4 m long is subjected to an

internal pressure, 2 N/mm2. Find the hoop stress and longitudinal stress induced in cell.

Further determine change in diameter of shell. Take E = 2 x 105 and = 0.3.

SPHERICAL SHELLS

Bursting Force = Pressure x projected area = P x d2 x 4 -------- (1)

Pd

fc = 4t

1

ft = 2 fc

Numerical:

incompressible fluid at atm pressure. Find the intensity of radial P exerted on wall of shell

if 2 x 103 mm3 of fluid is pumped in calculate hoop stress and .Take E = 2 x 105 and

= 0.25.

CHAPTER 9

STRAIN ENERGY

Content:

Strain energy

Strain energy due to: Axial Load

1) Gradually applied load

2) Suddenly applied load

3) Impact load

Strain energy due to

1) Bending Moment

2) Shear force

3) Torsional moment

Theory questions:

a. Proof Resilliance

b. Modulus of Resilliance:

2) What do you mean by Proof Resilliance? (03)

3) Obtain an expression for strain energy stored in a body when the load is applied with

impact. (13)

4) Explain the terms: (04)

a. Gradually applied load

b. Suddenly applied load

c. Impact load

5) Obtain an expression for strain energy stored in a body when the load is applied gradually.

(04)

6) Give the expression for strain energy due to axial force. (03)

7) Derive the equation of strain energy due to bending. (03)

Strain energy:

Whenever a body is strained, the energy absorbed by the body due to straining effect is known as

Strain energy

When the member is loaded, whether gradually or Suddenly or Impact, the bat deforms and work

is done. The material behaves like a perfect spring and oscillates about its mean position. If the

elastic limit is not exceeded this work stored in the member is Strain energy.

Resilliance:

The total Strain energy stored in the body is known as Resilliance. Whenever the applied force is

removed from the strained body, the body is capable of doing the work hence Resilliance can be

defined as the capacity of trained body for doing work on the removal of applied load.

Proof Resilliance:

It is defined as the maximum strain energy which can be stored by the body which can be stored

by the body without undergoing permanent deformation.

The energy stored in the body will be maximum when the body is stressed upto elastic limit.

Modulus of Resilliance:

When a member is subjected to axial load, it undergoes axial deformation. Also the resistance is

set up in the member gradually within the limit of proportionality the relation between resistance

set up and deformation is always linear.

1

= 2 l R

1

=2elA

1

=2eAl

1

=2eV

1

Strain energy u = Stress x Strain x Volume

2

1

=2V

1 2

=2 V

1

W = External Work done = 2 P l

1

SE = Internal work done = 2 R l

But W = SE u

1 1

P l = 2 R l

2

P l = R l

P=A

=

1

W = External Work done = 2 P l

1

SE = Internal work done = 2 R l

But W = SE u

1

P l = 2 R l

2P = A

2

=

Stress in this case is twice the stress induced in the body by gradually applied load.

c) Impact Load:

W = P (h + l)

1

u = 2 R l

2

u = 2 AL

But W = SE u

2

P (h + l) =2 AL

2

2 = (h + l)

2 2

2 = +

2 2 2

- - =0

By quadratic equation,

2 4 2 8

= 2 42 + 4

2

= 1 +

2

= [1 + 1 + ]

1) Bending Moment

2

u = 0

2

2) Shear force

3 2

u = 20

3) Torsional moment

a) Solid shaft:

2

U = 4 volume

b) Hollow shaft

2 2 + 2

U = 4 [ ]volume

2

Numerical:

intensity50 kN/m over the whole span. Find the strain energy stored due to bending if

Modulus of Elasticity is 2 x 105 N/mm2. (10) May 2014

9) A bar 100 cm in length is subjected to an axial pull, such that the maximum stress is equal

to 150 MN/m2. Its area of cross section is 2 cm2 over a length of 5 cm and for the middle

5 cm length it is only 1 cm2. If E = 200 GN/m2, Calculate the strain energy stored in bar.

(10)

10) A bar 100 cm in length is subjected to an axial pull, such that the maximum stress is equal

to 150 MN/m2. Its area of cross section is 2 cm2 over a length of 5 cm and for the middle

5 cm length it is only 1 cm2. If E = 200 GN/m2, Calculate the strain energy stored in bar.

(10)

11) A Beam 4 m long is simply supported at the ends and carries an UDL of 6 kN/m length.

Determine the SE stored in the beam. Take E = 200 GN/m2 and I = 1440 cm4.

12) For a beam of span L is simply supported at the ends and carries an UDL of w per unit

length. Determine the SE stored in the beam due to bending. (06)

13) A 300 mm long stepped bar A has a diameter 20 mm for a length of 100 mm and dia of

40 mm for remaining length. Another bar B made of same material gas dia of 30 mm

throughout the entire length of 300 mm. If the permissible stresses for the material are

same, compare the values of max SE stored in them. (10)

14) Calculate the resilience and resilience per unit volume of a bar 300 mm long, 50 mm wide

and 40 mm thick if a load of 100 kN was gradually applied to it. Take E = 200 GPa. (07)

15) Find the strain energy stored in the beam as shown in Fig. below.

16) A beam 4 m long simply supported at end and carries a UDL of 6 N/m. Determine strain

energy in beam. Take E = 200 GN/m2 and I = 1440 cm4.

ASSUMPTIONS OF LINEAR ELASTICITY

In order to evaluate the stresses, strains and displacements in an elasticity problem, one

needs to derive a series of basic equations and boundary conditions. Therefore, some basic

assumptions have to be made about the properties of the body considered to arrive at

possible solutions. The following are the assumptions in classical elasticity.

Here the whole volume of the body is considered to be filled with continuous

matter, without any void. Only under this assumption, can the physical quantities

in the body, such as stresses, strains and displacements, be continuously

distributed and thereby expressed by continuous functions of coordinates in space.

However, these assumptions will not lead to significant errors so long as the

dimensions of the body are very large in comparison with those of the particles and

with the distances between neighbouring particles.

shows the linear relations between the stress components and strain components.

Under this assumption, the elastic constants will be independent of the magnitudes

of stress and strain components.

In this case, the elastic properties are the same throughout the body. Thus, the

elastic constants will be independent of the location in the body. Under this

assumption, one can analyse an elementary volume isolated from the body and then

apply the results of analysis to the entire body.

Here, the elastic properties in a body are the same in all directions. Hence, the

elastic constants will be independent of the orientation of coordinate axes.

The displacement components of all points of the body during deformation are very

small in comparison with its original dimensions and the strain components and

the rotations of all line elements are much smaller than unity. Hence, when

formulating the equilibrium equations relevant to the deformed state, the lengths

and angles of the body before deformation are used. In addition, when

geometrical equations involving strains and displacements are formulated, the

squares and products of the small quantities are neglected. Therefore, these two

measures are necessary to linearize the algebraic and differential equations in

elasticity for their easier solution.

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