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TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment

UNITS COVERED:
TAEDES401A Design and develop learning programs
TAEDES402A Use training packages and accredited courses to meet client needs
TAELLN411 Address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills
TAEDEL401A Plan, organise and deliver group-based learning
TAEDEL402A Plan, organise and facilitate learning in the workplace
BSBCMM401A Make a presentation
TAEASS401B Plan assessment activities and processes
TAEASS502B Design and develop assessment tools
TAEASS402B Assess competence
TAEASS403B Participate in assessment validation

LEARNER GUIDE
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TAEDES401A DESIGN AND DEVELOP LEARNING PROGRAMS.................................................................................. 4


ELEMENT 1: Define the parameters of the learning program ...................................................................................... 4
ELEMENT 2: Work within the Vocational Education and Training (VET) policy framework ...................................... 11
ELEMENT 3: Develop program content ...................................................................................................................... 19
ELEMENT 4: Design the structure of the learning program ........................................................................................ 25
TAEDES402A USE TRAINING PACKAGES AND ACCREDITED COURSES TO MEET CLIENT NEEDS ............................... 41
ELEMENT 1: Select appropriate training package or accredited course& .................................................................. 41
ELEMENT 2: Analyse and interpret the qualifications framework.............................................................................. 41
ELEMENT 3: Analyse and interpret units of competency and accredited modules ................................................... 51
ELEMENT 4: Contextualise units and modules for client applications ....................................................................... 57
ELEMENT 5: Analyse and interpret assessment guidance .......................................................................................... 60
TAELLN411 ADDRESS ADULT LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND NUMERACY SKILLS ....................................................... 67
ELEMENT 1: Analyse LLN requirements ...................................................................................................................... 67
ELEMENT 2: Select and use resources and strategies to address LLN skill requirements .......................................... 72
ELEMENT 3: Use specialist LLN support where required ............................................................................................ 72
ELEMENT 4: Evaluate effectiveness of learning support and assessment strategies in addressing LLN requirements
.................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
TAEDEL401A PLAN, ORGANISE AND DELIVER GROUP-BASED LEARNING & BSBCMM401A MAKE A PRESENTATION
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 80
ELEMENT 1: Interpret learning environment and delivery requirements .................................................................. 80
ELEMENT 2: Prepare session plans ............................................................................................................................. 87
ELEMENT 3: Prepare resources for delivery ............................................................................................................... 91
ELEMENT 4: Deliver and facilitate training sessions ................................................................................................... 92
ELEMENT 5: Support and monitor learning ................................................................................................................ 95
TAEDEL402A PLAN, ORGANISE AND FACILITATE LEARNING IN THE WORKPLACE .................................................. 97
ELEMENT 1: Establish effective work environment for learning ................................................................................ 97
ELEMENT 2: Develop a work-based learning pathway ............................................................................................. 100
ELEMENT 3: Establish the learningfacilitation relationship& ................................................................................. 108
ELEMENT 4: Implement work-based learning pathway ........................................................................................... 108
ELEMENT 5: maintain and develop the learningfacilitation relationship ............................................................... 110
ELEMENT 6: Close and evaluate the learningfacilitation relationship .................................................................... 112
ELEMENT 7: Monitor and review the effectiveness of the work-based learning pathway ...................................... 113
TAEASS401B PLAN ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES & TAEASS502B DESIGN AND DEVELOP ASSESSMENT
TOOLS ............................................................................................................................................................. 116
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ELEMENT 1: Determine assessment approach ......................................................................................................... 116


ELEMENT 2: Prepare the assessment plan ............................................................................................................... 121
ELEMENT 3: Develop assessment tools .................................................................................................................... 127
TAEASS402B ASSESS COMPETENCE ................................................................................................................... 135
ELEMENT 1: Preparing for assessment ..................................................................................................................... 135
ELEMENT 2: Gathering quality evidence................................................................................................................... 136
ELEMENT 3: Support the candidate .......................................................................................................................... 137
ELEMENT 4: Make the assessment decision ............................................................................................................. 137
ELEMENT 5: Record and report the assessment decision ........................................................................................ 138
ELEMENT 6: Review the assessment process ........................................................................................................... 140
TAEASS403B PARTICIPATE IN ASSESSMENT VALIDATION................................................................................... 143
ELEMENT 1: Prepare for validation ........................................................................................................................... 143
ELEMENT 2: Contribute to the validation process .................................................................................................... 147
ELEMENT 3: Contribute to validation outcomes....................................................................................................... 151
IMPORTANT ACRONYMS FOR TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT .............................................................................. 153
REFERENCE LIST ............................................................................................................................................... 154

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TAEDES401A DESIGN AND DEVELOP LEARNING PROGRAMS

ELEMENT 1: Define the parameters of the learning program


When designing and developing a learning program we must first of all, determine who the learning program is for
and the purpose of the learning program.

Who is considered to be a stakeholder?


In general terms, stakeholders can be your clients, trainers, administration staff and industry experts.

A client is anyone who approaches you with a training need. Here are some examples of a client;
corporations, enterprises and business organisations or government departments or agencies individuals
who may be undertaking a traineeship or apprenticeship
internal clients from within your own organisation undertaking professional development training
candidates who are applying for recognition of prior learning (RPL) or recognition of current competency
(RCC) in a specific formal qualification. RPL and RCC are assessment methods used for people who already
have the skills required by a formal qualification, to acquire that qualification without having to do the actual
course. These assessment methods take into consideration a persons work experience, any qualifications
they may have, and compare them to the requirements of the qualification. If successful, the person is
granted the qualification

You must always seek input from relevant stakeholders in the design phase to ensure that the training complies with
all aspects of the organisations competency requirements as well as the learners training needs.

Determining the purpose of a learning program


Once you have solid understanding of the learning program purpose, you can start to select the delivery and
assessment methods.

According to Hill, Hill and Perlitz (2010), the purpose of the program may determine:
what topics need to be included
how the learning will be delivered
what assessment methods will be used
the range and depth of knowledge to be imparted

For example, If the training program goal is to teach workers to operate a forklift this will impact on the training
program in that you would need to include a practical assessment to assess the learners competency level.

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There are many reasons why an organisation or individual may need or wish to undertake a learning program. Here
are some common reasons:
undertaking an apprenticeship or traineeshipthis involves on-the-job training over an extended period of
time with a trainer visiting the learner at regular intervals to provide the formal training in accordance with
the approved units of competency
refreshing or updating current skills to ensure that staff continue to work to the desired standards; this may
be a simple matter of highlighting information or reminding learners of policies, procedures or product and
service facts
learning a new skill or procedureto improve employability skills or to enable staff to meet the required
work standards; this may involve providing in-depth and/or complex information
professional development (PD) trainingas part of the organisations ongoing staff development and/or to
comply with government legislation dealing with staff competency standards
developing vocational competencyfor people who wish to pursue a nationally recognised qualification
developing language, literacy and numeracy skills (LLN)to assist staff who may have difficulties for a
variety of reasons
meeting legislation, licensing or registration requirements, such as work health and safety (WHS)
requirements
taking corrective actionwhere staff are not performing to the required standards and additional training is
necessary

Once you have established who your client is and the purpose for the learning program, the next step is to
determine the learning requirements with the stakeholders (Hill, Hill, &Perlitz, 2010). The stakeholders involved in
these discussions could include:
the person to be trainedso that you can get an idea of their:
- current competency level
- learning style, to structure the learning program to their benefit
- general attitude towards work and training
- future aspirations
the learners supervisorso that you can:
- get their opinion of the learners current competency (rememberwhat a person thinks they can do and
what they can actually do may not necessarily be the same thing and it is important to get an outside
opinion)
- get specific information about how things should be done in their department and the standards to
which they expect work to be carried out
the organisations managementso that you can:
- get a picture of where the training will fit in with the organisations overall staff policies
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- learn about company standards, policies and procedures that may need to be included in the training
- determine the parameters of the training requirements. This could include discussions about:
o timeframes for training location of training
o costs and other resources required scale of the trainingwill it encompass an entire
qualification, or only a few units from a qualification and so on?
the organisations training manager (if applicable) to discuss the learners past history and training strategy
for the future

Issues to be discussed at this stage could include (but are not limited to):
Why does the client need your help?
What are their requirements and priorities?
Are there any constraints, such as budgets, timeframes and locations?
Are there any other stakeholders and, if so, who are they?
Who is the target group for the learning program?
What skills and knowledge need to be developed?
Where are the learners located?
Will the training take place:
- on the job during working hours?
- at a location away from the workplace?
Will you need to be aware of:
- national standards, codes of practice, and Commonwealth and state/territory legislation, including
licensing requirements, industrial relations requirements and WHS obligations?
- business or industry knowledge specific to the training needs?
- training packages and their competency standards?

Other issues to consider when developing a learning program for a client include;
Licensing issueswhere there are laws governing business practices in specific industries
Duty of careall business establishments are responsible for the health and safety of staff and customers on
their premises. Safety precautions must be in place.
Anti-discrimination and equal opportunity lawsthese must be observed in all dealings with a client.
National codes of practicethese are often developed by industry councils and represent codes that
organisations within that industry must adhere to.
Organisational policies and procedures should be incorporated into learning programs where appropriate.
When training is to be given on specific products or services, it may be necessary to involve supervisors or
specialists in the learning program to ensure that the information is delivered correctly.

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Expected outcome
When developing a learning program it must be very clear, from the start, what outcome is expected from the
learning, as well as how the outcome will be measured. It is imperative that you ask the following questions:
What must learners, as a minimum, be able to do as a result of the training?
How will learners be assessed as to whether they can now perform the new task to the required standards?
How will you ensure that the outcome is achieved?
Will the learning program incorporate an entire qualification (i.e. result in a Certificate or Diploma) or will
the program use only one or two subjects that fulfil the specific purpose of the training?
How will the learning impact on the organisations productivity?
How will the learning impact on the learners career path within the company/industry?

Confirming competency standards


In the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) system, training is competency based. It is essential that
you confirm the competency standards with stakeholders to ensure that the learning activity or task is meeting the
organisational or legislative requirements for that chosen industry. Competence is assessed on a persons ability to
demonstrate the skills and knowledge they need to perform their tasks effectively and efficiently.

In brief, the Australian VET system offers nationally recognised qualifications through the use of formal training
packages, each of which is made up of a number of different qualifications (Certificate courses). Each qualification
contains a number of units of competency. Each unit of competency contains competency standards.

Competency standards refer to the elements, performance criteria, required skills, required knowledge,
performance evidence, knowledge evidence, foundation skills and critical aspects for assessment that must be
addressed in the learning program. Candidates are often assessed against these competency standards because they
are the national benchmarks for the chosen industry.

Adult Learning Principles


Part of being an effective educator involves understanding how adults learn best. In the 1970s, Malcolm Knowles, an
American theorist of adult education, identified the following six principles of adult learning:
1. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
2. Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences
3. Adults are goal-oriented
4. Adults are relevancy-oriented
5. Adults are practical
6. Adult learners like to be respected

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How can I use adult learning principles to facilitate student learning on placement? Good question! In this section of
the chapter we will discuss some ways to facilitate learning by applying Knowles' Adult Learning Principles.

1. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed


Adult learners resist learning when they feel others are imposing information, ideas or actions on them. Your role is
to facilitate a students' movement toward more self-directed and responsible learning as well as to foster the
student's internal motivation to learn.
As a trainer you can:
Set up a graded learning program that moves from more to less structure, from less to more responsibility
and from more to less direct supervision, at an appropriate pace that is challenging yet not overloading for
the student
Develop rapport with the student to optimise your approachability and encourage asking of questions and
exploration of concepts.
Show interest in the student's thoughts and opinions.
Actively and carefully listen to any questions asked.
Lead the student toward inquiry before supplying them with too many facts.
Provide regular constructive and specific feedback (both positive and negative),
Review goals and acknowledge goal completion
Encourage use of resources such as library, journals, internet and other department resources.
Set projects or tasks for the student that reflects their interests and which they must complete and "tick off"
over the course of the placement. For example: to provide an in-service on topic of choice; to present a case-
study based on one of their clients; to design a client educational handout; or to lead a client group activity
session.
Acknowledge the preferred learning style of the student. A questionnaire is provided below that will assist
your student to identify their preferred learning style and to discuss this with you.

2. Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences


Adult learners should be given opportunity to use their existing knowledge and life experiences. As a trainer you can:
Find out your learners interests and past experiences (personal, work and study related)
Assist them to draw on those experiences when problem-solving, reflecting and applying clinical reasoning
processes
Facilitate reflective learning opportunities which can also assist the student to examine existing biases or
habits based on life experiences and move them toward a new understanding of information presented

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3. Adults are goal oriented


Adult students are ready to learn when they experience a need to learn in order to cope with real-life tasks or
problems. Your role is to facilitate a student's readiness for problem-based learning and increase the student's
awareness of the need for the knowledge or skill presented. As a trainer, you can:
Provide meaningful learning experiences that are clearly linked to personal, client and fieldwork goals as well
as assessment and future life goals.
Provide real case-studies (through client contact and reporting) as a basis from which to learn about the
theory.
Ask questions that motivate reflection, inquiry and further research.

4. Adults are relevancy oriented


Adult learners want to know the relevance of what they are learning to what they want to achieve. One way to help
them see the value of their observations and practical experiences throughout their placement is to:
Ask the student to do some reflection on what they expect to learn prior to the experience, on what they
learnt after the experience and how they might apply what they learnt in the future, or how it will help them
to meet their learning goals.
Provide some choice of fieldwork project by providing two or more options, so that learning is more likely to
reflect the student's interests.

5. Adults are practical


Through practical fieldwork experiences, interacting with real clients and their real life situations, students move
from classroom and textbook mode to hands-on problem solving where they can recognise firsthand how their
learning applies to the work context. As a trainer you can:
Clearly explain your clinical reasoning when making choices about assessments, interventions and when
prioritising client's clinical needs.
Be explicit about how what the student is learning is useful and applicable to the job and client group you
are working with.
Promote active participation by allowing students to try things rather than observe. Provide plenty of
practice opportunity in assessment, interviewing, and intervention processes with ample repetition in order
to promote development of skill, confidence and competence.

6. Adult learners like to be respected


Respect can be demonstrated by:
Acknowledging the wealth of experiences that the student brings to the placement
Regarding the adult learner as a colleague who is equal in life experience
Encouraging expression of ideas, reasoning and feedback at every opportunity
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Accessing competency standards


Depending on whether the learning program is based upon a formal training package leading to a nationally
recognised qualification and is competency based, or is based upon internal organisational requirements,
competency standards can be accessed in a number of ways. For example:
VET competency standards can, primarily, be found on the Commonwealth Governments Training.gov.au
website <http://training.gov.au> or in the printed versions of the relevant training package. These will detail
how a qualification is packaged, the units of competency that must be included and the benchmarks or
standards attached to each unit.

Characteristics of the target learner group


The next step is to clearly define your target learner group. This involves identifying their learning needs and
determining how they will benefit from these new skills and competencies.

Important questions to ask include;


Are they already in the workforce - who might have constraints on their time?
Are they school graduates - who may have a limited knowledge of the business world?
Are they special target groups - who have very specific training needs?
Are they already experienced in certain fields of business - who may need a refresher course?
Are they apprentices or trainees whose learning program may be delivered on the job over a few years?
Are they individuals learning new skills and knowledge or who wish to upgrade skills and knowledge?
Are they individuals who wish to change their career path or prospects?
Are they unemployed people who wish to improve their employability skills?
Are they individuals on specialised learning programs, such as people with disabilities or Indigenous
Australians?
Are they learners from other countries who wish to study in the Australian VET system?
Are they individuals or groups needing to meet licensing or other regulatory requirements?

Once you have identified your target group, you need to analyse their characteristics. For example;
What is their level and previous experiences of formal education?
What is their current skill or competency level?
What is the level and breadth of their current and past work experience?
What is their cultural background?
Do they have any special needs that are physical or psychological?
What are their reasons and motivations for participating in the learning program
Do they have language, literacy and numeracy issues?
Do they have preferred learning styles?
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To summarise, when designing a learning program it is important to;


clarify the purpose of the program with relevant stakeholders
access and confirm the competency standards to be met
identify the characteristics of the group to be trained

ELEMENT 2: Work within the Vocational Education and Training (VET) policy framework

An overview of VET in Australia


Nationally recognised training in Australia is governed by very strict standards and all registered training
organisations (RTOs) and trainers working under an RTO are required to comply with these standards. This section
will explore the policies and frameworks of the VET industry.

Please take the time to read about the Standards for Registered Training Organisations 2015 set by the Australian
Skills Quality Authority (ASQA).

Policies and procedures set by national organisations


The most important policies and frameworks are those set by the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), COAG
and ASQA. It is the Standards for Registered Training Organisations 2015 that all registered training organisations will
be audited against if they are looking to provide nationally recognised training.

The policies, frameworks and governing bodies under the VET system are highlighted in Table 1.

Table 1. Policies, frameworks and governing bodies of the VET system


Australian Skills The Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA) is the national regulator for Australias
Quality Authority vocational education and training sector. ASQA regulates courses and training providers to
(ASQA) ensure nationally approved quality standards are met. ASQAs vision is that students,
employers and governments have full confidence in the quality of vocational education and
training outcomes delivered by Australian registered training organisations. ASQA is
committed to: independence in our regulatory role and in providing advice transparency in
our regulatory decisions and activities collaboration with industry bodies, employers,
governments and registered training organisations.
Source: www.asqa.gov.au
Council of On the April 3, 2014 the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Industry and Skills
Australian Council agreed to streamline governance arrangements and committees and involve industry
Governments in policy development and oversight of the performance of the VET sector. The objectives of
(COAG ) COAG include;

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Examining the standards for providers and regulators to ensure they better recognise the
different level of risk posed by providers
Enabling the regulators to deal more effectively with poor quality in the sector to
improve confidence
Meeting Australian Government deregulation objectives
Reducing the burden on the VET sector arising from the constant updates to training
packages; and
Ensuring that industry is involved in policy development and oversight of the
performance of the VET
Source: www.coag.gov.au
Industry Skills Industry Skills Councils play a vital role in the identification of the skilling needs within their
Council (ISC) specific industries. It is important that ISCs are in touch with all aspects of their industry so
that they are able to determine what training is needed, and how learning programs should
be structured.

Industry Skills Councils are:


recognised and funded by the Australian Government
governed by independent, industry led boards
not-for-profit companies limited by guarantee
Source: www.isc.org.au
Registered A registered training organisation (RTO) is an organisation that has satisfied the standards
Training set by ASQA. RTOs will have at least one training package on their scope. They may apply
Organisation for extension to their scope at any time, provided they can show they have qualified
(RTO) teachers and training and assessment methods to deliver training in that scope. RTOs can be:
a private RTO a Technical and Further education organisation (TAFE) an organisation working
in partnership with an RTO to provide recognised training and assessment services an
organisation that provides non-recognised training and assessment services
Source: www.asqa.gov.au
Australian Australian Apprenticeship Centres administer the registration and monitoring of apprentices
Apprenticeship and trainees. They ensure that employers and apprentices receive all incentives that may
Centres (AACs) apply. Key functions include;
Provide assistance to employers, Australian Apprentices and training providers
throughout the duration of the Australian Apprenticeship
Market and promote Australian Apprenticeships in the local area
Administer incentive payments to employers and personal benefits to Australian
Apprentices

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Work with the State and Territory Training Authorities to provide an integrated service
Establish effective relationships with Job Services Australia providers, Group Training
Organisations, Registered Training Organisations (RTOs), schools and community
organisations
Source: www.australianapprenticeships.gov.au
Australian The AQF provides the standards for Australian qualifications. It is an integrated policy that
Qualifications comprises:
Framework The learning outcomes for each AQF level and qualification type
(AQF) The specifications for the application of the AQF in the accreditation and development of
qualifications
The policy requirements for issuing AQF qualifications
The policy requirements for qualification linkages and student pathways
The policy requirements for the registers of:
- organisations authorised to accredit AQF qualifications
- organisations authorised to issue AQF qualifications
- AQF qualifications and qualification pathways
The policy requirements for the addition or removal of qualification types in the AQF,
and
The definitions of the terminology used in the policy.
Source: www.aqf.edu.au
Training Package A training package is a set of nationally endorsed standards and qualifications used to
recognise and assess the skills and knowledge people need to perform effectively in the
workplace. Training packages are a key resource for RTOs in the delivery of structured,
national training. Training packages are developed by the AQF, together with national ISCs or
by enterprises, to meet the identified training needs of specific industries or industry sectors.
The purpose of a training package is to:
enable qualifications to be awarded through the direct assessment of competencies
encourage the development and delivery of training to suit individual needs
encourage learning in a workplace environment
provide a pool of potential employees who meet nationally recognised standards of
competence in a particular area

For example, units of competency, qualifications and skill sets all fall under a particular
training package.
Source: www.training.gov.au

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training.gov.au Training.gov.au is an online information system that stores all information regarding VET
(TGA) qualifications. It holds detailed information on all RTOs, training packages, accredited
courses, qualifications and units of competencyeach of which can be searched for using
the appropriate course or unit codes. This is an excellent source of information when
determining which units to include in a clients learning program as it outlines the exact
elements, performance criteria, essential skills and knowledge, as well as assessment
guidelines for each given unit.
Source: www.training.gov.au

An overview of the Australian Vocational Education system

ASQA

TGA AQF ISC

NCVER COAG

RTO

LEARNERS

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How to use the www.training.gov.au website


It is a good practice to check the www.training.gov.au website on a regular basis to see if there are any updates or
changes to a training package.

Step 1
On the home page you will need to select the National Register of VET and this will re-direct you to the
training.gov.au website.

Once you are re-directed to the web page below, you will have the option to search for Nationally Recognised
Training courses. For this exercise we will search for a business qualification.
Please type the word business into the search box.
Remember to deselect the checkbox include superseded data.

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Step 2

Open the list of Qualifications and select the BSB20115 code which is for the Certificate II in Business. Always make
sure that the qualification is listed as Current in the right hand column.

Step 3

Scroll down the page and find the Content section. Here you are able to download the training package in WORD or
PDF format. For this exercise, please click on the WORD version.

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Step 4

Once the document is open it will look like the one below. As you read through the document you will find useful
information such as the modification history, qualification description, licensing and regulatory information, entry
requirements, the packaging rules and any qualification mapping information.

Helpful tip

The training package developer for this qualification can be found in the footer of the document. For this exercise,
the training package developer is Innovation and Business Skills Australia.

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Filter your search results


Please note that you can also filter your search results by selecting one or more of the options listed.

Keeping with the business example, if you are looking for an accredited course in the business industry you will need
to click on the SEARCH tab and select the Accredited course units/modules option only (see below).

The search results will only display the accredited courses within the business services industry (see below).
To find out more about the structure of an accredited course you will need to research the RTOs website.

Please note that this was adapted from the www.training.gov.au website on June 1, 2015.

Changes to training packages and accredited courses


Training packages and accredited courses are reviewed regularly to ensure that learners are being trained and
assessed the most current standards. Here, the AQF and ISCs will review the packaging rules, the unit selection list
and make their adjustments as required.

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So a trainer must maintain a sound and up-to-date knowledge of their specific industry and area of expertise, as well
as a current awareness of the training packages upon which their learning programs are based. Up-to-date
information can be found by regularly viewing the ISC websites.

Quality management system (QMS)


As you are aware, an RTO should have a QMS in place. A quality management system contains information about;
the companys policies and procedures that are required for smooth business operation
documents and version control to ensure the latest resources are being utilised
staff professional development activities and records
all assessment tools and marking guides (benchmarks)
validation and moderation procedures
RPL and RCC processes and strategies

Please note that all registered training organisations must keep a record of all assessment tools for up to 30 years for
audit purposes. Failure to do so, will result in a non- compliance report being issued by ASQA.

ELEMENT 3: Develop program content


There are a number of considerations that can influence the design phase of a training program. These include but
are not limited to;

Organisational
Policies and
Procdeures

Organisational Industry
culture benchmarks

Industry Legal
terminology requirements

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Learning Objectives
Learning objectives (or outcomes) should be clearly documented when promoting a training program, course or
workshop. It is important that the objectives include statements about knowledge, skills, attitudes and what the
learner will know after they have attended the training. Learning objectives are a way to measure progress made by
the learner during the training. A clear learning objective ensures the trainer knows what is to be delivered, how to
measure the results and leaves little room for ambiguity. Learning objectives needs to be clearly written to avoid
discrepancies and should follow the SMART acronym outlined below.
S Specific - The learning objective needs to be written using words that indicate specific actions
M Measurable - The objective must be written in such a way that it can be measured to determine
if it has been achieved
A Achievable - The outcome should be attainable
R Relevant - The outcome needs to be relevant to the target group and their learning needs
T Timely - The objective can be reached within a reasonable time frame

Example of a SMART learning outcome;


By the end of the 2-day session the learns will be able to touch type using all fingers at a rate of 40 words per
minute (wpm) with an accuracy rate of 95%

Developing program content


When composing a course or workshop, trainers need to consider the following;
1. What are the learning goals and outcomes?
Research and suggest an appropriate training package (e.g. unit of competency, qualification or
accredited course)
Analyse the unit aspects and determine if it is applicable to the learners needs
2. Is there a learning gap?
Compare the job description against the learners current skill and knowledge level
Talk to the supervisor about the learners work performance levels
Find out if the learner is meeting their key performance indicators
3. Which adult learning principles are applicable?
Research which resources or materials will inspire and engage the learner
E.g. industry handouts, videos, textbooks, guest speakers/experts
4. Who are the relevant stakeholders?
Gather feedback from relevant stakeholders about the training package, learning outcomes, resource
selection
E.g. supervisor, employment agency, Australian Apprenticeship Centre
Developing new resources
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Trainers have a few options available to them when composing content for a training program. These include;
Developing their own content based on industry research and knowledge (e.g. training.gov.au)
Purchasing content from a provider of learning materials (e.g. industry skills councils)
Using organisational content, policies and procedures
Consulting with industry experts, colleagues and staff

Examples of learning resources


Learning resources include but are not limited to;
Handouts such as fact sheets, PowerPoint slide sheets, forms and document
Templates such as a risk assessment report or work-related reports
Manuals such as staff handbooks, WHS and/or other policy and procedure documents
Work books that learners can use to make notes and complete tasks and activities
Textbooks produced by publishers that provide full details on a given subject

Examples of learning activities


Learning activities include but are not limited to;
Group work and presentations
Research project paper
Written and oral quiz
Workplace reporting and documentation
Brainstorming exercises
Case studies and simulated scenarios
Experiments and practical demonstrations

Adult Learning Styles


Learning styles need to be considered to encourage maximum participation and knowledge transfer amongst adult
learners. The way in which an adult absorbs and processes information can have a direct effect on how much they
enjoy the training session. For this reason it is a good idea to try to incorporate activities that accommodate as many
different learning styles as possible.

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The three most commonly referred to are Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic. A brief description of each learning style
can be found below:
Visual learners -prefer to see what is going on around them. for example, they enjoy reading, using words
such as see, appear, look and imagine
Good speller
Fast reader
Remembers faces but not names
Not good at remembering small details
Auditory learners - prefer to hear what is going on rather than read. They enjoy lectures, stories, music and
audio material.
Good at languages
Remembers names better than faces
Good vocabulary
Can follow spoken directions well
Kinesthetic learners - prefer to do things and apply themselves to an activity. For example, they enjoy games,
teamwork, demonstrations and practical exercises
Naturally good athlete
Good performer (acting, speaking or coaching)

What motivates learners?


Motivation can be internal or external for the learner and can be provided by the subject matter or trainer.

External motivators include;


To increase status
To earn more money
For rewards
To get a promotion

Internal motivators include;


The desire to further understand a subject
Self directed learning
Feeling independent
A sense of achievement

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Actual content of the subject matter


The following questions should be considered when determining what the actual content of the subject matter
should be;
Does the learning material cover the learning objectives or critical aspects of the Training Package?
Does the trainer require assistance from an industry expert to develop the learning material?
How will the learning material be provided to the learners? (e.g. workbooks, Power Point slides)
How will the trainer engage the learners?

Once the learning resources have been identified or developed they need to be evaluated to determine the
relevance to the content. There is little point in developing learning resources that do not achieve the learning
objectives. An effective way to do this is to ask a colleague or industry expert to check the resources, run a trial
training program and use a resource checklist. Below is a sample of a resource checklist that may be helpful.

SAMPLE: Resource checklist


Resource Relevant to the training program
Handouts Are they easy to reproduce?
Will there be any copyright issues?
E.g. if newspaper clippings then you need to reference the source.
Case studies, role plays and These may need to be adapted for each different learning group. Do they need
simulations to be more up to date to cater to the new group?
Case studies could be out dated check to make sure they are current.
Training package and Check that the Training Package has not been superseded by a newer version
competency standards
Equipment Always test for faults. Check globes on projectors, USB ports, laptops etc

Assessment Methods
Methods of assessment can include;
role playwhere a fictitious situation is created for learners to act out the required skills and knowledge
scenariowhere, again, a situation is created and learners must explain how they would handle that
situation
project/case studywhere learners are required to research a subject, answer questions, produce reports
and draw conclusions
observationwhere the learner is observed, on the job, carrying out specific duties in line with the
competencies of the learning program
third-party reportwhere supervisors or mentors, on the job, prepare a report on the learners activities
and competencies in given tasks
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portfolioa collection of important and useful information that learners can use on the job for their entire
working lives
vocational placement scheme (VPS)this is similar to work experience but learners are assessed on the
job, whereas with work experience they are not written examination questions

The assessment methods you use will depend on the type of training delivered, as well as where it is delivered. This
is outlined below.

demonstration of skills and knowledge where the


learner will perform specific tasks
observation checklists where the trainer/assessor
Workplace watches the learner during the course of their day,
checking off competencies as they are demonstrated
oral questioningwhere the trainer/assessor asks
specific questions relating to given tasks

role playing simulated situations so that competencies in


such things as communication skills can be assessed
projects and case studies, where learners are required to
research information and draw conclusions
Classroom scenarios, where learners are presented with a situation
and asked how they would deal with this situation
written examination questions that test a learners
knowledge on a given subject

projects and case studies


Distance case scenarios
written examination questions

Assessment tools that are often used to assess competence include;


observation/role play checklist
case study questions
short answer test
written and/or verbal exams
portfolio of evidence
third-party workplace reports of on-the-job performance by the candidate

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ELEMENT 4: Design the structure of the learning program


The last step in the design process is to develop a training and assessment strategy (TAS) which outlines (among
other things) the target audience, the purpose of the learning program, how it will be delivered, how competency
will be assessed, the qualifications of the trainer delivering the program and the stakeholders in the program. A TAS
can be altered to suit different program designs such as online training, classroom training and workplace training by
adjusting the assessment methods, delivery mode and resources required to deliver the training. For example, the
structure of an online course is different to that of a classroom-based course for the following reasons;
trainer support is offered through email and telephone correspondence
electronic resources are offered instead of hard-copy text
written feedback is provided in the assessment document
re-submissions is a normal part of the online learning process
there is no need to attend face-to-face sessions or lectures
the learning process is self-paced

Breaking down the learning content


If the content of a learning program is too complex to deliver you will need to break down the tasks and subjects
into manageable components. By doing this, the learning process can build up gradually.

Example 1.1 Training Package for a unit of competency


In this example, we will use a unit of competency from a formal training package: BSBSLS408 Present, secure and
support sales solutions. Although this unit has three elements, for the purpose of this example we will examine only
the first one. Element 1 states that the learner must be able to prepare for sales presentation so this will form the
first topic to be covered in the learning program. This element, however, has been broken down into six
performance criteria (shown below), each of which will need to be covered in the program.
Element Performance criteria
1. Prepare for sales 1.1 Obtain and organise products, ideas and services for use within sales
presentation presentation
1.2 Review product information to ensure familiarity with products
1.3 Identify sales tactics, and assess and choose options that meet needs
and preferences of the prospect
1.4 Consider variety of sales solutions and prepare to meet buyer needs
1.5 Identify and select sales aids
1.6 Identify alternatives for prospects and assess in relation to anticipated
buyer needs

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You will need to consider the following;


1. Look at the above performance criteria. Think about and outline how you might develop a training session
around them.
2. Where would you find resources to help you in the delivery of this session? Research likely sources and make
a list of them.

Documenting the training program


It is crucial that you document the learning program so that the key stakeholders in the training program can review
the programs effectiveness and make adjustments accordingly. This documentation should take the form of a
training and assessment strategy (TAS) and must include as much information as possible.

You will find an example of a TAS on the following page. Please note that the TAS sample is a standard template used
by most RTOs. The TAS will vary depending on the delivery mode (distance, on-the-job and classroom delivery), the
evidence and assessment methods.

SAMPLE: TAS for BSB40215 Certificate IV in Business


RTO name 123 Simple Learning
Course duration January 2014 December 2014
Code and title BSB40215 CERTIFICATE IV IN BUSINESS
Purpose of program The purpose of this training program is to develop the learners verbal and written
communication skills, WHS knowledge of the workplace, build team work skills, apply
risk management techniques and learn about various marketing methods.
Packaging rules Total number of units = 10
1 core unit plus 9 elective units , of which:
5 elective units must be selected from the elective units listed below
4 elective units may be selected from the elective units listed below, or any
currently endorsed Training Package or accredited course at the same
qualification level
if not listed, 1 unit may be selected from either a Certificate III or Diploma
qualification
Entry requirements Nil
Pathways (if None
applicable)
Regulations, licensing No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this qualification at the
and registration time of publication.
requirements
Industry skills council Innovation Business Skills Australia (IBSA)
Units of competency Code Title Core/Elective

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BSBWHS401 Implement and monitor WHS policies, Core


procedures and programs to meet legislative
requirements
BSBADM405 Organise meetings Elective
BSBCUS401 Coordinate implementation of customer service Elective
strategies
BSBCUS402 Address customer needs Elective
BSBCUS403 Implement customer service standards Elective
BSBINN301 Promote innovation in a team environment Elective
BSBITU402 Develop and use complex spreadsheets Elective
BSBLED401 Develop teams and individuals Elective
BSBMKG414 Undertake marketing activities Elective
BSBRSK401 Identify risk and apply risk management Elective
processes
Target learners and Target learners include;
their characteristics Accounts Clerk
Administrator
Customer Service Advisor
E-business Practitioner
Legal Receptionist
Medical Receptionist
Office Receptionist
Office Administration Assistant
Project Officer
Student Services Officer
Word Processing Operator
Unskilled workers entering the workforce

Their characteristics include;


age group between 18 30 years old
education status have completed grade 12
some work experience with business sector
prefer learning style is classroom training
no formal training has been completed
Relevant learners
stakeholders employer

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managers
trainers
human resource department
employment agency
Required facilities laptop, projector
and equipment internet access
extension cords
training materials such as textbooks, handouts, assessments
Support services Explaining concepts in clear terms over the telephone
available Enlarge the font size of learning materials
Refer students to AUSLAN Signbankwww.auslan.org.au
Allowing students to be orally assessed by Skype
Allowing students to be assessed in person at the office
Fortnightly webinars are schedules and offered to students
Weekly tutorial sessions (2 hour allocation where students can ask
questions and receive responses from a qualified trainer/assessor)
Pre-recorded information sessions for each unit
Students have access to the online forum
Reasonable allow the student to complete a practical exam instead of a written
adjustment options exam
allow the student to have a sign language interpreter in the lessons
allow the student to provide written answers due to a hearing
impairment
allow the student to answer oral questions if they have writing
difficulties
provide audio recordings of the lesson for those who are hearing
impaired
Learning resources All enrolled students have access to the following learning resources;
Learner Workbooks (contains the assessment tools)
Learner Guides (contains content about each unit of competency)
All supporting resource materials such as templates (available via the
online learning system)
Pre-recorded information sessions (available via the online learning
system)
Fortnightly webinars and chat logs

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Weekly tutorial sessions and chat logs


Access to the online student forum
Delivery and
assessment Week Unit code Unit name Time allocation
arrangements (e.g. days, hours,
weeks, months)
1. BSBWHS401 Implement and monitor WHS 1 month
policies, procedures and programs
to meet legislative requirements
2. BSBADM405 Organise meetings 1 month

3. BSBCUS401 Coordinate implementation of 1 month


customer service strategies
4. BSBCUS402 Address customer needs 1 month

5. BSBCUS403 Implement customer service 1 month


standards
6. BSBINN301 Promote innovation in a team 1 month
environment
7. BSBITU402 Develop and use complex 1 month
spreadsheets
8. BSBLED401 Develop teams and individuals 1 month

9. BSBMKG414 Undertake marketing activities 1 month

10. BSBRSK401 Identify risk and apply risk 1 month


management processes
Delivery mode Classroom based

Delivery venue details 123 Simple Learning 99 Smith Street, Brisbane QLD 4000

Assessment methods Observation, Questioning, Structured activities

Assessment tools Role play, presentations, written exam, oral questions, case study, simulation

Evidence gathering Key codes


techniques A = presentation
B = oral questions
C = written test
D = simulation test
E = role play
F= case study

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Unit code Unit name A B C D E F


BSBWHS401 Implement and monitor WHS x x x
policies, procedures and programs
to meet legislative requirements
BSBADM405 Organise meetings x x x x
BSBCUS401 Coordinate implementation of x x x
customer service strategies
BSBCUS402 Address customer needs x x x
BSBCUS403 Implement customer service x x x
standards
BSBINN301 Promote innovation in a team x x
environment
BSBITU402 Develop and use complex x x x x
spreadsheets
BSBLED401 Develop teams and individuals x x x
BSBMKG414 Undertake marketing activities x x x x
BSBRSK401 Identify risk and apply risk x x x
management processes
Delivery and Unit Staff name Train Assess
assessment staff
BSBWHS401 Kenny Majore x x
(indicate with an X as
BSBADM405 Kenny Majore x x
to who will train and
BSBCUS401 Kenny Majore x x
assess each unit)
BSBCUS402 Kenny Majore x x
BSBCUS403 Kenny Majore x x
BSBINN301 Kenny Majore x x
BSBITU402 Kenny Majore x x
BSBLED401 Kenny Majore x x
BSBMKG414 Kenny Majore x x
BSBRSK401 Kenny Majore x x
Assessment Assessment validation is an on-going quality review process. Trainers and assessors from
Validation each qualification will meet once every six (6) months to check that the assessment tools
used are producing valid, reliable, sufficient, current and authentic evidence. Validation
is also concerned with continuous improvement of assessment practices and outcomes.
The validation meetings will also check if the requirements of the Training Package have
been met.
Assessment Validation Policy
Management and training staff are committed to the continuous improvement of its
assessment process, tools and outcomes. Details of the validation policy are below;
i. All assessment strategies, processes and tools are validated every six (6)
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months.
ii. The assessments are validated by trainers and assessors who were not involved
in the training and assessment of the course (complies with Clause 1.11).
Assessment validation will be conducted by a panel consisting of industry
experts, trainers, assessors and management personnel who meet the
requirements outlined in Clause 1.11.
iii. All validation findings will be recorded in the Assessment Validation Review
document, including any suggested changes.
iv. All issues that arise from the validation process of assessment tools will be
documented and tabled prior to the commencement of the next program to
ensure further issues are prevented. This will take place at the bi-monthly
management meeting.
v. The company will apply a process that is transparent, representative,
confidential, educative, and equitable and accepts tolerable variation in
interpretation of standards.
vi. The company will comply with the guiding principles of assessment and rules of
evidence
Transition As per Clause 1.26 of the Standards for Registered Training Organisations 2015, where a
requirements training product on its scope of registration is superseded all learners training and
assessment is completed and the relevant AQF certification documentation is issued or
learners are transferred into its replacement within a period of one year from the date
the replacement training product was released on the National Register
Managers name Richard Jackson - Director

Date approved 01.01.2015

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Table 2. Scheduling and Sequencing Table


When delivering a full qualification or unit of competency, you must consider how the content will flow from one section to the next. This is imperative to ensure that
the learning is sequential and takes place in a logical order. See below the Scheduling and Sequencing Table for BSB40215 Certificate IV in Business.
Session number Time allocation Specific learning Content Delivery method Learning activities Resources
outcomes
1. 1 month BSBWHS401 WHS policies Classroom Pop quiz PowerPoint
Implement and monitor and procedures slides, videos,
WHS policies, WHS training Risk assessment handouts,
procedures and Hazard exercise textbooks
programs to meet identification
legislative requirements Maintaining Workplace reports

WHS records
2. 1 month BSBADM405 Meeting Classroom Group presentation PowerPoint
Organise meetings arrangements slides, videos,
Meeting Written test handouts,
minutes textbooks
Minutes
distribution

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Session number Time allocation Specific learning Content Delivery method Learning activities Resources
outcomes
3. 1 month BSBCUS401 Customer needs Classroom Research project PowerPoint
Coordinate analysis slides, videos,
implementation of Customer Pop quiz handouts,
customer service service textbooks
strategies strategies Videos
Customer
satisfaction
levels
4. 1 month BSBCUS402 Identify Classroom Research project PowerPoint
Address customer needs customer needs slides, videos,
Networking Pop quiz handouts,
opportunities textbooks
Meet customer Videos
needs
5. 1 month BSBCUS403 Customer Classroom Research project PowerPoint
Implement customer service slides, videos,
service standards standards Pop quiz handouts,
Customer textbooks
services Videos
standards and
systems

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Session number Time allocation Specific learning Content Delivery method Learning activities Resources
outcomes
6. 1 month BSBINN301 Innovative Classroom Group work PowerPoint
Promote innovation in a opportunities slides, videos,
team environment Supporting handouts,
colleagues textbooks
Reflection
techniques
7. 1 month BSBITU402 Spreadsheet Classroom Portfolio PowerPoint
Develop and use creation slides, videos,
complex spreadsheets Software Excel reports handouts,
functions and textbooks
formulae
Using
spreadsheets
Developing
graphs from
numerical data
8. 1 month BSBLED401 Individual and Classroom Group exercise PowerPoint
Develop teams and team profiling slides, videos,
individuals Evaluating Pop quiz handouts,
workplace textbooks
learning

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Session number Time allocation Specific learning Content Delivery method Learning activities Resources
outcomes
9. 1 month BSBMKG414 Market research Classroom Research report PowerPoint
Undertake marketing Marketing slides, videos,
activities activities Group presentation handouts,
Review textbooks
techniques
10. 1 month BSBRSK401 Risk Classroom Risk assessment PowerPoint
Identify risk and apply identification slides, videos,
risk management Risk analysis Hazard handouts,
processes Treating and identification textbooks
monitoring
workplace risks

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Health and Safety in the Learning Environment
It is important to consider and manage any risks involved in the delivery of the learning program.
This means looking at contingencies and what could go wrong.

What is a Risk?
A risk is defined as something that can happen that could impact on organisational objectives.

What is a Hazard?
A hazard is something that has the potential to cause injury or harm to a person, property or the
environment. Trainers should be familiar with any legislation that relates to their industry when it
comes to Work Health and Safety Matters.

Trainers and learners have a Duty of Care to make sure the learning environment is a safe one for
everyone. It is their responsibility to ensure the learning environment is free from Risks and Hazards.
If they see a potential hazard or threat, they should remove it (if safe to do so, i.e. a student leaves a
bag in the thoroughfare, the Trainer can ask the student to please move the item).

For Trainers, Duty of Care includes:


Conducting Risk Assessments when and as necessary by identifying potential risks and
hazards
Ensuring the training environment is a safe place that is free of harassment, bullying and
discrimination
Keeping accurate records relating to incident and accident reports and informing the
relevant personnel as required
Keeping up to date with continuous improvement policies
Maintaining relevant Industry Association memberships and CPD (Continuing Professional
Development) points when working in an industry where this a requirement
Adhering to Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Policies and Complaints and Grievances
Procedures

Learners also need to demonstrate responsibility in their own safety and that of other learners. If
they see something that could pose a threat or a risk, they need to report it immediately.

Examples of risks during the training delivery


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Trainer calls in sick organise a replacement trainer who will be up to speed on the learning
program
Missing learnerorganise a revision class or catch up lesson or provide notes
Venue is unavailableorganise a back-up training location or room
Faulty equipment such as projector is not displaying the imagescheck and test the
projector the day before and ensure you have handouts ready in case this happens
Facilities inappropriate such as insufficient air ventilationcheck and test the air-
conditioning unit the day before and ensure windows can be opened
WHS issuesis the venue safe and secure? Provide sufficient facilities for learners comfort
such as toilets, kitchen facilities, access to water

A risk matrix can help to identify the likelihood of a risk occurring and what the impact would be it if
were to occur. Trainers can check the likelihood of the risk occurring and determine what the
consequences would be. This indicates the threat level and helps to manage the potential risk and
hazard accordingly. An example of a Risk Matrix is below.

Risk Matrix
LIKELIHOOD CONSEQUENCES
Severe: Very serious: Serious: Major Mild: Very mild: Small
Death Near-death/ injuries Injuries, fractures,
critical injuries fractures bruising

Extremely likely 1 1 2 2 3

Very likely 1 2 2 3 3

Likely 2 2 3 3 4

Not very likely 2 3 3 4 4

Unlikely 3 3 4 4 5

Risk Matrix - key codes:


1 Unacceptable risk for training except under exceptional circumstances
2 Only acceptable with major treatments applied
3 Acceptable with sufficient risk treatments in place
4 Acceptable under most circumstances, with consideration to risks
5 Acceptable

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Hierarchy of Risk Controls


The Hierarchy of Risk Controls can be used to treat a variety of risks. There are five (5) different
control methods that can be applied depending on the situation.
Risk control Explanation
1. Elimination The task is changed or the substance is eliminated to remove the hazard.
Consideration must be paid to the expense and effort of this option, as well
as to what environmental or secondary WHS issues may arise from any
alternatives. An example can be to totally outsource the task, such as many
hospitals have done with the disposal of medical waste.
2. Substitution Replace the material, process or procedure with a less hazardous one. For
example, the replacement of a toxic evaporative cleaning solution for
printing presses with an environmentally safe, non-toxic cleaner.
3. Engineering Installing or using additional machinery or techniques, such as fitting
controls exhaust extractor pipes or in-room ventilation, to control the risk (or, in this
case, exposure). This method can also include major design changes, such as
separating the hazard from operators by methods such as enclosing or
guarding dangerous items of machinery (e.g. using spring-loaded blade
guards on bench saws at a saw mill).
4. Administrative These come in many forms and can include prohibitions (prohibited areas),
controls procedural guidance, regulations, access controls, minimum training
requirements (and additional training) and signage. An example may be a
work procedure that reduces the time the worker is exposed to the hazard,
such as divers have on deep dives to prevent the bends, or prohibiting
eating, drinking and smoking in laboratory areas.
5. Personal Where all the previous measures have either been tried and found to be
protective ineffective in adequately addressing the risk, or where the task/process
equipment (PPE) cannot be achieved with the application of the above measures, then
personal protective equipment (PPE) is to be used. PPE will rarely be used in
isolation, but commonly in conjunction with various other measures
(generally administrative controls as a minimum). PPE should be selected
and fitted to the person who is required to use it, and all users must be
trained in the safe operation and maintenance of the equipment.

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SAMPLE: Risk Assessment Form

Form Completed By: John Smith

Signature: J Smith Date form completed: 01/04/15

Hazard Identification

Hazard description:

Ceiling tile hanging down and may fall and physically injure a learner

Risk rating, risk likelihood and consequences:

Instructions: Determine the consequences by reading the top row and making a selection. Once
you have done this, determine the risk likelihood by selecting an option from the far left column.
Circle the appropriate risk rating number.

Consequence Extreme Major Moderate Minor


versus Death, permanent Serious bodily Casualty First Aid only, no lost
likelihood disablement injury treatment time
Very likely
Could happen 1 2 3 4
frequently
Likely
Could happen 2 33 4 5
occasionally
Unlikely
Could happen, but 3 4 5 6
rare
Very Unlikely
Could happen, 4 5 6 7
probably never
will

Persons at risk: Suggestions for eliminating or controlling the risk:

All learners, the trainer, management Organise a repair person (tradesman) to replace the
tile

Person responsible for addressing the risk: Recommended date to be completed by:

Tradesman 06/04/15 no training is to take place in the room


WHS officer needs to be notified until the hazard is eliminated

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Risk Control Plan


It is impossible to prevent all hazards, however by having a risk control plan in place you can
minimise the chance and likelihood of something going wrong. Key factors in assessing the degree of
risk;
Determine the likelihood how likely is it that the risk may occur?
Determine the impact what is the consequence of the risk occurring?

An example of a risk control plan can be seen below.

SAMPLE: Risk Control Plan for the BSB40215 Certificate IV in Business learning program
Problem / risk Risk rating Location of Risk treatment Person
(1 5) the risk (suggested) responsible
A clear problem or risk Provide a risk Where will Explanation of treatment The persons
must be identified rating the risk options are required job title
occur?
The data projector is 4 likelihood Training To check the data Trainer to
not displaying the is likely and room projector the day before check the
PowerPoint slides. consequences and ensure it is working equipment
would be very correctly or have a back- prior to the
mild injury up data projector on training date
hand
There is no access to 3 likelihood Training To locate accessible Trainer to
toilets or water in the is not very building toilets and provide water check the
training room. likely and bottles venue prior to
consequences the training
would be date
serious
The room is very stuffy 3 likelihood Training To ensure that the air- Trainer to
and air ventilation is is very likely room conditioning unit is check the
poor. and working or windows can venue prior to
consequences be opened. the training
would be very date
mild

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TAEDES402A USE TRAINING PACKAGES AND ACCREDITED COURSES


TO MEET CLIENT NEEDS

ELEMENT 1: Select appropriate training package or accredited course&


ELEMENT 2: Analyse and interpret the qualifications framework
This section will look at the differences between a training package and an accredited course and
how they can be used to meet a clients needs.

Training packages vs. Accredited courses


Training package Accredited course
Training packages are nationally recognised and Accredited courses are also nationally
nationally endorsed by the industry skills councils (ISC). recognised but have been developed by
industry (e.g. RTOs) as a result of
Think of the Training Package as the Guideline under meeting training needs that may not
which the Training Program needs to be delivered. As be addressed by an existing Training
long as the Elements, Performance Criteria, Required Package. The course cannot duplicate
Skills, Required Knowledge and Critical Evidence are existing qualifications and will not be
addressed, the person delivering the course has accredited if the learning outcome can
creative licence as to how they want to deliver the still be achieved by contextualising an
course. This is why there is so much variety in the existing Training Package.
training material that is offered and used by RTOs to
deliver Training Programs. Since, the structure of an accredited
course is developed by industry there is
For example, units of competency, qualifications and limited information available on the
skill sets all fall under a particular training package. training.gov.au website. When trying to
research an accredited course you will
need to find out which RTOs are
approved to deliver the course (there is a
link available on the TGA website).

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It is important to note that a Training Package is not the same as a Training/Learning Program. The
Training/Learning Program is the actual course that is being delivered and includes the learning
material, which has been developed by industry experts, the t rainer or the organisation running
the training.

Industry Skills Councils Develop Training Packages

www.training.gov.au Administers Training Packages

Registered Training Use Training Packages to develop their Nationally


Organisations Recognised Courses

A Training Package can be used to meet a particular training purpose. These include but are
not limited to:
Using them as a basis for which to develop a learning program
Using them to deliver the training program for Nationally Recognised Training
Using them as professional development sources
Meeting legislative and regulatory requirements
To determine the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) qualification or part of a
qualification
Used as an opportunity to meet a competency gap
For assessment purposes
To determine whether a learner may be entitled to Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) or
Recognition of Current Competency (RCC) more on this later in this chapter

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The following information was adapted from the IBSA website on June 1, 2015. The section below
explains the structure of a qualification and unit of competency.

Understanding a qualification structure

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Understanding a unit of competency structure

Important - please note that some unit codes still bear a letter at the end of the code which indicates the
version.

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Understanding assessment requirements

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Upcoming changes for training packages

From the 1st January 2016, the range statement will no longer appear in the training package. In
addition to this, the evidence guide, critical evidence and assessment guidelines sections will be
replaced by a new criterion called foundation skills.

Range Statement
Where bold italicised text is used within the Performance Criteria, it indicates that further
information is detailed in the range statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent
with the evidence guide.

Evidence Guide
The Evidence Guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the
performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment
Guidelines for the Training Package.

Critical Evidence
The Critical Evidence indicates the critical aspects for assessment and the evidence required to
demonstrate competency in the Unit.

Assessment Guidelines
The purpose of assessment guidelines is to ensure judgments being made by trainers, assessors and
RTOs are valid, reliable, fair and consistent. Each training package will have its own set of assessment
guidelines to help training practitioners determine whether the learner has met the competency
standards.

Foundation Skills
The term Foundation Skills are used to include the core skills defined in the Australian Core Skills
Framework (ACSF) as well as the employability skills identified by employers as critical for effective
performance in the workplace. The core skills of the ACSF include reading, writing, oral
communication, numeracy and learning. Employability skills now come under a new framework
called Core Skills for Work which incorporates skills such as problem solving, teamwork and digital
literacy. Government Skills Australia defines Foundation skills as those core or essential skills we
need to engage successfully in work and life.

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Language
Is the tool we use to communicate with one another in many different situations and for many
different reasons. Language involves speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Literacy
Is the ability to read and use written information; It means to be able to recognise, read and
interpret workplace documents and signs, and write what is required in order to do your job
accurately and efficiently.
Numeracy
Involves being able to carry out mathematical operations that may be part of ones job. It includes
knowing when to use maths, what maths to use, and how to do it.
Learning
Is the ability to assimilate new information to develop ones knowledge and skills and to achieve
learning objectives; Learner styles usually fall into one or more categories of Visual, Auditory or
Kinaesthetic (VAK).

Therefore, a trainer will need to consider:


The level of LLN skills required if a learner is required to explain something
The reading ability of the learner where they need to be able to follow written instructions
The numeracy skills required if a learner needs to be able to take measurements or
calculations in order to perform their job well.

LLN issues can arise from varying reasons which include, but are not limited to:
Language barriers for learners from non-English speaking backgrounds
Barriers for people with a disability such as hearing impairment or visual impairment
Learners who have left school at a young age
Learners who are limited in their further training

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Five simple steps you can follow to implement effective foundation skills training support;
1 Establish current core skills/level of performance of the individual or group
2 Clarify the core skills required in the work or training context and confirm the performance
levels required
3 Map results against ACSF levels (as specified in the unit of competency) and identify the
training needs
4 Link each of the five core skills to the relevant support resources
5 Determine and implement an appropriate learning and development plan
Source: www.governmentskills.com.au
Methods to assist learners with difficulties include;
Explain specifically what you want them to do
Break the reading down into easily manageable chunks
Discuss what the reading is about
Reading Use visual aids to support written texts
Draw attention to the key words
Provide simplified versions of the reading
Provide large fonts if required
Speak slowly and articulately
Check they understand what is being discussed
Give instructions in a logical sequence
Listening and speaking Provide practical examples
Avoid using terminology they may not be familiar with
Link the information to what they already know
Encourage them to participate and ask questions
If required, give verbal assessments to students who are not able
to articulate in writing
Give them only the essential writing tasks
Writing
Highlight necessary phrases
Highlight key words
Explain specific terminology they may not be familiar with
Provide accurate step by step instructions on performing
Numeracy calculations
Allow them to use calculators

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Qualification types
Each training package will have a number of qualifications that a learner can aspire to. For more
information about each qualification below refer to the AQF 2013 document located in your
Supporting Resources folder.
Certificate I
Certificate II
Certificate III
Certificate IV
Diploma
Advanced Diploma, Associate Degree
Bachelor Degree
Bachelor Honours Degree, Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma
Masters Degree
Doctoral Degree

When choosing a qualification or unit of competency, remember to check for any prerequisites or
licensing requirements. If such requirements exist, then they must be observed.

ELEMENT 3: Analyse and interpret units of competency and accredited


modules
Selecting units of competency
After many discussions with your client, you will have a sound idea of their training needs and which
training package to recommend. Lets use the following training package as our example BSB30415
Certificate III in Business Administration.

The relevant stakeholders in the training program will need to determine which units should be
included in the qualification. We have adapted the packaging rules, core and elective units from the
training package here.

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Packaging Rules
Total number of units = 13
2 core units plus
11 elective units

7 elective units must be selected from the Group A units listed below.The remaining 4 elective units
may be selected from the Group A or Group B elective units listed below, or any currently endorsed
Training Package or accredited course at the same qualification level. If not listed below 2 of the
electives units may be selected from a Certificate II or Certificate IV qualification.

Core units*
BSBITU307 Develop keyboarding speed and accuracy
BSBWHS201 Contribute to health and safety of self and others
*These core units form part of the qualification and must be included in the learning program.

Elective units
Group A units
BSBADM307 Organise schedules
BSBFIA302 Process payroll
BSBFIA303 Process accounts payable and receivable
BSBFIA304 Maintain a general ledger
BSBITU302 Create electronic presentations
BSBITU303 Design and produce text documents
BSBITU304 Produce spreadsheets
BSBITU306 Design and produce business documents
BSBITU309 Produce desktop published documents
BSBWRT301 Write simple documents

Group B units
BSBADM302 Produce texts from notes
BSBADM303 Produce texts from audio transcription
BSBADM311 Maintain business resources
BSBCMM301 Process customer complaints
BSBCUS301 Deliver and monitor a service to customers

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BSBDIV301 Work effectively with diversity


BSBFIA301 Maintain financial records
BSBINM301 Organise workplace information
BSBINM302 Utilise a knowledge management system
BSBINM303 Handle receipt and despatch of information
BSBINN201 Contribute to workplace innovation
BSBIPR301 Comply with organisational requirements for protection and use of intellectual property
BSBITU301 Create and use databases
BSBITU305 Conduct online transactions
BSBPRO301 Recommend products and services
BSBSUS201 Participate in environmentally sustainable work practices
BSBWOR204 Use business technology
BSBWOR301 Organise personal work priorities and development
BSBWOR302 Work effectively as an off-site worker
BSBWHS401 Implement and monitor WHS policies, procedures and programs to meet legislative
requirements

The packaging rules for choosing the elective units:


For the electives, 7 electives must come from Group A list and the remaining 4 elective units may be
selected from the Group A or Group B list. Alternatively, 2 of the elective units may be selected from
a Certificate II or Certificate IV qualification.

So, depending on the clients training purpose, the units can come from a specific area. For example,
if the purpose of the training were to give the client a more I.T oriented focus, then you might select
the majority of units from the I.T skill set than from others. Going back to our example, when
selecting the Group A elective units you would select the following;
BSBITU302 Create electronic presentations
BSBITU303 Design and produce text documents
BSBITU304 Produce spreadsheets
BSBITU306 Design and produce business documents
BSBITU309 Produce desktop published documents

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Documenting the units of competency


Once you have selected the elective units for the training program, you will need to document this
information into a session or lesson plan. A session plan (see sample below) will provide the
following information;
a list of lesson topics
the time duration for each topic
resources required for the training delivery
learning activities to engage the learners

Preparing a session plan


The seven steps in preparing a session plan are:
1. List the objectives of your training session
2. Order your information in a logical sequence
3. Determine the content based on the objectives
4. Identify learning resources required for each segment
5. Summarise key points (objectives)
6. Test your plan by conducting a dry run (with timings)
7. Review and revise your plan as required

SAMPLE: Session plan

Session name: Sandwich making (session 1) Date: 08/04/15

Unit of competency: SITHCCC103 Prepare sandwiches

Location details: ABC School of English 10 Mary Street Brisbane QLD 4000

Trainer name: John Smith

To develop the following skills; selecting ingredients, preparing


Learning objectives:
sandwiches, presenting and storing sandwiches.
Training aids/ learning resources:
White board, learner workbooks, study guides, handouts

Equipment required:
Projector, computers, preparation utensils (kitchen cutting board, knife, container boxes, glad
wrap)

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Procedure:
Warm up activity, introduction, practice, group activities, quiz
Warm up activity:
Getting to know each other:
Students are to interact with others by asking basic questions pertaining to their name, origin,
work and life, family - 5 minute allocation

Elicit some details back from the class about what they discovered that was interesting 1 minute
Presentation
Activity Interaction Delivery Methods and Techniques Time duration
number and (individual,
description group, in
pairs)
1 Class Trainer introduction 10 minutes
introduction Explanation of the learning objectives
and ice breaker Ice breaker activity amongst learners
activity
2 introducing Class Content to be covered 60 minutes
the content Confirm sandwich
and practicing requirements, based on
the new skills standard recipes or customer
requests.
Use sandwich making
methods
Use heating and toasting
equipment
Use of brainstorming activity to assess
the learners current knowledge levels

The trainer will use direct modelling


when demonstrating the skills for the
first time to learners. Observation and
verbal guidance will be used when
learners are asked to demonstrate the

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sandwich making skills.

Learners will have 10 minutes to


practice making a sandwich according
to a customer request.
3- written quiz Individual Written quiz to be completed by each 10 minutes
learner to test their knowledge of the
content so far.
Summary

Elicit key information back from group to check understanding and let them know what we will be
covering in the next session
Questions to ask your learners to support learning:
What did you learn in todays session?
How will you use this information in the workplace
Revision questions to be asked by the trainer here
Possible Solutions:
Anticipated Problems: Have sufficient information available (e.g.
Lack of knowledge and/or application skills handouts, videos) for learners to complete
the written quiz

Allow sufficient practice time for developing


competent sandwich making skills

Dimensions of competency
A learner must also demonstrate dimensions of competence in order to pass an assessment. The
assessor should be looking for layers of competency. There are 4 types of dimensions;
1. Task skills the ability to perform the skill at an adequate level (e.g. applies to workplace
task or normal day today work)

2. Task management skills the ability to manage a number of different tasks within a job role

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3. Contingency management skills the ability to respond to problems by developing


contingency plans. For example;
breakdowns in equipment, communication or systems
dealing with difficult or dissatisfied clients

4. Job/role environment skills the skills required to complete a particular job pr role within
the workplace. For example:
dealing with and interacting with clients and suppliers
complying with standard operating procedures

ELEMENT 4: Contextualise units and modules for client applications


Contextualisation, also known as customisation, is simply:
the process of taking a training program and making it meaningful and relevant to the
learners, their workplace or the industry they work in determining how each item within the
learning outcomes applies in a practical and direct manner back to the workplace, and;
a way of linking the learning material back to the needs of the learner by making the
resources familiar with what they know in their own working environment

How to Contextualise or Customise a Program


When customising a program, it is important to ensure observation of copyright laws by
referencing the developers of the material. Trainers or Registered Training Organisations can
often customise the material by adding their own terminology, using words the learners use
every day as part of their job function or role, or using industry specific jargon. Training
Programs can also be customised using electives that suit the needs of the learners. Earlier we
discussed Packaging / Qualification Rules. As long as the Core Units are delivered, the elective
units can be chosen to suit the needs of the learners undertaking the training.

Contextualisation involves making the units more relevant to the user, but in doing this it is
imperative that the standard is not changed or undermined. Changes to the number and content of
elements and performance criteria are not permitted.
However, RTOs can contextualise units of competency by:
adding specific industry terminology to the performance criteria as long as this does not
distort or narrow the competency outcomes

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amending or adding to the range statement as long as the breadth of application of the
competency is not diminished
adding detail to the evidence guide in areas such as the critical aspects of evidence or
resources and infrastructure required, where the competency is expanded and not limited
by the changes
identifying and/or including specific industry or organisational policies and procedures
identifying specific industry or organisational equipment and tools necessary to carry out
tasks

See below the Contextualisation Table for BSBWHS401 - Implement and monitor WHS policies,
procedures and programs to meet legislative requirements
Elements Performance criteria How it is contextualised?
List each element List the corresponding performance Analyse the performance criteria
here criteria here and identify possible ways to
customise the training program
to benefit the learner.
Element 1 Provide 1.1 Accurately explain to the work team Possible options for
information to the relevant provisions of WHS Acts, contextualisation include;
work team about regulations and codes of practice Incorporate the companys
WHS policies and 1.2 Provide information about the WHS policy and procedure
procedures organisations WHS policies, procedures manual into the course.
and programs, and ensure it is readily Use the companys hazard
accessible to, and understandable by the identification and risk
work team assessment forms so that
1.3 Regularly provide and clearly explain the learner can become
to the work team information about more familiar with typical
identified hazards and the outcomes of workplace documentation.
risk assessment and control

Element 2 2.1 Communicate to workplace parties Possible options for


Implement and the importance of effective consultation contextualisation include;
monitor mechanisms in managing health and Incorporate the companys
participation safety risks in the workplace consultation meetings into
arrangements for 2.2 Apply consultation procedures to the course.

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managing WHS facilitate participation of the work team in Invite guest speakers who
managing work area hazards are currently working as a
2.3 Promptly deal with issues raised health and safety officer.
through consultation, according to Follow the companys
organisational consultation procedures recording procedure for
and WHS legislative and regulatory consultation meetings.
requirements
2.4 Promptly record and communicate to
the work team the outcomes of
consultation over WHS issues
Element 3 3.1 Identify WHS training needs according Possible options for
Implement and to organisational requirements and WHS contextualisation include;
monitor legislative and regulatory requirements Explore the companys
organisational 3.2 Make arrangements to meet WHS training needs analysis tools.
procedures for training needs of team members in Study and analyse any
providing WHS consultation with relevant individuals existing coaching and
training 3.3 Provide workplace learning mentoring programs within
opportunities and coaching and the company. Incorporate
mentoring assistance to facilitate team this into the course as a real
and individual achievement of identified life example.
WHS training needs Use the companys financial
3.4 Identify and report to management and management plans as
the costs associated with providing workplace samples.
training for work team, for inclusion in
financial and management plans
Element 4 4.1 Identify and report on hazards in work Possible option/s for
Implement and area according to WHS policies and contextualisation include;
monitor procedures and WHS legislative and Review the companys
organisational regulatory requirements hazard identification
procedures and 4.2 Promptly action team member hazard practices, control methods
legal requirements reports according to organisational and monitoring techniques.
for identifying procedures and WHS legislative and
hazards and regulatory requirements
assessing and 4.3 Implement procedures to control risks

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controlling risks using the hierarchy of control, according


to organisational and WHS legislative
requirements
4.4 Identify and report inadequacies in
existing risk controls according to
hierarchy of control and WHS legislative
requirements
4.5 Monitor outcomes of reports on
inadequacies, where appropriate, to
ensure a prompt organisational response
Element 5 5.1 Accurately complete and maintain Possible options for
Implement and WHS records of incidents of occupational contextualisation include;
monitor injury and disease in work area, according Use the companys incident
organisational to WHS policies, procedures and records and reporting
procedures for legislative requirements procedures.
maintaining WHS 5.2 Use aggregate information and data Analyse previous hazards
records for the from work area records to identify and risk control mechanisms.
team hazards and monitor risk control
procedures in work area

ELEMENT 5: Analyse and interpret assessment guidance


In this section we look briefly at the assessment guidance section of a training package.

To recap: Assessment Guidelines


The purpose of assessment guidelines is to ensure judgments being made by trainers, assessors and
RTOs are valid, reliable, fair and consistent. Each training package will have its own set of assessment
guidelines to help training practitioners determine whether the learner has met the competency
standards.

Role of the RTO


The RTO must ensure that all persons carrying our any training or assessing role is fully qualified
according to the Standards for RTOs 1.13, 1.14, 1.15 and 1.16 (see below):

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For more information please refer to the User Guide for the Standards for Registered Training
Organisations 2015. Source: www.asqa.gov.au
Assessment pathways
These relate to the way in which a person can provide evidence of competence. This could be
achieved by:
formal or informal education for example:
- in a classroom or distance education
- doing a traineeship or apprenticeship
experiences in the workplace where learners have:
- previous experience in a job role
- gained a qualification in the past

Guidelines for conducting assessments


This section addresses Clause 1.8 and includes the following:

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For more information please refer to the User Guide for the Standards for Registered Training
Organisations 2015.
Source: www.asqa.gov.au

Reasonable adjustment
Where access and equity issues exist for a learner, a RTO must take reasonable steps to consult,
consider and implement adjustments for that learner. The purpose of reasonable adjustment is to
provide these learners with the same or equal opportunities as those without disabilities. That does
not mean to say that this group of learners do not have to comply with the standards and
benchmarks set in the training program. However, it does mean that competency can be determined
in a number of ways, and that an RTO is responsible for making sure that all learners have a fair and
equitable chance of completing the training successfully. An RTO should ensure that the academic
integrity of its training programs is maintained and that the required competency standards are
covered, regardless of any reasonable adjustments made.

Examples of reasonable adjustment include;


allow the student to complete a practical exam instead of a written exam
allow the student to have a sign language interpreter in the lessons
allow the student to provide written answers due to a hearing impairment
allow the student to answer oral questions if they have writing difficulties
provide audio recordings of the lesson for those who are hearing impaired

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Review the learning program


Before the program is delivered to the target group of learners, a final review with all stakeholders is
necessary. At this stage, changes can be made with relative ease. Once the program has commenced
it can be difficult, to change aspects of the program and the desired outcomes could, potentially, be
missed.

Learning Program Review


It is important to review the learning program to identify any areas that could be improved for
future learning programs. See below the Learning Program Review for the BSB40215 Certificate IV in
Business.

Stakeholder Full name Position Industry Experience Qualification/s held


details John Smith Training Manager Managing a team of Certificate IV in
50 trainers and Training and
assessors Assessment
Jack Corner Supervisor Workplace Diploma of
supervisor for 20 Management
years
Jennifer Small Learner High school leaver Certificate I in
Business
Structure and Delivery

Was the selection of units appropriate for the purpose of the program? Yes No

Feedback: Yes, by arranging the core units into the three subjects and thereby reducing duplication will
greatly help understanding and efficient learning.
Is the proposed delivery mode and arrangements appropriate for the
Yes No
target learners?
Feedback: Yes. The classroom delivery mode would allow the learners to develop practical skills and apply
them correctly in the workplace.
Evidence Gathering Techniques
Is there a suitable range of evidence gathering techniques to determine
whether the learner has both the skills and knowledge to perform the job Yes No
to a satisfactory level? Why or why not?
Feedback: Yes, a range of techniques were selected to satisfy all of the competency standards in the unit
of competency.

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Do you believe the assessment methods and tools will be sufficient and
adequate, to determine whether a learner has the knowledge and skills, Yes No
to work competently within your organisation?
Feedback: The proposed assessment methods and tools will allow students to develop contextual
understanding of the subject matter and apply their new skills in a practical manner.
Course Scheduling and Sequencing
Do you believe enough time has been allowed for the learner to achieve a
Yes No
competent outcome in each unit of competency?
Yes, I believe that by focusing on one unit per unit this will allow the students plenty of time to
Feedback:
understand the content and achieve competency.
Has enough time has been allowed in the course schedule to successfully
Yes No
complete the assessment activities listed for each unit or module?
Students have a maximum of 12 months to complete the course. This includes time for revision
Feedback:
and catch-up classes as well.
Contextualisation Table
Were there many opportunities to contextualise the unit of
Yes No
competency/module to benefit the learner?
Examples of how to customise the unit content were clear and helpful. This provided insight
Feedback:
into how the companys processes and procedures could be incorporated into the program.
Support Services
Are there support services in place to meet certain learner needs?
Yes No

Yes, a few options were identified and made available to students who needed the extra
Feedback:
support.

Were reasonable adjustment options identified? Yes No

Feedback:
Yes, various options were listed and made available to the learners.

Risk Control Plan


Does the risk control plan identify all possible issues or problems that may
Yes No
arise during the learning program?
Feedback: The risk control plan identifies the most likely events however a thorough contingency plan will
need to be composed for all unexpected events.
Delivery and Assessment Staff
Do the delivery and assessment staff hold the relevant qualification(s)
Yes No
required by industry to deliver and assess in this qualification?
Feedback: The trainers and assessors hold the minimum requirements to train and assess in the

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qualification.

Target Audience
Is the Training and Assessment Strategy relevant for the target
Yes No
learners?
Yes, it appears to be suitable for the target learners
Feedback:

Participant 1 Phone number


Email address
Participant 2 Phone number
Email address
Participant 3 Phone number
Email address
Witness full
name
Contact details of Phone number
the witness Email address

Date of review

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TAELLN411 ADDRESS ADULT LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND


NUMERACY SKILLS

ELEMENT 1: Analyse LLN requirements


It is important for trainers to understand that quite often their learners will have differing language,
literacy and numeracy (LLN) requirements. When delivering or developing a training course, trainers
must understand the level of competence (e.g. certificate II level vs. Certificate IV level) required.
Before you start the training program, you should always interview your learners and find out
whether their LLN skills are appropriate to the course.
Language involves speaking, listening and reading. It is how we communicate in different
situations with various people.
Literacy is the ability to read, write, interpret and understand documents such as signs, posters,
workplace reports and the like.
Numeracy refers to our ability to carry out operations that require mathematical input. It
includes basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Learners may need LLN specialist assistance for the following reasons;
Language barriers for learners from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (e.g. non-
English speaking background)
People with a disability such as hearing impairments or visual impairment
Learners who have left school at a young age (e.g. did not complete grade 10)
Learners who suffer from a chronic illness preventing them from normal educational
opportunities

Australian Core Skills Framework


According to the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF) there are five (5) core skills:
1. learning - necessary to understand and absorb new tasks, skills or procedures
2. reading - necessary to interpret instructions, manuals, memos and letters or emails
3. writing - necessary to produce reports, letters, instructions
4. oral communication - necessary when dealing with customers and colleagues, as well as
telephone inquiries
5. numeracy - necessary when making financial plans, calculating fees and charges or giving
change

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So, the first indicator (see Table 3.1) considers a persons ability to understand the purpose and
meaning of their core skill, while the second indicator (see Table 3.2) looks at a persons ability to
interpret the deeper meaning of their core skill.

For example, if a learner has poor mathematical problem-solving skills the assessor may determine
their LLN rating to be 1.09 whereby the 1 indicates the level of support and the 0.9 indicates that the
learner needs full support with the numeracy component of the learning program.

Table 3.1 Core skills indicator


Core skill Indicator Description

Learning .01 The first indicator addresses the active awareness of self as a
learner, learning orientations and approaches to the
management of learning
.02 The second indicator addresses the acquisition and application
of practical strategies that facilitate learning
Reading .03 The first indicator addresses audience, purpose and meaning
making strategies
.04 The second indicator addresses text structure and features,
grammatical expression of ideas, word-identification
strategies and vocabulary
Writing .05 The first indicator addresses audience, purpose and meaning-
making strategies
.06 The second indicator addresses vocabulary, grammatical
structure and the conventions of writing
Oral Communication .07 The first indicator primarily addresses speaking
.08 The second indicator primarily addresses listening
Numeracy .09 The first indicator addresses the identification of
mathematical meaning in activities and texts
.10 The second indicator addresses the problem-solving and
mathematical processes used
.11 The third indicator addresses the way informal and formal
language, symbolic and diagrammatic representations, and
conventions of mathematics are used to communicate

Source: Hill, D., Hill, T., and Perlitz, L.. (2010). Vocational Training and Assessment. United States of America

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Table 3.2 The five support levels


Support
1 Full support
Works alongside expert/mentor
Prompting and modelling provided
2 High level support
May work with expert/mentor
Modelling available and accessible if requested
3 Moderate support
Advice and modelling available
4 Minimal support, as requested
Establishing own supporting resources
5 Little or no support
Initiates support from own established resources

Source: Hill, D., Hill, T., and Perlitz, L.. (2010). Vocational Training and Assessment. United States of America

Determining the core skill requirements


The determination of the core skill requirements of your training program will fall into two
categories:
1. Core skills required based on formal training packages - these will be influenced by the
Standards for Registered Training Organisations 2015. This might include looking closely at
the core skills and how they relate to the performance criteria and required skills and
knowledge of a unit of competency.
2. Core skills required based on organisational requirements - these will be influenced by the
internal benchmarks and standards needed to fulfil a task or tasks. This means taking a close
look at the individual tasks a worker needs to perform as part of their job, breaking the tasks
down into the steps needed in order to complete the tasks.

Foundation skills
Foundation skills are the combination of:
English language, literacy and numeracy skills listening, speaking, reading, writing, digital
literacy and use of maths and
Employability skills collaboration, problem solving, self-management, learning and
information and communication technology skills required for participation in modern
workplaces and contemporary life

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Foundation skills, from very basic skills to highly developed and specialised skills, underpin the
achievement of vocational competencies at all levels.

Learners with very low level foundation skills generally benefit from stand-alone, face-to-face
delivery methods, without any significant contextualisation. At this enabling level learners need to
focus on very basic skill acquisition around learning to read and write, use numbers or engage in
scaffolded oral communication events related to work practices, before they can begin to use these
skills in more contextualised learning. Language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) programs based on
existing accredited curricula will continue to be needed for these learners. The FSK Foundation Skills
Training Package is not designed for this purpose.

For learners beyond this beginning level, foundation skills development is rarely a goal in itself.
Learners are focussed on the achievement of other personal and vocational objectives and so
foundation skills delivery is best integrated and contextualised for meaningful outcomes. The best
approach in any instance will depend on the foundation skills needs of learners and the nature of the
vocational program.

The FSK Foundation Skills Training Package is specifically designed to enable the integration of
foundation skills development into vocational programs to support the achievement of vocational
pathways. A greater emphasis on building foundation skills within vocational education and training
(VET) programs will allow learners to:
acquire the foundation skills that they need to participate successfully in education and
training
Build the foundation skills that underpin vocational competence.(IBSA; SCOTESE)

Core Skills for Work Developmental Framework (CSFW)


The Core Skills for Work Developmental Framework was developed by the Australian Government
and describes performance in a set of non-technical skills, knowledge and understandings that
underpin successful participation in work as an employee, or as someone who is self-employed, or as
a volunteer.

The non-technical skills covered by the CSFW are relevant to all those undertaking work, not just
those entering the workforce for the first time. The skills can continue to develop across the span of
an individuals working life, depending on the particular industry, occupation and job role.

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The CSFW was designed as a framework for conceptualising and articulating skills, knowledge and
understandings that underpin work performance over time, and as a resource for guiding
development of learning products that support the development of these skills, knowledge and
understandings.

Trigger words
Trigger words are used to provide clues about the LLN skills required for a particular unit of
competency. These trigger words can be used to unpack a unit and recognise its requirements (see
Table 3.3).

Table 3.3 LLN trigger words


Reading Writing Numeracy Speaking and listening
according to signs, chart according to signs, access relevant
codes and labels complete reports codes and labels information
appropriate document adjust allocate
documentation identify allowance clarify meaning or
check inventory calculate advice
comply with label collect data contribute
directions maintain records computations delegate
follow written marked convert explain
procedures monitor determine value feedback
identify notes estimate follow verbal
interpret and outline formula instructions or
monitor record data interpret charts procedures
legislative report and graphs identify
requirements tagged levels inform
marked out written reporting measuring liaise
obtain information techniques monitor
from written perform refer to
instructions size and proportion supervise
understanding time team discussions
written reporting tolerance use questions
verbal reporting

Source: Taking the Lead, Trigger words, 2008, www.takingthelead.com.au

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Determining LLN skills


There are a number of ways to determine a persons LLN skill level, this includes;
interviewing the learner by asking questions about their job role
observing the learner in the workplace by taking note of the skills they display
asking learners to read from a range of workplace documents
gathering information from supervisors to determine the learners actual skill level
general testing of reading, writing and numeracy skills

Documents that can be used to identify individual needs can include:


student enrolment forms
the learners training records
interviews with stakeholders (e.g. supervisors)

By gathering this information you will determine if the learner needs specialist support for the
learning program.

Considering cultural diversity


Cultural diversity needs to be considered in the training environment. You will have some learners
that come from various cultural backgrounds so, it is important that you use language that is simple
and concise. Avoid using any form of jargon, abbreviations, inappropriate humour or complex words.
It is a good practice to:
keep your sentences short and clear
use diagrams, graphics or signs wherever possible and
allow sufficient time for learners to ask their questions

ELEMENT 2: Select and use resources and strategies to address LLN skill
requirements
Element 3: Use specialist LLN support where required
This section will explore the options available for learners who require specialist support. Here are
some examples of LLN support services;
Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program
specialist consultants who are hired on a case-by-case instance
workplace mentors to help the learner carry out their daily tasks successfully

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The following government resources can also be used to assist individuals who need LLN assistance.
Taking the Lead www.takingthelead.com.au
Australian Council for Literacy www.acal.edu.au/index.htm
Victorian Adult Literacy and Basic Education council http://valbec.org.au
NSW Adult Literacy and Numeracy council Queensland www.qcal.org.au/index.php
council for Adult Literacy
Once appropriate strategies have been determined, the learning program can then be customised to
accommodate specific learners needs.

Access and equity requirements


In accordance with Standard 5, it is the RTOs responsibility to inform and protect learners (Clauses
5.1 and 5.4)

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For more information please refer to the User Guide for the Standards for Registered Training
Organisations 2015.
Source: www.asqa.gov.au

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All registered training organisations must comply with this Standard by providing this information on
the home website, in the student handbook and in the information packs.

One way to customise a training program is to use existing resources to improve a learners LLN
skills. For example:
Printed text can be enlarged for ease of reading
Graphics or photographs can be used instead of text
Handouts can be issued to address a learners particular learning style

Below are some specialist support services which can be utilised by the trainer.
Aspire Learning resources www.aspirelearningresources.com.au
Taking the Lead www.takingthelead.com.au
AUSLAN Signbank http://www.auslan.org.au

LLN support and instructional strategies


In addition to the specialist support services listed above there are a number of support strategies
which can be used to assist a learner. For example;
providing interpreters where language is a problem
using graphics and photographs in the PowerPoint slides
using video or audio recordings instead of text
providing simplified explanations of key concepts
encouraging learners to use dictionaries
offer a mentoring program for learners in the workplace

When conducting mentoring meetings the following should be taken into consideration;
meetings should always start and finish on time
meetings should be planned in advance
meetings should be conducted during a time this s suitable to both parties

Monitor the LLN approach


You must monitor the learners progress to determine whether the training program is effective.
Monitoring involves obtaining feedback from:
learners by asking questions, through observation and issuing feedback forms
trainers - who can conduct follow-up programs to check on learner progress

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stakeholders this includes employers or supervisors, who can provide insight into the
learners performance at work

Evaluate the LLN approach


It is also imperative that you evaluate the LLN approach to discover the following;
what worked well
what didnt work
what improvements can be made
how successful the program was in terms of meeting the clients training need

This will involve analysing the feedback data collected from the learners, trainers and stakeholders.
By taking the time to monitor and evaluate the LLN approach you will be able to continuously
improve the training program and help the learners to progress forward.

ELEMENT 4: Evaluate effectiveness of learning support and assessment


strategies in addressing LLN requirements
Why is it important to seek feedback?
As a trainer, you will need to provide feedback to your learners on their skills, knowledge and
assessment outcomes. In addition to this, you will also need to receive feedback about your
performance as a trainer in terms of learning support, appropriate use of assessment strategies and
areas that may need improvement. When you are working in the training industry, you will need to
continuously monitor and improve your skills and knowledge as a trainer.

How can you evaluate learning support and assessment strategies?


Through two-way feedback
Outcomes of the learning program
Discussions with the learner
Individual learner needs
Through testing of the learners knowledge

The feedback you receive will help you to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning support and
assessment strategies that were used. You will also need to take into account how the support
strategies have impacted on your learners comprehension of the content and ability to apply the

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newly acquired skills. You may find that the learning support and assessment strategies will work for
one learner but not for another, it is your responsibility to evaluate the outcomes and gather
whether you may need to adjust your techniques.

Areas for improvement


You may find that you need to adjust the learning support and assessment strategies you are using.
Based on your evaluation as a trainer, you should always take into account each learners personal
needs and requirements. Due to this, you should constantly evaluate whether the learning support
you are providing is effective and if the assessment strategies you are using are beneficial to the
learner and their learning.

The Evaluation Process


The four steps of evaluation consist of:

The following table contains important information about the different levels of evaluation,
evaluation tools, methods and the practicability of each level.

Kirkpatrick Model Structure

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Level Evaluation description and Examples of evaluation Relevance and


characteristics tools and methods practicability
1. Reaction Reaction evaluation is how the delegates 'Happy sheets', feedback Quick and very easy
felt, and their personal reactions to the forms. to obtain.
training or learning experience, for Not expensive to
example: Verbal reaction, post- gather or to analyse.
Did the learners enjoy the training? training surveys or
Did they consider the training questionnaires.
relevant?
Was it a good use of their time?
Did they like the venue, the style,
timing, domestics, etc?
Level of participation
2. Learning Learning evaluation is the measurement Typically assessments or Relatively simple to
of the increase in knowledge - before and tests before and after the set up; clear-cut for
after. training. quantifiable skills.
Did the learners learn what intended Less easy for complex
to be taught? Interview or observation learning.
Did the learner experience what was can also be used.
intended for them to experience?
What is the extent of advancement or
change in the learners after the
training, in the direction or area that
was intended?
3. Behaviour evaluation is the extent of Typically assessments or Measurement of
Behaviour applied learning back on the job - tests before and after the behaviour change
implementation. training. typically requires
Did the learners put their learning cooperation and skill
into effect when back on the job? Interview or observation of line-managers.
Were the relevant skills and can also be used.
knowledge used
Was there noticeable and measurable
change in the activity and
performance of the learners when

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back in their roles?


Was the change in behaviour and new
level of knowledge sustained?
Would the learner be able to transfer
their learning to another person?
Is the learner aware of their change in
behaviour, knowledge, skill level?
4. Results Results evaluation is the effect on the Measures are already in Individually not
business or environment resulting from place via normal difficult; unlike whole
the improved performance of the learner management systems and organisation.
- it is the acid test. reporting - the challenge is Process must
Measures would typically be to relate to the learner. attribute clear
organisational KPIs such as: accountabilities.
numbers of complaints,
staff turnover, retention, and
attrition,
failures, wastage, non-compliance,
quality ratings, achievement of
standards,
growth, etc.

Source: www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htm

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TAEDEL401A PLAN, ORGANISE AND DELIVER GROUP-BASED


LEARNING & BSBCMM401A MAKE A PRESENTATION

ELEMENT 1: Interpret learning environment and delivery requirements


Trainers need to be mindful of a few concepts when delivering a training program.
Considerations include the type of training program being delivered, the duration of the session
and how many people will be attending. Other considerations include:
Budget
Resources
Venue
Availability of staff

Participants need to be advised of these details so they arrive at the correct venue on time.

What are learning programs?


Learning programs are developed by training organisations and they specify how and where training
courses can be delivered. A typical learning program will contain the following information:
units of competency or benchmarks to be achieved
specific learning outcomes
an overview of the content
resources and activities to be used
delivery modes and methods
duration of training sessions
work health and safety (WHS) issues
assessment methods and the tools to be used

Identifying group and learner needs


Documents that can be used to identify individual needs can include:
student enrolment forms
the learners training records
interviews with stakeholders (e.g. supervisors)
training needs analysis
outcomes of recognition of current competency (RCC) or recognition of prior learning (RPL)

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By identifying the learners needs in the session planning phase you will be able to adjust your
delivery approaches and include customised resources to aid the learning process.

Adult learning theories


All trainers should have a basic understanding of the different adult learning theories (see Table 4.1).

Table 4.1 Adult Learning Theories


Adult learning theory Description
Cognitive learning theory This is a personality-based theory that recognises that knowledge alone
initiates change, and that experience doesnt generate knowledge. To
truly know, cognitive theory suggest that an individual must combine
concrete experiences with reflective observation, abstract
conceptualisation and active experience (practising) that is reflective of
their personality.
Andragogy Self-direction and individual responsibility for learning are the main
themes of the andragogical theory. Proponents of this theory promote
self-learning and the use of motivators to guide learners, as well as
reflection and self-assessment.
Pedagogy Beyond simply a theory, pedagogy is the science of teaching (in relation
to children). Opponents point out that many of the pedagogical
approaches that are successful with children do not translate to adult
learning.
Behavioural learning This theory, which is derived from the work of behavioural scientists
theory such as Ivan Pavlov, suggests that many people do not think or actively
try to assimilate information, but rather listen, retain and retrieve as
required without (initially) fully understanding.
Constructivist theory This is a form of cognitive theory that contends that learning must be
an active process of steps that build upon learners existing knowledge.
It promotes the use of real-life examples (developed by Jerome
Bruner.)
Situational This is a sub-theory that argues that all learning is best achieved when
conducted in the environment or context in which it will be used, but
also that social interaction is a vital part of learning (i.e. it cannot be
achieved alone).

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Adult Learning Styles (RECAP)


As discussed in the TAEDES401A chapter, learning styles need to be considered to encourage
maximum participation and knowledge transfer amongst adult learners. The way in which an adult
absorbs and processes information can have a direct effect on how much they enjoy the training
session. For this reason it is a good idea to try to incorporate activities that accommodate as many
different learning styles as possible.

The three most commonly referred to are Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic. A brief description of
each learning style can be found on the following page.
Learning style Description Suggested delivery methods
and techniques
Visual learners Prefer to see what is going on around Take written notes in
them. for example, they enjoy reading, lectures & class
using words such as see, appear, look and Use colours to highlight
imagine important points
Good speller Pay attention to diagrams,
Fast reader charts and pictures in text
Remembers faces but not names books
Not good at remembering small Use mind maps (with
details colours & diagrams) to
organise information for an
assignment or for revision
for an exam.
Put summaries and mind
maps on the walls in your
study area
Use a wall planner
Auditory learners Prefer to hear what is going on rather Use headsets to listen to
than read. They enjoy lectures, stories, books-on-tape
music and audio material. Participate in class
Good at languages discussions/debates
Remembers names better than Make speeches and
faces presentations
Good vocabulary Create musical jingles to aid

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Can follow spoken directions well memorization


Discuss ideas verbally
Use verbal analogies, and
storytelling to demonstrate
your point
Tape record classroom
lectures and class notes.
Summarizing is especially
helpful.
Kinesthetic learners Prefer to do things and apply themselves Test learning by applying it
to an activity. For example, they enjoy or transforming it to
games, teamwork, demonstrations and another form.
practical exercises Use lecture notes or
Naturally good athlete readings to draw a diagram,
Good performer (acting, speaking flow chart or even construct
or coaching) a model.
Allow the learner to be part
of a study group
Relate facts or theories to
the learners experiences

Not all the needs and characteristics of every learner can be met for every training session, but by
knowing what the learning requirements are, you have a better chance of meeting the needs overall.
Be mindful at all times of the effect that any changes or adjustments you make in meeting the needs
of one learner can potentially have for others in the group.

Managing Difficult Learners


There are a number of reasons why a learner may behave in a difficult manner and a variety of
key identifiers that can alert a trainer to what the issue may be. Protecting the self-esteem of
learners can be a challenge for some trainers, particularly if the learner is displaying what can be
perceived as negative behaviour. Trainers should not take it personally when a learner behaves in
a difficult manner, and try to remember that the behaviour of the learner could be as result of
any number of reasons, some of which could include:

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Resentment if they have been forced to attend training they feel they dont need
They could have a learning difficulty or a special need
They may be lacking confidence in their ability to learn
They may have had a negative experience previously and that is impacting on their current
training

What is a group?
Here, we are going to use the group development model to explain how a group is formed. This
theory was devised by an American psychologist named Bruce Tuckman in 1938. Tuckmans theory
describes five (5) stages of group development.

1. Forming. When the team or group forms, each of the individuals within are driven by a desire to
be accepted or be part of the group and to avoid conflict. In this stage, the members meet and
learn of the tasks ahead, routines, goals and so on. Everyone is feeling their way around the
group, subconsciously making impressions and identifying allies and threats, strong and weak,
leaders and followers. Conflict is avoided but everyone is working independently so the power of
the group is not yet harnessed.
2. Storming. The turbulent stage of storming occurs when everyone is jostling, openly or
psychologically, for their spot on the ladder within the group. This is not a major issue in small
groups (less than four people), but can be a serious event in larger groups as ideas and
ideologies compete for group acceptance. Disagreement or even conflict will arise, but this will
generally end for the betterment of the group, as long as the trainer or facilitator provides close
monitoring and guidance to avoid unacceptable behaviour emerging.
3. Norming. When the turbulence settles and the goal and approaches to achieving it have been
clearly identified, individuals within the group can take on roles and responsibilities towards the
common goal.
4. Performing. The productivity phase, which is not always reached by all teams or groups, is the
high-performance result that fully harnesses the potential of teamwork. As team or group
members become interdependent, the real team forms. The performing stage of group
development can be seen in sport, where a great team of averagely talented members can
outperform an average team of greatly talented superstars. The great team has reached the
performing stage and the total performance exceeds the sum of its parts.
5. Adjourning. The final part of the five-stage model was added later, but recognises that groups
often do not last forever and there can be a need to recognise the dissolving or breaking up of

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the group. It also can be difficult (it is sometimes known as the mourning phase), particularly
where groups have been together as interdependent teams for an extended period.

Knowing your role


Before you begin any training session, you will need to confirm your role. You should find out who is
responsible for:
planning and organising each session
planning and organising relevant learning materials
making arrangements for assessment
record-keeping and reporting arrangements

Conducting a Training Needs Analysis (TNA)


A Training Needs Analysis is the process of determining what training needs exist, either
within an organisation or for an individual. For example, a trainer may be asked to conduct a
training session on team building because a department within an organisation is not working
well as a team.

If the trainer has not carried out an extensive needs analysis prior to conducting the training,
they may find out after the training has commenced that the real issue was not that staff
werent working well as a team, but that in fact morale is low due to bullying issues, or lack of job
security. In such situations, no amount of team building training would have helped to
increase staff interaction. An example of conducting a TNA could involve the following steps:

Identify what the learners need to know


Interview Managers / Supervisors
Research job descriptions

Observation
Use checklists, tests,
questionnaires Interview learners

Consultation
Determine budget, venue, and availability
of learners Obtain nal approval

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SWOT Analysis
A popular way in which to determine whether a training need exists is to conduct a SWOT
analysis. SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats and can be used
in almost every area of business. It can often be influenced by the economy, media attention,
government regulations, change in legislation and various other factors.

Strengths Internal / Positive


Characteristics of the team / learners that are an advantage
over others
Consider the assets to the organisation individuals or group
what is the organisation known for?
How are strengths maintained?
Weaknesses Internal (can also be external) / Negative
Characteristics that place the team or learners at a disadvantage
Incorporates poor performance, sta issues, outside perceptions
of the organisation
Hint consider weaknesses an opportunity to make things
better
Opportunities External / Positive
Opportunities for expansion or diversication
Determine how to grow the business by growing the people
How are the opportunities maximised?
Threats External / Negative
What outside inuences can implicate the business or sta?
External elements that could create problems if not
addressed
How can threats be best overcome?

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ELEMENT 2: Prepare session plans


What is a session plan? (RECAP)
A session plan (as discussed in theTAEDES402A chapter) will provide the following information;
a list of lesson topics
the time duration for each topic
resources required for the training delivery
learning activities to engage the learners

It is important to note here that a session plan is not the same as a learning program. The learning
program is a higher level document held by the RTO, which provides an overview of the learning. A
session plan however, is a working document that allows the trainer to stay on track with the lesson
topics within the allocated timeframe.

Using ice-breakers
At the beginning of the lesson, you may wish to use an ice-breaker. The purpose of an ice-breaker
activity is to encourage group bonding by allowing each person to introduce themselves.

Learning resources
A learning resource (also referred to as training material) is anything that can be used to help a
learner understand the course content. Learning resources can take on many different forms such
as;
DVDs and videos
workplace manuals
record or log books
handouts, activity sheets
prepared case studies and role plays
industry fact sheets
CDs and audio tapes
presentation equipment (e.g. laptop, data projectors)
support materials such as learner guides, professional development material, assessment
tools

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Preparing a session plan


The seven steps in preparing a session plan are:
1. List the objectives of your training session
2. Order your information in a logical sequence
3. Determine the content based on the objectives
4. Identify learning resources required for each segment
5. Summarise key points (objectives)
6. Test your plan by conducting a dry run (with timings)
7. Review and revise your plan as required

SAMPLE: Session plan

Session Plan

Session name: Sandwich making (session 1) Date: 08/04/15

Unit of competency: SITHCCC103 Prepare sandwiches

Location details: ABC School of English 10 Mary Street Brisbane QLD 4000

Trainer name: John Smith

To develop the following skills; selecting ingredients, preparing


Learning objectives:
sandwiches, presenting and storing sandwiches.
Training aids/ learning resources:
White board, learner workbooks, study guides, handouts

Equipment required:
Projector, computers, preparation utensils (kitchen cutting board, knife, container boxes, glad
wrap)
Procedure:
Warm up activity, introduction, practice, group activities, quiz
Warm up activity:
Getting to know each other:
Students are to interact with others by asking basic questions pertaining to their name, origin,
work and life, family - 5 minute allocation
Elicit some details back from the class about what they discovered that was interesting 1 minute

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Presentation
Activity Interaction Delivery Methods and Techniques Time duration
number and (individual,
description group, in
pairs)
1 Class Trainer introduction 10 minutes
introduction Explanation of the learning objectives
and ice breaker Ice breaker activity amongst learners
activity
2 introducing Class Content to be covered 60 minutes
the content Confirm sandwich
and practicing requirements, based on
the new skills standard recipes or customer
requests.
Use sandwich making
methods
Use heating and toasting
equipment
Use of brainstorming activity to assess
the learners current knowledge levels

The trainer will use direct modelling


when demonstrating the skills for the
first time to learners. Observation and
verbal guidance will be used when
learners are asked to demonstrate the
sandwich making skills.

Learners will have 10 minutes to


practice making a sandwich according
to a customer request.
3- written quiz Individual Written quiz to be completed by each 10 minutes
learner to test their knowledge of the
content so far.

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Summary

Elicit key information back from group to check understanding and let them know what we will be
covering in the next session
Questions to ask your learners to support learning:
What did you learn in todays session?
How will you use this information in the workplace

Revision questions to be asked by the trainer here


Anticipated Problems: Possible Solutions:
Lack of knowledge and/or application skills Have sufficient information available (e.g.
handouts, videos) for learners to complete
the written quiz

Allow sufficient practice time for developing


competent sandwich making skills

Remember to customise your presentation to suit different learner groups. This will depend on the
learners;
cultural background
educational background
language, literacy and numeracy needs
previous work experience
age and gender

Creating a presentation
Your presentation slides should be easy to read and follow so it is important that you avoid using
long paragraphs and small font. An effective method of summarising your key points is to use bullet
points. This way, you will be able to elaborate on each point and provide examples to help your
learners understand the content. As a rule of thumb, use 4 dot points per slide.

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ELEMENT 3: Prepare resources for delivery


Contextualising learning resources
As mentioned earlier, adjustments should be made to learning resources to suit specific learner
groups.
Common examples of contextualising include using company templates, workplace forms, service
scripts and policy manuals to help the learner better understand the course content.

Resource preparation
Prior to delivering any lesson you should check that all relevant personnel, resources and equipment
are available. The best way to do this is to use a resource checklist (see sample below). If there are
other staff members involved in the delivery session, it is a good idea to send an email reminder.

SAMPLE: Resource Checklist


Item Status Tick as completed
Materials Writing utensils (pens, markers)
In working order
Sufficient quantity available
Training resources are printed
Venue Room is ventilated with fans/ air-conditioning
Wheel-chair access available
Sufficient number of desks and chairs
Access to amenities such as toilets
Lights are in working order
Equipment Laptop/computer is working
Sufficient power outlets
Data projector is available and working
Extension cords are available

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ELEMENT 4: Deliver and facilitate training sessions


Communication skills
You will need to use a variety of communication skills throughout your lesson. Communication
techniques are made up of how you and others perceive a situation and non-verbal communication.
Perception is the way you organise and interpret the world and messages around you and ho w
y o u relate this directly back to values, past experiences and confidence levels. Participants will
not always perceive information the same way that you do.

Non-verbal communication includes how we portray ourselves to others, the posture we use
when walking or talking, the gestures we use, our tone of voice and our facial expressions. The
combination of these is what gives others an overall sense of who we are as presenters and
whether or not they can trust us.

Non-verbal communication includes:


Eye contact maintain good eye contact with the participants at all times. Ensure you
look at each of them equally and dont stare too much at one person. Sweep the
room with your gaze.
Posture and the way you hold yourself even if you dont feel it, act confidently, walk
confidently, stand confidently. Your posture will say a lot about you. Dont pace or
sway, stand tall and be proud.
Facial expressions some people cannot hide their feelings in their facial expressions.
Facial expressions should always be positive. You should have a warm and sincere smile
to draw the participants in and show them you are genuine.
Dress always dress like a professional. Your clothing should be clean, comfortable and
business like. Females should avoid heavy make-up or too much jewellery and be
conservative in their dress. Men should be clean shaven / have trimmed beards and dress
in business attire.

Monitoring Cues
Trainers should always remember that there is only so much you can do during the delivery phase.
There is no reason to take it personally if a participant does not want to undertake the course or has
been forced to participate. Non-verbal cues such as signing, rolling eyes, looking disinterested are all
clear signs that the learner does not understand the content or is simply bored.

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Look out for the following signs;


Does the learner appear happy?
Does the learner look interested?
Does the learner appear to be falling asleep?
Is the learner yawning a lot?

You should also employ the following skills throughout each training session;
respond to questions appropriately
summarise major points
maintain eye contact
demonstrate confidence
support the learners

Engage the learner


There are various methods that can be utilised to support learners with special needs. This includes
but is not limited to:
Practical demonstration
Case studies
Group discussions
Brainstorming activities
Tutoring lessons
Coaching/mentoring programs
Blended learning (e.g. classroom and online)

Class rules
It is necessary to establish some class rules at the beginning of the training session. This will outline
your expectations of the learners and what the learners can expect from you as their trainer. For
example;
Acceptable behaviours - respect, sensitivity to culture, ethics and gender, use of appropriate
language
Unacceptable behaviours being disruptive, verbally abusive, distracting other learners,
bullying, non-compliance with safety rules
Commitment to learning, the learning process, learner motivation and participation
Promoting a safe and secure learning environment (physically, psychologically and emotionally)

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Embracing diversity
More often than not, your class will consist of learners who come from different walks of life. By
embracing these differences in diversity you are employing inclusive practices. The benefits of
diversity are outlined on the next page.

Differences Benefits
Ability Knowledgeable input, assist each other with physical skills, such as those
requiring dexterity
Age Wisdom of ages, different perspectives
Culture Alternative perspectives on events, widens learners world views and
understanding, perceptions of actions or activities
Expertise/experience/ Provide specialist input and perspectives within their respective fields;
working styles different working styles can offer learners other ways of completing tasks
which they may not have otherwise considered
Gender Male/female perspectives of events to broaden understanding
Interests Allows for learner input in different fields of interest
Interpersonal style Provides a variety of approaches to the same situations, offering all
learners options to consider
Language Different interpretations of phrases, perceptions of actions or activities
Mental ability Interaction between students can broaden horizons and provide
opportunities for all students
Past experiences Offer all learners the opportunity to consider their own experiences and
apply new learning in terms of their existing understanding and
experience
Politics Different political beliefs can lead to different perspectives on situations,
and different approaches to issues, such as industrial relations, social
issues and so on
Thinking and learning Challenges you, the trainer, to provide different solutions to meet the
styles differing needs, improving your skills as a trainer while allowing other
students to gain different perspectives on problems or activities

Source: Hill, D., Hill, T., and Perlitz, L.. (2010). Vocational Training and Assessment. United States of America

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Group facilitation
Group facilitation is another skill that you must employ as a trainer or facilitator. This involves
maintaining a balance between different learning styles and group focus. For example;
ensure every individual has an opportunity for participation
maintain group cohesion
encourage rapport between group members
manage group dynamics
observe and interpret behaviour that puts others at risk
facilitate discussion and group interaction

ELEMENT 5: Support and monitor learning


Monitoring progress
Oral questioning should be used to find out if your learners are struggling with the course content or
achieving the learning outcomes. There are two (2) types of questions, they are classified as:
1. Closed question a question that results in a yes or no response
2. Open question a question that results in a structured response or a few sentences.

Questions can help a trainer to:


manage class behaviour
arouse curiosity and stimulate interest
clarify and emphasise key concepts
promote discussion among learners
develop learners problem-solving ability
motivate students to search for new information

Motivating learners
Assign and agree to tasks to be undertaken and due dates to be met
Challenge the learner with case studies, projects, problems

Obtain feedback
By collecting feedback from your learners or audience you can determine the effectiveness of your
performance. Always act on feedback that has been provided, especially negative feedback. Here are
some ways that you can obtain feedback from your peers, learners and managers;
feedback form

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focus group interviews


one-on-one interviews
observation checklist

Record keeping
All personal information and records pertaining to a learners enrolment must comply with the
Privacy Amendment Act 2012. This information should not be sold to third parties or distributed to
the general public. For more information about the Privacy Amendment Act 2012
www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2012A00197
In the VET sector, all registered training organisations must keep a record of all training-related
documents on file for 30 years. These records include;
training and assessment strategies
session/ lesson plans
attendance sheets
student feedback forms
assessment results
student work samples
student payments
trainer professional development activities
meeting minutes

These records should be stored electronically on the company server or backed up onto an external
hard drive or cloud network.

Managing inappropriate behaviour


When a learner engages in inappropriate behaviour you will need to let the learner know that what
they have said or done is unacceptable in the learning environment. If this tactic fails, you will need
to employ conflict resolution skills to manage the inappropriate behaviour. This includes:
identifying what the cause of the behaviour
talking to all parties concerned
presenting possible solutions to resolve issues
obtaining agreements, either verbal or written depending on the severity of the issue
If the situation escalates and the health and safety of the trainer and other learners are at risk you
may need to contact the police.

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TAEDEL402A PLAN, ORGANISE AND FACILITATE LEARNING IN THE


WORKPLACE

ELEMENT 1: Establish effective work environment for learning


Work-based learning involves setting clear goals to help an employee acquire new skills or
knowledge that is related to the work environment. This can be in the form of on-the-job-training,
apprenticeships, traineeships or internships. There are many benefits associated with work-based
learning such as;
the employee undertakes real-life work activities
the employee is supported by their supervisors
the employee learns how to use office equipment
the employee remains current in terms of professional development
the employee remains productive and active in their job role

A work-based learning pathway can focus on any area within the organisation. For instance, the
learning objectives might be based on the requirement to;
learn how to use new technology
learn about a new job role
learn about new products or services
learn about regulatory requirements
learn about work, health and safety requirements

SMART objectives (RECAP)


Learning objectives needs to be clearly written to avoid discrepancies and should follow the SMART
acronym outlined below.
S Specific - The learning objective needs to be written using words that indicate specific
actions
M Measurable - The objective must be written in such a way that it can be measured to
determine if it has been achieved
A Achievable - The outcome should be attainable
R Relevant - The outcome needs to be relevant to the target group and their learning needs
T Timely - The objective can be reached within a reasonable time frame

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Once you have clearly defined the learning objectives with the learner you will need to document
this into an individualised learning plan (see sample below).

SAMPLE: Individualised Learning Plan


Workplace Smith Accounting Firm

Name of employee Julie Guild

Learning goals Accurately maintain general ledger

(Question to ask - what does the learner Generate daily profit and loss report
hope to achieve by the end of the program?)
Monitor and record petty cash receipts

Learner characteristics Year 12 school leaver


No work experience in accounting firms
(Question to ask - what are the learners Has complete her Certificate I in Business
characteristics?)
Performance benchmarks to be achieved BSBFIA301 Maintain financial records

(Refer to the training package - the PC 1.3 Accurately credit and debit transactions and
performance criteria is a good place to start) promptly enter into journals in accordance with
organisational and legislative requirement
Learners current level of knowledge, skill No work experience in accounting firms
and experience Has complete her Certificate I in Business

(Questions to ask
What is the learners current skill or
knowledge level?
Does the learner have prior work
experience?)
Equity or additional support needs for the Has difficulty with numeracy calculations
learner.

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(Does the learner require language, literacy


and numeracy assistance?
Do you need to consider reasonable
adjustments?)
Boundaries and expectations of the Julie would like to improve her numeracy skill level
learning relationship. and be able to meet the learning goals.

(Does the learner have any expectations


from this program?)
Instructions to the facilitator

(This section includes any additional information to help you and other trainers to deliver the
learning pathway (e.g. use of support materials, lunch breaks, revision sessions etc)
Will need to provide Julie with a calculator, work sheets and samples of workplace documentation.
Follow-up sessions will be held every 2 weeks to check on Julies progress
Allow sufficient time to practice using the accounting software and producing daily reports.

As you can see, an individual learning plan contains details about:


the learning goals for the program
the learners current knowledge and skill levels
the performance benchmarks to be achieved
resources and support services required

Once complete, you must confirm the contents of the plan with learners and gain their
endorsement. Their signature on the plan is their commitment to you that they understand the
requirements and confirm the agreed goals and outcomes.

The learning context


It is important that the trainer identifies the following before commencing the work-based learning
pathway;
What is the learners current knowledge or skill level?
Will the learner be required to operate any machinery or equipment?
Will the learning activities satisfy the learning objectives?

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Workplace restrictions
Employees will often face workplace restrictions when undertaking any form of work-based learning.
These constraints are usually due to;
tight work schedules where tasks need to be completed within a set timeline
pressure to perform or meet key performance indicators
multi-task and perform a number of different roles
compliance with WHS guidelines and systems
language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) requirements

Adjustments or contingency plans will need to be considered if these work restrictions apply to the
learner.

ELEMENT 2: Develop a work-based learning pathway


The development process
A work-based learning pathway can be created in five (5) simple steps;
1. Identify clear objectives for the work-based learning
2. Identify job tasks or activities to be completed by the learner
3. Organise the job tasks or activities in a sequential manner (sequencing)
4. Provide direct guidance and practical demonstration (facilitation options)
5. Allow the learner time to practise the job task/activity (review process)

See sample of a work-based learning pathway plan below.

SAMPLE: Work-based Learning Pathway Plan

List the learning objectives for the work-based learning pathway:

Accurately maintain general ledger


Generate daily profit and loss report
Monitor and record petty cash receipts

Work practices and routines, the work environment and work activities suitable to meet
learning objectives:

Access to an accounting program/accounting generals and ledgers


Produce daily financial reports for the manager

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WHS implications of using work as the basis of learning, such as workplace WHS policies
and procedures; and ensuring work practices do not pose a risk to learners and others:

Access to an ergonomic workstation and equipment

Contractual requirements and responsibilities for learning at work, such as training plans
under apprenticeships or traineeships, or requirements under government-funded
Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) programs:

The learner has 2 hours each week to study and learn the new tasks within the accounts
department. The learner will work closely with the accounts manager and practice any
new skills.

External learning activities which can be integrated into the work-based learning pathway,
if appropriate; and how they can be monitored:

Have the learner settle the petty cash account each week.
Have the learner watch the accounts payable and receivable person process transactions
into the accounting program/system.

Agreement from relevant personnel to implement the work-based learning pathway:

Workplace supervisor and accounts manager will need to be involved with this process.

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Learners name: Julie Guild

Previous learning Job tasks and activities for Learning Facilitation Personnel and Learning Review
experiences sequencing alignment options additional goals processes
opportunities support

No work experience in Accurately maintain general ledger align direct supervisor, Accurately fortnightly
accounting firms organisational guidance, trainer, maintain evaluations
Generate daily profit and loss report aims, employee modelling general and ongoing
Has complete her aims co-worker, ledger reviews
Certificate I in Business Monitor and record petty cash practise
receipts workplace options LLN specialist Generate
activities daily profit
coaching and loss
report
mentoring
Monitor and
record petty
cash receipts

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SAMPLE: Training Plan
Title of class Sandwich making

Details of class Students undertaking the SITHCCC103 Prepare sandwiches

Start date 08/04/15

Learning objectives To develop the following skills; selecting ingredients, preparing sandwiches,
presenting and storing sandwiches.
List of web sites/ resources accessed to Websites
support delivery http://www.iei.illinois.edu/current/studyresources/
http://www.eslgold.com/
Language, literacy and numeracy needs Speak and listen
Non-verbal body language
Reading, written text/words, symbols
Other languages including signing e.g. AUSLAN
Special needs Scribe
Wheelchair ramp
Prayer room
Visual aids
Support services and resources Scribe
Administration
Head of education
Support trainers
Constraints and risks to delivery LLN issues
Time
Resources
WHS
Set up/ room
Support available
Personnel and support people Supervisor/ manager/ principal/ industry expert/ other trainers/
administration/ family & friends for student with special needs.
Resource checklist for delivery that Facility venue location, wheel chair access, lifts, amenities
includes; such as kitchen, toilets, training room
Facility Equipment computer, printer, projector, modem
Equipment Technology wireless interne, server access, Skype, Microsoft
Technology Office software

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How will I monitor learner progress Q & A sessions


levels Elicitation
Formative and summative testing
Collection of feedback
Group activities/ projects
Interviews
How will I document the individual Students will be assessed on their ability to perform activities, their
learners progress ability to respond to questions and the documentation they will
produce for projects/ group and pair work interactions.

At the end of the course students will sit for a formal assessment

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SAMPLE: Session plan for workplace facilitation
Corey Rover
Trainer/assessor name
Face-to-face work based learning
Delivery mode
Session 1 Maintain daily financial records
Session number and name Date: 10.02.2014

Learning goals Details Learning resources Learning activities Review

e.g. the sequencing of tasks and e.g. what will be e.g. the tasks and activities related e.g. questions,
activities required for learning to the learning checks for learning
Accurately maintain Monday MYOB accounting Manually enter transactions into a Follow-up sessions
general ledger Time: 10am 11am software general ledger (paper and electronic will be held every 2
version) weeks to check on
Accounts manager to be Julies progress
Generate daily profit Wednesday available Track expenses and sales for the
and loss report Time: 10am 11am week
Paper version of general
ledger Produce report from MYOB
Monitor and record Friday accounting software
petty cash receipts Time: 10am 11am Petty cash receipts
Organise petty cash receipts by date
Ergonomic workstation order

Enter details into spreadsheet

Record into MYOB accounting


software

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SAMPLE: Workplace facilitation observation checklist
This observation checklist is to be completed by you (the observer).

Observer name Corey Rover

Learner name Julie Guild Date 20.02.2014

Location of training Smith Accounting Firm

Unit of competency addressed in BSBFIA301 - Maintain financial records


training

Checklist items: Comments Yes No

Did you use a range of delivery Yes, the use of manuals and fact sheets about X
methods and training aids to MYOB was issued to the learner. The learner had
optimise learner experiences? multiple opportunities to ask questions and
practice the new skills.

Did you use interpersonal skills to Yes, open and closed-ended questions were X
maintain appropriate asked to gauge the learners understanding of
relationships? the concepts and tasks being performed in
MYOB.

Did you observe learner cues and Yes, the learner asked questions and X
change approaches where paraphrased certain areas when in doubt. The
necessary to maintain learner maintained eye contact when new
momentum? information was being relayed.

Did you use language and Yes, the language was appropriate to the tasks X
terminology appropriate to the being performed such as; bank register, sales
industry and language, literacy entry, journal transactions, petty cash, profit and
and numeracy levels of the loss.
learner?
A glossary was provided to the learner as well.
The student indicated that she had some
numeracy issues however this was overcome by
the use of a calculator and guidance by myself.

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Did you use learning materials Yes, the following learning materials were X
appropriate for the learner? available;
MYOB accounting software
Accounts manager to be available
Paper version of general ledger
Petty cash receipts
Ergonomic workstation

Notes on learner performance The learner completed a feedback form. X

Feedback received from learner The learner completed a feedback form. X

Did you follow the session plan? Yes. Some extra time (extra 15 minutes) was X
awarded for additional practice of new skills.

Other comments The learner performed all learning tasks to a satisfactorily level and
showed great interest in the accounts department.

I will catch up with the learner in 2 weeks time to check on her


progress level.

Contractual arrangements
Since, the learning is taking place in the workplace you will need to discuss the contractual arrangements
with the employer. This is common for those who are enrolled in a government-funded program such as an
apprenticeship, traineeship or Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program. The trainer will
need to create a training plan for the learner and ensure the nominal study hours are met.

The trainer will also need to consider;


how many days the learner must attend classroom training
how many days the learner is absent from scheduled classes
how the learning impacts on their current work role

Trainer obligations regarding legislation, regulation, code of practice and workplace procedures
WHS legislation: key requirements is that of duty of care
Anti-discrimination legislation: ensure delivery and assessment does not discriminate

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Privacy Act: ensure all private information of students are protected securely
Clause 1.13 - 1.16: provide quality training, ensure trainer meets standard: evaluate training,
contribute to continuous improvement
Organisational (RTO) codes of practice for trainers: code of practice may include principles such as
respect, professional practice, integrity, use of resources
Workplace procedures: onsite training procedures, classroom training procedures, assessment
procedures, resubmission procedures

The learning agreement


All aspects of the learning agreement will need to be approved by the relevant stakeholders such as the;
workplace supervisor
trainer or assessor
learner (the employee)
human resource department

The employer will need to show support in terms of:


access to the work environment
access to any equipment or machinery
access to any support learning materials
access to the learner (the employee)

The stakeholders will need a copy of the formal contract as this will prevent any confusion or
misunderstanding about the learning objectives and the role of each party.

ELEMENT 3: Establish the learningfacilitation relationship&


ELEMENT 4: Implement work-based learning pathway

Each individual learner will have their own preferred learning style and set of characteristics. You may obtain
this information by asking the human resources to provide a copy of the employees training records or by
simply asking the learner. Some common barriers to workplace learning include;
language, literacy and numeracy needs
employment status (e.g. casual or full-time)
previous learning experiences

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cultural background
environment (e.g. noise, lighting)
access to workplace materials

Building rapport
Building any relationship requires open and honest communication from each party and there is a
willingness to listen and contribute to the relationship. As the trainer, you will need to employ the following
skills;
avoid using jargon (use clear language only)
avoid making assumptions
use appropriate body language
use active listening techniques
ask open and closed questions
be empathetic, open and honest

Remember to explain the individualised learning plan to the learner and how they can contact you for
information or further guidance. This might include;
providing your email address
providing your contact number and availability times
providing dates for revision classes
providing information about follow-up sessions

Work, health and safety considerations


Since, the learning will be taking place in the actual workplace the trainer must exercise duty of care in this
instance as well. For example, the trainer and learner must comply with the Work Health and Safety Act
2011, work practices and any safety policies established by the organisation.

Familiarise yourself with the following information when entering a workplace;


Who is the emergency contact person?
Who is the evacuation warden in the work area
Where are the evacuation assembly points
Where are the incident forms located
Is there an attendance sheet?

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Sources of WHS information include;


WHS representatives
WHS Risk/hazard register
Hazard/Incident reports
Safety Data Sheets
Equipment user manuals
Audits or previous WHS Inspection reports

When a hazard is identified in the training environment, this information should be logged in a WHS system
or hazard report and referred to the supervisor or health and safety officer. Please note that hazards and
risks were covered in the TAEDES401A chapter).

Supervising the learner


Normally, when the trainer is not present in the workplace, supervisory arrangements will be in place to
support the learner. This person can be the learners senior manager or supervisor. The supervisors role is
to provide guidance only and they must not intervene or complete the work-based activities for the learner.
As the trainer, you should schedule a meeting with the supervisory person and explain the ground rules.

Sequencing the learning


Once you have developed an individual learning plan and a work-based learning pathway, you can start to
sequence the learning tasks. This process ensures that the content and work activities flow in a logical order.

Transfer learning into the workplace


There are techniques which can be used to ensure learning is transferred into the workplace. For example;
asking the learner to partake in problem solving activities (e.g. research projects)
by using hypothetical questioning to determine the learners depth of understanding
creating opportunities for learners to perform the work tasks autonomously
creating opportunities for learners to apply the knowledge and skills in different contexts

ELEMENT 5: maintain and develop the learningfacilitation relationship


Learning activities
The learning activities should help the learner build on current skills and knowledge and allow the learning to
take place in incrementally steps. Examples of structured learning activities include:
role plays

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case studies
writing exercises
group demonstrations
research projects/ activities
practice opportunities (e.g. practicum or supervised teaching/facilitation)

Check learner progress


As you move forward with each session, it is important to look out for non-verbal cues to check that the
learner understands the skills and knowledge being taught. Learners struggling with the lesson will often
display the following behaviours:
become easily distracted
demonstrate poor organisational skills
become reluctant to undertake new activities
become dependent on you to lead them through activities
work slowly or quickly and inaccurately
find excuses to miss sessions, such as illness, appointments or urgent meetings

Other times, learners will verbally express that they simply do not understand or will ask you to paraphrase
the information by using examples. It is important not to assume that your learner understands everything.
Try to use revision questions to test your learners comprehension levels and adjust your learning activities
accordingly.

Ethical behaviour
A trainer must behave in an ethical manner at all times during the learning relationship. Failure to do so will
result in irreparable damage to the reputation of both the trainer and their organisation. Examples of ethical
behaviour include:
being honest about your knowledge and skill level
following organisational policies
comply with privacy laws
being honest in your dealings
treating others fairly

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Monitoring learner results


You can monitor the learners progress through ongoing assessment and feedback mechanisms. It is a good
idea to schedule regular meetings (e.g. once a month depending on the program duration) with the learner
and employer to discuss performance levels. During these meetings, the employer can also raise any issues
that were not identified during the planning phase such as disruptions to work routines or indirect impacts
on customer service levels. Always take the time to listen to your client during these meetings and suggest
reasonable adjustment strategies wherever possible. Remember that this is a work-based learning pathway
and the purpose of the plan is to ensure the learner is developing the correct organisational skills and
knowledge to perform their job effectively.

ELEMENT 6: Close and evaluate the learningfacilitation relationship


It is essential that you take the correct steps to close and evaluate a learning relationship. In doing so, you
will be able to;
find out what aspects worked well
what didnt work in the relationship
what improvements can be made
support your professional development as a trainer/facilitator

The evaluation process requires you to collect feedback data from the learner. This might be in the form of
a face-to-face interview
general discussions
written questionnaire

Providing constructive feedback


Constructive feedback helps the learner to understand why they did not receive a competent outcome and
how to rectify this result. Effective methods for providing constructive feedback include;
explaining the purpose of the feedback
outlining the areas that need to be re-attempted
provide relevant examples
always be empathetic (not sympathetic)

Self-evaluation process
Once the learning relationship has ended, you should take the time to reflect on your performance as a
trainer/facilitator. The self-evaluation process can include:

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asking questions about your own delivery ability, knowledge and skill levels
asking how the relationship could be improved
reviewing your own performance against best practice
reviewing feedback from your learner and identifying areas for improvement

The information that you collect from this process will enable you to improve future work-based learning
programs and allow you to grow as a professional.

Maintaining evaluation records


In some industries, there is a legal requirement to keep a record of the evaluation process. For example,
professional registration as a nurse, contractor and builder requires you to conduct self-evaluation at an
organisational level. Requirements do vary, so remember to discuss any requirements for maintaining
evaluation records with your organisation and the learners employer.

ELEMENT 7: Monitor and review the effectiveness of the work-based learning


pathway
The review process is similar to the evaluation of the learning-facilitation relationship. The main difference is
you are able to collect feedback from various stakeholders not just the learner. There are important
questions which must be asked at this stage, such as;
Did the program achieve the learning objectives?
What part of the program worked well?
What aspect of the program didnt work?
Were there sufficient resources (time, materials)?
Did the learners employer find the program effective?
What areas need improvement?

Collecting feedback
Feedback can be obtained through interviews, telephone calls and feedback forms. The most effective type
of questionnaire is one that uses the sliding-scale method. By distributing a sliding-scale questionnaire to
your stakeholders, you can find out what areas worked well (or not well) and to what degree hence the
name sliding scale. Try to avoid questionnaires that only produce a yes or no response as there is little
room for interpretation and analysis. Below is an example of a 4 point sliding scale which comprises of the
following score categories; strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree.

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SAMPLE: Learner Feedback Form


Learner Feedback Form
Trainers name: John Smith
Session title: Sandwich making
Date: 15/04/15
Instructions:
Please take the time to address each feedback item below by ticking the relevant category (i.e. strongly agree, disagree,
agree, strongly disagree). Provide comments where applicable to help the trainer understand their strengths and
weaknesses for self-improvement.
Strongly Agree

Disagree

Disagree
Strongly
Agree
Feedback item Comments

The objective/s of the session was Was confusing at first but was better once we had a
X
clear chance to practice
We did a bit of brain storming and the trainer asked a
The trainer used a variety of
X few questions. The trainer also showed us how to use
activities
the kitchen utensils
The activities helped me to Yes I learned a lot about the proper tools to use and
understand the content being X how to toast a heat a sandwich
delivered
The activities were relevant to the Yes, the information that was provided by the trainer
X
session topic made sense when we started to make the sandwiches
Good to have support of other students. They were
The activities were too difficult X
well
The learning materials catered to The hand outs and power points were clear and easy
my learning needs to follow and understand
X
E.g. visual and audio support
materials were available
There was sufficient time to I wanted more time to keep practicing my new
X
complete each activity sandwich making skills
The trainer was respectful and Very polite and helpful
X
monitored my learning
The trainer encouraged active The trainer asked heaps of questions and addressed
X
participation each learner including myself
The trainer was easy to understand X
What did you enjoy most about the Actually making a sandwich
session?
What did you least like about this The written quiz
session?
Do you have any other comments Just a quicker introduction and more practice time
or feedback?

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Changes to the program


Once the feedback data has been collected and collated, you might want to edit or remove parts of the
learning program. These recommendations should be made in writing and accompanied by supporting
evidence. Make time to discuss these changes with the learners employer and be ready to explain the
benefits of the change.

For example, it is recommended that the following changes be made to the program;
ask the learner to perform a variety of administrative tasks in the workplace
use an observation checklist to assess the learners ability to complete all work tasks
have the learner complete a knowledge exam during week 5 and week 10 to check progress levels
allow the learner one extra week to complete the research activity
replace the oral presentation with a group presentation in the final assessment

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TAEASS401B PLAN ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES &


TAEASS502B DESIGN AND DEVELOP ASSESSMENT TOOLS

ELEMENT 1: Determine assessment approach


Assessment is the process of collecting evidence to show that a learner can perform the duties outlined
in the training program. The trainer or assessor needs to collect quality evidence to substantiate
whether the learner can perform the duties at the required standard or benchmark. Basically,
assessment confirms whether or not the learner has competence required in the area they are being
trained in.

There are two common types of assessment; norm-referenced and criterion-based assessment.
Norm-referenced Criterion based
Norm-referenced assessment involves ranking a Criterion-based assessment involves measuring the
learner against their peers once a task has been learners performance against a prescribed
completed. benchmark. The candidate can either receive a
competent or not yet competent outcome.
A typical example of this is high school students who
sit multiple examinations to achieve a score required A typical example of this is if you ask a learner to
for university entrance. build a chair. The learner will either be able to
complete the task or fail to do so. In this instance the
learner will need to have a set of instructions on how
to complete the task.

Competency-based assessments
Competency-based assessments seek to evaluate and determine the skills, knowledge and attitude of the
candidate. This form of assessment is desirable in the vocational education system as it directly applies to
real workplace skills and knowledge. There are four (4) different types of competency-based assessment;
work-focused = the assessment aligns with current work practices, procedures and policies
criterion-referenced = the assessment is based on specific criteria
standards-based = the assessment uses a national, industry or organisational standard to benchmark
the performance of the candidate
evidence-based = the assessment must be accompanied by valid, authentic, current and sufficient
evidence

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Remember it is a requirement for all registered training organisations to offer RPL/RCC assessment options.
This was covered in the TAEDES401A chapter.

Principles of assessment
As discussed earlier on, assessment guidelines are an endorsed component of a Training Package. They
provide an industry framework to ensure all assessments meet industry needs and nationally agreed
standards from within in the Training Package. The a ssessment guidelines must be followed to ensure
the assessment process leads to a nationally recognised qualification or statement of attainment as this
demonstrates vocational competency. The principles of assessment should be used to guide the assessment
process.
Principle IMPACT ON THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS
Valid Validity ensures that the assessment can justify what it claims. Evidence
supports the learner and indicates they have the knowledge and skill to perform
the task which is being assessed.
Reliable Reliable means that the assessment is consistent. Evidence can be collected
through a variety of different means but the end result should remain the same.
In other words, the learner can undertake the task regardless of how they are
asked to perform it, or when they are asked to perform it.
Flexible Flexibility indicates that reasonable adjustment can be carried out to amend the
assessment if necessary for learners with special needs or characteristics. It also
indicates that there is flexibility when the assessment takes place and where it
takes place to accommodate for the needs of the learners and the trainer.
Fair Fair means that no learner is disadvantaged in his or her assessment. All
learners should understand what is expected from them and advised of all
the details relating to the assessment. All learner needs should be catered to
in the assessment process.

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Rules of evidence
Trainers and assessors should also apply the rules of evidence when conducting an assessment. These rules
must be adhered to if you are conducting assessment for nationally recognised courses.
Rule IMPACT ON the collection process
Valid Valid refers to whether or not the evidence collected is a reasonable indication of
the learner completing the required tasks.
Authentic Authentic refers to the fact that the work must not be completed by someone
else or plagiarised.
Current Currency raises the question, is the evidence current to the learner and the skills
and knowledge that are being applied?
Sufficient Sufficient indicates whether or not there is enough information for the trainer or
assessor to make an educated decision on whether or not the learner has passed.

Reasonable adjustments
Trainers should always be aware of the fact that learners may have special needs or characteristics
that may often need to be addressed within a training environment. This section was covered in the
TAEDES402A chapter. Often, these needs may have to be addressed discreetly and in a manner that
ensures the self-esteem of the learner is protected at all times. A reasonable adjustment should never
alter the learning outcomes. Always apply the principles of assessment when making changes to the
assessment.

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Special needs and learner characteristics could include, but are not limited to:
Visual or hearing impairments
Language, Literacy and Numeracy issues
People from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds
Dyslexia or other learning difficulties
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Mental illnesses
People needing a wheelchair or crutches
Social anxiety or anxiety in general
Lack of confidence
Lack of ability to understand concepts
Medical issues such as diabetes, epilepsy
Access to childcare
Access to transport
Drug, alcohol or other dependencies

For more information about assistance programs visit the following websites;
Reading Writing Hotline http://www.readingwritinghotline.edu.au/ (literacy support)
Disability support service https://www.lifestylesolutions.org.au
Psychological support service
www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Support_for_People_with_a_Mental_Illness (mental illness)

Dimensions of competency (RECAP)


The four dimensions of competency also apply in the assessment context. Here are some important
questions that you must ask;
1. Task skills - can learner perform the task at an adequate level?
2. Task management skills can the learner manage a number of different tasks within a job role
3. Contingency management skills can the learner respond to a variety of problems and develop
contingency plans?
4. Job role/environment skills can the learner demonstrate their skill and knowledge in different
workplace situations?

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Formative vs. Summative Assessment


Formative assessments allow the trainer or assessor to change their approach depending on the learners
needs. Examples of formative assessments include:
observation checklists
pop quizzes
verbal questioning
interim tests
feedback questionnaires

On the other hand, a summative assessment is used to determine whether the learner has satisfied the
course requirements or benchmark. Summative assessments can include:
final exams
practical assessments
RPL/RCC assessments

For nationally recognised courses, the trainer will need to ensure that the assessment maps to the elements,
performance criteria, critical evidence, and required skills and knowledge of the unit. This is known as
assessment mapping.

Considerations for assessment


When determining the assessment approach, you will need to account for any legal and organisational
considerations. Examples of legal considerations include;
laws such as privacy, anti-discrimination and safety
hazard reporting and risk assessments
work hours for apprentices and trainees
compliance with the Standards for RTOs 2015

Examples of organisational considerations include;


access and equity policies
reporting and recording processes
current student management database
have quality management system in place

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ELEMENT 2: Prepare the assessment plan


The assessment plan provides the following information;
who is being assessed
when the assessment will take place
where the assessment is to take place
how the assessment will be conducted

Evidence gathering
The three (3) types of evidence:
1. direct evidence
2. indirect evidence
3. supplementary evidence

Direct evidence the candidate can provide work samples and/or written
declaration claiming that the work is their own
observation and questioning is used to collect direct evidence
from the candidate
this is a reliable method of evidence gathering
Indirect evidence the candidate can provide third-party reports, video/audio
evidence, portfolio of evidence, work samples
the evidence must meet the requirements within the unit of
competency
this method is commonly used in the RPL and RCC process
Supplementary evidence the candidate can provide copies of formal training such as
certificates, transcripts, statement of attainments
the candidate can also provide letters from their employers
this method is commonly used in the RPL and RCC process

Assessment methods
Assessment methods are effectively the way in which we assess our learners, or how we assess them.
There are a number of assessment methods which can be utilised by assessors. It is important to note here
that a minimum of two assessments must be used when assessing a unit of competency. This will help the
assessor to determine the candidates level of skill, knowledge and understanding.

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Assessment tools are what we use to assess our learners with. They form part of the evidence
required to demonstrate that learners have been assessed according to the Principles of Assessment.

Assessment method Assessment tools


Observation Assessor observation checklist
Supervisor observation
Questioning Written exams
Interviews
Oral exams
Structured activities Case study
Simulation activity
Role plays
Portfolios Work samples
Log books
Work journal
Third party report Declaration from the employer verifying the
learners duties and work-related competencies

Since, observation checklists are commonly used in the training environment we will explore this in more
detail. The benefit of using observation as your assessment method is that the results will be clear and
measurable. For example, if the learner is required to use the photocopying machine, the criteria for
assessment might include;
Criteria 1 Turn on the machine
Criteria 2 Select the copy function
Criteria 3 Copy the document in black and white

An observation checklist is commonly used in the RPL process to verify the candidates skill level. A checklist
should also be used to evaluate a work sample submitted by the candidate. Here, you will most likely need
to use professional judgment to determine whether the work sample is sufficient evidence of competency in
the area being assessed. A sample observation checklist can be found on the following page.

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SAMPLE: Observation Checklist for BSBWOR204 Use business technology

Candidate name:_____________________________________________
Assessor name: _____________________________________________
Unit of competency: __________________________________________
Workplace: _________________________________________________
Assessment date: _____________________________________________

Performance criteria Comments Yes No


3.1 Identify and replace used technology consumables in
accordance with manufacturers instructions and
organisational requirements
3.2 Carry out and/or arrange routine maintenance to ensure
equipment is maintained in accordance with manufacturers
instructions and organisational requirements
3.3 Identify equipment faults accurately and take action in
accordance with manufacturers instructions or report fault
to designated person

The candidate is Competent Not yet competent

Feedback to candidate:

Assessor signature: __________________________ Date: ___________


Candidate signature: __________________________ Date: ___________

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The assessment plan


The assessment plan provides information about who, where, when and how the assessment will take place.
The sample below provides an explanation of what is expected in each section. This is a generic template
used in the industry by registered training organisations.

SAMPLE: Assessment plan


Unit of competency CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment
(code and title)
Assessor name Maggie May

Location of assessment London Date of 01/04/15


Assessment:
Purpose of assessment This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and
knowledge required to undertake basic repairs to, and
maintain, audio equipment and accessories used in the
screen, media, entertainment and events industries.
Target learner group A group of trainees (undertaking a traineeship) who work for
(describe the learner a well-known telecommunication company.
characteristics)
Learner characteristics include;
Age - 16 years old
Interested in becoming a audiovisual operator and
sound mixer
No language and literacy issues
Some students have difficulty with numeracy
calculations

Specialist support/resources Industry experts to assist in set up


required for assessment Providing learners with calculation worksheets and samples
when completing assessments that require numerical skills.
Was the unit contextualised? yes The unit content and assessment tools were
If yes, explain how. no contextualised to incorporate the workplace
(tick only policies, procedures and forms which are
one) used in the telecommunication company.

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Assessment methods to used Observation of skills and questioning of knowledge


Written questioning
Structured activity
Third Party feedback
Assessment tools to be used Observation checklist
Written exam
Role play
Third Party Report
Work, health and safety (WHS) yes Personal protective equipment and clothing
requirements for conducting no required for role play assessment;
assessment If yes, please provide (tick only safety gloves, safety glasses, ear
details. one) muffs
hi-visibility vest, steel cap boots
Legal, ethical and organisational yes Adhere to the workplace requirements
requirements for assessment no regarding safety, manual handling, machine
If yes, please provide details. (tick only operation and privacy
one)
Evidence to be collected from the Written exam
candidate Role play
Observation checklist to be completed by the assessor
Third Party Report
Materials and resources needed Computer and data projector
for assessment Microsoft applications Word, PowerPoint, Excel
(e.g. equipment, supplies, Textbooks for each learner
documentation, supports, resources Handouts and diagrams
for candidates with special needs) Calculation worksheet
Calculators
Assessor guide
Special arrangements and contexts The trainer is to conduct a risk assessment of the workplace
for assessment for carrying out the role play.
(e.g. OHS/WHS assessment tasks
and control strategies, access and The trainer is to become familiar with the companys WHS
equity organisational procedures reporting procedures and health and safety officers.
and documentation)

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Timeline for assessment Written exam 60 minutes


Role play 20 minutes
Third Party Report 30 minutes (to be completed in the
workplace)
Final recording and reporting Assessment evidence will be scanned and saved to the
arrangements of the assessment students file on the company server.
The assessment result will be entered into the quality
management system.
The employer will be notified of the students results.
Confirmed assessment Workplace supervisor, head of education, administration,
arrangements with appropriate students, WHS officer
personnel
(i.e. list personnel job titles)

Work, health and safety considerations


Through consultation in the assessment planning phase, workplace standards can be included in units being
assessed by contextualising the unit in line with contextualisation guidelines and workplace standards.

Policies and procedures to be followed may include:


Assessors organisational policies and procedures for conducting assessment onsite
When assessing onsite the assessor must comply with all policies and procedures of that workplace
Specific health and safety policies and procedures required in the environment

Access to required assessment resources can be ensured by:


Identifying resource requirements in the assessment planning phase
Communicating with training coordinator or suitable person to ensure that required resources have
been booked and will be available for designated dates/times
Being well planned and always having spare resources or bringing own resources

Examples of personal protective equipment (PPE) include;


safety gloves, safety glasses, hard hat, hearing protection (ear muffs), protective clothing

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If a safety concern exists in the immediate environment and the student is unable to proceed with the
assessment activity, the trainer can re-assess the student at a later stage or choose to cancel future
assessments in consultation with the student.

ELEMENT 3: Develop assessment tools


An assessment structure will often include the following components:
learners name
assessors name
date of the assessment or submission date
the benchmarks being used
description of the task
valid, reliable, fair, authentic and sufficient content
declaration of authenticity (signature and date)
document version control (for more information about version control refer to TAEASS403B chapter)

Assessment integration
An assessment can also be structured for clustered units, where two or more units of competency have been
integrated because there are similarities in the training package requirements. For example, we have
purposely integrated the TAEDEL401A Plan, organise and deliver group-based learning with the TAEDEL402A
Plan organise and facilitate learning in the workplace because the performance criteria and required
knowledge in both units are very similar. There is no need to assess a student twice if you are able to create
assessment tools that cover both units. The benefits of integration are, students do not need have to cover
the same content twice and it can cut down on their study time. If you do decide to adjust an assessment
tool later on, these changes should be recorded in a continuous improvement register or validation checklist.
For more information about contextualisation refer to the TAEDES402A chapter.

When creating an assessment task you should ask these questions;


Is the activity too vague? Do I need to add more instruction or guidance notes?
Is the activity valid? Does the activity allow the learner to demonstrate competency?
Is the activity suitable for the learners in terms of their language, literacy and numeracy skills?

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Using action words in your assessment can help the learner to understand what is required of them. For
instance, asking a learner to list 3 cooking methods is very different to asking a learner to research and
compare 3 cooking methods. Depending on the AQF level of the course, the action words will vary. Refer to
the table of actions words below for more information.

Action words relevant to each AQF level


Certificate I & II Certificate III Certificate IV Diploma and Advanced
Diploma
list, identify, describe, list, identify, define, explain, describe, analyse, compare,
observe, demonstrate, create, report, classify, discuss, reflect upon, draw conclusions,
create, draw, write, recommend, express, investigate, form, evaluate, explain, infer,
add, locate, measure, combine, generalise, categorise, research, interpret, justify,
match, rewrite, distinguish illustrate, express, provide support/
arrange recommend examples, critique,
contrast
To learn more about each AQF level refer to the AQF 2013 document.

Copyright laws
Remember to avoid plagiarism when developing your assessment tools. Plagiarism is a criminal offence
under the Commonwealth Copyright Act 1968. This legislation states that you cannot copy or use work from
another person without their written consent. You can however, use referencing to acknowledge another
persons work as this is deemed acceptable. Another method is to develop your own assessment examples.

Assessment mapping
Once you have developed the assessment activities for the program, you will need to map them against the
competency standards. Remember that competency standards refer to the elements, performance criteria,
required skills, required knowledge and critical aspects for assessment within a training package. An
assessment mapping document can be used to show the relationship between these standards and the
assessment tools. The mapping document also allows stakeholders to follow the assessment process and use
this document for validation purposes. Validation will be discussed in further detail in the TAEASS403B
chapter. The example on the following page provides insight into how the mapping process works.

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SAMPLE: Assessment Mapping for CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment
Elements Proposed Assessment Proposed Assessment
- copy all elements from training.gov.au Method Tool
Element 1 Undertake routine maintenance tasks Questioning Written exam and
1.1 Clean and maintain equipment, cables and accessories according to organisational procedures Case study
1.2 Conduct safety checks on equipment according to manufacturer instructions and work health and
safety (WHS) guidelines Structured activity Project
1.3 Check and replace spares and consumables and ensure production equipment is ready, and available
to productions, at specified locations Observation Observation checklist
1.4 Complete required documentation to ensure accurate records of checked and maintained items, and
provide copies to relevant personnel

Element 2 Undertake repair tasks


2.1 Recognise faults and safely shut down equipment if necessary, following manufacturer instructions
and organisational procedures
2.2 Isolate fault to specific equipment or parts of equipment using fault detection procedures, and
determine repair requirements
2.3 Tag faulty production equipment according to organisational procedures
2.4 Make minor repairs to faulty equipment according to safety requirements and manufacturer
instructions and within level of own responsibility
2.5 Refer complex repairs to technical specialists or licensed personnel in consultation with relevant
personnel
2.6 Where appropriate, have technical specialists pilot repairs from a remote location
2.7 Discuss faults and repair needs with technical specialists, demonstrating correct use of terminology

Element 3 Finalise work activity


3.1 Undertake simple modifications to equipment, ensuring current safety measures and deadlines are
met
3.2 Complete documentation according to organisational procedures and distribute to relevant personnel
as required
3.3 Review repair and maintenance activities to ensure compliance with service documentation and
manuals

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Performance evidence/Required skills Proposed Assessment Proposed Assessment


- copy all from training.gov.au Method Tool
use appropriate tools to undertake routine repairs and maintenance on audio equipment and Questioning Written exam
accessories
apply logical fault-detection procedures Observation Observation checklist
follow safety procedures when testing and maintaining audio equipment
refer to service and technical manuals when undertaking repair and maintenance tasks Observation Observation checklist
work collaboratively
Observation Observation checklist
Knowledge evidence/Required knowledge Proposed Assessment Proposed Assessment
- copy all from training.gov.au Method Tool
explain typical maintenance needs and schedules for a range of audio equipment Questioning Case study
explain the type of cleaning agents to use with different equipment
explain techniques and processes for detecting and repairing common faults in audio equipment Structured activity Role play
describe common spare parts and sub-assemblies used when maintaining and repairing audio
equipment Observation Observation checklist
explain the consequences of bad ventilation on audio equipment
explain how the following apply when maintaining and repairing audio equipment:
o voltage
o current resistance
o power insulation
o circuit continuity
explain the role of the restricted electrical licence, testing and tagging certification, and limitations on
the type of work that can be undertaken without a licence
describe work health and safety issues related to the repair and maintenance of audio equipment

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Foundation skills/Critical aspects Proposed Assessment Proposed Assessment


- copy all foundation skills from training.gov.au Method Tool
Interprets service documentation and manuals Questioning Written exam
Case study
Structured activity
Completes fault and maintenance reports
Project
Tags or labels equipment according to its repair status
Observation
Obtains information by listening and questioning Observation checklist
Uses clear language to contribute information and express requirements
Follows workplace protocols and safety procedures
Understands and completes main tasks and responsibilities, within the boundaries of own role
Works collaboratively to repair and maintain audio equipment
Follows accepted communication practices and protocols
Adopts a methodical and logical approach to completing basic repairs to audio equipment
Meets work deadlines
Uses appropriate tools for detecting and repairing faults
Recognises and takes responsibility for addressing predictable, and some less predictable, problems
when diagnosing and repairing audio equipment

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Instructions for the trainer/assessor


Every assessment must come with a set of instructions for the trainer or assessor. The purpose of these instructions
is to ensure the marking process is consistent and fair. The following information should be provided:
the benchmarks being used
the instruments to be assessed
the resources required for assessment

In addition to this, the Code of Practice for assessors states that the assessor must provide learners with instructions
prior to the assessment activity. The assessor may consult with the learner to ensure he or she is sufficiently
prepared for the activity and deal with any pertinent issues which may hamper the conduct of the assessment
activity. For more information about the assessors Code of Practice you can download the TAE10 Training and
Education Training Package from the training.gov.au website.

Instructions for the learner


In a similar fashion, the learner also needs to know the details of the assessment activity before they begin.
This includes specifying how the assessment will take place and what the learner needs to do to achieve
competency. This information is usually provided in the workbook or assessment document. The following
information should be provided:
the benchmarks to be used
the timing of the assessment
the resources available
any health and safety messages

You may provide the instructions verbally or in writing or a combination of both depending on the circumstances.
Try to place yourself in the position of the learner when writing these assessment instructions. Trialling the
assessment is one way to find out whether you need to add more information or remove any unnecessary
instructions.

Trial the assessment tools


All assessment tools must be trialled to ensure that the activities comply with the rules of evidence and the
principles of assessment. The trial can take place in a simulated environment or in a real situation such as the
workplace. Examples of trialling an assessment tool includes;
1. Ask a group of experts (within the field) to partake in the trial
2. Ask a group of work colleagues to partake in the trial
3. Run a pilot with a group of individuals who have similar characteristics to your target group

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The outcomes of an assessment trial should be recorded as it provides vital feedback for the improvement and
application of the tool for use in real assessment activities. All trials must be documented and kept on file as proof of
continuous improvement efforts over time and for audit purposes.

SAMPLE: Assessment Tool Review


Assessment Tool Review
Date of trial 01.11.15
Unit code and title CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment
Purpose of trial To ensure that the assessment tools meet the principles of assessment,
rules of evidence.
To ensure the unit has been contextualised properly to meet the
workplace requirements.
Details of the tools trialled Observation checklist
Written exam
Role play
Third Party Report
Issues identified More time required to practice new skills in repairing audio equipment
Some students preferred to be assessed through oral questioning
instead of the written exam
Recommendations for Allocate an extra week in the learning program to allow for practice time
improvement
Advise students of reasonable adjustment options prior to the course
commencing and identify any LLN issues.
Amendments made to the Student instructions need to be amended so that learners are fully
assessment tool aware of the allocated practice time.
An oral questionnaire needs to be created in case reasonable
adjustment of this nature needs to occur.
How do these changes These amendments do not alter or change the learning outcomes. The
impact the Assessment learner is able to progress through the learning program without being
Plan? disadvantaged.
Feedback on the overall Learner feedback helped to identify areas that could be better improved

trial process to benefit the learners and the overall assessment process.

Participant names Lisa Jones


Mason Eager
Reviewers name Maggie May

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Record keeping
The RTO should have in place a system which protects the students records from damage, loss or unapproved
alteration. You can maintain the accuracy and integrity of RTO records by having in place back-systems. Data could
be stored on the company intranet, external hard drive or cloud network.

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TAEASS402B ASSESS COMPETENCE

ELEMENT 1: Preparing for assessment


Assessment benchmarks
Competency standards are often used as benchmarks when assessing a candidate on a national qualification. Lets
look at each aspect in further detail in terms of the rules of evidence.

Remember that the rules of evidence focus on validity, authenticity, currency and sufficiency.
Elements the elements cover the steps required to complete the skill. Covering these is therefore a
requirement in order to provide validity to the assessment process
Performance criteria each process required to complete an element is listed as a performance criterion.
Again, for validity, these must be covered.
Required Skills and Required Knowledge refers to currency
Evidence guide the evidence guide provides the critical aspects of evidence required (in addition to the
above stated elements) to prove competency. The evidence guide provides guidance relating to sufficiency
and authenticity of evidence.

Since, the VET industry is a dynamic one, the benchmarks for assessment change all the time. Therefore, it is
important to regularly check for changes in training package requirements, legislation and company policies before
conducting an assessment.

Assessment resources
You will need to source or develop the resources for assessment. Refer to the list of assessment tools in the previous
chapter. You may also need to arrange specialist support for your learners as well. Examples of support services
include;
language interpreters
support career
safety experts
regulatory authority advisors
policy developers
technical assistants
coach/ mentor
LLN specialist

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ELEMENT 2: Gathering quality evidence


The rules of evidence must be applied when collecting assessment evidence. The table below provides evidence
examples for certain types of assessment tools.
Assessment method Assessment tools Evidence examples
Observation Assessor observation checklist Completed survey or test
Supervisor observation Record of oral answers
Observation dated/signed by the
assessor, third party and candidate
Questioning Written exams Record of oral and written answers
Interviews May include audio recording
Oral exams
Structured activities Case study Record of presentations
Simulation activity Record of scripts
Role plays Record of audio recording
Portfolios Work samples Portfolio of authentic work
Log books developed by the candidate
Work journal Authentic record of observation
Questionnaires, internal documents
and records
Third party report Declaration from the employer Evidence of competency standards
verifying the learners duties and signed by third party or assessor
work-related competencies

When collecting evidence in the workplace, you should ask the learner and employer the following questions;
When was the last time you performed the task?
Have you completed anything similar to this task?
Do you have any supporting documentation?
Would this type of activity be suitable in your workplace?
When is the workplace accessible?

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ELEMENT 3: Support the candidate


Trainers and assessors must guide and support their candidate through the assessment process. This is usually in the
form of two-way feedback and can be written, verbal or informal. Here is a generic example of how two-way
feedback works;
Step 1 Discuss the result with the candidate
Step 2 Identify areas which can be improved
Step 3 Provide model examples and instructions
Step 4 Ask the learner if they are ready to proceed
Step 5 Document the outcome

Safety considerations during assessment


Potential hazards and risks may exist in the training environment and could impact on the assessment process. An
assessor must consider the following work, health and safety concerns;
In the workplace through direct observation your duty of care is to ensure the learner understands the
risks in their workplace, how to report any hazards and how to reduce the likelihood of the risk.
Project assessment your duty of care is to ensure all relevant instructions are provided to the learner.
Indirect observation your duty of care is low however you still need to make sure the assessment activity
does not harm the learner.

ELEMENT 4: Make the assessment decision


Assessment decision
Take the time to review the evidence provided by the learner. Refer to the marking guide when you are assessing
the candidates work as this will allow you to compare the candidates responses against the model answers and
benchmarks.

In the VET system, criterion-based assessment produces two outcomes - either the candidate is competent or not
yet competent in performing the task. If the learner is deemed not yet competent the assessor must provide
constructive feedback on how to address these learning gaps. As mentioned early, feedback can be provided in-
person, in writing through email correspondence or by telephone. This will most likely result in one of the two
scenarios;
Reschedule the assessment allow the learner adequate time to be retrained in the required skill or
knowledge component.
Terminate the assessment - if it is your professional opinion that the learner will not achieve a competent
outcome you will need to provide sensitive feedback and options for the learner. For example, if the learner

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struggles with language, literacy and numeracy you may refer them to a ESL program to develop these skills
further and have the student re-attempt the assessment at a later date.

ELEMENT 5: Record and report the assessment decision


According to the Standards, registered training organisations must record and report all assessment decisions. In line
with ASQAs requirements, these records must be kept for 30 years.

Access to student records


Only people who have expressed permission from the student are able to view their personal information. Within
the RTO, the following people have access to the students assessment results;
the assessor
the training manager
the administration staff

The following parties can also access the learners training records;
the candidates employer
the candidates employment agency
state or federal government bodies
NCVER which collects the AVETMISS data
Australian Apprenticeship Centres

Security measures
An RTO must have a privacy policy in place with clear procedures for employees, contractors and candidates who
wish to access personal information. In this instance, the Privacy Act 1988 should be communicated to the learner
through the home website or in the student handbook. If a student is found guilty of plagiarism, the RTO must
respond accordingly. Plagiarism involves using another persons words, pictures or ideas and presenting them as
your own. RTOs can manage this situation by encouraging assessors to be vigilant in identifying instances of
plagiarism, regularly communicating what constitutes plagiarism to students and using technology to scan
assessments for plagiarism.

Workplace requirements
An assessor must be familiar with industry/workplace requirements to ensure valid assessment can occur. For
example, benchmarks often refer to performing tasks in line with organisational or industry requirements. The
correct performance of a task may include specific WHS or other legislative codes/standards/guidelines that link to
compliance in a particular industry. As a trainer, it is not appropriate to provide students with advice about
employment conditions however you can refer them to appropriate governing bodies and websites.
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Assessment report/record
An assessment report or record must be completed once the assessment decision has been made (e.g. competent or
not yet competent outcome). This document authenticates the assessment decision. The sample below illustrates a
typical assessment competency report template.

SAMPLE: Assessment Record


Candidate name: Jon English
(person being assessed)
Assessor Name: Marcia Hines

Unit of competency: CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment


(code and title)
Date: 01/04/15

Elements Summary of evidence provided


Written exam
1. Undertake routine maintenance tasks
Role play & observation checklist
Written exam
2. Undertake repair tasks
Role play & observation checklist
Written exam
3. Finalise work activity
Third Party Report
Assessment outcome Competent Not Yet Competent
Assessor comments (feedback that was given to the student)
Jon completed all assessment tools to a satisfactorily level and was able to apply the skills taught in a workplace
environment.
Details of a follow-up action plan (if applicable):
Jon will be expected to undertake a refresher course in 6 months time to ensure his skills and knowledge are
current against industry standards and requirements. This has been requested by the employer.

How did you use professional judgement to make the assessment decision?
I made sure that the principles of assessment and rules of evidence were adhered to when conducting the
assessment and reviewing Jons work. I also referred to the training package to ensure that all legislative, licensing
and industry requirements were addressed and covered in the unit.
Additional comments
Jon was skilled, relaxed and attentive throughout the training. He was able to follow directions as well as work on
his own and showed a good level of understanding, knowledge and skills.

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ELEMENT 6: Review the assessment process


The assessment process should be reviewed through self-reflection and data collection methods (these methods
were covered in the TAEDEL402A chapter). It is a wise idea to gather feedback data from the following stakeholders;
fellow assessors
clients/employers
management personnel
coaches/mentors
industry experts

Feedback questions (RECAP)


Question to ask your stakeholders include;
Did the program achieve the learning objectives?
What part of the program worked well?
What aspect of the program didnt work?
Were there sufficient resources (time, materials)?
Did the learners employer find the program effective?
What areas need improvement?

Self-reflection method (RECAP)


The self-evaluation process should include:
asking questions about your own delivery ability, knowledge and skill levels
asking how the relationship could be improved
reviewing your own performance against best practice
reviewing feedback from your learner and identifying areas for improvement

Each assessment review must be documented according to the RTOs reporting and recording policies. Typically this
information is recorded in an Assessment Process Review document (see sample on the following page).

Here, your responses should be reflective and they should explain why you agree or disagree with certain aspects of
the assessment process. This in turn will help to improve your assessment practices.

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SAMPLE: Assessment Process Review


Unit of competency:
CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment
(code and title)
Trainer name:
Marcia Hines

Review items Comments Suggested improvements

Started on time Place a clock in the room


No WHS issues during the written questions
What went well and why? Guidance was clear and for the student to keep track
understood by the candidate of the time

Yes, the plan was quite clear and E-mail the student prior to
each step was performed on time the day the steps/ timing of
Was the assessment plan followed correctly?
the assessment

Yes, all competency standards Email the student a copy of


Did the assessment plan cover all required were covered and assessed the assessment plan
aspects? through the assessment tools

Yes, all care was taken to make all Contact the workplace
Were all organisational, legal and ethical parties aware of legal and ethical employer and request a copy
considerations addressed? policies of the companys policy and
procedures manual
Yes, the student was briefed 2 Email the student a copy of
weeks prior to the assessment the assessment instrument
date about the assessment and any instructions.
process, evidence requirements
and due dates. Before commencing any
Were the learners adequately briefed, assessments, reiterate the
supported and guided? Verbal guidance and direct requirements to the student.
modelling was used to guide the
student through the assessment
process and tools.

Yes. The assessor elicited key Ask the learner to repeat


Did the learners understand what was details back from the candidate to what was discussed to
expected from them? ascertain understanding ensure they understand their
role
The activity both met the Validate the assessment
requirements of the unit through tools every 6 months to
Did the assessment activity meet the unit questioning and practical skills ensure they remain current
requirements? application

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Validate the assessment


tools every 6 months to
The student will need to list each ensure they remain current
Were the rules of evidence applied? rule of evidence here and explain
how they were applied Create a portfolio check list
for the candidate

The student will need to list each Validate the assessment


principle of assessment here and tools every 6 months to
Were the principles of assessment applied?
explain how they were applied ensure they remain current

Had to delay the Role Play activity Have students set an alarm
as the candidate was late coming on their phone 2 minutes
Did you make any reasonable adjustments? back from the break. An extra 10 before the
minutes was permitted. recommencement time

Yes, the assessment instrument Organise to have a


contained clear instructions for hard/electronic copy of the
As the assessor, did you feel confident and the student and the assessor assessor guide and
comfortable with the assessment tools? guide contained benchmark assessments
responses to guide the evidence
gathering process.

The tools were both mapped Validate the assessment


Were the assessment tools appropriate to the against the unit criteria tools every 6 months to
unit? ensure they remain current

Yes. Feedback was given verbally Feedback notes could also be


Did you provide clear and constructive after the assessment and later via reviewed during the next
feedback to the learners? email validation and moderation
meeting
Yes, the student, employer and Ensure the assessment
Did you inform relevant parties of the the RTOs administration results are emailed to the
assessment decision? Who are they? department admin team immediately for
processing
Yes. The completed assessment Have a copy of the RTO
tools were saved to the students policy and procedures on
file at the RTO. hand if unsure of the
Did you record and report the assessment reporting and recording
documents against organisational Documents were checked for procedures.
requirements? How so? details, dates and signatures then
forwarded on to the RTOs
administration team for data-
entry.

Additional Comments:
Overall the assessment went well and requirements were identified and documented. The assessment tools should
be validated every 6 months to ensure the RTO is still meeting industry requirements.

Date of review: 05/04/15

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TAEASS403B PARTICIPATE IN ASSESSMENT VALIDATION

ELEMENT 1: Prepare for validation


Assessment validation is the process where trainers and assessors evaluate, compare and review the assessment
methods and instruments to ensure that:
Assessments are meeting Principles of Assessment i.e. valid, reliable, flexible and fair
Assessments are meeting the Rules of Evidence i.e. valid, authentic, current and sufficient
The judgment made by the trainer/assessor is benchmarked with colleagues or industry experts
There is sufficient evidence to support the judgment of the trainer/assessor

Validation meetings should be attended by:


Trainers
RTO Managers
Compliance officers
Previous learners
Industry experts
Association members
Industry representatives
Governing body representatives

Validation allows us to verify the accuracy of the:


1. assessment processes
2. assessment methods
3. assessment products

What materials are needed for a validation session?


a copy of the assessment plan
the training and assessment strategy
assessment matrix or mapping tool
all assessment tools
a copy of the benchmark (e.g. training package)
industry feedback from the workplace
instructions provided to the candidates and assessors

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When does validation occur?


Validation can occur before, during or after an assessment is conducted. Before a validation session commences you
should ensure that the candidate selection process is fair and flexible. When attending a validation meeting, it is
important that the t rainer or assessor is familiar with the methods and instruments that will be used, or are
currently being used.
As mentioned, validation can occur during the assessment process whereby the assessment can take place;
online
by distance
in the workplace
or in a simulated environment

The process of validation during the assessment is one of observation and evidence gathering in order to use the
gathered information in a more formal post-assessment validation session at a later stage. During this process, you
should encourage the candidates to share their thoughts and opinions about the assessment. This feedback data can
be obtained through feedback questionnaires, focus groups and interviews.

Post validation
The purpose of a post-assessment validation is to analyse the feedback from a number of stakeholders and plan for
contingencies which may arise in future assessments. It also involves handling complaints and grievances to ensure
the assessment reporting process is in line with ASQA requirements. These meetings usually include the workplace
supervisor and the candidate.

Validation approaches may be confirmed through organisation policies, procedures and the use of templates or
forms. Approaches may also be discussed by validation participants based on specific issues, location of validation
participants and timeframes to be applied.

Validation policy
Each RTO will have a validation policy. Typically, the policy will provide information about;
purpose and scope of the policy
explanation of relevant standards and legislation
how the policy links to continuous improvement
procedures for conducting the validation process
instructions for the assessors
a validation schedule
validation checklist and report
validation cover sheet
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Legal and ethical responsibilities


The Australian Skills Quality Authority (National Regulator) states that a registered training organisation must
validate its assessment strategies by;
reviewing, comparing and evaluating the assessment process, tools and evidence contributing to judgments
made by a range of assessors against the same competency standards, at least annually; and
documenting any action taken to improve the quality and consistency of assessment

Ethically speaking, validation helps to ensure the tools, systems and processes used by the training organisation are
of a high standard and provide the best outcomes for learners and assessment candidates. Additionally, validation
provides an opportunity for assessors and trainers to be involved in the process and impart shared and collaborated
knowledge.

A successful validation process requires participants to:


be involved in the process
offer opinions and objective examples
work well within a team environment
agree on the team objectives

Determining the benchmarks


Typical benchmarks used during the validation process include:
National training package which are developed by industry skills councils and can be found on the
training.gov.au website.
Units of competency which consist of competency standards and need to be unpacked so that those
validating the assessments can compare the actual competency against the tools being validated.
Industry standards will vary and these standards form the basis of the skills and knowledge required to
perform work roles.
Legislation relevant to the assessment such as privacy, health and safety, and anti-discrimination, copyright
law and so on.

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SAMPLE: Assessment Validation Cover Sheet

Validator name: Maggie May

Validation date: 01/12/15

Unit code and CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment


title:
Assessment tools/process
Assessment tools being validated include;
Observation checklist
Written exam
Role play
Third Party Report
Competency standards to be used Names of participants
Element 1. Undertake routine maintenance Rhonda Riches training manager
tasks Jacob Fryer learner
Element 2. Undertake repair tasks
Element 3. Finalise work activity

All of the following in the unit of competency


Foundation skills
Performance evidence
Knowledge evidence
Assessment conditions
Findings and recommendations (to be completed after the session)
Replace role play with a case study for students who have a speech impediment
The written exam should contain less multiple choice questions and more short answer questions
to test the learners knowledge and comprehension of key concepts.

Feedback on the outcomes and consultative process (to be completed after the session)
The participants indicated that they preferred the written exam and role play. Some students did
not have access to a workplace to take advantage of the third part report option. The RTO should
consider work placement for students to gain real life experience.

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In summary, an efficient validation meeting utilises the following steps:


1. Preparation getting together all the required materials and determining the reason, focus and
purpose of the validation
2. Interpreting the assessment methods and instruments. What do the materials mean and where do
they fit into the overall context of the assessment?
3. Becoming involved in the assessment validation itself the Trainer or Assessor will often be involved
in the assessment panel or asked to provide recommendations based on their experience and
knowledge
4. Discussing the findings what was suggested? What improvements can be made? How can the
quality of the assessment methods and instruments be improved?
5. Implementing and making improvements based on what was suggested and discussed

ELEMENT 2: Contribute to the validation process


During the validation process, all parties should exercise active listening skills to avoid misunderstandings or
unnecessary arguments. Sufficient time should be allocated for any validation task. When participating in a
validation session, you will need to know your role within the team, what tools you will be validating or whether you
will be taking notes for the team.

There are two (2) concepts central to an assessment:


1. principles of assessment and
2. rules of evidence

Principles of Assessment and Rules of Evidence ensure a fair and reliable form of assessment takes place. Each
concept is outlined below:

Principles of Assessment (RECAP)


Valid - Validity ensures that the assessment can justify what it claims. Evidence supports the learner
and indicates they have the knowledge and skill to perform the task which is being assessed.
Evidence must match the type of performance that is being assessed.
Reliable - Reliable means that the assessment is consistent. Evidence can be collected through a variety
of different means but the end result should remain the same that the learner can undertake the task
regardless of how they are asked to perform it, or when they are asked to perform it.

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Flexible - Flexibility indicates that reasonable adjustment can be carried out to amend the assessment
if necessary for learners with special needs or characteristics. It also indicates that there is flexibility
in when the assessment takes place and where it takes place to accommodate for the needs of the
learners and the Trainer.
Fair - Fair means that no learner is disadvantaged in his or her assessment. All learners should
understand what is expected from them and advised of all the details relating to the assessment. All
learner needs should be catered to in the assessment process.

Rules of Evidence (RECAP)


Valid - Valid refers to whether or not the evidence collected is a reasonable indication of the learner
completing the required tasks.
Sufficient - Sufficient indicates whether or not there is enough information for the Trainer or Assessor
to make an educated decision on whether or not the learner has passed.
Current - Is the evidence current to the learner and the skills and knowledge that are being applied?
Authentic - Authentic refers to the fact that the work must not be completed by someone else or
plagiarised

These two concepts should be applied to every validation decision. A validation checklist should be used here to
ensure each task meets the principles of assessment and rules of evidence (see sample below).

SAMPLE: Validation Checklist


Course code and name: CUASOU303 Repair and maintain audio equipment

Assessment instrument Observation checklist, Written exam, Role play, Third Party Report
being evaluated:
Validator name: Maggie May
Validation date: 01/12/15
Evaluation question Yes/No Add comments to explain your
determination of each question.
Assessment task instructions and assessment Yes Each assessment tool contained
conditions are clearly identified clear student instructions about
how to provide answers,
submission attempts, carry out
the activity and the grading
system.

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Written information is at the appropriate AQF level Yes The activities, questions and role
and grammatically correct play assessed the learners at the
relevant AQF level according to
the qualification descriptor.
No grammar or punctuation
errors found in the assessment
tools.
The evidence requirements of the unit of Yes The assessment tools addressed
competency are covered all competency standards and is
illustrated by the mapping matrix
The level of difficulty is appropriate to the unit of Yes Appropriate trigger words were
competency used for this AQF level 3 unit.

Employability skills are supported in the assessment No Some students did not have
instrument access to a workplace and could
not take advantage of the third
party report option.

The activity could sustain more than one Yes The written exam can be
assessment method for reasonable adjustment assessed through verbal
questioning
A marking guide is provided with the instrument Yes Each assessment tool is
accompanied by a marking guide
which contains benchmark
responses to guide the marking
process.
The assessment activity is relevant to a number of No Does not currently cover all
different situations/contexts possible work-related scenarios
only simulated situations.
The principles of assessment have been addressed: Yes Valid the assessment tools
valid cover all of the competency
reliable standards in the unit of
flexible competency to ensure that the

fair learner demonstrates


competency in all areas.

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Reliable the assessment tools


cover different simulated
contexts. However this could be
improved through work
placement.

Flexible the assessment tools


can be reasonably adjusted for
those who may have a speech
impediment.

Fair the assessment tools do


not discriminate against any
candidates or groups or people
from different backgrounds.

The rules of evidence have been addressed: Yes Valid the evidence being
valid collected through the
authentic assessment tools aligns to the
current training package requirements.

sufficient
Authentic the work submitted
belongs to the student and the
student is required to complete a
student declaration stating that
the work submitted is their own.

Current the evidence collected


is current whereby the assessor
is observing the learner in real
time.

Sufficient the evidence


collected through the
assessment tools allow the
assessor to make a professional

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judgment about the learners


competency levels.
Relevant WHS legislation and industry requirements Yes All reasonable care is taken to
have been considered ensure that the learner is not at
risk when performing any
practical activities or using
equipment. Safety induction is
completed prior to course
commencement.
Additional comments:
The RTO should consider work placement for learners and clearly communicate reasonable
adjustment options to learners as well.

The assessment tool has been modified as per recommendations Yes No

Version control
Version control is necessary to ensure that once an assessment tool has been changed or upgraded, the latest
version is kept on file. The reason why version control is important is because changes that have been made
can be tracked to understand progress of the document from inception right through to the latest version.
When being audited, this is something an auditor will look for to ensure continuous improvement methods are
being managed. Version control is simply the system used to keep track of latest versions. Each document
should have a version number (i.e. V1, V2.4 etc) or a date to indicate the version of the document itself.

From an auditing perspective, records of results need to be kept by Registered Training Organisations for 30
years and assessments need to be kept for around 12 months from the date of the assessment decision.

ELEMENT 3: Contribute to validation outcomes


When deciding which changes should be made to the assessment method and instruments, you should ask the
following questions;
Does this change still meet the principles of assessments and rules of evidence?
Does the change improve the work outcomes for the learner group?
Are there strong objectives regarding this change? If so, why?
Does the change comply with industry, national standards and frameworks?
How will the learner complete the new task if it is implemented?

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To avoid non-compliance during registration audits, keep in mind that the changes must still result in quality
assessment outcomes and valid assessments.

Validation report
A validation report should be created to document all recommended changes. This report should include;
the qualification or unit code and title
names of the participants of the validation session
the tools, instruments and processes examined during the session
a clear list of recommendations for improvement
justification for each recommendation
date and version control

The recommendations
You will need to find out who is responsible for implementing the changes within the organisation. This might be a
senior manager, compliance officer or you, if you are the sole assessor. The changes might also be prioritised
according to the business or marketing plan of the organisation. For example, if the company prioritises student
learning outcomes, then changes affecting this criterion would take priority. However, if the company prioritises
shareholder returns, then cost-efficient solutions will be implemented first.

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IMPORTANT ACRONYMS FOR TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT

AQF Australian Qualifications Framework

ASQA Australian Skills Quality Authority

AVETMISS Australian Vocational Education and Training Management Information Statistical


Standard

COAG Council of Australian Governments

EEO Equal Employment Opportunity

IBSA Innovation and Business Industry Skills Council (trading as Innovation & Business
Skills Australia)

ISC Industry Skills Councils

LLN Language, Literacy and Numeracy

NCVER National Centre for Vocational Education Research

RCC Recognition of Current Competency

RPL Recognition of Prior Learning

RTO Registered Training Organisation

TAE Training and Education

TGA Training.gov.au

VET Vocational Education and Training

WHS Work Health and Safety

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REFERENCE LIST

Australian Qualifications Framework, Implementation Handbook, 2nd edn, January 2013.

Australian Skills Quality Authority, Standards for Continuing Registration, ASQA, Canberra, 2011.

Hill, D., Hill, T., and Perlitz, L. Vocational Training and Assessment, McGraw Hill, United States of America, 2010.

Knowles, M., Holton, E., and Swanson, R. The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human
Resource Development (Managing cultural differences), United States of America, 1998.

McCain, D. V. & Tobey, D. D. Facilitation basics, ASTD Press, Alexandria, VA, 2004.

Taking the Lead, Trigger words, 2008, www.takingthelead.com.au

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