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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
TASK 1
1.1 Relevant theories of communication to health and social care context
1.2 Communication skills used in health and social care context
1.3 Methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication
between individuals in health and social care settings
1.4 Strategies to support users of health and social care services with
specific communication needs
TASK 2
2.1 Communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors
2.2 Influence and impact of legislation, charters and codes of practice on
communication process
2.3 Effectiveness of organizational policies and systems in promoting good
practices in communication
2.4 Ways of improving the communication process in health and social
care settings
TASK3
3.1 How you access and how you use standard ICT software packages in
your own workplace
3.2 Benefits of using ICT in health and social care firm
3.3 Impact of legal consideration with respect to ICT on health and social
care organizations
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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INTRODUCTION
Communication is an activity of exchanging information between one
or more individuals in order to receive and convey the intended meaning
through speaking or other mediums. To receive and convey the information
to others, effective communication skills are required because lack of
communication skill can generate communication gap among people. This
present report will help to understand the significance of power of
communication and its skills in health and social care context. Further this
report will help to understand that how various factors like values and
cultural etc. influence the communication process. In last this report will
includes concept of information communication technology in health and
social care.

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TASK 1

1.1 Relevant theories of communication to health and social care context


In health and social care context, there are various types of theories of
communication. The psychoanalytic theory of communication is described
below:
This psychoanalytic theory is based on human behaviour. According to
Freud, an individuals deals with various situations which are based on
unconscious intuitions. Freud describes that conscious mind includes current
emotions and feelings. The pre-conscious mind includes recollected memory
and further the experience collection from past life covers in unconscious.
The psychoanalytic theory relates with study of concepts like id, ego and
super ego. The process of communication is created on the basis three
points.
Strengths- This theory enables service users to talk which are related to
their issues. It also helps them in relieving the illness symptoms (Mousten
and et.al., 2012).
Weaknesses- The results are difficult to measures which are carry out from
this theory. Is is also claimed to magnify and generalize the human
behaviour.
In health and social care context, this theory presents the base. For example,
the patients are unable to express their issues in words, in this situation if
workers neglect hem then clashes of unconscious and pre-conscious mind
occurs. This creates the communication gap between care giver and carer
(Taylor, 2014).

1.2 Communication skills used in health and social care context


Communication process allows health care professional to interact with
their patients who have the learning disabilities, behaviour and mental
health issues. At the workplace to set the communication with other service
users and patients, the different techniques like verbal, non verbal, gestures
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and sign language etc. could be used. According to given case scenario, the
inappropriate communication occurs between service users and staff
members. The manager believes that effective communication skills are
essential to work in a care environment. For solution of this problem, the
techniques can be used which are discussed below:
Verbal communication- With the help of this technique information can be
delivered to service users by use of spoken words. By using the verbal
communication technique through service provider, the service user can
receive the message. If a patient is hearing impaired then in this situation
service user can use lip reading technique to understand the words of
service provider (OHalloran, Worrall and Hickson, 2012).
Non-verbal communication- In this technique, facial expressions and body
languages are used to convey the information. The staff members can do
body movements, actions and gestures to convey the message to the
service users. The service users who have learning disabilities than staff
members can use the sign language in which they can use their hands for
forming the shapes. By using this technique, care taker can establish their
communication with service users.
Written communication- To convey the message to service users, health
care professional can write the words or draw the image. With the help of
this care workers can easily covey their messages to service users.
The staff members of care home should be aware about these
technique so if any patient uses sign language or these above techniques
then they will be able to understand their messages like what they are trying
to say (Desai and Pandya, 2013).

1.3 Methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication


between individuals in health and social care settings
The interpersonal communication basically arises from
misinterpretation of body languages, wrong use of vocabulary and cultural
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insensitivity etc. Generally inappropriate interpersonal communication leads
to the communication gap. The barriers causes the difficulty in
communication when the barriers are too strong. According to scenario new
recruits uses English language as second option which create communication
gap among service users and staff members. The misinterpretation,
inappropriate language, breach of confidentiality, trust, power and in-
congruent messages etc. are the barriers of proper communication. All these
barriers creates the lack of communication between service provider and
service users (Rappaport, 2013). For example, service provider is using sign
language to convey message to service user who is from other country. But
patient misunderstood the meaning of signs which were created by service
provider because particular signs may have other understanding and
meaning in another country. The service provider's tone of voice and non
match of communication technique also creates the communication gap
because it may give mixed signals, so, patient understands incorrectly
(Rolnick and et.al., 2013).
Breach of trust- By misusing the power, breaking the trust of service user
can cause communication failure and breach of trust lack also affects the
communication between workers and management of day care home. If a
service user is from another country and not aware of language which is
used by service provider then it creates communication barriers between
service user and provider. For the solution of this problem, here needs a
translator to convey the information to both. In case of abuse and threats,
the mental unstable patients faces behavioral problems and difficulties in
interacting and communicating with others. In this context, threats like death
threats. In the breach of confidentiality, disclosing the personal information
or identity to others without the contest of service user may create
communication gap between management and service users.

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1.4 Strategies to support users of health and social care services with
specific communication needs
In health and social care, communication plays important role and for
this good methods should be used to understand and meet the needs of
service-users. Health care worker needs to be able to use different strategies
to establish effective communication. To support the service users who are
hearing impaired, visual impaired, dementia and autism etc. few strategies
and methods can be used. To support users and meet their needs, training
could be provided related to verbal and non verbal communication to the
staff and service provider. After training workers will be able to make
interaction with service users through sign language, gestures, slang
expression and lip reaFREE DISSERTATION SAMPLE ding etc. methods. The
vulnerable users who have disabilities can be supported by few technology
aids such as voice recognition system, reading lenses system and Braille
system. For supporting specific communication needs the alternative
languages can be use by service providers. For the language aids, the
picture exchange communication system can be used for the patients who
have autism. For the visual impaired patients, workers can support them by
helping in touching the things or describing the things orally to them (Battisti
and et.al., 2015).
If a service user is from another country then in this situation there are
chances that he may not be able to understand language of service provider
and workers of care home. Then in this condition to support them
interpretation and translator could be provided to receive and convey the
information to them. In this situation, translator will work as intermediate
between service user and provider for the communication.

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TASK 2

2.1 Communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors


The values and cultural factors includes customs, ideas and social
behaviour of individuals and their society. Usually it is influence and created
by the people which are transmitted from one generation to other by family,
teachers, leaders, religions etc. At the care home the service providers have
a duty of care to give respect service user's background, culture and beliefs.
If the culture and beliefs of service user is neglected by service providers
then it leads to violence and service users feels emotionally hurt and
disrespectful (Communication Systems in Healthcare, 2006). For example,
Muslim service user may request for a halal food, so the management have
to provide him and respect his religious belief by fulfilling his needs. This
describes that every social user should be respected with their ethnic,
cultural and religious values. In respect to age and gender factors, the
service users may be old age, kids or females then the service providers
have to use different ways to communicate them. For example, if service
user is a kid, then service provider have to create friendly environment for
them, so they do not scare from them at the time of diagnosis. While making
the communication with kids, the service providers can uses methods like
symbols, image or facial expressions to make them comfortable and friendly.
In a multicultural society, the health care workers have to understand the
importance of patient's personal, belief and cultural values because all these
factors influence the communication process (Noctor and Murphy, 2012). The
service users who are not aware about English language, in this context to
respect the service users the workers must act in proactive manner and also
provide them translators so, through this their health needs will be accessed.
The management of health care cam also provide the information in different
languages according to the need of service users.

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2.2 Influence and impact of legislation, charters and codes of practice on
communication process
The term legislation is group of laws which are made by government.
Legislation regulates that how individual live, improve their lives and also
determines the framework of policies. In this Data Protection Act 1998 is
important part because it controls that how the personal information of
person will be use by organization and government. It ensures that personal
data is accessed and secures in responsible and controlled manner. In health
and social care context, the service users are more concern that there
personal information is securely stored or not. For the data protection, the
whole process related to data storage and maintenance is done in
professional and mature manner. The confidentiality about data should be
maintained because information related to service users can not be disclosed
to anyone with out the permission of owner. If the dignity and privacy of
service users are respected then it describes that human rights are
protected and achieved. Under the Access of Health Records Act 1990, the
patients have the rights to access their personal medical and health records
(Shah and et.al., 2014). Health care workers have to strictly follow the rules
like data protection principles to use the data confidentiality. The law of
confidentiality describes that data in computer, visuals, paper or audio form
should not be disclosed to third party without patients contest. The six
Caldicott principles includes in codes of practice and it can applied to the
handling service users identifiable information. It justify that why patients
information are shared like use and transfer of them. The policies and
legislation are implemented in the health care organization so that different
gender, age, cultural and religious background are not neglected in negative
manner (Donovan, 2015).

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2.3 Effectiveness of organizational policies and systems in promoting good
practices in communication
The good practices in communication contributes to build confidence,
increase trust and improves the service efficiency. An organization must
have the systems to assure requirements and principles of governance are
systematically applied which helps to promote policies in effective
communication. The care home must have a system to assure both policies
and codes of practices to rum business operations effectively. The complaint
channel of health and social care organization should be design
appropriately to get the authority and it would also prevent the barriers of
fear from service users. The communication system should be more effective
because inappropriate communication from top to bottom or bottom to top
level may creates communication barrier. In communication gap, the service
users will not be able to understand the need of service users in effective
manner. With the bad practices in communication, the workers will not be
able to easily understand the message and information which are conveyed
by the service users. The lack of good practices in communication may lead
to misunderstanding and misinterpretation of information which will work as
a communication barrier (Bekkum and Hilton, 2013). For promoting effecting
communication practices, management of care home may provide training g
to workers through which they will learn importance and way of proper
communication. After training programs, the spot checking and monitoring
methods can be used to analyze the result. Through the code of practices
and policies, the annual appraisal and reward system should be done to all
health care professionals and workers who are providing the services to
organization. The health care professional should be able to understand
communication method which is used by patients and workers should always
provide support to them.

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2.4 Ways of improving the communication process in health and social care
settings
For improving the communication system in health care organization,
the National Health Services has implemented the RiO system where daily
progress and records related to service users are saved with security. The
file related to medical records can be update and retrieve. The written and
verbal commands of workers are poor like workers are not properly aware of
English then it will create a communication barrier. For the solution of this
problem workers should be hired on the basis of education and qualification.
There are various types of ways to communicate effectively to service users
with the help of verbal or non verbal communication method. To improve the
communication process, training should be provided to all health care
providers and staff members which includes signed languages, symbols and
technological aids etc. For the effective communication service providers can
use of graphics, images or presentation technique to convey the information
about disease to the patients (Salt, Rowles and Reed, D.B., 2012). The
workers and staff aware and understand the importance of different religion
and culture. The health care professional must have the listening skills which
will help him to clearly understand the patient's sayings. To enhance the
practices of communication process, staff have to be well aware about the
laws like law of confidentiality. The management can hire the staff members
who have knowledge about different languages so, they can work as
interpreter between patients and professionals. The care workers and staff
members should be well train that how to handle and take care the patients
who have learning disabilities, challenging behaviour issues and mental
illness issues. The service users may be kids or older people and they needs
extra care. In this workers requires the effective skills to handle them and
understand their needs.

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Task 3

3.1 How you access and how you use standard ICT software packages in your
own workplace
Information technology is an umbrella term which consists of various
communication devices, applications, satellite systems and hardware and
software networks. Information communication technology (ICT) is used in
education, health care organizations, libraries and many other things. As per
the given case study, ICT packages support the health care organizations in
may ways such as power point, spreadsheet, data analysis, etc. The main
requirement of ICT packages is internet as without internet it is not possible
to access it. At my workplace, I uses Digital Blood Pressure device for
measuring the blood pressure of my patients. It is affordable, easy to handle
and gives the right results. The handle given in this device helps in handling
it with care. Along with it, I uses power point presentation for my meetings.
These power point presentations are helpful in explaining the information to
other people with the help of various diagrams and charts. Along with this, I
uses spreadsheets for maintaining the records of patients and service users.
This spreadsheet also contain information related to the treatments,
medicine, recovery, joining date of patient, type of disease, etc. By the help
of spreadsheet it is easy to manage all the information and one can store
them for future use also. I also uses ICT packages for mailing my colleagues
and other staff members (GurolUrganci and et.al., 2012). This helps in
maintaining good relationship with each other. By exchanging mails,
employees can update each other about their work status, regarding any
notice and may more. This proper communication results to create friendly
working environment due to the proper cooperation and coordination among
them. With these software, I also uses database for proper and effective
management of work. The data stored in this database are fully secure and
no one can use the information without getting authority from the top

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management. These all applications and software helps my workplace to
manage their work effectively and efficiently (Oubari, 2015).

3.2 Benefits of using ICT in health and social care firm


There are various benefits such as reliability, security, flexibility, etc. of
using ICT in health care organizations. Use of ICT packages in these firms
results to increase in work processes, efficiency, effectiveness and abilities
of the staff members. This also helps in maintaining good relations and in
proper communication among the social workers, service users, doctors, etc.
It also leads to decrease in the number of medical error and helps in
improving the treatments of the patients. Use of database helps in storing all
the information regarding the patient and his diseases. Health care firm also
keep an eye on the performance of the staff members by using appropriate
enterprise resource planning system. This system updates top management
about the status of the employees, their projects, work effectiveness,
improvement and many other things. Doctors can store all the information
on the computer without the fear of losing it (Househ, 2015). Databases
results to minimize the wastage of time by accessing fast and easily. This
also provides full security and safety to the data stored in it due to which
third person is unable to access the system without getting prior permission
from the higher authority. The stored information in databases also helps
doctors and other staff members in their future work. The feature of
automatic back up and recovery helps in regaining the lost information.
Doctors are able to provide printed prescriptions to their patients from the
help of computer and printer. They can also check or monitor the pulses,
heart rate, breathing of patients by using appropriate devices. These devices
provide accurate information to the doctor which later helps in suggesting
right treatment to patients. ICT improves the quality of work and makes it
more effective by using right quantity of resources at right time. ICT is quiet

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expensive to buy and require talented and skilled employees to operate
(Gulati and et.al., 2012).

3.3 Impact of legal consideration with respect to ICT on health and social
care organizations
Use of ICT in health and social care organizations requires
consideration of various laws and acts. Along with the advantages, ICT has
various disadvantages also. Ineffective and over use of ICT results to
repetitive strain injury in arms, injury due to poor posture, problem regarding
the eyesight and many more. To prevent employees from such kind of injury
or problem health and social care organizations are need to follow the
Misuse of Computer act 1990. By this act, employees are advised to use
systems in limit and in appropriate manner. This act also suggest various
ways to stop the continuous use of system and other devices. Health care
firms are also need to follow Health and Safety Act for keeping staff
members, social workers and other employees safe and secure. Safety of
employees is the prime responsibility of the firm.

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CONCLUSION
With the help of this report it is articulated that effective
communication plays a important role in health and social care sector.
Through this report it is concluded that both lack and poor communication
may often leads communication gap among among management and
service providers in an organization. The present report also describes
importance of communication skills and also review the methods to deal with
inappropriate interpersonal communication. Further this report includes the
concepts for overcome on communication barriers, various strategies could
be used to communication. The policies, code of practices and legislation are
implemented in organization to protect the rights and needs of people. This
report also helps to understand the usage of information technology in
communication which provides effectiveness in delivery of safety, security
and confidentiality risks.

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References
Books and Journals

Battisti, W.P. and et.al., 2015. Good publication practice for


communicating company-sponsored medical research: GPP3. Annals of
internal medicine.
Bekkum, J.E. and Hilton, S., 2013. The challenges of communicating
research evidence in practice: perspectives from UK health visitors and
practice nurses. BMC nursing.
Desai, P.P. and Pandya, S.V., 2013. Communicating with children in
healthcare settings. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics.
Donovan, E.E., Brown, L.E. and Crook, B., 2015. Patient satisfaction with
medical disclosure and consent documents for treatment: Applying
conceptualizations of uncertainty to examine successful attempts at
communicating risk. Journal of Communication in Healthcare.
GurolUrganci, I. and et.al., 2012. Mobile phone messaging for
communicating results of medical investigations. The Cochrane Library.
Househ, M., 2015. Communicating Ebola through social media and
electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study. Health informatics
journal.
Mousten, B. and et.al., 2012. Communicating pragmatics about content
and culture in virtually mediated educational environments. Computer-
mediated communication across cultures: International interactions in
online environments.
Online

Communication Systems in Healthcare, 2006. Available through :


<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/>.

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