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SyntaxPracticeExercises

Linguistics201

I.LexicalCategories
Identifythelexicalcategoryoftheunderlinedwordineachsentence.

1.a.Itwasacoldanddrearyday.
b.Ican'tseemtogetridofmycold.

2.a.Youmustdrycilantroleavesbeforestoring.
b.Thedryheatofthedesertprovedtobedeadly.

3.a.Therehasbeensomeimprovementinthepastweek.
b.Inthepast,therehasnotbeenmuchimprovement.

4.a.That'sapromise.
b.Ipromisetotakeyoutothezootomorrow.

II.PhrasalStructure
Foreachofthefollowingphrases,identifyitstype,itshead,andanyspecifiersor
complements.(Rememberthateveryphrasemusthaveahead,butthatspecifiers
andcomplementsareoptional.)

Specifier Head Complement Type

Example:therat the rat (none) NP

1.men

2.inthebarn

3.reallymean

4.workedatthestation

5.extremelyboring

6.thathouseonthecorner

7.neverwalkstothepark

8.thepoemaboutlove

9.seldomsmiles

10.sweptthefloor
SyntaxPracticeExercises
Linguistics201

I.LexicalCategories
Identifythelexicalcategoryoftheunderlinedwordineachsentence.

1.a.Itwasacoldanddrearyday. Adjective
b.Ican'tseemtogetridofmycold. Noun

2.a.Youmustdrycilantroleavesbeforestoring. Verb
b.Thedryheatofthedesertprovedtobedeadly. Adjective

3.a.Therehasbeensomeimprovementinthepastweek. Adjective
b.Inthepast,therehasnotbeenmuchimprovement. Noun

4.a.That'sapromise. Noun
b.Ipromisetotakeyoutothezootomorrow. Verb

II.PhrasalStructure
Foreachofthefollowingphrases,identifyitstype,itshead,andanyspecifiersor
complements.(Rememberthateveryphrasemusthaveahead,butthatspecifiers
andcomplementsareoptional.)

Specifier Head Complement Type

Example:therat the rat (none) NP

1.men men NP

2.inthebarn in thebarn PP

3.reallymean really mean AP

4.workedatthestation worked atthestation VP

5.extremelyboring extremely boring AP

6.thathouseonthecorner that house onthecorner NP

7.neverwalkstothepark never walks tothepark VP

8.thepoemaboutlove the poem aboutlove NP

9.seldomsmiles seldom smiles VP

10.sweptthefloor swept thefloor VP


SyntaxPracticeExercises,part2
Linguistics201

PhraseStructureTrees

Drawtreediagramsforeachofthefollowingsentences.

1.Adroidwalkedintothecantina.

2.Lukemightsellhisspeeder.

3.Thejawasalwayshideunderneaththebed.

4.Leiaoftenwatchesthesunset.

5.Theflightthroughtheasteroidswasverypleasant.

6.Yodaseemstiredoffighting.

1.

IP
I
I VP
[+past] V
PP
P
NP NP
N N
Det N V P Det N
A droid walked into the cantina
2.

IP
I
VP
V
NP NP
N N
N I V Det N
Luke might sell his speeder
3.
IP
I
I VP
[-past] V
PP
P
NP NP
N N

Det N Qual V P Det N


The jawas always hide underneath the bed
4.

IP
I
I VP
[-past] V
NP NP
N N
N Qual V Det N
Leia often watches the sunset
5.
IP
I
NP I
N [+past]
PP VP
P V
NP AP
N A
Det N P Det N V Deg A
The walk through the park was very pleasant
6.
IP
I
I VP
[-past] V
AP
A
PP
P
NP NP
N N
N V A P N
Yoda seems tired of fighting
SyntaxPracticeExercises,part3
Linguistics201

Drawtreediagramsforthefollowingsentences.

1.Thejurybelievedthatthedefendantwasguilty.
2.Sallywaspaintingahousebythesea.
3.Jamescanplaythepianoandtheaccordion.
4.TomwonderediftheDinoswouldwinthegame.

1.
IP
I
I VP
[+past] V
CP
C
IP
I
I VP
[+past] V
NP NP AP
N N A

Det N V C Det N V A
The jury believed that the defendant was guilty
2a.
In this interpretation, the house is what is by
the sea. Sally may be painting inside her
bedroom in Calgary, though.
IP
I
VP
V
NP
N
PP
P
NP NP
N N

N I V Det N P Det N
Sally was painting a house by the sea
2b.
In this interpretation, the act of painting is
happening by the sea. The house in the
painting might be in a forest or on a
IP mountain, etc.
I
VP
V
NP PP
N

P
NP NP
N N

N I V Det N P Det N
Sally was painting a house by the sea
3.

IP
I
VP
V
NP
NP NP NP
N N N

N I V Det N Conj Det N


James can play the piano and the accordion
4.

IP
I
I VP
[+past] V
CP
C
IP
I
VP
V
NP NP NP
N N N

N V C Det N I V Det N
Tom wondered if the Dinos would win the game