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Special Queueing Models (Poisson Queues)

MODEL-I: (M/M/1) : (FCFS/ / )

Poisson arrival
exponential service
single server
service discipline is FCFS
any number of customers can join the queue
population of prospective customers is very large
: mean arrival rate
: mean service rate
Pn : probability that there are n customers in the system

A necessary and sufficient condition for steady-state situation is 1.

Results of the model:

2
a) Expected/average queue length = Lq
( )

b) Expected number of customers in the system = L

c) Lq L L

d) The proportion/fraction of time the server is idle = P0 1 1


e) The proportion/fraction of time the server is busy = 1 P0

L 1
f) Expected/average waiting time of a customer in the system = W

Lq
g) Mean/expected waiting time of a customer in the queue = Wq
( )
h) Pn (1 ), n 1, 2,3,.... and P0 1 .
n
Model-II: (M/M/1) : (FCFS/m/ )
Poisson arrival
Exponential service time distribution
Single server
Service discipline is First Come, First Served
Maximum number of customers allowed to join the system is m
Population of prospective customers is very large
Results:
Here the effective arrival rate is n for n m
= 0 for n m.
The service rate is n = for all n. Here n and n are mean arrival and service rates
respectively when are n customers in the system. and are mean arrival and service rates
respectively.
n (1 ) 1
1) Pn P0
n
, n = 0, 1, 2, .m where P0
(1 )m 1
1 m 1
= 0, n = m 1, m 2,....... for ( 1)

1
Pn , n 0,1,2......, m
m 1
= 0, n m 1, m 2,....... for ( 1)

(m 1) m 1
2) L for 1
1 1 m 1
m
= for 1.
2

3) Mean effective rate of arrival in the system is (1 Pm ) .


4) Proportion/fraction of time the server is busy = (1 Pm ).

5) Lq L (1 P0 ) for 1
m(m 1)
= for 1.
2(m 1)
6) Mean effective service rate = = Fraction of time the server is busy
= (1 Pm ) (1 Pm )
7) Fraction of lost customers = Pm .

** An important difference between this model and infinite queue model is that in finite queue
system, the steady-state is attained even if 1.
Model-III: (M/M/s) : (FCFS/ / ) -- Multiple Server Model
Poisson arrival
s servers are working in parallel
Service time for each server is exponential with parameter
Individual service times are mutually independent
Service discipline is First Come, First Served
Any number of customers can join the system
Population of prospective customers is very large
Results: Here n for all n.
n n for n s
= s for n s.

1
1) P0 , , s
s s 1
n


n!
s !(1 ) n 0
s

n
2) Pn P0 , n = 0, 1, 2, ., s-1
n!
n
= P0 , n s, s 1, s 2,...........
s !s ns

s
3) P(all servers are busy ) P(busy period ) P(n s) P0 (1 ) 1
s! s
s s
4) Lq E[queue length] P0 .
s ! ( s )2

5) Proportion of time a server is busy = .
s

6) Proportion of time a server is idle = 1-
s

7) Expected number of busy servers


= E[number of busy servers]
= E[number of customers under service]
= .

8) L E[ number of customers in the system]


= Lq
s s
= P0 .
s ! ( s )2
Model-IV: (M/M/s) : (FCFS/m/ ) [m s]
Poisson arrival
s servers are working in parallel
Service time for each server is exponential with parameter
Individual service times are mutually independent
Service discipline is First Come, First Served
Maximum number of customers allowed in the system is m
Population of prospective customers is very large

Here n for n m
= 0 for n m.
n n for n s
= s for n s.
Results:
n
1) Pn P0 , n 0,1,...., ( s 1)
n!
n
= P0 , n s, s 1,....., m
s !s ns
= 0, n m 1, m 2,......
1
where P0 , 1
m s 1 s
1 s 1 n
s
1 s
n 1 n !
s !1
s

1
= , 1
s s
s 1 n
s
1 (m s 1)
s! n 1 n !

s 1 1 (m s 1)U m s (m s)U m s 1

2) Lq P0 when U 1
s !s (1 U ) 2
s
s s (m s)(m s 1)
= P0 when U 1.
s! 2 s

3) L Lq (1 Pm ) .

4) (1 Pm ) .
Model-V: (M/M/s) : (FCFS/K/K) [s K] -- Machine Repair Model

In a factory K machines are there. Each breakdown machine will be immediately sent to the
workshop where s mechanics are working independently in parallel ( s K). Time until a
machine breaks down has exponential distribution with parameter . The service time of each
mechanic is exponential with parameter . This is same for each mechanic.

Results:
1
s 1 K K
K ! n
1) P0 n ns
n 0 n n s ( K n)! s ! s

K
2) Pn n P0 , n 1, 2,....., s 1
n
K!
= ns
n P0 , n s, s 1,....., K
( K n)! s ! s
= 0, n>K

K
3) Lq (n s ) P
n s 1
n

( K Lq )
4) L .
1
5) ( K L).
Model-VI: (M/M/ ) : (FCFS/ / ) Self-service Model
(M/M/n) : (FCFS/ / ) where n is the state of the system

Here arrivals follow Poisson process with a mean rate , service times are independent
exponential variates each with parameter . Any number of servers can be engaged and the
number of servers in the system is n when there are n customers in the system.
So, n n for n = 1, 2, .. .

Results:

1) P0 e where .

n n
2) Pn P0 = e n = 0,1, 2,
n! n!

3) Lq 0

4) L

5) Wq 0

1
6) W .