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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

An exciting research-breakthrough has been the deployment of


Electromagnetic BandGap Cells (EBG) and Frequency Selective Surface
(FSS) layers in antenna arrays, for achieving superior performance. This
research works focus is on ensuring enhanced performance and reduced
mutual coupling of compact antenna arrays, by reducing the inter element
spacing, in spite of deploying EBG cells and FSS. The growing demand and
usage of wireless communication needs more compact and less expensive
antenna arrays. Cost effective and miniature antenna arrays, having less
mutual coupling effect, have become the need of the hour.

Compared to their single element counterpart, antenna arrays are in


huge demand due to their greater directivity. Different types of antenna arrays
are found in practical applications, which range from a small size monopole
antenna array to a very large reflector array of 120 m in diameter, for radio
wave astronomy. The growing need for compact microwave circuits demand
low profile, light weight, low cost and easy to fabricate robust antenna arrays.
With that in mind, this research focuses on the performance enhancement of
microstrip antenna arrays with Electromagnetic BandGap (EBG) structures
and Frequency Selective Surface (FSS).
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There are two reasons to narrow down on microstrip patch antenna


arrays. The first being the freedom to select a certain desired array pattern,
without changing its physical dimensions, and the second being that they are
conformable to both planar and non-planar surfaces. A microstrip antenna
array has a higher gain than a single microstrip antenna. The ability to create
high gain arrays in a low-profile antenna, makes arrays useful in airplanes and
other military applications.

Microstrip patch antenna arrays have heaps of advantages. RF and


antenna engineers are, therefore, continuously working on achieving
enhanced performance with the desired compactness. However the microstrip
patch antenna suffers from a few drawbacks, when compared to antenna
arrays. The critical problem to be considered here, is the excitation of surface
waves, which reduces the radiation efficiency. Spurious radiation occurs from
feed networks and junctions in the form of ohmic losses (James and Hall
1989). The bandwidth is narrow (below 5%). Polarization purity is difficult
to achieve (Ramesh Garg 2000). Low power handling capability
(approximately 100 W) and tolerance is also a problem in designing the
microstrip antenna array. The effects of mutual coupling between the patches
are more significant, than in other types of arrays, leading to scanning
blindness in severe cases (David Pozar and Daniel 1995).

The microstrip antenna array can be defined as a group of


microstrip antenna elements cascaded to a common source to produce a
directive radiation pattern. The microstrip antenna array uses a feed network
to connect all the individual antenna elements. A flat metal sheet is used as a
grounded plane (Balanis 1997). A conductive surface is a good reflector; it
has the property of reversing the phase of reflected waves. The ground plane
redirects half the radiation to the opposite direction, improving the antenna
gain by 3 dB, and partially shielding the objects on the other side. But if the
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antenna is too close to the electric conductor, the phase of the impinging wave
is reversed upon reflection resulting in destructive interference with the wave
emitted in the other direction. This is equivalent to the image current in an
electric conductor cancelling the current in the antenna, resulting in poor
radiation efficiency. Figure 1.1 depicts the antenna in close proximity with a
flat, conducting slab ( Balanis 1997). The antenna is effectively shorted out
by the metal surface, and negligible radiation is emitted. At high frequencies,
ground planes are a very good protection against unwanted signal couplings
that can build into a printed circuit board.

Another property of the electric conductor is that it supports the


surface waves (Ramo et al 1984 and Collin 1991). These are propagating
electromagnetic waves that are bound to the interface between the conductor
and the free space. At microwave frequencies, these are normal AC currents
that occur on any conductor. If the conductor is smooth and flat, the surface
waves will not couple with the external plane waves. They will radiate if
scattered by bends, discontinuities or surface texture. If an antenna is placed
near the ground plane, it will radiate the plane waves into the free space, but it
will also generate surface currents that propagate along the sheet.

Figure 1.1 Side view of an antenna lying flat against a ground plane
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On an infinitely large ground plane, these currents would be


evident only as a slight reduction in radiation efficiency. In practice, the
ground plane is infinite in size, and these currents propagate until they reach
the edge or corner. Figure 1.1 shows the antenna lying on a flat surface
against the ground plane. Any break in the continuous translational
symmetry of the smooth, flat surface allows the currents to radiate. The result
is a kind of multipath interference or speckle, illustrated in Figure 1.2,
which can be seen as ripples in the far field radiation pattern (Balanis 1997).
Moreover, if multiple antennas share the same ground plane, the surface
currents can cause unwanted mutual coupling between them.

Figure 1.2 Multipath interference due to surface waves on a ground plane

A significant issue in the microstrip antenna array is the excitation


of surface waves on the substrate. These waves increase the front-to-back
ratio, in turn reducing the antenna efficiency. Added to this, the mutual
coupling between the antenna elements is large enough to reduce the
directivity of the antenna array configuration.
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Corporate feeding is commonly used for connecting the individual


microstrip antenna array elements for achieving good performance. The feed
network has some extraneous radiation due to impedance mismatch at the
feed point and ohmic loss, because of the conducting stripline. The other
issue considered to be feed network loss due to the bends and junctions. This
loss increases even more when the size of the array becomes larger. All these
aforementioned issues in the microstrip antenna array can be eliminated by
applying Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) structures to the conducting
surface (Sievenpiper and Yablonovitch 1998) and a Frequency Selective
Surface (FSS) as a superstrate.

The EBG structure is characterized as a high impedance surface. It


does not reverse the phase of the reflected waves, and the image currents on
the conductive surface waves are not supported. This high impedance surface
provides a useful new ground plane for novel low profile antennas, and other
electromagnetic structures. The EBG structure has the ability to forbid the
propagation of surface waves in the specified band of frequency. These EBG
structures can arranged as periodic or aperiodic. They are always deployed as
a part of the antenna array configuration, in order to improve the performance
of the antenna array, especially the return loss, directivity and bandwidth. By
placing EBG structures near the inset feedline, feed radiations can be
minimized. Alternatively, the indirect feed method or the aperture coupled
feed can be used to reduce the feed radiation in antenna array elements.

The Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) acts as a partially reflecting


surface. Near its resonance frequency where the reflection coefficient of the
surface is unity, the radiating source and the FSS as a superstrate layer
produce a significant improvement in the antennas performance. The FSS
acts as filters, such as the stop band and pass band, at their specified
frequency. This FSS is placed as a superstrate layer on the radiating element,
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thereby increasing the directivity of the radiating patches. This thesis focuses
on the development of a high performance antenna array for WLAN
applications, and introduces EBG structures to reduce the effect of surface
waves, feed network radiations, and mutual coupling between patches.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS

The mission here is to investigate the effect of the Electromagnetic


Bandgap structures on the performance of the inset feed microstrip antenna
array, and the Frequency Selective Surface as a superstrate on the
performance of the aperture coupled microstrip antenna arrays. The study
also aims to investigate the mutual coupling between the patches using EBG
structures and FSS as a superstrate.

The objectives here are

To design and implement a microstrip antenna and a


microstrip antenna array, operating at single and dual band
frequencies for wireless local area networks.

To obtain theoretically the dispersion equation and dispersion


diagram of EBG structure, using the Multi conductor
Transmission Line (MTL) theory.

To design, implement and study the effects of placing


mushroom EBG structures on either side of the inset feedline
of the microstrip antenna and antenna array.

To design, implement and study aperture-coupled microstrip


patch antennas of two and four element arrays with and
without the FSS.

To reduce the mutual coupling effects between the antenna


elements using EBG cells and the FSS.
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This research involves the investigation of EBG structures and FSS


with various antenna array designs through the simulation and fabrication
process. The simulation is done using CST microwave studio software. The
behavior of EBG structures and the FSS along with microstrip antenna array
configuration has been investigated by simulation and measurement. A dual
band microstrip patch antenna array has been designed. Performance
enhancement and reduction in mutual coupling are achieved in the microstrip
patch antenna array with the help of EBG structures and the FSS. The
measured results are in good concurrence with simulated results.

The proposed microstrip antenna array is fabricated using FR-4


substrate material having a dielectric constant of 4.4 and thickness of 1.6 mm.
The fabrication is done using thin film technology on the printed circuit
board. The conductive layer is etched for the feed network and radiating
patches. The thickness of the radiating patch is 0.035 mm.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW

The microstrip antenna array has been the most extensively


explored topic in antenna design in the past twenty years. The invention of
microwave generators, that led to the development of the microwave antenna,
marks a new era in wireless communication and antenna technology. The
microstrip concept was first theorized by Deschamps in the year 1953, and a
patent documentation made in the year 1955 was received by Gulton and
Baissinot. The development of practical microstrip antennas started at the
beginning of the 1970s. Low profile antennas are considered to be an
important component in military applications, next gen missiles and
spacecrafts. With the recent advancement in solid-state devices, designing
high performance miniaturized antennas is now feasible. To comply with the
present requirements, it is important to design and develop compact and
efficient microstrip radiators. The advantages of microstrip antenna arrays,
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like less weight, low cost, low profile and adaptability to Microwave
Integrated Circuits (MIC), have propelled the applications over a wider
frequency range from 100 MHz to 50 GHz.

The transmission line model for the calculation of the antenna


parameters like the width, length, inset feed line length, and feed point etc, of
rectangular patch antennas are detailed in Balanis, Antenna theory, analysis
and design, Second Edition, John Wiley publications. In addition to that, the
construction of microstrip antenna array with two different feeding networks
is discussed. The first one is a series feed network, with impedance matching
of 50 . The second is the corporate feed network with quarter wave
transformers of proper impedance values. A design formula and procedure for
the position of the inset feed for the 50 point in the rectangular patch, are
discussed by Ramesh and Yip (2003).

There are four major areas of study pertaining to the Microstrip


antenna array: 1. antenna array design with different feed networks,
2.methods for improving the performance, 3. reducing the size of the
microstrip antenna arrays and 4. approaches for reducing the mutual coupling
between the microstrip antenna elements.

Non-stop research is going on, to understand the properties, and to


achieve more and more compactness of the EBG structures and the FSS.
Initially, the appropriate utilization of the radiation characteristics and the
directivity of microstrip antenna arrays was suggested. Subsequently, the
idea of utilizing the microstrip antenna arrays for a wide range of applications
had been proposed. Extensive research in the physical layer aspects of
antenna array systems has been carried out, which fructified into the
miniaturization of communication devices. Also, dual band-dual polarized
microstrip antenna arrays are reviewed, with the significant application of
wireless local area networks.
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The idea of the initial design of a conducting strip radiator, which is


separated from the ground plane, was proposed by Byron in the early 1970s.
This is the first document of the practical microstrip antenna in the literature.
In this design, a strip radiator having a length of several wavelengths and the
width of half a wavelength is studied. The strip was fed at periodic space
points, using coaxial connectors along the radiating edges, and assumed as an
array. Howell (1972) investigated rectangular and circular patches with
specified dimensions. This low profile antenna consisted of a planar
resonating element, separated from a ground plane by a dielectric material,
whose thickness was small when compared to the wavelength. The antenna
was designed with coaxial feed or stripline feed deposited on the same plane.
Lewin studied the radiation effects from the discontinuities in striplines.

The choice of a dielectric substrate is the first step in designing


microstrip antenna arrays. This is based on the dielectric constant value, loss
tangent, homogeneity, thermal coefficient and temperature ranges of the
dielectric substrates which are considered to be important parameters in the
selection of a proper dielectric substrate. A detailed study of various
dielectric materials available in the market, was done by Nowicki (1979).
The suitable selection of the dielectric material, and the relation between the
dielectric constant tolerance and resonant frequency for the microstrip
antenna elements, are discussed by Carver (1981). The proposed method is
validated by theoretical and practical design procedures. This also includes
transmission line and modal expansion techniques as well as numerical
methods, such as the method of moments and finite element techniques. The
quality, bandwidth and efficiency factors of typical patch designs are
presented. In this survey, critical problems in the development of microstrip
antennas and monolithic integrated circuits are also discussed.
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A theoretical and design analysis of microstrip antennas and arrays


was carried out applying transmission line analogies to the simple rectangular
metal patches fed at the center of a radiating wall. This was proposed by
Munson (1974) and Derneryd (1975). The radiating edges were considered as
slots, which are separated by half a wavelength. In this design analysis,
expressions of the radiated fields, radiation resistance, input impedance, etc.,
are provided. It is designed to be implemented in rectangular patches, and not
adaptable for the inclusion of a feed point. By using the vector Kirchhoff
relation, James and Wilson (1977) analyzed the aperture fields of an open
circuited microstrip line and its radiation mechanism. It was observed that the
terminal plane region was the dominant radiating aperture. Both the
theoretical and experimental analyses of different radiating elements showed,
that they are similar to the slot radiators.

The importance of the feed network for cascading more number of


array elements which are designed to operate at Ku band with reduced side
lobe levels, was reported by Yang (2008). The proposed antenna array is
constructed with 32 elements and the idea is to design a unique way of
proximity coupled feed network for a reduced side lobe level, increased
radiation characteristic, and stable structure. The simulated and experimental
results are verified.

The advantages and design procedures of aperture coupled printed


microstrip stacked patch antennas are discussed, for achieving a wide band
width, low cross polarization and weak parasitic radiation from the feeding
aperture, for application in printed phased array antennas by Frederic Croq
(1991). The analysis of the numerical solution is based on the method of
moments. Co polarization and Cross polarization contours are discussed for
various and values. The designed stacked antenna is obtained with low
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cross polarization. The theoretical and experimental results are compared for
the front-to-back ratio.

The importance of the aperture coupled microstrip antenna in the


era of wireless communications is presented by David Pozar (1996). The
main features related to other feed techniques, operating principles, design
features, modeling techniques and versatile applications are discussed in
detail. The design of the multilayer microstrip antennas and the choice of the
dielectric material in both the layers, are also explained. The feeding
technique plays an important role in the aperture coupled microstrip antennas.
This is detailed in the performance characteristic of the Co-Planar Waveguide
(CPW) aperture coupled antenna was investigated experimentally by Richard
Lee (1992). The grounded CPW with a series gap in the center of the strip
conductor, was used to couple the microwave energy to the antenna, through
the aperture designed in the common ground. This arrangement of a
multilayered antenna indicated good coupling efficiency and confirms the
feasibility in feeding techniques.

The development of an aperture coupled microstrip antenna array


that is designed to work in Ku band was investigated by Hyok Song and
Marek Biulkowski in 1998. The idea discusses the detailed arrangement of a
16 x 16 microstrip patch array, with a corporate feed network, using a dog-
bone shaped coupling aperture as the slot. Also, the application of a thin
substrate and low-loss foam was implemented for enhanced bandwidth. The
theoretical and measured results are compared. For the designed antenna
array, the radiation pattern and gain are significantly good. Another wide
band aperture coupled microstrip array antenna, using inverted feeding
networks with 2 x 4 elements for the applications of Personal
Communications Services and International Mobile Telecommunication 2000
series was tested by Wansuk Yun and Young-Joong Yoon (2005). The antenna
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array was designed for dual band and dual polarized operation. Low cross
polarization was obtained with improved return loss values. The simulated
and measured radiation characteristics of E-plane and H-plane compared.

The shape of the aperture slot in the aperture coupled antenna, is


designed for improved radiation characteristics; the patches in this antenna
design are employed in such a way, that the slot is fed by a microstrip line,
and coupled to several parasitic patch radiators for increased front to back
ratio by Qinjiang Rao et al (2005). The proposed antenna mechanism is
explained by the field equivalence theorem, and well defined boundary
conditions. It is concluded that when the electrical length of the slot is
increased, the radiation strength of the main beam is also increased.

A method of the moment solution to input impedance, and mutual


coupling between the microstrip antenna elements, was discussed by David
Pozar (1982). The presence of the substrate and surface waves is analyzed by
the suitable Greens function. An analysis of an arbitrary shaped microstrip
antenna with multi terminals, was presented by Suzuki and Chiba (1984). An
approach based on the variational method and modal-expansion technique,
uses the Rayleigh-Ritz method for the determination of the Eigen values and
Eigen functions. Along with the input impedance value other antenna
parameters are computed at non resonance, and the theoretical results are
compared with the experimental results for a pentagonal patch. This method
can be applied to any microstrip antenna, with different shaped boundaries
and multiple terminals.

A simple approach for reducing the mutual coupling in an antenna


array, using meander line section antennas based on the general idea of field
cancellation, is proposed by Jiang Zhu et al (2010). This results in a closely
spaced electrically small antenna array design. The antenna array consists of
two meta material inspired small printed monopole antennas. The monopole
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antenna comprises a two-arm fork-like monopole with a thin-strip inductor


loaded on top of the monopole, and an inter digital capacitor loaded on the
right-side arm. The reduction in the mutual coupling is achieved by self-
cancellation of the induced common ground and near-field currents, without
introducing additional structures.

A novel structure for reducing the mutual coupling between two


coplanar microstrip antennas, that radiate in the same frequency band, based
on complementary Split-Ring Resonators (SRRs), is introduced by
Mohammed Bait-Sciwail et al (2010). The proposed complementary split-
ring resonator unit cell consists of two complementary SRR inclusions
connected by an additional slot. This modification improves the rejection
response, in terms of bandwidth and suppression. The filtering characteristics
of the band-gap structures are investigated, using the dispersion analysis.
Using the new SRR structure, 10-dB reduction in the mutual coupling
between two patch antennas, with a gap of only 1/4th of the free-space
wavelength between them was achieved. Since the proposed structures are
broadband, they can be used to minimize the coupling and co-channel
interference in multiband antennas.

The characteristics of mushroom EBGs between patches for


reducing the mutual coupling, is investigated by Martin Coulombe et al
(2010). This analysis reveals that not all EBGs are suitable for the
performance improvement of antenna arrays. Some of the EBG structures
make the performance worse, when they are inserted between the patch
elements. The mushroom EBG structures inserted between the patch
elements are analyzed. The size of the EBG, the number of columns and the
gap between the patches play an important role, in order to improve the
performance of the antenna. A significant reduction in mutual coupling and
side lobe level, and the improvement in gain are also validated through
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simulation and experiments. The simulated and experimental results are


compared. The antenna array is analyzed, with and without EBG structures.

The idea of utilizing Electromagnetic bandgap structures in antenna


design is proposed for compact EBG structures, with different types of
antennas like microstrip antennas, tapered slot antennas, and dielectric
resonators, by Yang et al (2003). The performance is evaluated for pattern
control capabilities and altering the side lobe levels. The EBGs are discussed
and investigated for one and two dimensional geometries, comprised of
dielectric slabs and rods, as well as air pockets in the dielectric. The
simulated and experimental results are compared.

The performance of miniature spiral EBG structures compared to


mushroom EBG structures are in part with the microstrip antenna array for
increasing the number of unit cells, in order to improve the performance is
proposed by Yang Li et al (2005). These EBG structures are arranged in a
periodic nature. A lower band gap position is achieved by increasing the
windings of the spiral branch of the EBG. The band gap characteristics are
identified by the suspended stripline method. By placing these compact EBG
structures, a significant amount of mutual coupling reduction is achieved.
The lattice area of the new EBG and the mushroom EBG structures are
compared in simulated and experimental environments. Another compact
EBG structure designed in a fork-like shape, thereby achieving good
performance in a microstrip antenna also is discussed. Various compact
dimensions of fork-like EBG structures are verified by simulation and
measurement results.

The performance improvement of dual band and broad band


conformal antennas with EBG structures was optimized and analyzed by Kern
(2005). The EBG surface is observed by designing a Frequency Selective
Surface on top of a thin dielectric substrate, which is placed on the metallic
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ground plane. The ground acts as an Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC).


The antenna performance is observed by optimizing both the antenna and
EBG surface simultaneously. A new miniature planar EBG structure with
dual slits in metal patches for increased bandwidth, without affecting the
center frequency, is discussed by Mohamad Dawood Farzan et al (2008).
Two slits are made in the inner side and outer side of the EBG. Another
available method for miniature EBG cells is, interposing a high permeability
magnet metal sheet between the parallel planes. The analysis is done by
varying both the slits length. The unit cells of the EBGs are analyzed in
detail, for enhanced bandwidth and size reduction, by adjusting the slit length.

The demand for compact, polarization dependent EBGs is analyzed


and compared for the both complementary split ring resonator EBGs, and the
conventional mushroom type EBGs in part with the antenna design, by Lin
ping (2010). Compact and tunable embedded electromagnetic bandgaps are
designed and analyzed for multiband applications. The bandgap
characteristics are obtained by the theoretical dispersion Brillouin diagrams.

A dual band antenna array configuration in wireless communication


is described, by integrating two different operating frequencies of a microstrip
antenna with a single feed, is analyzed by Masri (2010). The antenna array is
designed for a dual band of operation. The antenna elements are cascaded
using a corporate feedline. The proposed antenna array is incorporated with
two different EBG structures at the feedline of the microstrip antenna array
for enhanced performance. The EBG structures proposed are mushroom
EBGs and modified Minkowski EBGs. Also, the complication, in achieving a
controlled radiation pattern in an antenna array is more symmetry when it is
implemented with EBG structures at the feedline. The proposed antenna
array with and without EBG structures is simulated and fabricated.
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A novel method for the design of an EBG resonator antenna for


improved directivity, using the Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) at any
frequency is proposed by Pirhadi et al (2007). The antenna is designed to
operate at dual band of frequencies. Single and multilayer FSS with single
sided and double sided square loops are analyzed. A parametric study is done
to obtain the periodicity and dimensions are obtained through the reflection
loss and transmission coefficient. The antenna is analyzed for its
compactness and improved performance. In this approach the FSS works like
a reflector and cancels the image current. The performance of the EBG
antennas composed with a probe fed microstrip antenna, and an FSS
superstrate layer, is investigated for the return loss, realized gain and radiation
patterns in simulation and measurement.

A unique method of achieving greater directivity in a wide band


EBG antenna is investigated by Pirhadi (2012). The EBG antenna is an
aperture coupled microstrip antenna, with a frequency selective surface used
as a superstrate layer. The appropriate design of the FSS layer, microstrip
patch and coupling aperture leads to produce multiple resonances. The use of
the FSS improves the return loss and directivity. The parametric study yields
the dimension of the unit cell FSS and the height at which the FSS can be
placed from the radiating element. The first design enables the wide band
aperture coupled microstrip antenna, to operate at X band. The second design
is to optimize the superstrate layer by the FSS, and it is added to the aperture
coupled microstrip antenna for increased bandwidth and directivity. This FSS
should have a controllable performance. The proposed design has been
simulated and fabricated.

It is apparent from the available literature, that the contribution


made hitherto does not speak about the following viabilities.
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i) Placement of the EBG structures near the inset feedline of


microstrip antenna array.

ii) Placement of the dual band EBG structures near the corporate
feed line of the dual band microstrip antenna array.

iii) Reduced mutual coupling, by placing the EBG structures in


the inset feed microstrip antenna array.

iv) Designing the aperture coupled microstrip antenna array with


the FSS as a superstrate.

v) Reduced mutual coupling, by placing the FSS in the aperture


coupled microstrip antenna array.

vi) Obtaining theoretically the dispersion equation and diagram


for the mushroom EBG structure, using the Multi
Transmission Line (MTL) theory.

The above factors are considered in the present work. The above
review makes it obvious, that the design and development of the EBG
structures and the FSS layer in microstrip antenna arrays, are more vibrant
research topics today than ever before.

1.4 ORGANISATION OF THESIS

The main aspiration of this thesis is to achieve performance


augmentation and compactness in a microstrip antenna array, with EBG
structures and the FSS as a superstrate. Reduction in the mutual coupling
between the radiating elements is also achieved. The first part of the thesis
deals with the design and implementation of single and two element inset fed
microstrip patch antenna arrays, with EBG structures near the feedline. The
antenna array is designed to operate at 4.8 GHz. Performances of the
microstrip antenna array with and without EBG structures are compared. The
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proposed antenna array is simulated and measured for the parameters of the
return loss, directivity, bandwidth, and radiation pattern. The simulated and
measured results are in good concurrence with each other. The same is
analyzed for dual band operation. In the second part of the thesis, the
theoretical analysis of the two EBG structures is designed and developed.
Using the Multi conductor Transmission Line (MTL) theory, the dispersion
equation for the mushroom-like EBG and Fork-like EBG is obtained
theoretically and verified. The equivalent circuits of EBG structures and
dispersion diagrams are also explained. The third part of the thesis, proposes
the design and analysis of the aperture coupled microstrip antenna array with
Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). The antenna has been designed for
single, two and four elements, with and without the FSS. The proposed
design of the aperture coupled microstrip antenna arrays has been designed,
implemented, and successfully fabricated. The fourth part of the thesis, is the
study of the reducing mutual coupling between the radiating elements, by
placing the EBG structures and the FSS. The performances of the proposed
antenna array, with and without the EBG and the FSS, are investigated by
performing numerical simulations, using CST microwave studio software.
The values of the return loss have been measured by using the Vector
Network Analyzer. The radiation pattern of the antenna array has been
measured by using the anechoic chamber.

The thesis consists of five chapters and is organized as follows.

The first chapter provides an introduction to the microstrip antenna


array, electromagnetic bandgap structures, and the frequency selective surface
and its applications. This chapter describes the thesis background and
objectives. A brief review of the work carried out in the field of the direct
and indirect feed microstrip antenna array, with and without EBG structures
and the FSS during the past decades by researchers all over the world, has
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been presented. Additionally, this chapter portrays the work in the field of the
compact antenna array and EBGs at the desired frequency of operation. The
related literature reviews are taken from reference books and IEEE published
papers.

Chapter two details the design and development of single frequency


microstrip antenna arrays, dual frequency-dual polarised microstrip antenna
arrays, and aperture coupled microstrip antenna arrays. The single frequency
microstrip antenna has been designed with a single element, two element and
four element microstrip antenna arrays. The dual frequency-dual polarised,
two and four element microstrip antenna array, utilizes single feed as well as
dual feed at the radiating patches. In dual frequency antenna arrays, two
different feeds of the radiating patches for achieving dual polarisation has
been designed and proposed. In the first design, the radiating patches are tilted
by 45o individually, for achieving dual polarisation, and are given a single
common feed. The antenna arrays were designed, fabricated and tested to
operate at dual frequency, with dual polarisation for wireless applications.
The performance of the dual frequency- dual polarised microstrip antenna
array is compared in simulation and measurement. In the second design, the
radiating patches are tilted by + 45o and 45o separately; thus, dual
polarisation is achieved in the antenna array. Each radiating patch is given
with dual feed. The performance of this antenna array is observed in
simulation. The radiation characteristics are analyzed for co polarisation and
cross polarisation. The aperture coupled microstrip antenna has been
developed with a single, two and four element antenna arrays. The single
frequency microstrip antenna array is designed to operate at 4.8 GHz. The
dual frequency-dual polarised microstrip antenna arrays are designed to
operate at dual frequencies of 3.12 GHz and 4.8 GHz. The aperture coupled
microstrip antenna arrays are designed to operate at dual frequencies of 3.12
GHz and 4.8 GHz.
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Chapter three elaborates the concept, principles and geometries of


the various EBG structures. Also enumerated is, the application of the EBG
structures and the FSS along with the antenna array configuration. Using the
Multiconductor Transmission-Line (MTL) theory, the dispersion equation for
the mushroom-like and fork-like EBG has been obtained theoretically and
verified. The equivalent circuits of the EBG structures and dispersion
diagram are also explained. For single and dual frequency-dual polarised
inset feed microstrip antenna arrays, the performance is analysed, with and
without EBG structures, in simulation and measurement. The EBG
structures are uniquely placed near the inset feedline of the microstrip
antenna, and are compared with the traditional placing of the EBG structures
around the patch antenna. The performance of the aperture coupled
microstrip antenna arrays, with and without the FSS has been simulated and
compared with the measured results.

Chapter four elucidates the design and development of the antenna


array in order to reduce the mutual coupling between the radiating elements.
The first part analyzes the mutual coupling in the inset fed microstrip antenna
array, by placing the EBG structures at the feedline. Also, the mutual
coupling in the inset fed microstrip antenna array is analysed, by placing a
meander slotted line resonator in between the radiating patches. The second
part investigates the effects of mutual coupling in the aperture coupled
microstrip antenna array, when FSS is placed as a superstrate. The mutual
coupling reduces the antenna performance and directivity. It is observed that,
the EBG structures and FSS play a significant role in considerably reducing
the mutual coupling between the patches. A comparison of the simulated and
measured values shows good agreement between the two.

Chapter five concludes with an account of the considerable


advantage of designing the microstrip antenna array, with EBG structures
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positioned near the inset feed line and the FSS as a superstrate. This design
has achieved a reduction in the size of the antenna array, improved the
directivity, and decreased the mutual coupling between the radiating patches.
The significance of 1.Effective placement of the EBG structures 2. Compact
and dual band EBG structures and their impact on the size and performance of
the antenna array, has been definitively established.