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Exersice 1.

Single phase load&compensation


I


100 10+j20

Two loads z1 = 100 and z2 = 10+j20 are connected across a 200 V rms, 50 Hz source as shown in
figure.

a. Find real, reactive powers and power factor at the source, find total current through the circuit.
b. Find the capacitance of the capacitor across the loads to improve the overall power factor to 0.8
lagging.

Exersice 2. Power and current calculations: balanced and unbalanced systems

In the system given below, find Ia, Ib, Ic and apparent power supplied by the source, if;

a. za = zb = zc = j 1.0
b. za = zb = j1.0 and zc = j 0.9 (znn = j0.1 )
Ia j 0.1
a a

10 j 0.1 za
n n
1-120 zb
Ib zc
1120 b b
c j 0.1 c

Ic j 0.1

Exersice 3. 3-phase loads

A three-phase line has an impedance of 2+j4 . The balanced line feeds two balanced load. The first
load is Y connected and has an impedance of 30+j40 . The second load is connected and has an
impedance of 60-j45 . The line is energized by a three-phase supply having a voltage of 207.85 V.
Taking voltage of phase a as the reference, determine;

a. The current through, reactive and active powers from the supply.
b. The line voltage at which the loads are connected.
c. The current per phase through each load.
d. The total active and reactive powers in each load and the line.
e. Power factor of combined loads.
2+j4
60-j45
VL= 207.85 V 60-j45
2+j4

60-j45

2+j4

30+j40

30+j40

30+j40

Exersice 4. Ideal, single phase two winding transformer

A single-phase two winding transformer is rated at 20 kVA, 480/120 V, 50 Hz. A source connected to the
480 V winding supplies an impedance load connected to the 120 V winding. The load absorbs 15 kVA at
0.8 power factor lagging when the load voltage is 118 V. Assume that the transformer is ideal and
calculate;

a. The voltage across the 480 V winding


b. The load impedance
c. The load impedance transformed to the 480 V winding
d. The real and reactive power supplied to the 480 V winding.

(Exersices 5 to 9 are taken from Power System Analysis & Design, SI Version, J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla
S. Sarma and Thomas Overbye, Publisher: Cengage Learning,. 2012, Cengage Learning, Edition: 5th Revised
edition. ISBN-10: 1111425795. ISBN-13: 9781111425791)

Exersice 5. Transformer short circuit and open circuit tests

A single-phase two winding transformer is rated at 20 kVA, 480/120 V, 50 Hz.

During a short circuit test, where rated frequency is applied to the 480 V winding (winding 1), with the
120 V winding (winding 2) shorted, the following readings are obtained: V1 = 35 V, P1 = 300 W. During an
open circuit test, where rated voltage is applied to the winding 2, with winding 1 is open, the following
readings are obtained: I2 = 12 A, P2 = 200 W.
a. From the short circuit test, determine the equivalent series impedance Zeq1 referred to the
winding 1. Neglect the shunt admittance.
b. From the open circuit test, determine the values of shunt elements. Referred to winding 1.
Neglect the series impedance.

Exersice 6. Per unit impedance: single phase transformer

A single-phase two winding transformer is rated at 20 kVA, 480/120 V, 50 Hz. The equivalent leakage
impedance of the transformer referred to the 120 V winding (winding 2)is Zeq2 = 0.052578.13 . Using
the transformer ratings as base values, determine the per unit leakage impedance referred to winding 2
and winding 1.

Exersice 7. Per unit circuit: three zone single phase network

Three zones of a single-phase circuit are identified in Figure. The zones are connected by transformers
T1 and T2, whose ratings are also shown. Using base values of 30 kVA and 240 volts in zone 1; draw the
per-unit circuit and determine the per-unit impedances and the per-unit source voltage. Then calculate
the load current both in per-unit and in amperes. Transformer winding resistances and shunt
admittance branches are neglected.

Exersice 8. Per unit and actual currents in balanced three phase network

A balanced Y-connected voltage source with V = 480 0 volts is applied to a balanced load with
Zload = 3040 . The line impedance between the source and load is Zline = 185 for each phase.
Calculate the per-unit and actual current in phase a of the line using Sbase3 = 10 kVA and VbaseLL = 480
volts.

Exersice 9. Voltage calculations : balanced Y-Y and -Y connection

Three single-phase two-winding transformers, each rated 400 MVA, 13.8/199.2 kV, with leakage
reactance Xeq = 0.10 per unit, are connected to form a three-phase bank. Winding resistances and
exciting current are neglected. The high-voltage windings are connected in Y. A three-phase load
operating under balanced positive-sequence conditions on the high-voltage side absorbs 1000 MVA at
0.90 p.f. lagging, with VAN = 199.2 kV. Determine the voltage Van at the low-voltage bus if the low-
voltage windings are connected
a. in Y,
b. in .
V "1,(\ 4% 0
-=- - :::-
Vz-/\ 120

0.. V2 == ~"'~ V lrcfefeACe)


V1 :: c \1 2 ~ 4-.118 = lft2-L D

-'l 1: 2::: 121.12 L-M,5Sr ( ,'nC>!vc.'+-i"e )

-::- -t12s ~ -:::. o. 9 2~ 3 ( 36 . 8 ~ 0 ..Q.


1 '2-1-.12 L-3 .&''1- 0

/ 2. "l ~
=- r _fJ ) 1.., 't=-loacl ::::. lJ-2. CO. 9 z.~S:s L3b . lrr' )
C 'l\oO\d =c . -z:;:-lo",d \. Nz..

I
2:-b(Ad =- 14--~S L3b .8'10 SL

J. $-1:: S2 =- '\5000 L 3G .<is 1- =: 12-00 -+ J9000


1 t
f ~
uJ vAr
3
41. 661- A
(A. I,\ = ~\e~ 20.lD

Lt<6 0
_

V"CA1ed

\~4\::: _Y1_
rro.-\eJ

- \

X e , ::: ~ ce11. _ rLe 1L =0. ~2-2 f2

Po -== 200W (tore loss)


1.
3.&"0 _ ~ 115'2. -iZ..
~ =- ~'\?: ~ 200
Po
1L v~
:::. _ -::..
l.{&o
r2c 1152

~ Lj~ 0 -.:. j -1 b ~ . 5 b -.!L..


2 .91

- -
Zlif 2.1150
2
:/ ' _ \J~e 1201.
._JaQ(se 2 - 2 - =: 0 .1- 2- J2.

S bOISE' 20.10 3

per -lJl\\+ leCAICje ~fV\pe ~t"\c e *


0 .0 5 L S L"1-8 .1~ 0
0
"2 r lA) - 2eq 2. 0 o:t 2 C1 L-=t 8 .13
eqz '--t'. . - - -=- . J f' V\
'2 bose 2 Ot 2.

(r-c.f~rrecl \-0 wil\.ctAI\9 2

'2
- V!ootse1
~ loo.se

per-lAl\r+- l-ealLo..3E \N\fe~f\ce

~1 (p.V\ \ ;:: teCj1 _ O";/f !1-'i5.j3 -= 0.0+29 1"+"6 .1:t


11 52

- We clAos-e ~ loose \b l~es os ,0.t-1(\9 \.Jolt&-~s of +-'-"e


~f\storV\I\ e r
VrD't1edZ
-- --
12D
--
Vl. Vz
--
N1 x V6ot.se. 2 VbOtSe 2
N2

SbO\s.e
!bo.,se 2.
v..J~ O\\~ ore. CDMfOl'e.{\+ ~~ cOMlclered we use fIlN'<'efb+-e
f'O\t1(\3S . OS bC\SE? vO\\u.t:.s .

W~ severO\I c.ompone(\1s orp i(lVD '\Jed./ i-Vle S8.sreM base


vO\tues ~j be clAfferw+ floM the {\{;V'{\epLote rcx-Hr'\9S '

~ (E>!0VEiCT p.tA . V oJJ.J.es f. om Its MYY>E'f to.te ro.HIl,9S i-c-l-he


Sjs+eM Ioo..,se I
So~+iol\

LI o
2 3
Vs =-220!2 I clood :::.O.9kJO.2 Q
rB---3 /~-~-----<;"3 (~~
( I x\Il\e=Zfl.

--
--- T'tl T;2.
2.o~vA
30~vA
24D/49;;'O V
4bO/115 \/

)<.~ = 0." p.\.A )<.9 ~O.1 ptA


l eec, IS' (\EBlec+ed)

@. :D Iv \cle lAe

1::::le-i-e.r/V\\ e ~e voLve {(\ eOtC~ =2L)(\e

S = 30 iL vA (fer ~re fie+vJu\ k )


b~e
"3of\e1
VbG\.Se 1 == 24 D V

~e2
i +.'\
Vbosez ::: 2lt0' (~80 ) -=:- q.80 V /
2-qo

3D. IDs
I ba.se3 :: S60\S -250 A
"

V6C\Se3 120

Ce>.\c..\.A .O\+e fE -Vf\tt 'r()pedovlce~

for T t1 ~ bse vO\Lues = ro.t\r<jS bf ~e T1

~ 'f..eq = 'KT1 -p\A

t=o, \\{\ ~ ~I\f\e . p.LA -


1-- \\(\e
- - 2 =: 0 . 2 b 04 pe r v\(\ Ii
z.6(XSe2 1 b~

~lDO\d o . ~+J 0 .'2..


~

4-0\ tOCXd ~ ~h:XA~ p.I.A -- -- = 1.8:tS +j O. 416-=J- pL\


-tbOlS'e .5 0 48

t:-O( .sOlK ( ~ 'iPV\

-.~------------------------
-
~eC} . p\ft j lD.-1+0 .2604 +O . 13=i8~O .4 1 t ) +1. gi-5
_ o. 911- LJL -;= o .'-\ 3 g'? 1-26.010
2.08~ f 2b.O to
-
_I = IIOQCi'PlA
TI OCi\a _J
-
TI_~
-~e _ 6 -:-(C)./1395/-26
- -, .010) 2bO

~ \cleO\\ -tto.f\StO\Mel U)i()ciA(\9 S ~~ loeeA ciiMff'O\ted b~


p roper ~elec.+fDn of bO\se \JC\lues .
v=- VL
A CDnnect-ed /
V==-VLL~~~480LZ V
LoO\d
~ (!)flf'cteci/ z =- 2-.6 ~ 30 (40 J2 0

Z: Irf\e =1 /25- 0
SL I PVIVI.Se.
1,, __

Vbotsf2L
Vbose =- Y'is 0 (ll'ne +0 III( e )
-
SbOlse

LoO\d :
6 CD(\()ec.+eJ -----""~
convert +0 ),
a
2-
A =
2-d
"3- 10 / 40_ ..n..

6 It I\. _ 1 I '85 i) _ <:>

~6?.se 23 .04
= 0 .04 3 40 186 re' lAn,t
10 L 4.0"0
2 3 ,Dtt
=0 .434 / 40 C)

fee- v\(\\'1

tn. or clec- to do +lAe co.lC.lA.\OIt-Ivf\ \/'\ D(le -pkO(se equI votl/l. t,.l
WE? So ~D LA \ Qj \AS e LI'l,\e +e, (leLA+
-rod va H-0I.3 e !
v
Vw ( \l'p) / -3 D
VLN ::.-Vp =
--
.p.\A, f' .1.A Vbase LN
Vbot.se LL
~

( Vbos,p)

I P.lA =

';)

1 L -~
-:;---- - -
(0 .003=r8 -+ j 0.0 ~3Z3) + lD .33 2.5 +J.D. 2'13)
1 L-30

IbOlSe =- . . S b~-e - --
V3 VbO\S,>

LL

Vbo..se~
p

Ac~\ cv.rr-Bl\+ '

./

I = (2 , -1 '-l:t 1-1-3. ~o =- 2.. ':) .8- S L-1~ . ~8 A


- ) . 12 .03 0

1
~ro~lA +-IA \i'ne

L-I--- L\tre wrre(1+; r G\ )


.fh-- -\iAe - lood
~ kose vwrern-)
Phas~ ~k;r+ til 6-)' TrOV\.srorJYlers
Y- 6 co"(\ectio,,
Posif,\le I
01 n : M09lnO(_j
f'le..A ,-\01
pDV\1
I
I

,."
() .-
I "}I{\
I

I=------~ b

s. . se
UC<!'i ~1ie5 01\ . 181;1 vO ~e ~e
. . fS \eo.d, .f\D) .err Lorres o
:r::J
vO \-oje sId Q 0.::)
.ovJ
-
.. 30

I
I {'
/0

c c.

~9ort-" ve se9
CjUOI(\htes 0(\i-lAe hi~'" vol+qc:f s;ide is Ij ~f ~lt-el( (or-ep;:{\ciA"8
qlAClhtiHes 0(\ +lAe low vi)\to.:f dele \a~ 30 .

+ 30'

Vo)+oge c"klA'ations:
&lanc.eal '(.'f ~ (j:::.( Tr I

j{).1 p .~
~~I2

'l-L- \ =19921 () D Ie.. V


1Y fw.>se+D Neulro.\ 1

s~ \f?:,.'Vp , I
-tor

I .. :: S 1200 ~1 : ~ 2 .00'8 iLA

{3 V.Ph,P '{3 . 34 5 flV

no. ,c. \-ke lAf\\ S


1 00 D
12 -(3 . 645 =--t-lcos\O ''?)) J
f'tA -\~\S ~$ \'o\+ed wrret\1
2 008
for trcv,,\sfDr(Y\er
[ ~ +o.1Le t+ o..s. Ie CAS e

a. Y-'( -t\' .

=1 + ~ O .08B3t:25~4 :::: 1.D3b3-+jo.o1':>O

~ 1 . 0 33 /4 .139 0 fe(' lA(\\ +


b . j - y +rOV\s.forMer

JO.1 ~ I2 ==-t)'~333/-25.84

,v~
l' fl' 6
.....-------..I V2 => 1/ O~
-_--.:..~ I t2-4-1
1.
. e d 30 2. .::: V2.
-d30 0

- 1 .:: e . V2- ::: 1 /- 3 0 per W\ i t

_~30
I1 =- e '2::: 0 .g333 /-25.24 - 30 =- 083:53 I 5!j8l.[ 0

Xe~ p,\.,( .
~ 0

V1 :: {:-1 + tlJ d 0. 1 :: 1 L -30 +j 0 . 1 (0.&335 /-55.84 )

V.\ ::: 1 . 03 9 L- 25. 2;~1 0 per VJ\ tt

b collnec.+e J} i(\ one plAo.se V~se = 13 8; / V3


p ltotse ~o neu trc, I
~\ 4-\A e tow vO l-be e WI\f\~\f\9S

V-1 reD\ I :::: V" p. LA )( Vbo.s e


V1fC\ \ :: -1,0 ~9 ./-ZS. 861 v ~3. 8-., ::: 8 . 'L-=}8 L- 2 5 . ?!j1 ~ V
0

v3