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MA4002: Tutorial 1

Tuan Tran

Office: N3.2-02-29
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email: ttran@ntu.edu.sg
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phone: 9673 6782
Copyright 2014 Tuan Tran
Question 1
What is adiabatic flow? Using the second law of thermodynamics, how
would entropy change along an adiabatic flow?

Adiabatic flow is the one that does not involve heat transfer, i.e.,
there is no heat added or taken away from the flow

Entropy should increase

q
ds =0
T

)ds 0
Question 2
Five kilograms of air is cooled in a closed tank from 250 to 50 oC. The
initial pressure is 3 MPa. Compute the changes in entropy, internal
energy, and enthalpy. Show the process state points on a Ts diagram.

p1 = 3 106 Pa T2 = (50 + 273) K

T1 = (250 + 273) K
Question 2 M = 5 kg
T2 = (50 + 273) K
T1 = (250 + 273) K
p2 , S, U, H?
p1 = 3 MPa

Assumptions: 1) Ideal gas. 2) Constant specific heats

Basic equations:

T2 p2
p = RT s = cp ln R ln
T1 p1
u=c T h = cp T

Available constants for air:

J J J cp
cp = 1004 , c = 717.4 , R = 287 , k= = 1.4
kg K kg K kg K c
Question 2 M = 5 kg
T2 = (50 + 273) K
T1 = (250 + 273) K
p2 , S, U, H?
p1 = 3 MPa

From ideal gas equation (tank has constant volume)

p2 T2 T2
= ) p2 = p1 = 1.85 MPa
p1 T1 T1

From Gibbs equation



T2 p2 J
s = cp ln R ln = 346
T1 p1 kg K

J
S=M s= 1729
K
Question 3 M = 5 kg
T2 = (50 + 273) K
T1 = (250 + 273) K
p2 , S, U, H?
p1 = 3 MPa

From constant specific heats - to calculate internal energy change

kJ
u = c (T2 T1 ) = 143
kg

U =M u= 717 kJ
Question 3 M = 5 kg
T2 = (50 + 273) K
T1 = (250 + 273) K
p2 , S, U, H?
p1 = 3 MPa

From constant specific heats - to calculate enthalpy change

kJ
h = cp (T2 T1 ) = 201
kg

H=M h= 1004 kJ
Question 3 M = 5 kg
Show the process
T1 = (250 + 273) K state points on a Ts
p1 = 3 MPa diagram.

T1 = 523 K
Ts diagram T2 = 323 K
s= 1729 J/K
Question 3 M = 5 kg
Show the process
T1 = (250 + 273) K state points on a Ts
p1 = 3 MPa diagram.

T1 = 523 K
Ts diagram T2 = 323 K
s= 1729 J/K
Question 3
Air is contained in a piston-cylinder device. The temperature of the air is
100 oC. Using the fact that for a reversible process the heat transfer q =
Tds, compare the amount of heat (J/kg) required to raise the
temperature of the air to 1200 oC at (a) constant pressure and (b)
constant volume. Plot the process on a Ts diagram.

T1 = (100 + 273) K T2 = (1200 + 273) K

q = T ds
Question 3
Air is contained in a piston-cylinder device. The temperature of the air is
100 oC. Using the fact that for a reversible process the heat transfer q =
Tds, compare the amount of heat (J/kg) required to raise the
temperature of the air to 1200 oC at (a) constant pressure and (b)
constant volume. Plot the process on a Ts diagram.

Available constants for air:

J J J cp
cp = 1004 , c = 717.4 , R = 287 , k= = 1.4
kg K kg K kg K c
Question 3
For constant pressure process

Use the Gibbs equation for enthalpy (and constant cp)

T ds = dh dp
dh cp dT
) ds = =
T T

Because it is given that q = Tds, thus:

Z
q = cp dT ) q = cp dT
kJ
) q = cp (T2 T1 ) = 1104
kg
Question 3
For constant volume process

Use the Gibbs equation for internal energy (and constant cv)

T ds = du p d
du c dT
) ds = =
T T

Because it is given that q = Tds, thus:

Z
q = c dT ) q = c dT
kJ
) q = c (T2 T1 ) = 789
kg
Question 3
Compare two processes on Ts diagram

Why the constant volume line is on top???


Example: Constant property lines on Ts diagram

For an ideal gas, find in the Ts plane the equations for lines of
constant (specific) volume

constant pressure

Recall from lecture


Example: Constant property lines on Ts diagram

Constant (specific) volume lines on Ts plane

Constant volume

Recall from lecture


Example: Constant property lines on Ts diagram

Constant pressure lines on Ts plane

Constant pressure

Recall from lecture


Example: Constant property lines on Ts diagram

Since cp > cv, the CV line is on top of CP line if starting from


the same point

Constant volume

Constant pressure

Why the constant volume line is on top???


Question 4 p1 = 0.1 106 Pa T1 = (20 + 273) K

A tank contains 1 m3 of air at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 20 oC. The tank is
pressurized to 2 MPa. Assuming that the tank is filled adiabatically and
reversibly, calculate the final temperature of the air in the tank.

p2 = 2 106 Pa
Question 4
A tank contains 1 m3 of air at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 20 oC. The tank is
pressurized to 2 MPa. Assuming that the tank is filled adiabatically and
reversibly, calculate the final temperature of the air in the tank.

Tank is filled adiabatically & reversibly

Tank is filled isentropically

Using Gibbs equation for isentropic ideal gas to relate pressure


and temperature:

kk 1
p2
T2 = T 1 = 689.9 K
p1
Question 5 = 0.5 kg3 /s
m V1 = 0

Air enters a turbine in a steady flow at 0.5 kg/s with negligible velocity.
Inlet conditions are 1300 oC and 2.0 MPa (absolute). The air is expanded
through the turbine to atmospheric pressure. If the actual temperature
and velocity at the turbine exit are 500 oC and 200 m/s, determine the
power produced by the turbine.

T1 = (1300 + 273) K T2 = (500 + 273) K


p1 = 2 106 Pa V2 = 200 m/s
p2 = patm = 105 Pa

There is no heat exchange


between the air and the
surrounding
Question 5
Air enters a turbine in a steady flow at 0.5 kg/s with negligible velocity.
Inlet conditions are 1300 oC and 2.0 MPa (absolute). The air is expanded
through the turbine to atmospheric pressure. If the actual temperature
and velocity at the turbine exit are 500 oC and 200 m/s, determine the
power produced by the turbine.

Using Gibbs equation for isentropic ideal gas to relate pressure and
temperature:
kk 1
p2
T2 = T1 = 670 K
p1

Use conservation of energy for find work done by the air


Conservation of energy
first law of thermodynamics

Simplify the equation: Z


Q =
W ~ dA
eV ~
CS

Shaft work + Work done by normal stress + Work done by shear stress + Other work

Due to the presence of turbine, Shaft Work is non-zero

Recall from lecture


Conservation of energy
first law of thermodynamics

Energy equation without shaft work


2
2

V2 V1
Q=m h2 + h1 +
2 2

Energy equation with shaft work


V22 V12
Q W
=m
h2 + h1 +
2 2

Recall from lecture


Question 5
Air enters a turbine in a steady flow at 0.5 kg/s with negligible velocity.
Inlet conditions are 1300 oC and 2.0 MPa (absolute). The air is expanded
through the turbine to atmospheric pressure. If the actual temperature
and velocity at the turbine exit are 500 oC and 200 m/s, determine the
power produced by the turbine.

From conservation of energy: = 0 (negligible inlet velocity)


V22 V12
Q W
=m
h2 + h1 +
2 2

= 0 (no heat exchange)

h2 h1 = cp (T2 T1 )
Question 5
Air enters a turbine in a steady flow at 0.5 kg/s with negligible velocity.
Inlet conditions are 1300 oC and 2.0 MPa (absolute). The air is expanded
through the turbine to atmospheric pressure. If the actual temperature
and velocity at the turbine exit are 500 oC and 200 m/s, determine the
power produced by the turbine.

From conservation of energy:


2
= m V
)W cp (T2 T1 ) + 2
2
2
kg J 1 m
= 0.5 1004 (773 1573) K 2002 2
s kg K 2 s
kJ
= 392 = 392 kW
s

This is the rate of work that the system does on the turbine, or the
power the turbine produces
Question 6
In an isothermal (constant temperature) process, 4.7 10-5 m3 of
standard air per second is pumped into a balloon. Tension in the rubber
skin of the balloon is given by = kA, where k = 31.416 N/m3, and A is the
surface area of the balloon in m2. Compute the time required to
increase the balloon radius from 127 to 178 mm.

Q = 4.7 10 5
m3 /s
r1 = 0.127 m

r2 = 0.178 m
Question 6 Isothermal
r2 , p2
r1 , p1

For standard air at T = 15 C = 288K and patm = 101.3 103 Pa


3
T = 288 K, = 1.23 kg/m , patm = 101300 Pa
Question 6 Isothermal
r2 , p2
r1 , p1

Pressure inside the balloon

(p patm )r2 = 2r = k 4r2 2r

)p = patm + 8rk
Question 6 Isothermal
r2 , p2
p = patm + 2rk r1 , p1

For r1 = 127mm
r1 = 0.127 m ) p1 = 201.6 103 Pa

Using ideal gas equation:


p1 kg
1 = = 2.44 3
RT m

The mass at state 1

4
m1 = 1 1 = 1 r13 = 0.021 kg
3
Question 6 Isothermal
r2 , p2
p = patm + 2rk r1 , p1

Similarly, for r2 = 178mm


r2 = 0.178 m ) p2 = 242 103 Pa

Using ideal gas equation:


p2 kg
2 = = 2.93 3
RT m

The mass at state 2

4
m2 = 2 2 = 2 r23 = 0.069 kg
3
Question 6 Isothermal
r2 , p2
r1 , p1

Mass flow rate of pumping:

3
= Q = 1.23 kg/m 4.7 10
m 5
m3 /s = 5.78 10 5
kg/s

Time for pumping:

m2 m1
t= = 830 s
m

Question 7
Air at 25 oC flows at M = 1.9. Determine the air speed and the Mach
angle.
Question 7
Air at 25 oC flows at M = 1.9. Determine the air speed and the Mach
angle.

Sound velocity at 25 C:

s
p Nm m
c= kRT = 1.4 287 (25 + 273) K = 345
kg K s

Air velocity:
V m
M= ) V = M c = 655.5
c s

Mach angle:

= asin(1/M ) = 31.8
Question 8
An aircraft flies at 250 m/s in air at 28 kPa and -50 oC. Find the stagnation
pressure at the nose of the aircraft. Compute the air density in the
undisturbed air, and at the stagnation point.
Question 8
An aircraft flies at 250 m/s in air at 28 kPa and -50 oC. Find the stagnation
pressure at the nose of the aircraft.

First we find the Mach number:


s
p Nm m
c = kRT = 1.4 287 ( 50 + 273) K = 299
kg K s

V
)M = = 0.835
c

We can either use the isentropic flow table, or function to calculate


the ratio p/p0
(k 1)/k
p k 1
= 1+ M2 ) p0 = 44.2 kPa
p0 2
Question 8
An aircraft flies at 250 m/s in air at 28 kPa and -50 oC. Find the stagnation
pressure at the nose of the aircraft. Compute the air density in the
undisturbed air, and at the stagnation point.

The air density in the undisturbed air can be found by ideal gas
equation: p
=
RT

By using the isentropic flow function, we can get the density ratio,

thus compute the density at the stagnation point