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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (KDSDCm)

KOC STANDARD
FOR

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
( ONSHORE )

DOC. NO. KOC-GO03


(FORMER1Y 0 15-SH-1005)

1SSUING AUTHORIN:

STANDARDS DIVISION
DOC.NO. KOC-GOO3 I Page 2 of 36 I REV. 1 1

KOC STANDARD

FOR

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
( ONSHORE )

DOC. NO. KOC-C-003


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

SCOPE

GENERAL 1 APPLICATION

TERMINOLOGY

REFERENCE CODES AND STANDARDS

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

BASIC ENGINEERING INFORMATION

EXPLORATION PROGRAM

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

LABORATORY TESTING

HANDLING, LABELLING AND STORAGE

QUALITY ASSURANCE

DOCUMENTATION

APPENDIX -- 1
FORMAT OF DAILY EXPLORATION REPORT
SCOPE

This Standard describes the minimum requirements of an onshore geotech-


nical investigation for specific project(s) related t o the new and existing
KOC facilities in Kuwait.

This Standard is intended for general application t o geotechnical investigation


work in conjunction with the project scope in order t o ensure the qualitative
ground investigation.

The objective of this Standard is t o obtain the reliable technical data and t o
identify the characteristics of the underlying soil and ground water conditions
with an aim to produce m economic and safe design as well as t o meet tender
and construction requirements.

GENERAL / APPLICATION

The geotechnical investigation shall cover a well defined site or a particular


area of site on which the major part of the facitties is intended to be
constructed.

The geotechnical report pertaining to any particular site shall be only applicable
t o the other sites which are in the neighbourhood of the previous site and
either located not more than 150 meters away from the general area of
investigation or where the topography and ground conditions appear to have
similar features as the previous site. Neither the investigation report shall be
more than 10 years old nor the overlying ground soil shows any hydrocarbon
contamination or recent landfills.

Any exception or deviations from this Standard, along with their merits and
justification, shall be brought t o the attention of KOC's Controlling
Department, for their review, consideration and amendment by Standards
Division ( if required 1.

TERMINOLOGY

Definitions

Contractor

Person or persons, firm or company, approved by KOC, who are specialised in


undertaking all works related to geotechnical investigation.

Soil

Any natural or arficial material not dassified herein as top soil or hard
stratum.
Cohesive soil

The type of soil which because of tts fine grained content will form a
coherent mass at suitable moisture content e.g. silt ,clay.

Cohesionless soil

The type of granular soil consisting of particles which can be Mentified


individually by the naked eye or with the aid of a hand lens e.g. gravel,
sand.

Hard stratum and Obstruction

shall mean natural or artificial material including rock, which can not
be penetrated except by the use of chiselling techniques, rotary
drilling, blasting, or powered breaking tools.

the above term shall apply during boring, where it is shown that
condition ( a ) and either condition ( b ) or condition ( c ) below are
fulfilled, provided that the boring rig involved is in good working
order and is fully manned.

under conditon (a), using 150 or 200 mm diameter boring equipment,


boring can not proceed at a rate greater than 0.5 metre per hour through
the hard stratum 1 obstruction being penetrated.

under condition ( b ), 100 mm diameter undisturbed sample tubes can


not be driven more than 300 mm.

under condition ( c ), a Standard Penetration Resistance Test shows


a resistance in excess of 35 blows 1 75 mm.

Any deposits or construction which have been manmade as distinct from


geological agencies.

Boring

shall mean wash boring ,percussion boring and auger boring.

Drilling

shall mean rotary drilling techniques.


DOCNO. KOC-C-003 1 Page 6 of 36 I REV. 1

Borehole

An exploratory hole putdown by boring or drilling techniques.

Standard Penetration Test ( SPT )

The in-situ test by a spri barrel sampler ( 50 m m OD, 3 5 mm ID ) which


is driven into the base of a borehole t o a total depth of 450 m m by
63.5 kg weight falling through 760 mm height. Standard penetration test
gives the N-values which signifies the natural compactness of the soil.

N-value

At a particular depth of soil, it is the total number of blows required to


effect the last 300 mm penetration of a split barrel sampler in the Standard
penetration test ( SPT ).

California Bearing Ratio ( CBR )

The in-situ test or laboratory test which expresses the ratio ( as a percentage
% ) of the force required t o muse a circular piston of standard cross-
sectional area ( 9935 sq. mm ) t o penetrate the s o l from surface at a
constant rate of 1 m m / min., to the force required for similar penetration
into a standard sample of crushed rock . The ratio is determined at penetra-
tions of 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm.

Abbreviations

KOC Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C)

HSE Heahh , Safety and Enviornment

OD Outside Diameter

ID Inside Diameter

UDS Undisturbed Samples

DS Disturbed Samples

SPT Standard Penetration Test

CPT Cone Penetration Test

DPH Dynamic Probing Heavy


REFERENCE CODES AND STANDARDS

- In the event of conflict between this Standard and the standardslcodes


referenced herein, the most stringent requirement shall apply, unless otherwise
specified.

List of Standards and Codes

The latest ediiion of the following standards, codes and specifications shall
apply:

International Standards and Codes

BS 812 Methods of Testing Aggregates

BS 1377 Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes

- Part 1 General Requirements and Sample Preparation

- Part 2 Classification Tests

- Part 3 Chemical and Electro-chemical Tests

- Part 4 Compaction Related Tests

- Part 5 Compressibiliy, Permeability and Durability Tests

- Part 6 Consolidation and Permeability Tests in Hydraulic


Cells and with Pore Pressure Measurement

- Part 7 Shear Strength Tests ( T o t d Stress )

- Part 9 In-situ tests

BS 5930 Code of Practice for Site Investigations

BS CP1021 Code of Practice for Cathodic Protection .

ASTM D 420 Guide for Investigating and Sampling Soil and Rock

ASTM D 422 Method for Partide-She Analysis of Soils

ASTM D 427 Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils


DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 8 of 36 I REV. 1

ASTM D 854 Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soils

ASTM D 1196 Test Method for Non-repetitive Static Plate Load


Tests of Soils

ASTM D 1452 Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by


Auger Borings

ASTM D 1557 Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics


of Soil Using Modified Effort

ASTM D 1586 Method for Penetration Test and Splii- Barrel Sampling
of Soils

ASTM D 1883 Test Method for CBR ( California Bearing Ratio ) of


-
Laboratory Compacted Soils

ASTM D 2166 Test Method Of Unconfined Compressive Strength


of Cohesive Soil

ASTM D 2216 Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Moisture


Content of Soil and Rock

ASTM D 2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils


(Constant Head)

ASTM D 2435 Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation


Properties of Soils

ASTM D 2487 Test Method for Classification of Soils for Engineering


Purposes

ASTM D 2573 Test Method for Fisld Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil

ASTM D 2850 Test Method for Unconsolidated Undrained Compressive


Strangth of Cohesive Soils In Triaxial Compression

ASTM D 3080 Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under


Consolidated Drained Conditions

ASTM D 3441 Method for Deep, Quasi-Static, Cone and Friction-Cone


Penetration Tests of Soil
ASTM D 3999 Test Method for the Determination of the Modulus and
Damping Properties of Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial
Apparatus

ASTM D 4015 Test Methods for Modulus and Damping of Soils by the
Resonant-Column Method

ASTM D 4254 Test Methods for Minimum lndex Density and Unit
Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

ASTM D 4318 Test Method for LquM Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity
lndex of Soils

ASTM D 44281 Test Method for Crosshole Seismic Testing


D 4428M

ASTM D 4429 Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Soils
In Place

ASTM D 4914 Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by
the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pi

ASTM D 4972 Test Method for pH of Soils

ASTM D 5030 Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by
the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pi

ASTM D 5334 Test Method for Determination of Thermal Conductivity


of Soil and Soft Rock by Thermal Needle Probe
Procedure

ASTM G 51 Test Method for pH of Soil for Use in Corrosion Testing

ASTM 057 Method for FiiM Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using


-
the Wenner Four Electrode Method

KOC StandardslCodes

KOC Standard for Basic Design Data


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

The environment of Kuwait, is severe on all equipment and structures and


must be considered carefully before deployment of plant and equipment. It
must be assumed that, unless otherwise specified, equipment and samples
shall be protected from sand and fine particle dust storms, salt laden winds,
corrosive chemical contaminants and extreme temperatures.

KOC Standard for Basic Design Data, KOC-G-007, provides the detailed design
information regarding the environmental, site, and utility supply conditions
prevailing throughout the KOC facilities.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

The contractor shall employ all necessary health & safety procedures to
protect personnel and surrounding environment during the investigation,
sampling and other field work procedures.

All relevant safety requirements of the KOC Fire 81 Safety Regulations and the
KOC's HSE policy shall be adhered strictly to all works performed within KOC
operation areas.

BASIC ENGINEERING INFORMATION

Broadly, the general construction in KOC comprises but shall not be limited
t o the following only :-

Storage tanks on ring beam foundations or on compacted soil pad


foundations depending on tank diameters and underlying soil conditions.

Compressors and pumps on foundations under shelters ( made of


structural steel framework ) with moderate t o heavy cranes.

Separator and Desatter Vessels on skids and or foundations.

Elevated and grade pipeways and pipe supports.

Water treatment area with concrete pit.

Main Control Building ( Two storied, made of reinforced concrete 1


masonry ).
DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 11of 36 I REV. 1 I

Elevated Substation Building ( made of reinforced concrete Imasonry 1.

Utilities and Maintenance Buildings.

Flowline manifokis and shelters.

Roads and paved areas.

Elevated Flares.

Waste water and separator pits.

Pipeline Anchors.

Valve pits and valve supports.

Access platforms.

Pig launcher I receiver.

Burn IDrain pits.

Workshop & Store.

Office complex.

Hospital complex.

Amenity centres.

EXPLORATION PROGRAM

8.1 General

The scope of geotechnical investigation shall be planned on the basis of nature


and size of the project, location and the availability or the lack of any
geotechnical information about the area. It is an essential snd primary
requirement for any new area and for any important project. The investigation
may, therefore, vary from a few trial pits t o a number of exploratory boreholes
and field soundings spread over the area(s).
Location & Spacing

Depending on the type of structures ( buildings I elevated / foundation I


storage ) and equipment ( heavy I tall I vibratory ) at the she, the points of
exploration e.g. number of boreholes, soundings, pits etc. shall be so planned
as t o get the reliable indication of the general character ( geological &
geotechnical ) of the ground.

In some cases, boreholes may be iocated at positions of important structures


t o obtain more detailed information regarding engineering properties
( compressibility, shear strength, consolidation, dynamic modulus, electrical
resistivity etc.) of underlying soil and ground water conditions.

However, in absence of any laid-down rule a close spacing of approximately


25 m t o 30 m shall be considered between boreholes for structures and a
spacing of 100 m in a large site as a guideline.

Method & Depth

The methodology and depth of exploration shall be decided on the basis of


any available geotechnical information (weak I hard strata, sandy I clayey soil I
rock etc) of the area, neighbourhood site and anticipated type of foundations
( piles Iraft / spread ). Generally, exploration shall be deep enough t o reveal
series of underlying soil layers comprising materials ( sand I clay / rock ) of
varying properties ( consistency, compactness, shear strength, compressibility
etc.).

Normally, the exploration shall be done by either wash boring or percussion


boring ( shell & auger ) for an average depth of 10 m t o 20 m for non-piled
foundations and 30 m t o 40 m for pile foundations. Where rock is encountered
at shallow depth, exploration shall be continued at least for 3.0 m by rotary
drilling ( with or without core recovery ) t o ascertain the soundness of the
stratum.

For pipelines ( buried I ongrade 1, exploration by trial pits shall be considered


adequate t o determine presence of any weak and compressible soil strata at
shallow depth. The depth of tdal pits shall be atleast 1.0 m t o 2.0 m below
the invert level of the buried pipeline or below the anticipated foundation level
for the ongrade pipelines.

Large diameter pipelines ( > 24" 0 ), specially those in ground of low


bearing capacity, require special consideration.
8.4 Execution

- The geotechnical investigation shall be entrusted to an approved specialist


contractor in this field with full time engagement of a team of qualified
engineer(s1, supervisors, drillers as well as skilled laboratory supervisors who
have the adequate experience in the complete soil exploration work.

FIELD INVESTlGATlONS

The field investigations pertaining to any soil exploration work shall have the
following requirements as a minimum :-

a) Boreholes

b) Trial pits & trenches

C) Sampling

d) In-situ testing

e) Groundwater monitoring

Boreholes

General

a) Boreholes shall be made to the diameter and the scheduled depth by the
method of exploration as specified in the Contract with the collection of
samples ( UDS & DS ) and carry-out of in-situ testing. Instrumentation
for groundwater monitoring shall be as per Clause 9.5 of this Standard.

b) Normally, one of the following methods of exploration shall be employed


for the advancement of a borehole as per BS 5930 :-

i. Auger Boring ( Hand & Mechanical ).

ti. Wash Boring.

iii. Percussion Boring.

iv. Rotary Drilling.

C) Water shall not be used to assist the advance of the borehole except in
the case of dry granular soils ( sand, coarse silt ) or where approved by
DOC.NO. KOC-

the Engineer. Where the borehole penetrates below the ground water
table and disturbance of soils is likely, a positive hydraulic head shall be
maintained in the borehole.

Auger Boring

a) Hand Augers

The method of hand auger boring uses light hand-operated auger and
drill rod without any tripod and casing tube. The method can be used
in suitable self-supporting strata without hard obstructions or gravel sized
to boulder sized particles for boreholes upto 200 mm dia. to a depth
of 5 m.

b) Mechanical Augers

i. This method of boring uses normally a continous flight auger with


hollow stem or solid, with hollow stem type generally preferred as
penetration testing or t u b sampling shall be carried out through the
hollow stem.

ii. A cutting head is attached to an auger flight and with or without a


head plug depending on the soil and the hole is advanced. At the
desired depth the plug is removed ( if used ) and a penetration test
performed and or a tube sample recovered. If a plug is not used, soil
cuttings that have accumulated at the bottom have to be removed.
Auger flights are added as required and the hole is advanced to
the depth specified for the exploration.

iii. This method is applicable in all type of soils producing boreholes of


150 to 250 rnm diameter to a depth of 30 m to 50 m, althougth in
saturated sand, the sand tends to 8ow in the Lead sections of the
auger, requiring a washdown prior to sampling.

Wash Boring

a) This is one of the more common methods of advancing borehole into the
soils such as sands, silts and clays and Is normally carried out using 65
mm borehole tools and casing. The drill rig consists of a simple winch
and tripod.

b) A borehole shall be started by driving casing to a depth of 2.0 m to 3.5 m.


Casing is simply a pipe which supports the borehole from the collapse.
The casing shall be cleaned out by means of a chisel bit fastened to the
DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 15 of 3 6 I REV. 1

lower end of the drill rod. Water pumped through the drill rod rises
between the casing and drill rod carrying suspended soil particles and
overflows at the top of the casing through a T- connection into a
container, from which the effluent is recirculated back through the drill
rod. The hole is advanced by raising, rotating and dropping the bit into
the soil at the bottom of the hole. Drill rods and if necessary, casings are
added with the advancement of borehole depth. Sometimes, drilling mud
is used to prevent the caving in of the borehole sides.

C) The character and consistency of soils are determined by SPT at the top
of each stratum and at specified intervals of depth in accordance with
para 9.3.5 of this Standard.

d) This method is quite rapid for advancing boreholes in all but the very hard
soil strata.

9. 'I.4 Percussion Boring ( Shell & Auger )

a) General

This method uses a mobile rig specially designed for exploration work with
a winch of 1.0 ton to 2.0 ton capacity driven by a diesel engine and a
derrick of about 6.0 m in height. It can be used in widely varying soil
types by the use of suitable tools. The tools are operated at the
bottom of solid drill rods. The principal tools are as follows :-

i. The shell or bailer

This is an open ended cylinder with a cutting edge and flap valve at
the bottom end. It is used for advancing the hole in sands and
gravels, by alternately lifting and dropping it at the bottom of the
hole. It is also used to remove slurry from the borehole.

ii. The auger

This is commonly used for advancing the borehole in cohesive soils,


and for cleaning the bottom of the hole before sampling. It is
generally turned by hand.

iii. The chisel

A variety of pattems are available for breaking up hard materials, the


chippings being brought to the surface in the shell.
iv. The clay cutter

This is similar to the shell but without the flap valve and is used in
the same manner. It is sometimes faster than the auger in clay soils
but causes much disturbance at the bottom of the hole.

b) In a borehole where a hard stratum or obstruction is encountered, Chisell-


ling technique shall be employed for a period of upto one hour. Should
this not penetrate through the hard stratum or obstruction, rotary drilling
method shall be employed for coring the hard stratum or rock until the
stratum is proved for a sufficient depth. In case, the hard stratum be
found a thin layer and further boring be required, it shall be broken
out sufficiently to enable boring, in-situ testing and sampling to proceed.

C) The sizes of borehole casings and tools are generally 150 mm, 200 mm,
250 mm and 300 mm giving a maximum borehole depth of about 60 m
in suitable strata.

9.1.5 Rotary Drilling

a) General

The method of rotary drilling shall be used for advancement of a hole in


rock or hard stratum with or without core recovery. The drilling fluid
which is pumped down to the rotating drill bit, through hollow drill
rods, lubricates the bit and flushes the drill debris up the borehole.
The drilling fluid shall normally be clean water, air or air mist.

However, with the consent of KOC, drilling muds usually a water


solution of a thixotropic clay such as bentonite ; water with additives
such as sodium chloride ; foams ; and polymer mixtures may also be
used as flushing media.

b) Rotary drilling with core recovery

i. Types of equipment

Rotary core drilling shall be carried out by a double or triple tube


coring system incorporating a removable inner liner. The tdple tube
system may be effected by use of a double tube barrel with an
approved semi-rigid liner.
ii. Core recovery

Rotary core drilling shall produce cores of not less than the required
diameter throughout the core length and 100 % core recovery in
any single run should normally be obtained. Core recovery less than
90 % in' any drill will not normally be acceptable unless KOC
is satified that more than 90 % recovery is impracticable under
the prevailing conditions. If in the opinion of KOC more than
90 % recovery can be achieved, the Contractor, after consultation
with the KOC Engineer, shall take measures to improve the core
recovery.

iii. Drill runs

The first drill run in each hole shall not exceed 1.0 m in length.
Subsequent drill runs shall not normally exceed 3.0 m in length and
the core barrel shall be removed from the drill hole as often as is
required to obtain the best possible core recovery. The in-sftu testing
may be carried out between drill run.

iv. Precautions

All operations in recovering the cores from the borehole after


completion of drilling shall be executed in a manner so as to
minimise disturbance to the cores.

Core barrels shall be held horizontally while the innermost


liner containing the core be removed without vibration. The
top and bottom of the liner shall be marked in indelible ink
immediately after removal and the ends shall be capped and
.
sealed with adhesive tape Lmers shall be cut to the length of the
endosed core.

Each section of liner shall be marked with the Contract title,


exploratory borehole reference number, date and the depths of
the top and bottom of the drill run.

Cores shall be protected to ensure that their temperature does


not fall below 2 O C and rise above 45 O C . They shall also be
protected from direct heat and sunlight.

Cores shall be prepared for examination by the removal of


sealing materials and spliiing of liners in such a way as not to
damage the cores. Plastic liners shall be cut lengthwise such
that atleast half the core circumference is exposed.
C) Rotary drilling without core recovery

Rotary open hole ( full hole ) or rotary percussive drilling may be used to
advance hole of specified diameter in weak rock. In this method, the
drill bi cuts all the materials within the diameter of the borehole.

Backfill

All boreholes, after completion of work shall be backfilled with the arisings
(soil cuttings) in such a way as to minimise subsequent depression at the
ground surface due t o settlement of the backfill. In some circumstances,
special infilling with cement / bentonite grout unless otherwise instructed may
be required.

P i s & Trenches

General

a) P i s and trenches shall usually be made at shallow depths in the existing


plant t o locate the utility services below ground, t o inspect the top
soil layers for lightly loaded foundations ( new / old ) or to ascertain the
depth of soil from any contaminants like hydrocarbon etc. For new
area(s1 pits at shallow or deeper depths shall be made to ascertain the
suitability of site(s1 from landfills, contaminated soils, ground water
level prior t o any detailed site investigation.

b) Generally, pits and trenches are of following type :-

i. Shallow trial pits and trenches.

ii. Observation pits and trenches.

iii. Inspection pits.

C) Unless otherwise mentioned in the Contract, the general dimensions


of pits and trenches shall be followed as below :-

i. Trial pits and observation pits shall have a minimum base area of 1.5
sq. metre.

ii. Trenches shall be 1.O m wide.


9.2.2 Types

Shallow trial pits & trenches

Shallow trial pits and trenches shall be excavated by hand t o a maximum


depth of 1.5 m t o enable visual examination and sampling from outside
the pit or trench. Trial pits or trenches deeper than 1.5 m shall not be
entered by personnel without observing safety rules against side collapse,
bottom heaving etc.

Observation pits & trenches

Observtion pits and trenches deeper than 1.5 m shall be excavated by


hand or by machine t o the required depth and shall be adequately
supported t o enable personnel to enter safely and t o permit in-situ
examination, soil sampling and testing as required.

Inspection pits

lnspection pits for the location of underground services shall be excavated


by hand t o a depth of 1.5 m unless otherwise specified elsewhere.
Hand-operated power tools may be used t o assist excavation wherever
necessary. The positions, depths and dimensions of all services
encountered shall be measured and recorded in the daily reports.

9.2.3 Precautions

a) Proper precautions shall be considered t o prevent sudden collapse of


sides for any unsupported pit. Temporary frames of timbers or steel
sections shall be installed for pits in weak soils or for pits deeper than
5.0 m in hard soils.

b) All pits and trenches shall be kept free of surface water run-off. Ground-
water shall be controlled by pumping from a sump t o permit continous
work in so far as the rate of inflow of groundwater can be controlled by
use of a 50 mm outlet diameter pump and the excavation remains stable.

9.2.4 Backfilling

Backfilling of pits and trenches shall be carried out as soon as possible with
the same or similar materials encountered. The backfilling shall be compacted
t o 90 % of Proctor's dry density at optimum moisture content or in such a
manner t o avoid any depression at the ground surface. In paved areas,
the reinstatement shall be done as per the original paving.

9.2.5 Protection t o pits & trenches

Where pits and trenches are required t o be left open for a period, proper
fencing shall be provided with all necessary lighting and signing.

9.3 Sampling

9.3.1 General

a) Large number of samples shall be extracted from the soil layers with the
advancement of boreholes for visual examination and various laboratory
testing to determine the engineering properties of soils and log the soil
profile within the scheduled borehole.

b) Depending on the ground conditions ( sand, day or rock ), suitable


sampling techniques shall be employed t o obtain variety of quality
samples in disturbed ( DS 1 and undisturbed ( UDS ) conditions for
appropriate laboratory tests.

C) The following Class of sample quality is given in Table I in accordance


with BS 5930 :-

-
ABLE I
Sample
-
Quality
Class 1

omation & Consolidation

Class 2 Open tube , Fiston UDS Classification ; Moisture content ;


81Sand samplers ( 1 1 m s b
Class 3 Auger , Clay cutter , DS Clasdtication ; Moisture content
SPT samplers ( 1 1 ( Dry condition )
Class 4 Auger, Clay cutter, DS Classification
SPT samplers ( 1 1 (Wet condition 1
Class 5 Wash boring ,Shell , DS None ( srqwtnce of strata only 1
Rotary drilling (Wet condition 1

NOTE f 1 I :- Con,samples vary from C k s 2 to Clss 4 4 case of rotary H n g ,&pending


on the rock structure ,skN of the operators and type of d a n g equipment.Ssmple
qua&' h other type of sds / sandy / tCny / dayey I dso depends on the umplb,r
thickness c a u s k ~disturbance to the od~lnal structun,~,sensirivny of sd
and presence of groundwater.
DOC.NO. KOCC-003 I Page 21 of 36 I REV. 1

Disturbed Samples

a) Small disturbed samples weighing not less than 0.5 kg shall be collected
from boring tools like auger, clay cutter, shell ; from drilling tools like
drill bits ; from wash borings ; and from SPT samplers. They shall be
placed immediately h non-corrodible and airtight containers which the
samples should fill with the minimum air space.

b) Bulk disturbed samples weighing not less than 10 kg shall be collected


from the excavation equipments and shall be representative of the zone
from which they have been taken where a sample is not retained in the
split barrel of standard penetration test or when the cutting shoe is
replaced by a solid cone, a bulk disturbed sample shall be taken from
the test zone.

C) Large bulk disturbed samples ( like coarse gravel ) shall weigh not less
than 30 kg.

Undisturbed Samples

a) By Open Tube & Piston Samplers

Using the sampling equipment and procedure as described in BS 5930,


the samples in undisturbed conditions of class 1 & 2 shall be collected
by thin-walled & open tube and piston samplers from the soil layers
such as silt and clay including sensitive clay. The diameter shall be
100 mm unless otherwise mentioned in the Contract.

b) By Sand Samplers

The samplers shall be driven by using static thrust into sandy layers below
watertable to collect undisturbed tube samples of sand generally in
condition of class 2. The diameter of samples shall be 60 mm.

Sampling Proceedure

a) Before an open tube or piston sample is taken, the bottom of the hole
shall be carefully cleared of loose materials and where a casing is being
used the sample shall be taken below the bottom of the casing.
Following a break in the work exceeding one hour, the borehole shall be
advanced by 250 mm before open tube or piston sampling is resumed.
Where an attempt t o take an open tube or piston sample is unsuccessful,
the hole shall be cleaned out for the full depth t o which the sampling
tube has penetrated and the recovered solid saved as a bulk disturbed
sample. A fresh attempt shall then be made from the level of the base
of the unsuccessful attempt. In case, this second attempt also prove
unsuccessful, the contractor shall find ahernative means of sampling.

The samples shall be sealed immediately t o preserve their natural


moisture content and in such a manner as t o prevent the sealant from
entering any voids in the sample.

Groundwater samples shall be taken from each exploratory hole where


groundwater is encountered. Where water has been added previously,
hole shall be baled out before sampling so that only groundwater is
present. The sample volume shall not be less than 0.25 iitre.

Samples of contaminated ground and groundwater by hydrocarbon,


(if required), shall be extracted and preserved in strict adherence t o KOC
Fire & Safety regulations and KOC HSE policy. However, extreme care
shall be taken when boring or excavating to investigate hydrocarbon
contamination caused by leakages from storage tanks or pipelines.
Petroleum vapours are particularly hazardous and flammable between
1 % and 7 % by volume in air. Where hydrocarbon contamination is
likely t o present, suitable monitoring equipment shall be installed or be
available at site as instructed by the KOC Engineer.

9.3.5 Frequency of Sampling

The frequency of sampling and in-situ testing is dependent on the ground


conditions. Unless otherwise specifically mentioned in the Contract ,the
intervals shall be observed as follows :-

a) In boreholes

i. first open tube sample ( generally in clay soils ) or standard penetration


test ( SPT ( generally in granular soils ) at 0.5 m depth, the next
at 1.0 m depth, thereafter 1.0 m intervals t o 5.0 m depth, then at
1.5 m intervals.

ii. small disturbed samples shall be taken from topsoil, at each change
in soil type or consistency and midway between successive open
tube samples or SPTs.

iii. bulk disturbed samples shall be taken of each soil type.


b) In pits and trenches

i. small disturbed samples shall be taken of the topsoil, at each change


in sot type or consistency and between successive bulk disturbed
samples.

ii. bulk disturbed samplss shrrll be taken at 1.0 m with atleast one
large bulk disturbed samples of each soil type.

C) Any special sampling, if required, shall be carried out in accordance with


BS 5930 under onsite supervision of the Contractor's Geotechnical
Engineer and as instructed by the KOC Engineer-in- charge.

Recording

The depths below ground level at which samples are taken shall be recorded
in the borehole log. For open tube and piston samples, the depth to the
bottom and bottom of the samples, and the length of sample obtained shall be
noted. For bulk samples, the limits of the sampled zbne shall be recorded.

Labelling , Protection & Transportation of Samples

Samples shall be labelled, protected, transported and disposed in accordance


with Clause 11.0 of this Standard.

In-situ Testing

General

a) All load, displacement or other measuring equipment to be used in the


testing shall be properly calibrated In accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions. Evidence of calibration and copies of calibration charts shall
be supplied to the Engineer prior to commencing work and when other-
wise requested.

b) The following information for each test record shall be included in the
daily report, preliminary b g and factual report :-

i. date of test

ii. project name, exploratory borehole number & bcation

iii. depth and location of test or depths covered by tests, together with
reduced levels on preliminary logs and in the factual report
iv. information on groundwater levels in exploratory borehole during
testing

v. original ground level at test site

vi. soil type and descriptions as visually identified from the samples.

Types of In-situ Tests

The following in-situ tests shall be carried out and reported in accordance with
BS Codes or equivalent ASTM Standards mentioned in para 4.2 of this
Standard :

a) In-sku density tests

i. Sand replacement method suitable for fine- and medium- grained


soils ( small pouring cylinder method )......as per BS1377 (Part 9) 1
ASTM D 4914.

ii. Sand replacement method suitable for fine, medium- and coarse-
....
grained soils ( large pouring cylinder method ). .as per BS 1377
(Part 9) I ASTM D 4914.

iii. Water replacement method suitable for coarse-grained soils ....as


per BS1377 (Part 9) l ASTM D 5030.

iv. Core cutter method suitable for cohesive soils free from coarse-
grained materials ...................as per BS1377 (Part 9).

b) In-situ penetration tests

i.
.
Determination of the penetration resistance by the standard
penetration test ( SPT ) using split barel sampler
6S1377 (Part 9) I ASTM D 1586.
...........
as per

ii. Determination of the penetration resistance by the static cone


penetration test ( CPT ) , using fixed 60 Dutch cone with friction
sleeve .........
as per BS1377 (Part 9) I ASTM D 3441.

iii. Determination of the dynamic probing resistace by the dynamic


probing( DPH or DPSH), using 90cone ....as per BS1377(Part 9).
C) In-situ vertical deformation and strength tests

i. Determination of the vertical deformation and strength character-


istics of soil by the Plate Loading test ....as per BS 1377 (Part 9)
IASTM D 1196.

ii. Determination of the settlement characteristics of soil for lightly


loaded foundations by the shallow pad maintained load test ......
...
as per BS 1377 (Part 9 ).

iii. Determination of the in-situ California Bearing Ratio ( CBR ) ........


....as per BS 1377 ( Part 9 ) 1ASTM D 4429.

iv. Determination of in-situ vane shear strength of weak intact


cohesive soils .........as per BS 1377 ( Part 9 ) / ASTM D 2573.

d) In-situ permeability tests

i. Constant head method .................... as per 8S 5930.


ii. Variable ( Falling ) head method ........ as per BS 5930.

e) In-situ dynamic modulus (G & E) of soil by Cross-hole Seismic method


.............
as per ASTM D 4428 IASTM D 4428M.

f) In-situ corrosivity tests

i. Determination in-situ of the apparent (electrical) resistivity of soil


using the Wenner Four-Electrode Method ............
as per BS 1377
( Part 9 ) / ASTM G 57.

ii. Determination in-situ of the redox potential of sail ........... as per


BS1377(Part9). ( Note1 )

N O E ( 1 ) : - b o b x patentiel ( r s d ~ n / ~ a t of h /saU h pnpnnaiaein).related to the


.
Oxygen h the sd The Iwgh vekre hchbates that a ruhtidy brge a w n t of
O w n is present. The test hdkates the rskefiw of ~ t v canoskn ~ d of
metals by -hate r;sduc~i,gb8ctsnk, w M h can pr&erate in .n%erobric
amditkns. Anmrobk mricrodnbl ~ ~ n o s r i ocan
n occur if so# has a k w
Oxygen content and hence a k w rsdoJr potent/sl.
I DOCNO. KOC-GOO3 I Page 26 of 36 I REV. 1 I

9.4.3 Application

a) Normally, the in-situ testing and sampling pertaining to the field


identification of soils, relative density 1 consistency and stratal
character shall be carried out in each exploratory hole as routine
investigations for the type of ground as given in Table I :-

TABLE I

Clayey sand Replacement


ii. Clayey silt 1 Silty clay 1 SPT , CPT or DPH or DPSH , CBR , Plate
I Sandy clay I Load , Vane shear , Water Replacement ,
Core cutter
iii. Gravelly soil SPT , CPT or DPH or DPSH

b) Special techniques of sampling and in-situ testing shall be followed


in accordance with BS 5930 for certain type of ground given
below in Table II :-

TABLE II

9.5 Groundwater Monitoring

9.5.1 Groundwater Measurement

a) When groundwater is encountered in s borehole, the depth from ground


level of the point of entry shall be recorded together with depth of any
casing. Borehole operations shall be stopped and the depth from ground
level to water level recorded with an approved instrument at 5 minute
intervals for a period of 20 minutes. If at the end of the p e h d of 20 min
the water level is still rising, unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer,
this shall be recorded together with the depth to water below ground level
and the borehole shall then be continued.

b) Ifcasing is used and this forms a seal against the entry of groundwater,
the contractor shall record the depth of casing at which no further entry
or only insignificant infihration of water occurred.

C) Water leveb shall be recorded at the beginning and end of each shift
or other rest periods during the work.

d) On each occasion when groundwater is recorded, the depth of any casing


and the time shall also be recorded.

Installations

Simple standpipes to determine the general water level in the ground and
standpipe piezometers to monitor the water pressure within a particular
stratum shall be installed in a borehole as instructed by the KOC Engineer.
All dimensions and depths shall be recorded at the time of installation.

Piezometers of the hydraulic ,electrical or pneumatic type shall be used


as described in BS 5930 unless otherwise specified elsewhere.

Top of a standpipe or piezometer shall be protected by timber fencing


which shall comprise atleast three wooden stakes, 75 m m square, firmly
embedded in the ground, crossbraced and projecting 1.0 m above the
ground.

Readings

Daily readings of depths t o water in standpipes and piezometers shall be made


by the contractor with an approved instrument during the fieldwork period
or as directed by the KOC Engineer.

LABORATORY TESTING

General

In addition to in-situ fieid tests, laboratory tests shall be conducted on the


collected samples ( DS 1 UDS from the boreholes t o identify and classify
the soils as well as t o determine the physical, mechanical and chemical
properties for proper use in the design and construction.
-
Calibration of b a d displacement or other measuring equipment shall be
carried out in accordance with the appropriate British standards and the
manufacturer's recommendations. Evidence of current calibrations shall be
supplied to the Company whenever requested.

All tests shall be made under the supervision of the qualified laboratory
xpervisors having experience in geotechnical testing and under the overall
guidance of the contractor's senior Geotechnical Engineer in charge of the
investigation.

Test Requirements

All tests shall be carried out in accordance with BS 1377 and other relevant
BS codes 81 standards or equivalent ASTM standards to meet the following
requirements unless otherwise mentioned :-

Soil Classification Tests

a) Determination of moisture content & porosity ... as per BS1377 ( Part 2 ) I


ASTM D 2216.

b) Determination of Atterberg limits ( Liquid 1 Plastic limits & Plasticity Index )


................................
as per BS 1377 ( Part 2 ) I ASTM D 4318.

C) Determination of shrinkage limit .....as per BS1377( Part 2 ) 1ASTM D427.


d) Determination of specific gravity .....as per BS1377( Part 2 )I ASTM D854.

el Determination of particle sue distribution ( by sieve analysis & sedimen-


tation)................. as p e r BS 1377 ( Part 2 ) 1ASTM D 422.

Soil Chemical Tests

a) Determination of the organic matters ...............as per BS1377 ( Part 3 ).

b) Determination of the sulphate content of soil & groundwater ......... as per


BS1377 ( Part 3 ).

C) Determination of the carbonate content.. ... as per BS1377 ( Part 3 ).

d) Determination of the chloride content.. ...... as per BS1377 ( Part 3 ).


e) Determination of the pH value ........as per BS1377(Part 3)IASTM D4972.
f) Determination of sulphide content ( H2S ).

g) Determination of oil contamination in soil ( Polyarornatic hydrocarbon or


contractor to specify the appropriate test ).

Soil Compaction Tests

a) Determination of dry density of soil on site ....as per BS1377 ( Part 4 1 I


ASTM D 4254.

b) Determination of dry density I moisture content relationship ...... as per


BS1377 ( Part 4 1 ASTM D 1557.

C) Determination of relative density of cohensionless soils.. ....... as per


E l 3 7 7 ( Part 4 ) / ASTM D 4254.

Pavement Design Test

a) Determination of California Bearing Ratio ( CBR ) ......... as per BS 1377


/ ASTM D 1883.
( Part 4 )

Soil Strength Tests

a) Determination of shear strength by direct shear ( sandy soil ) ........as per


BS 1377 ( Part 7 ) I ASTM D 3080.

b) Determination of the unconfined compressive strength (cohesive soil) .....


as per BS 1377 ( Part 7 ) 1 ASTM D 2166.

C) Determination of the unconsolidated undrained compressive strength of


cohesive soils in Triaxial compression test .......
as per BS1377 ( Part 7 ) I
ASTM D 2850.

Soil Deformation Tests

a) Determination of elastic modulus by unconsolidated undrained Triaxial


compression test ...........
as per BS 1377 ( Part 7 ) l ASTM D 2850.

-
b) Oedorneter test ( one dimensional consdidation test 1 ............. as per BS 1377
( Part 5 ) I ASTM D 2435.
DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 1 Page 30 of 36 I REV. 1

Soil Dynamic Test

a) Determination of the dynamic modulus and damping properties of soils


( by resonant column method ) ....................
as per ASTM D 4015.

Soil Permeability Tests

a) Determination of permeability by the constant head method ..............


..........
as per BS 1377 ( Part 5 ) I ASTM D2434.

Soil Conosivii Tests

a) Determination of electrical resistivity ............as per BS 1377 ( Part 3 1.


b) Determination of redox potential ................ as per BS 1377 ( Part 3 1.

Soil Thermal Test

a) Determination of thermal resistivity by Thermal Needle Probe ......as per


ASTM D 5334.

HANDLING , LABELLING AND STORAGE

Samples ( DS & UDS ) collected from the samplers and boring I drilling
equipment shall be handled with such care at site as to cause no or minimum
disturbance to their natural state.

Samples shall be dearly labelled, coded and protected in accordance with BS


5930. Samples of fill and contaminated ground or groundwater suspected t o
be hazardous shall be tagged specially with a red label.

Small samples shall be preserved in the air-tight, non-corrodible and durable


containers, whereas bulk samples shall be kept tight in robust containers or
plastic sacks so that the natural moisture content can be maintained until
tested in the laboratory.

Undisturbed samples in tube samplers or liners shall be sealed with 25 rnm


.
thick plugs of microcrystalline wax at both ends The sample containers shall
be numbered, labelled and crated carefully t o prevent damage during transit.

All samples shall be protected t o ensure that their temperature does neither
rise above 45OC nor fall below 2OC. They shall also be protected from direct
exposure t o heat and sunlight.
Samples shall be kept for a period of 28 days after approval of the final report.
After this time, the contractor shall seek the permission from the Company
for their complete or part disposal.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

The contractor shall operate quality system to ensure that the requirements of
this Standard are achieved. The quality system shall preferably be based
on IS0 9000 series of Standards and the contractor shall demonstrate
compliance by providing a copy of the accredited certificate or the
contractor's quality manual. Verification of contractor's quality system is
normally part of the prequalification procedure, and Is therefore not detailed
in the core text of this Standard.

DOCUMENTATION

General

All correspondence, instructions, daily reports, interim 81 final reports,


exhibits, drawings, design calculations and any other written information
shall be in English language.

All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants, etc. shall be in


standard SI units unless otherwise specified.

Geotechnical Reports

Daily Exploration Reports

a) The contractor shall prepare for eaqh borehole a daily exploration report
which shall be submitted to the KOC Engineer at the begining of the
next working day.

b) All relevant information related to the geotechnical investigation shall be


recorded with the progress of work and shall be submitted in an agreed
format of daily exploration report , a sample of which is shown in
Appendix -1.

Interim Reports

a) Preliminary bgs of each exploratory borehole shall be prepared by the


contractor using an agreed proforma to incorporate all the relevant
information from the daily reports with SPT results and groundwater level.
DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 3 2 of 36 I REV. 1 1
It shall be submitted to the Engineer in duplicate duly signed by the
contractor's supervisor within five ( 5 ) days of completion of the
explorations.

b) Whhin seven ( 7 ) days of completion of the laboratory testing, an interim


factual report shall be issued for Company review containing the following
as a minimum :-

Summary of investigations with preliminary condusions and recomm-


endations.

Ti. Scope of the investigation with brief description of methodology for


exploration, sampling techniques etc. with emphasis on any special
problems, if encountered at site.

iii. Description of soil nature, geotechnical characteristics, SPT and


laboratory test interpretations explaining general behaviour and
strength & deformation properties of soils.

Borehole logs t o be in the same form as the preliminary bgs,


presented to a suitable vertical scale with all relevant information
from the daily reports and with such information having been
updated in light of laboratory testing and further examination of
samples and cores. Logs shall be represented by symbolic legend of
strata in accordance with BS 5930 .
v. Results of all in-sku tests.

vi Results of all laboratory tests.

vii. Soil classifications and gradings of each stratum as per the British
Soil Classification System for Engineering Purposes ( BSCS ) of
BS 5930 or as per the Unified Soil Classification System ( USCS )
of ASTM D 2487.

viii, Recommended allowable bearing capacities of soil for a range of


varying foundation shes.

ix. Predicted range of settlements.

X. Drawings showing site location plan, borehole 81 pit bcations,


piezometers and other feld tests outside borehole 1 pit.
DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 33 of 36 I REV. 1

13.2.3 Final Report

a) The final report shall be issued by the contractor for Company approval
within two weeks after receipt of the comments on the interim report and
shall include the following as a minimum :-

i. Executive summary, conclusions and recommendations.

ii. Scope of investigation work, description of exploration methods and


sampling techniques etc.

iii. Description of soil nature, geotechnical characteristics, SPT and


laboratory test interpretations explaining general behaviour and
strength & deformation properties of soils.

iv. Appraisal of the field and laboratory results with relevance to


foundation design and construction.

v. Recommended type of foundation with reference to corrosive


attack of soil / groundwater on concrete and other construction
materials.

vi. Recommended safe bearing pressweb) of the ground and expected


range of settlements based on varying depths 81 widths of footings
( to be supported by necessary design calculations ).

vii. Recommended type & capacity of piles if required due to ground


conditions ( to be supported by design calculations ).

viii. Recommended limits of differential settlements under storage tanks


of different diameters and any advice, if necessary, for ground
improvement work.

ix. Recommended dynamic modulus of shear 81elasticity and Poisson's


ratio for vibrating equipment foundation design.

X. Recommended compaction criteria and method of compaction of


onsite excavated materials for structural fills.

xi. Recommended criteria of slope stability for' bundwall, embankment


and of any protective work against erosion.

xii. Recommended CBR values for roadways and paved areas.


xiii. Values of cohesion ( c ) & angle of internal friction ( 0 ).

xiv. Co-efficient of sliding friction for concrete to soil.

xv. Co-efficient of lateral earth pressure.

xvi. Modulus of subgrade reaction of soil.

xvii. Recommended permeability values for drainage.

xviii. Recommended electrical resistivity of soils in ohm centimetres for


equipment earthing and cathodic protection design.

xix. Recommended thermal resistivity of soils in degree centigrade metre


per watt to determine derating factors for power cables.

xx. Recommended quality control procedure for earthwork construction


with tests t o be used in field I laboratory.

b) The Exhibits shall contain the following as a part of the report :-

i. Borehole logs with SPT results & sampling points.

ii. In-situ test results with graphs ( Plate load, CPT, DPH etc.).

iii. In-situ permeability test results for groundwater levels.

iv. Laboratory test results ( chemical, triaxial, direct shear, unconfined


compression, consolidation etc. ).

v. Plasticity charts and grading curves for soil classifications.

vi. Location plan of boreholes I pits and field tests.

vii. Site location plan.


DOC.NO. KOC-C-003 I Page 35 of 36 I REV. 1

APPENDIX -1

14.0 FORMAT OF DAILY EXPLORATION REPORT

Prepared by ........................................ Checked 'by..........................................Date..........................


Project No. ........................................ Contract No. ..........................................................................
Contractor's Name ............................................................................................................................
Location .................................................. Borehole No. ...................................................................
Date of Commencement .......................... l i m e .......................AM IPM Temperature ..............OC
Date of Completion .............................. l i m e .......................AM IPM Temperature ..............OC

9. Exploration Details

Type : 0 Auger Boring Wash Boring Shell & Auger Boring 0 Rotary Drilling
Others
Borehole : Dia .....................mm Length....................mm Total Boring Time...............
Pit ITrench : Length ...............mm Width .....................mmDepth ....................mm
Ground Level ..............................................................m
Groundwater Level .......................................................m
Water if added during boring ............. Yes No
Depth of water ( if yes ) ...............................................m
Cadng ( i f used 1 : Dia. ............................mm Depth .....................mm
Drilling fluid ( if used 1 ; Type ................................ Cdour .....................
Quantity ( approx. ) ........................................cubic cm.
Core barrel & bits ( if used ) : Type .......................... Dia. ........................mm
Core runs ................................. mm

B. Borehole Details

Total No of strata : ...................


Depth of hard stratum .............................m
Strata # 1 : Type of soil ......................................................................
Depth of strata ..............................................................m
N values at depth m ............. .....................................Nos
.............. .................................. Nos
at depth m

Strata # N : Type of soil .......................................................................


b p t h of strata ...............................................................m
N values at depth ....................m ...............................Nos
at depth ...................m ...............................Nos.

Xmes 0' clock spent on penetration ...........................min.


Chiding ( if required 1 Yes 0 No
Depth ( H yes 1 ...............................mm

Drilling ( if required Yes 0 No


Depth ( if yes ...............................mm
Remarks :
FORMAT OF DAILY EXPLORATION REPORT ( contd. )

Sampling Details

Sample Type Disturbed Undisturbed 0 Cores

Disturbed samples : Sampling condition 0 Dry 0 Wet


Equipment type ............................................................................
Strata # 1 : Depth .................... m Sample No. .................
Depth .................... m Sample No. .................
Strata # 2 : Depth ................... m Sample No. ..................
Depth ................... m Sample No. ..................
Strata # N : Depth .................... m Sample No. ................

Undisturbed samples : Sampling condition 0 Dry Wet


Sampling equip. ............................................. .Dia... .............mm
Strata # 1 : Depth ...........................m Reqd. Blows ........ Nos.
Sample Length ..............mm Sample No. ...............
Strata # 2 : Depth ...........................m Reqd. Blows...........Nos.
Sample Length ..............mm Sample No. ..............
Strata # N : Depth ...........................m Reqd. Blows ....... Nos.
Sample Length .............mm Sample No. ...........
Core Samples Sampling condition Dry 0 Wet Depth ................... mm
Sampling equip. ....................................... Core Dia. ............. mm
Total core recovery ............. % Solid core recovery ............. %
Liner length .........................mm Sample No. ............................

Other Field Tests

Test Type CPT 0 DPH 1 DPSH Plate Load Vane Shear


0 Corrosivity Tests Permeability Tests

Test Details .................................................. as per BS 1377 81 BS 5930 or equivalent ASTM

Recorded by

Name ...........................................
Signature ..........................................

Remarks :