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w w w . i i fi i r . o r g

Review

Michel Feidt*

Henri Poincare University, ENSEM e LEMTA 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye 54516 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, France

Dedicated to Professor Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c.mult. Karl Stephan on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

Article history: A review of reverse cycle machines thermodynamics is proposed. It is shown how starting

Received 19 April 2010 from equilibrium thermodynamics at the beginning, a new appraisal was proposed since

Received in revised form 1980, and developed until now. Particular emphasis is put on vapour compression reverse

14 July 2010 machines (mainly refrigerating machines and heat pumps), but also on three or quad-

Accepted 15 July 2010 rithermal configurations, that appear as the most promising alternative to vapour

Available online 29 July 2010 compression machines today. However other machines alternatives are considered

shortly. The main features of this review are: the usefulness of thermodynamics to develop

Keywords: more significant upperbounds for various optimization criterions concerning reverse cycle

Modelling machines and their possible interrelation. The importance of irreversibilities in charac-

Optimisation terization of reverse cycle machines is enlighten too. Complementary studies are proposed

Thermodynamics in the field of exergoeconomy and environmental concern.

Reverse cycle 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Review

synthe`se

Mots cles : Modelisation ; Optimisation ; Thermodynamique ; Cycle inverse ; Synthe`se

efficiency introduced by Carnot is slightly different from the

The Thermodynamics is traditionally a useful tool for engine one. It is named Coefficient of Performance (COP), and

modelling reverse cycle machines. The first attempt is related in many cases, it is greater than 1: if the Carnot reverse cycle is

to equilibrium thermodynamics, and corresponds to the considered, it comes in the equilibrium conditions, where the

E-mail address: michel.feidt@ensem.inpl-nancy.fr.

0140-7007/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2010.07.016

1328 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

RF refrigerator

3 heat exchanger effectiveness

S (s) source, sink, entropy (reduced)

q reduced temperature gradient

t time

D increment

T (t) temperature (reduced) (K)

b intermediate variable

TEWI total equivalent global warming potential

a intermediate variable

_ Cp) (W K1) Ue useful effect

c_ heat rate (M

w0 auxiliary reduced power

Q_ (q) heat flux (reduced) (W)

X (x) temperature gradient (reduced)

w _ (w) mechanical power (reduced) (W)

z intermediate variable

A (a) area (reduced) (m2)

COP coefficient of performance Index

E efficiency 0 constant or imposed

EC energy consumption C cold

ECOP ecological criterion H hot

F, G mathematical function i irreversible, or dummy index (Eqs. (30, 31))

GWP greenhouse warming potential L loss

h heat transfer coefficient ratio min minimum

K (k) heat transfer conductance (reduced) (W K1) opt optimum

HP heat pump s superheating

I, 4 irreversibility ratio, index T total

LCA life cycle analysis U useful

m constant MAX maximum

n constant, isentropic efficiency lim limit

NTU number heat transfer unit ex exergy

ODP ozone depletion potential th thermodynamics

OF objective function rev reversible

cycled fluid is in contact with two infinite heat source (TSH) with Dt gDtH DtC , DtH DtC heat transfer duration at hot

and sink (TSC): source (cold sink)

For the refrigerating machine, RF: The second paper (Goth and Feidt, 1986) too was devoted to

optimal conditions relative to a heat pump or a refrigerating

TSC machine associated to an endoreversible Carnot reverse

lim COPRF (1)

TSH TSC machine: the useful hot heat flux q_ H being fixed for steady

state conditions, the minimum electrical power to furnish is

for the heat pump, HP:

seeked for from a thermal point of view (jXH j TH TSH ;

TSH XC TSC TC , corresponding to optimum pinches in the two

lim COPHP (2)

TSH TSC heat exchangers). It was also seeked for optimal area alloca-

During the year 1975, Curzon and Ahlborn have proposed tion in the same conditions, knowing that dimension of the

a new appraisal of Carnot engine, taking into account of the machine is finite (AT AH AC).

necessary finite duration of each thermodynamics trans- At the optimum conditions, we get:

formation in a cycle, inducing a non-equilibrium situation, as

AH 1

expected in the real engines; this gives the signal for a renewal aH p (3)

AT 1 h

of thermodynamic modelling, even if it was discovered

previously by Chambadal (1957) and Novikov (1957). The main

TSH TH p

result of the funding paper (Curzon and Ahlborn, 1975) was to

xH qH h (4)

give the way to obtain maximum power of an engine, and the TSH

corresponding energy efficiency.

p p

The same demarch for reverse cycle machine was initiated TSC TC qH h 1 h

shortly after by Blanchard (1980). He considers an heat pump, xC p2 (5)

TSC

and gives the conditions to fulfill for the minimum of w, _ at 1 qh 1 h

given useful heat flux

with

q_ H qH =Dt Dt; cycle duration q_ H

h hH =hC ; qH

hH AT TSC

It results at the optimum:

Details of the model and results are available in (Feidt, 1996,

1 TSC

1 " r# 1st edition).

COP KH gq_

TSH 1 H To these endoreversible case studies have been added

KC KH

(Bejan, 1989), internal heat transfer irreversibility for

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1329

heat leak conductance between ambiance and the refrigerated

volume (essentially thermal insulation). It results, with the

three heat transfer irreversibilities, an equipartition of external

conductance inventory at the optimum seeked: KH KC KT/2.

This study is completed by a simple thermoeconomics

approach.

The previous calculation has been pursued (Bejan, 1993) for

minimizing heat exchanger inventory in a power or refriger-

ation plants.

Agrawal and Menon (1990, 1993) have given an extended

finite time thermodynamics analysis, altering the cycle

duration to consider the two isentropic arms in the cycle,

again at maximum cooling power. Consequently, it appears Fig. 1 e Comparison of endoreversible case without and

that during the first years of research in this new appraisal, with heat losses evolution of COP with useful heat rate.

the focus was on two reservoirs reverse machines, and that

the optimization situations are numerous.

We intent to consider and summarize the following works and a Brayton endoreversible reverse cycle machine: consid-

on the same subject, and to extent it to other reverse cycle ering four cases (combining with or without heat loss; with or

machine configurations, namely three and four reservoir without finite capacity reservoirs), they conclude that finite

machines (Section 3). The same will be proposed for less capacity and heat loss have a strong influence on COP.

developed configurations (Ranque Hilsch tube; Joule reverse This was previously approached by Klein (1992) through

cycle; Stirling machines and also Thermoelectric and Ther- heat exchanger effectiveness and costs.

momagnetic capabilities), Section 4. The group of Chinese authors publishes numerous papers

It will be showed that, two main modelling directions exist with slightly different refrigerator models (Wu et al., 1996;

in the literature: the first related to time and cycle duration; Chen et al., 1996a, b) and also to heat pump models (Sun et al.,

the second one relative to steady state analysis. A discussion 1997; Chen et al., 1997c). The remark is that the message

of similarities and differences between these approaches is seems extremely diluted, due to strong formal similarity

given (Section 2). A tentative synthesis of the various possible between refrigerator and heat pump. The main conclusion is

optimizations is proposed on a practical basis. that these authors pursue the analysis of heat transfer law

Section 5 is devoted to remaining researches, with some effect on the performance of a two heat sources cycle as was

preliminary results relative to cascade, or multiobjective first proposed by Chen and Yan (1989a, b), but for various

machines. The incidence of refrigerant fluid properties is cases and objective functions.

a main task, and it appears that it influences on the questions A first tentative of unified description of endoreversible

to solve with the model (environment considerations mainly): cycles was proposed by Chen and Yan (1989a), and completed

this problem is considered. precisely for Carnot refrigeration cycles, with general heat

transfer law by Yan and Chen (1990). We note here that the most

commonly used heat transfer law is the linear one according to:

2. Vapour compression reverse machine

q_ KTS T KDT (6)

2.1. Historical evolution of works (period 1990e2000) K, heat transfer conductance; TS source or sink temperature; T

refrigerant fluid temperature; this corresponds to Onsager

After the pioneering period described in Section 1 (between approximation, and relates the heat flux, to the thermal force

1980 and 1990), was developed a second research period, with DT. Obviously, heat transfer is not necessarily linear, and two

more dedicated works; the present section reports works other different heat transfer laws are of importance, the

relative to two heat reservoirs machines. We note that during convective heat transfer law

the first period the main focus of all studies was on endor-

eversible machines (Wu, 1993), with sometimes new objective q_ KDT n (7)

function such as specific heat load, q_ 00 q_ H =AH AC , or an

and the radiative heat transfer law

unified description of endoreversible cycles (Chen, 1989; Feidt,

1988; Philippi, 1991; Feidt and Philippi, 1992). For this new q_ K TSn T n (8)

research period Chen et al. have proposed studies on heat

pump (Chen et al., 1997) or refrigerator (Chen et al., 1998a) A particular case named the phenomenological law is

taking into account of internal heat leak between the hot (TSH) deduced from Eq. (8), when n 1. Recently the Chinese group

and cold (TSC) isothermal reservoirs: it appears that the has proposed a generalized form for the heat transfer law as:

evolution of the maximum COP for the two cases in function m

of the useful effect (respectively q_ H ; q_ C ) differs completely q_ K TSn T n (9)

from the endoreversible case (Fig. 1).

Afterwards, the same team of authors extends the model From a more general point of view, we suggest to develop

to finite capacity reservoirs (Wu, 1998) and compare a Carnot the model according to a heat transfer function depending on

1330 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

as:

q_ Kf TS ; T (10)

them is related, to transient temperature condition and finite

source size (heat capacity) (Chen et al., 1998a).

One of the most important results from the Chinese group

papers is the existence of a relation between the optimal COP

corresponding to a given area allocation, circulating fluid

temperatures, and the cooling capacity (or heating capacity)

(Chen et al., 1997c), f q_ C or q_ H ; COP:

h i h

COP q_ C TSC q_ L B Bq_ 2C = fTSH TSC q_ L B q_ L

i

fTSH TSC 2q_ L B R Bq_ 2C (11)

Fig. 2 e Experimental confirmation of COP with cold heat

( 1=2 )2 rate for a refrigerating machine.

KH

B 1 =KH AT

fKC

This relation has been given for the various cited heat transfer results obtained for reciprocating chillers (Gordon and Ng,

laws. From these results, it is deduced, the maximum e 1993). This work was followed by complementary ones

maximorum COP, with respect to q_ C q_ H . For example for the (Gordon and Ng, 1995a, b) in direction of predictive and diag-

case of a Carnot refrigerator, with irreversibility ratio 4, linear nosis aspects of chillers: the main feature is the observed rela-

heat transfer laws, refer to Chen et al. (1997a). tion between 1/COP versus 1=q_ C . Authors interpret the

A different way to model irreversible refrigerators with minimum of the curve as a compromise between losses that

isothermal heat exchanges has been used by Grazzini (1993); disfavour high cooling rates (finite rate heat transfer), and losses

this model considers for the cycle, C, a heat exchange over that disfavour low cooling rates (fluid friction, throttling) (Fig. 2).

a temperature difference (that is not a measurable quantity), The authors examplify the universal aspects of chillers not

and the entropy DS produced over the cycle, in the circulated only for reciprocating and centrifugal chillers, but also

fluid. This model was reconsidered from a steady state point absorption chillers, and evenly for less conventional cooling

of view (Grazzini and Rinaldi, 2001), and a numerical optimi- devices, such as thermoacoustic and thermoelectric chillers.

zation of refrigerator COP is given for a Rankine cycle relative Following papers (Chua et al., 1996; Gordon et al., 1997a,b)

to R134a refrigerant: the announced results are disappointing confirm that the endoreversible models are not consistent

(KC > KH at the optimum; COP decreasing with increasing heat with the experimental results due to dissipation (mainly fluid

exchanger efficiency, 3). friction in the compressor, and finite rate heat transfer at the

Some kind of steady state model has been developed for heat exchangers); the constraint of heat exchanger size (and

refrigerating machine and heat pump (Grosu et al., 2002a). The cost) is essential for optimal design of chillers. The interest of

study has been proposed for three refrigerants (R22; R134a; such modelling has been confirmed showing how varying

R717); a detailed exergy analysis has been reported. It appears condenser coolant flow rate affects chiller performance

that for the three refrigerants the exergetic efficiency is around (Gordon et al., 2000).

0.5, with the upper value for R717. The thermodynamic opti- The work of the Gordon team has been confirmed by Khan

mization has been compared to economic optimization: and Zubair (1999) but for a variable speed refrigeration system:

operating cost is determinant. Accordingly exergoeconomic the evaporator capacity is varied by changing the mass flow

performance could be checked (Chen et al., 2001a, b). rate of refrigerant. The effect of subcooling and superheating

The same authors (Grosu et al., 2002b) propose a comple- is also investigated, and in accordance to total heat exchanger

mentary study based on the fact that the two main irrevers- area the optimum area allocation is seeked for. Khan and

ibilities are located in the expansion valve, and the compressor Zubair (2001) extend the optimization of the COP to various

(Grosu et al., 2002a); the performed optimization remains the compression refrigeration systems: Two Stage vapour

_ but the considered variables are now representative

min of jwj, compression System (TSS), a Dedicated Mechanical Subcool-

of pressure losses at the entrance and exit of the compressor. ing vapour compression System (DMSS), and an Integrated

During the same period, an original study has been Mechanical Subcooling vapour compression System (IMSS).

proposed by Petrescu et al. (1993). The originality is mainly due

to considering finite speed of the machine, seeking for the

optimum frequency corresponding to maximum useful effect; 2.2. Tentative synthesis and evolution over the period

however this Carnot machine is based on a perfect gas (2000e2010)

hypothesis for the refrigerating fluid.

During the same decade appears some work intending to use At the beginning of the century, it appears that the subject of

and relate thermodynamic modelling to lumped experimental thermodynamics appraisal for reverse cycle machines was

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1331

dedicated review (Feidt, 1999a, b) attests this opinion.

In the first review a general formulation of the optimiza-

tion is given relevant of the general heat transfer law (10)

according to:

q_ FTS ; T (12)

For generality too, the heat leak between source and sink

q_ L > 0 is represented by a lumped heat leak between the

source and the sink:

machines is valid for Carnot, Stirling or Ericsson reverse

cycles. We consider the cycled fluid according to Fig. 3.

The first law of thermodynamics is expressed as:

q_ H q_ C w

_ 0 (14)

Fig. 4 e Variation of optimal reduced cold heat transfer

The second law of thermodynamics applied to the cycled conductance k0 with useful reduced heat rate q0.

fluid (or the machine) is preferred as:

Si 0 (15)

TH TC (TSC 273 K), a vapour superheating of 5 K and an isentropic

compression efficiency of 0,80 (t 298/273; tS 5/273;

We precise here that in ref. (Feidt, 1999a), two particular

nC 0.80). The corresponding non-dimensional useful refrig-

cases of objective function have been proposed for refrigerator

erant effect q0 Q CU =KT TSC , and reduced temperature pinch

and heat pump. To examplify, the objective function for

in evaporator q0 TSC TC =TSC ; qH TH TSH =TSH .

a refrigerating machine can be (1) the minimum of the

We see on these figures the evolutions of optimum

consumed energy w _ (case R1) or (2) the maximum of the useful

k0 Ko =KT ; kH ; q0 ; qH , the state variables at the optimum, when

heat coming out of the cold source, q_ CU > 0 (case R2) with:

q0 is varied for three refrigerants (R22, R134a, R717).

q_ C q_ CU q_ L (16) The linear heat transfer law, appears here as a limit case

that will be used in the practical case reported hereafter.

Corresponding results are given in (Feidt, 1999a), as well as A remark remains to do here, relative to the fact that very

optimal allocation of heat transfer conductances, or time few studies consider the case of mixed heat transfer laws

durations, or areas, for the two heat transfer main laws (non-similarity between the heat transfer laws at the hot and

(conductive, and radiative ones); cold sides: see Zhu et al., 2002).

Figs. 4e6, illustrate the practical results (Metrot, 1996) for We prefer to focus hereafter on steady state modelling,

a vapour compression machine with constant temperature rather than on cycle modelling with durations as variables.

Equivalence exists between the two approaches, if we note

that:

machine in contact with two thermostats (TH, hot side; TC, Fig. 5 e Variation of optimal reduced cold pinch q0, with

cold side). useful reduced heat rate q0.

1332 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

A T AH AC (19)

ciency criterion for a refrigerating machine, the COP coeffi-

cient of performance of a real machine:

q_ C

COPRF (20)

w_

Similar definition

exists for heat pump

q_ H

COPHP (21)

w_

equations (the two symmetrical heat transfer laws; energy

balance, Eq. (14); entropy balance, Eq. (15); finite size

constraint, for example, Eq. (19); COP definition, Eq. (20))

containing nine eventual variables: q_ H ; q_ C ; w; _ COP; TH ; TC ;

AH ; AC ; AT and six parameters kH ; kC ; n; s_ i ; TSH ; TSC . If we

Fig. 6 e Variation of optimal reduced hot pinch qH, with consider two constraints (general case), we get two parame-

useful reduced heat rate q0. ters more and only one independent variable (one degree of

freedom); so we can seek for an eventual corresponding

optimum.

Dq Dt Table 1 extends the design and functioning options, with

q_ KDT K0 DT (17)

Dtcycle Dtcycle the corresponding Objective Function OF and the associated

constraint (or constraints, if they are two). For simplicity

This consideration has never been precised in the past, but is

purpose, it is to be noted that the finite size constraint has

fundamental, because the K conductance is accessible

been moved from area, to heat transfer conductance; the

through K kA, with k global heat transfer coefficient

other constraints (or objective functions) relate to efficiency of

obtainable through available heat transfer correlations and

the machine through COP, or EC Energy Consumption through

classical heat exchanger calculation. On the other hand K0

w, or UE Useful Effect through q_ C for a refrigerating machine

appears as a heat transfer conductance related to a specific

(q_ H , for a heat pump).

heat exchange during the considered cycle; the heat transfer

To these three main possibilities for the physicist or engi-

duration is Dt (generally not given). So the only way to calcu-

neer, corresponds a fourth one in which the three possible

late K0 comes from Eq. (17) as:

constraints are respectively efficiency; energy consumption;

Dtcycle useful effect, and the objective function represents a size (or

K0 K (18)

Dt investment cost) minimization: design optimization.

Another important preconisation is the use of S_ i , created Two other cases merit consideration, the first one is related

entropy flux in (Eq. (15)), instead of the irreversibility ratio to the total entropy flux created in the system s_ T : the system is

concept mainly used; created entropy flux is a function the machine related to its environment, via source and sink.

directly related to entropy analysis, and we dispose today of Writing the corresponding entropy balance for the system it

a very good basis since the pioneering work of Bejan (1994). comes easily:

This point will be developed in following sections. q_ H q_

Coming back to the heat transfer conductance previously C s_ T 0 (22)

TSH TSC

given K kA, we see that in fact the reverse machine appears

as a finite size system (Finite Size Heat Exchangers): the total

Combining Eq. (15) and Eq. (22), we get:

area AT to be allocated to the two heat exchangers is limited

due to size and cost, and we have to distribute it optimally,

1 1 1 1

according to various criterions to be given hereafter, and to s_ T s_ I q_ H q_ C (23)

TH TSH TC TSC

the constraint:

Table 1 e Synthesis of various objective functions and constraints encountered in optimization of reverse cycle machines.

Constraint OF Without _0

w q_ 0 COP0 < COPlim s_ T s_ 0 KT K0 Others: economy environ.

q_ C and jq_ H j MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX

COPC and COPH MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX

s_ T min min min min min min

KT min min min min min min

Others: economy environ. min min min min min min

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1333

system is a sum of three positive terms, first the internal b z20 IH KC =KH n1 .

irreversibility, and the last two related to external irrevers- For the radiative heat transfer law:

ibilities due to finite temperature heat transfer processes

between the heat reservoirs and working fluid. Generally, it is AT b z0 IH n 1 z0

MAX q_ C n = (26)

difficult to establish a variation law for the internal entropy TSC z0 IH zlim KC KH

n

with b zn1 IH KC =KH .

(Gordon and Ng, 2000; Wijeysundera, 1997).

The approach with the entropy function s_ i , is slightly more

Some simple variation law have been proposed and tested

complicated and must be solved numerically in the case of

(Feidt et al., 2006):

non linear heat transfer laws (Bellorini, 2007). However orig-

inal analytical results have been deduced from the model for

(a) s_ i cte (to be identified through experiments)

the case of linear heat transfer law; they are summarized in

(b) s_ i si TH TC (linear case)

Table 2 for the refrigerating machine (RF) or heat pump (HP)

(c) s_ i ci lnTTH (logarithmic case)

L

where there is only one constraint (two degrees of freedom).

All physical quantities have been non dimensionalised with

Validations of these proposal have been engaged and

respect to ambient temperature T0, and KT (when KT is the

promising results have been obtained recently.

objective function a unitary heat transfer conductance is

It appears in Table 1 a new important category of OF or

chosen as reference).

constraint, related to environment (see Feidt, 2002a, b).

When a second physical constraint is added, as explained

To illustrate the results we compare hereafter the optimum

previously, it remains only, one independent variable; the

condition for a refrigerating machine subject to imposed COP,

constraint is repaired according to Tables 3 and 4. These two

COP0 and convective or radiative heat transfer law.

tables give the analytical formula for a refrigerating machine,

The irreversibility ratio method with IH 1 gives:

the added constraint corresponding to the one indicated in

TH z0 IH TC (24) Table 1.

The same formally symmetrical results relative to heat

with z0 (1 COP0)/COP0; COP0 < lim COPRF implies z0 zlim. pump are available near of the author. To conclude about this

For the convective heat transfer law: systematic study we summarize the main results hereafter.

"

1

MAX q_ C AT = n (a) When only finite size constraint is imposed, some optimum

KC 1bzb0 TH z0 IH TSC TSH n

exists but only for irreversible machine namely COP and UE

#

1 of heat pump for a given reduced pinch parameter.

KH (25)

z I T TSH n (b) When a supplementary constraint is added some theo-

1bz0 IH n 0 H SC

rems appear:

Table 2 e Optimization results for an RF (HP) machine with linear heat transfer law, and without supplementary constraint.

OF Optimum

characteristics

p

COPRF tsH tsC tsH 1 si 2

tH p; t p; COPRF 1= p 1

1 si C 1 si tsC 1 si

p p p

1p 1 si p 1 si 1 si

qC s tsC p; w w0 12 si tsH p tsC p

2 i 1 si 1 si 1 si

p kT p kT p

Remark: q si ; kH 1 si ; kC 1 si

2 2

p p

1p 1 si tsC 1 si 2

qH si tsH p; COPHP 1=1 p

2 1 si tsH 1 si

w w0 No optimum for RF and HP

qC No optimum for RF e one optimum for HP

tsc q0 tsc

for q0 imposed: xC tsc tc , tc , parameter

1 q0 1 q0

p p p

qH q0 tsH q0 si q0 s i tsH q0 si tsH q0 kT si tsC q0 kT q0 si

xH p; k p; k p; q ; w w0 p ;

1 q 0 H q0 q0 C q0 q0 H 1 q0 1 q0 1 q0 1 q0

p p p p

1 q0 si q0 1 q0 tsC q0 si ptC

1 1 q0

COPHP q0 si 1 q0 tsH q0 s i tH

ST q2 si

ST, monotonous with q, sT

1 q2

(exoreversibility), sT si ; Si 0 (endoreversibility)

KT tsH tH tC tC

kT kH 1 si

tH tsC tC tsC tC

tH

Remark : tC ; tH ; si ; kH with kH si parameters

tH tsH

1334 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

Table 3 e Optimization with linear heat transfer law and supplementary constraint.

OF COPRF COP0 imposed

p

qC 1 si z0 zH D

q ; D z0 zH 2 1 si 2 4z0 zH 2 si

W W0 2z0 zH

ST 1 q s i 1 s 1 s

qC tsC ; k 1 i ; kH 1 i

2 1 q C 2 q 2 q

Remark: c case; kC and kH are given by the preceding formula

qC q qC

H

w w0 and sT

COP0 tsH tsC

Remark: D gives the condition to satisfy by COP0 relatively to COPlim and si; z 1 1=COP

z0 zH 1 zH

-endoreversible case (si 0), q ; q tsC 1 if z0 /zH ; q /0 (equilibrium thermodynamics)

z0 zH C 4 z0

p

qC ; 1 si tsH tsC D

q ; D 1 si 2 tsH tsC 2 4tsH tsC 2w0 2w0 si tsH tsC ;

COP 2tsH tsC 2w0

ST tsC q si q tsC q si

qC ; COP C

2 q 1 w0 2w0 q 1

Remark : endoreversible limit (si 0)

lim tsC

If w0 /0; q y

w0 /0 C;endo tsH tsC

qC qC0 imposed

0

WW si 2qC0 =tsC qC0 tsH tsC 1 si si tH tC 4q2Co

q ; w w0

COP 1 2qf0 =tsC tsC 1 si 4qCo

ST qC0 tsC 1 si 4qC0

COP

w w0 s tsH tsf

tsH tsC 1 si i 4qC0

qC0

qCo tsH tsC 4q2Co tsf 4qfo

Endoreversible limit: w w0 endo ; COPendo

tsC 4qCo tsc tsf 4qfo

Table 4 e Optimization with linear heat transfer law and supplementary constraint.

OF ST ST0 imposed

p

qC and KT p tsC ST0 Si Si

q ST0 Si with ST0 > Si donc qC p

(W W0 ) 2 ST0 Si 1

COPRF 1 p

0

w w tsH tsC ST0 Si 1 Si tsH tsC ST0

21 ST0 Si

p p

tsC ST0 Si Si 1 ST0 Si

COP p

tsH tsC 1 Si ST0 Si tsH tsC ST0

Remark : endoreversible limit

p

1 tsf 1 ST0

w w0 endo tsc tsf tsc tsf ST0 ; COPendo p

21 ST0 tsc tsf tsc tsf ST0

p p

p p2

z0 zH z0 zH

q p p and kT Si p p

z0 zH z0 zH

p p p p

p z0 zH p z0 zH

kC si zH p p 2 and kH si z0 p p 2

z0 zH z0 zH

p p p

si tsC zC z0 zH 0

qC p p p w w z0 1qC gfunctions of z0

2 z0 z0 zH

(W W0 ) W0 imposed

tsH tsC

2w0 si

1q 1q

tH, tC or q parameters : kT

tsH tsC

q

1q 1q

Remark : kTendo, decreasing of q

qC qC0 imposed

1 2qCO 1 q

Decreasing function of tH or q (parameter) kT si

q tsC

ST ST0 imposed

1 2

Decreasing function of tH or q and si (parameter) kT sT0 1 q si

q2

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1335

- for a refrigerating machine (or an heat pump) with Consequently the finite source and sink dimensions

imposed COP, the optimum of useful effect corresponds (through external heat rates c_ C ; c_ H ) affect, the optimal effi-

to an optimum of energy consumption and an optimum ciency allocation in a coupled way with internal irreversibil-

of total energy dissipation (s_ T ). ities (IH ratio). Even if we simplify to the endoreversible case

- for a refrigerating machine (or an heat pump) with (IH 1); the equipartition of efficiency does not hold, due to the

imposed energy consumption, the optimum of useful fact that generally the two heat rates c_ C ; c_ H differ.

effect corresponds to the maximum of COP, and the This confirms that equipartition theorem does not hold, for

minimum of total energy dissipation. reverse cycle real machines, as was seen for the heat transfer

- for a refrigerating machine (or an heat pump) with conductance modelling, and presently confirmed for the effi-

imposed useful effect, the minimum of energy ciency e NTU modelling.

consumption corresponds to the maximum of COP and More sophisticated models are under developments taking

the minimum of the total energy dissipation. This was into account that the heat exchanger effectiveness is related

reported for endoreversible situations (Ionita and Grosu, to the NTU according to:

2001).

3i 1 expNTUi (30)

(c) Extension of these results from the constant temperature

source and sink, to finite source and sink has been recog- This relation is valid using isothermal boiling and condensing

nized as a challenge many years before the present paper hypothesis.

(Feidt et al., 1996), and confirmed experimentally more From a methodological point of view, we see that heat

recently (Gordon, 2000). exchanger effectiveness is related to NTU, through a know

function (Brown and Bansal, 2001); NTU being defined as:

The main modification of the model is concerned with the

heat transfer model that moves from Eq. (6) to: Ki

NTUi (31)

c_ min i

q_ 3c_ min TS T (27)

c_ min i , limiting heat rate at the i reservoir heat transfer.

with 3, effectiveness of the considered heat exchanger (see

The constraint of finite effectiveness 3T could be moved to

Fig. 7).

finite NTU constraint NTUT, or finite heat transfer conduc-

In case of isothermal heat transfer process from the cycled

tance KT. Remembering that heat transfer conductance Ki is

fluid point of view (pure boiling and condensation), we note

related to area Ai through Ki ki Ai, the finite NTU constraint

that the limiting fluid is the external one (c_ min c_ H external

could be moved to finite area AT, as explained previously.

hot fluid at the condenser, and c_ min c_ C external cold fluid at

But it appears a new challenge, that corresponds to the best

the evaporator); even in the real operating machine, this

allocation of heat rates between the hot and cold side if c_ H ; c_ C

condition holds, according to Fig. 7 (with TSH TSHi, TSC TSCi).

are considered variables but suffering too to finite dimension

To illustrate the results, we report here the case where we

constraint: c_ T c_ H c_ C . This challenge appears as a new one,

impose 3T 3H 3C , total HEX effectiveness to be allocated,

that we propose to develop (research are in progress in this

when the COP is imposed through z0. Using the entropy ratio

direction).

method IH, it comes after some algebra, the following

analytical results (Sublon, 2005) for the effectiveness optimal

2.3. What else concerning two reservoirs machines

allocation corresponding to optimal useful effect MAX q_ C :

p

IH From the preceding sections, it comes that irreversibilities

3C opt =3T p p (28)

c_ C =c_ H IH analysis is not a new tool applied to mechanical compression

machines (Liang and Kuehn, 1991), but the thermodynamic

p framework has been improved for understanding time

c_ C =c_ H

3H opt =3T p p (29) invariant description of thermodynamic reverse cycles,

c_ C =c_ H IH

through the privileged temperatureeentropy diagram, and

also pursued in direction of controlling the refrigeration or

heat pump system: here we move from steady state to tran-

sient conditions (Koury et al., 2001). Generally numerical

simulation are used, and variable speed seems the most

important parameter to control.

The irreversibility analysis could be performed using

entropy analysis method, but also exergy analysis method; the

second one considers the studied system in its environment,

the surrounding mainly represented by the ambient temper-

ature, T0 (the reference): this reference temperature consti-

tutes the connection between the two proposed methods. The

only care is to clearly identify the concerned extensive quantity

representing the studied irreversibility through entropy (for

example the entropy flux s, _ for steady state conditions).

With the recent interest of environmental concern, it

Fig. 7 e Finite heat reservoirs Carnot machine. appears, that exergy becomes an important tool, even if it is

1336 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

not a new tool (Auracher, 1984; Soulas and Hladik, 1984). method named exergoeconomic approach (Wu et al, 1998;

These studies are continued during the following decade: Dentice dAccadia et al., 2002). This approach relates the

Benelmir and Grosu (2001) compare exergy versus entropy exergy analysis to economy; the main difficulty of this method

analysis. The basement of exergy analysis using finite time has been pointed out in the thesis of L. Grosu and is due to the

thermodynamics has been examined in Radcenco et al. (2001). lack of available exergoeconomic correlations for the reverse

Relation of component efficiencies to exergy losses (and cycle machines components (some have been proposed in the

entropy increase) is reported in (Szargut, 2002), as well as cited thesis). Efforts to continue to develop exergoeconomic

exergy analysis of vapour compression refrigeration systems method applied to reverse cycle machines must be encour-

(Yumrutas, 2002; Karkri et al, 2007), or heat pump more aged as well as efforts to have a better appraisal of environ-

recently (Canhoto et al., 2006). During the last decade, mental concern; a possible response to these two aspects

coupling of exergy and efficiency concepts appears too (Su and could be in (LCA) Life Cycle Analysis, combining Life Cycle

Chen, 2006, 2007). But also new thermo ecological criterion Cost, to environmental concern.

has been proposed (Ust and Sahin, 2007) named the ECOP. It is

defined as:

q_ C 3. Three and quadrithermal reverse

ECOP (32)

T0 s_ T

machines

In practice, today ecological criterions used for refrigerators

and heat pump are ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), GWP As was seen in the preceding section, some papers refer also

(Greenhouse Warming Potential) and more recently TEWI to configurations of reverse machines that are different from

(Total Equivalent Global Warming) due to the fact that it two reservoirs one (namely vapour compression one). Among

combines direct and indirect emission of CO2. them the most important and promising are the sorption

In parallel to the environmental aspect, is developed the machines; the corresponding modelling is associated to three

economical concern. The classical thermoeconomical study is or four heat reservoirs (Fig. 8).

well known, and constitutes an important tool for the engi- One of the first paper was published by Yan and Chen

neer. L. Grosu in his PhD thesis (Grosu, 2000) reports exten- (1989) describing an optimal endoreversible three heat sour-

sively on the classical thermoeconomical method applied to ces refrigerator as a combined cycle of a two heat sources

two or three heat reservoirs reverse machines. But this engine driving a two heat sources refrigerator; a second paper

attempt has been pursued too in a more novel and promising (Chen and Yan, 1989a) extends the description of

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1337

endoreversible cycles, adding the effect of finite heat source phenomenological heat transfer law. More recently Qin et al.

capacity on the performance of the considered cycles. A third (2007) give the corresponding results with a radiative heat

one (Chen and Yan, 1989b) discusses the equivalent system of transfer law. In any case the same form of non dimensional

three heat sources heat pump: it results three main ways, curve was obtained (Fig. 9).

according to COP value that could be more or less than 1. This Finite time analysis are numerous relative to absorption

was again considered by Jernqvist (1992), Abrahamson and systems: Agnew et al. paper (2002) is relative to refrigeration

Jernqvist (1993): the concern was with the general criterions system; Bhardway et al. (2003, 2005) papers are relative to heat

representing efficiencies of absorption heat transformers pump and refrigeration system too, but these authors intro-

(COP, or Eth thermodynamic efficiency as COP/COPrev, or Eex duce two irreversibility ratios. Snoussi and Bellagi (2007)

exergetic efficiency, or exergy index Iex). confirm recently the form of curves obtained Fig. 9.

Authors mention that the absorption heat cycles must be In the present period, the last studies developed extend the

considered under the same conditions when they are model from three to four heat reservoirs. Hellmann (2002)

compared. A new definition of exergy efficiency for two types of analyzes the influence of a complementary constraint, or of

sorption heat pumps (type I, conventional heat pump, and type an additional operating parameter needed.

II, heat transformer) was proposed just after, using the concept As for two heat reservoirs Gordon and Ng (1995a, b) use

of transiting exergy (Sorin et al., 1994). Wu presents in two thermodynamic model to check from a lumped analysis point

subsequent papers two refrigeration cycles (see Fig. 8) corre- of view available performance data. The same group of

sponding to cooling capacity optimization (Wu, 1992, 1993a) of research (Chua et al., 1993) applies entropy production anal-

absorption refrigeration cycle. The two approach are finite time ysis with a reduced analytic irreversible thermodynamic

endoreversible thermodynamical models corresponding in fact model to capture the essential of the physical problem: the

to three reservoirs machine, only the hot source differs representative curve is again inverse of COP versus inverse of

(geothermal for the first one, waste heat for the second one). cooling load; the modelling is reported in Ng, Chua and Han

The paper of Krakow (1994), completes the two preceding ones, (1997). In a following paper (Ng et al., 1998) use thermody-

because, taking into account of finite heat capacity rates of the namic analysis applied to absorption chillers; they show that

reservoirs, and indicating that maximum system capacity may taking account of internal dissipation is mandatory, and

not correspond to maximum system efficiency or COP. introduce the concept of refrigerant Process Average

The optimal allocation of heat transfer area has been Temperature (PAT). This concept was extended further, and is

proposed for the endoreversible type II absorption heat pump closed to the one of equivalent Carnot cycles introduced by

and maximum rate of heat pumping (Chen and Andresen, Meunier et al. (1998) for sorption refrigeration.

1995). This was confirmed through reference (Martinez and Feidt and Vasilescu (2006a) have optimized the COP, for

Pinazo, 2002). various cases (q_ H or q_ C imposed namely) and using the (3, NTU)

This was first explored by Boussehain and Feidt (1984) in method. Zheng et al. (2004) have done similar study but with

a form relative to durations allocation for three reservoirs phenomenological heat transfer law, Qin et al. (2008) with radi-

machines; it is to note that the corresponding solution is ative heat transfer law; they propose also the optimal heat

formally identical to the one with area allocation (Feidt, 1987). transfer area distribution. A last paper (Hwang et al., 2008) treats

The relation between optimal performance coefficient and the same irreversible temperature level absorption heat pump,

cooling load for a three heat reservoirs refrigerator was but with minimum total heat transfer area as objective function.

developed by Chen et al. (1997) in the endoreversible case, and As a partial conclusion it appears that the three reservoirs

the irreversible case (Chen et al., 2002) but with the is relatively well covered, but it probably remains to do the

1338 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

same synthesis as was done for two reservoirs machines. seeking for the optimum operative temperature at the

However, the works devoted to four reservoirs machines are collector for system maximum possible COP or the system

not complete today : development of complementary works maximum possible cooling load (Wu et al., 1996b, 1997).

are necessary, before a tentative synthesis could be done. More recently, this methodology was again reconsidered

for endoreversible solar absorption refrigeration cycle by

Fellah et al. (2006). Accordingly, a solar powered cogeneration

4. Survey of other related researches system for air conditioning and refrigeration thermodynam-

ical modelling has been reported (Gotkun, 1999): this approach

4.1. Other machines relative to a cold CHP system seems a very promising use of

renewable solar energy, to assess in the future.

In Sections 2 and 3 focus has been put on reverse machine that Due to lack of place we limit here our purpose, noting only

are the most common, but thermodynamics, and more that it exists other ways to explore for refrigeration and heat

particularly finite time thermodynamics is not limited to these pump applications ; for example we cite two main forms of

machines. Some insight could be put to Joule reverse cycle actually studied hybrid systems, consisting of ejector-

machine, Ericsson and Stirling reverse cycle machines too, absorption configuration, or compression-absorption system

that are permanent gas machines (Feidt, 2003a, b). Some (Minea and Chiriac, 2006) ; this last category of hybrid systems

works have been published that are relevant of thermo- seems to be more investigated. A recent thesis (Haj Taleb,

electrical, thermomagnetic, or thermoacoustic configurations 2004) reports on thermodynamical and thermoeconomic

of reverse machines. This could be the subject of another optimization of hybrid compressioneabsorption refrigeration

review in the future (work is in progress), the most recent ones systems. To conclude this section, the thermodynamical

being the ones cited just before. modelling must consider the reverse machine in the related

system and environment in order to optimize it accordingly to

4.2. Particular configurations of 2T to 4T machines well chosen criterions.

but the reverse machine could be developed with a great

variety of more sophisticated configurations. It appears today, 5. Conclusions

that some of them have been envisaged.

The most developed study is relative to combined refriger- All along this review, the focus has been put on thermody-

ation cycles (Chen, 1995, Chen et al., 1997). This study first namics applied to modelling and characterization of reverse

devoted to two endoreversible combined cycles, has been cycle machines, mainly refrigerators and heat pumps.

generalized to a n-stages combined heat pump (Chen and Wu, It has been shown that if the main concepts (COP, coeffi-

1995; Chen et al., 1999). The optimization criterions are always cient of performance, and cycles) are present since the

numerous, from specific rate, to rate of exergy output (Chen beginning, all the works done remain in the field of equilib-

et al., 2001). rium thermodynamics until recently. It is only in the eighties,

Peculiar case of two reservoirs reverse machines could be with the pioneering work of Blanchard (1980), that the

related to the engine moving the machine. This was consid- modelling takes into account the necessary relation between

ered by Wu (1993), who seeks for maximum cooling load for fluxes and forces, as was proposed earlier by Onsager.

a heat engine driven refrigerator. This system configuration is Since that time a great variety of papers has been pre-

also possible coupling an engine with absorption cycle ; this sented ; this review proposes a list of approximately 160

was the case considered in the paper of Mostafain and Agnew papers analyzed. The author apologizes for papers not

(1996) with a diesel engine. The review paper of Tozer and included (the authors that detect some missing one are

James (1998) extends the preceding cited paper, and encouraged to transmit information to him, in order to correct

considers more complex and integrated systems as CHP this omission in the future).

systems (Combined Heat and Power). Nevertheless the main features of this review are :

Interest of various renewable heat sources appears in the

literature since the 1990 period; Wu (1993a) proposes a solar (a) The usefulness of thermodynamics tool starting from

engine driven-air conditioning system model; Davis and Wu concepts and criterions to go to lumped models that could

(1994) report on optimal performance of a geothermal heat give through quasi analytical results upperbounds or

engine driven heat pump. It remains certainly to explore more optima existence. The sensitivity of these optima to main

in details, all possible alternatives of systems configurations, parameters and constraints has been reported, and

but also other possible driving forces. a tentative synthesis done.

Integration of system is not well developed, and generally (b) Entropy and exergy analysis have shown that irrevers-

hot CHP systems are mainly considered ; it seems important ibility play a major role in understanding the functioning

to study more deeply cold CHP systems and trigeneration of reverse cycle machine, and cannot be ignored: endor-

systems: hot and cold. eversible model are not representative of real machines.

For these studies the performance criterions take again (c) Starting from lumped analytical model is a good guide, to go

a great place. First the maximum overall coefficient of to more sophisticated numerical models (1D or more), and

performance of a solar driven heat pump system was studied after to complete simulation e optimization procedures. By

(Yan and Chen, 1994). Wu et al. complete the preceding work the way lumped analytical models furnish robust and

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2 1339

physical model that are necessary for control e command Boussehain, R., Feidt, M. ,1984. Cycle optimisation for

purposes (this way seems insufficiently explored) a refrigeration system, with three heat reservoirs. French and

(d) The present state of the art has to be completed in some German seminar, 1e4 Oct. 1984, Kasel, Germany.

Brown, M.W., Bansal, P.K., 2001. An elemental NTU-3 model for

particular directions, to say:

vapour-compression liquid chillers. Int. J. Refrigeration 24,

e more sophisticated configurations of reverse machines 612e627.

including secondary loop, isothermal vapour Canhoto, P., Reis, H.H., Miguel, A.F., Rosa, R., 2006. Utilisation of

compression (new cycle) as proposed recently, and also air ground water exergy potential for improvement of the

hybrid machines (compression e absorption or ejec- performance of heat pump systems. Int. J. Exergy 3 (1), 1e14.

tion e absorption mainly). Chambadal, P., 1957. Les centrales nucleaires. Armand Colin,

Paris, France, pp. 41e58.

e Including system approach (systemic study)

Chen, J., Yan, Z., 1989a. Unified endoreversible cycles. Phys. Rev.

(e) Other reverse machines configurations are also to be

A 39 (8), 4140e4147.

considered more in detail for thermodynamic comparison, Chen, J., Chen, X., Wu, C., 2001. Optimization of the rate of exergy

particularly thermoelectric, thermomagnetic, Stirling and output of a multistage endoreversible combined system.

Ericsson configurations, as well as thermoacoustic and Exergy Int. J. 1 (2), 100e106.

Ranque Hilsch permanent gas systems. Chen, J., Wu, C., 1995. Performance of a cascade endoreversible

(f) Thermoeconomics evaluation has been well considered in heat pump system. J. Int. Energy 476, 137e141.

Chen, J., Yan, Z., 1989b. Equivalent combined systems of three-

the past, and is now moving to a new form named exer-

heat source heat pump. J. Chem. Phys. 90 (9), 4951e4955.

goeconomic: the main difficulty being to dispose from

Chen, J., 1995. Optimal choice of the performance parameters of

good corresponding correlations. an absorption heat transformer. Heat Recovery Syst. CHP 15

(g) Very few papers refers from a thermodynamical point of (3), 249e256.

view, on transient conditions for all these reverse cycle Chen, L., Wu, C., Sun, F., 1996a. Maximum profit performance of an

machines. This seems a good challenge for the future, and absorption refrigerator. Int. J. Energy Environ. Econ. 4 (1), 1e7.

necessary due to periodic change of the environment Chen, L., Li, Y., Sun, F., Wu, C., 2002. Optimal performance of an

irreversible absorption refrigerator. Exergy An Int. J. 2,

temperature. We hope that some progress are in due

167e172.

course in this direction, and will appear in the literature Chen, L., Sun, F., Chen, W., 1995. Optimization of the specific rate

soon. of refrigeration in combined refrigeration cycles. Energy 20

(10), 1049e1053.

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Conference on Thermodynamics, May, Galati, Romania,

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ECOS2002, July 3e5, Berlin, Germany.

1342 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 3 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 1 3 2 7 e1 3 4 2

Feidt, M., 1987. Thermodynamique et optimisation energetique Petrescu, S., Costea, M., Feidt, M., 2001. Les cycles des machines a`

des syste`mes et procedes. Tec et Doc. Editeurs, Paris, France, froid et des pompes a` chaleur de Stirling avec vitesse finie.

pp. 383e388. Entropie 232, 51e56.

Feidt, M., Vasilescu, E., 2006b. Etude damelioration du coefficient Philippi, I., Feidt, M., 1991. Optimisation des machines

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Termotechnica 1e2, 105e109. Entropie, 113.

Gordon, J.M., Ng, K.C., 2000. Cool Thermodynamics. The Rice, C.K., 1993. Influence of heat exchanger size and

Engineering and Physics of Predictive, Diagnostic, and augmentation on performance potential of mixtures in airto

Optimization Methods for Cooling Systems. Cambridge air heat pump. Ashrae Trans. US 99 (2), 665e679.

International Science Publishing. Toublanc, C., Clausse, M., 2008. Analysis of a novel refrigeration

Gordon, J.M., Ng, K.C., Chua, H.T., 1997. Chiller optimization based Carnot type cycle based on isothermal vapour compression.

on finite time thermodynamics: universal modelling and Int. J. Refrigeration 31, 1190e1197.

experimental confirmation. Int. J. Refrigeration 20 (3), 191e200. Vasilescu, E., Boussehain, R., Feidt, M., 2007. Exergy analysis of

Grosu, L., Feidt, M., Boussehain, R., 2004. Study of the a adsorption refrigeration machine. I.J. Ex 4 (2), 197e215.

improvement in the performance coefficient of machines Vasilescu, E., Feidt, M., Boussehain, R., 2004. Optimisation des

operating with three heat reservoirs. Int. J. Exergy 1 (1), cycles ideaux exo irreversibles des systemes frigorifiques

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Haj Taleb, A., Feidt, M., 2004. The influence of heat transfer law on Wijeysundera, N.E., 1995. Analysis of the ideal absorption cycle

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control of a vapour compression cycle. Int. J. Refrigeration 29, Wu, C., 1992. Cooling capacity of a geothermal absorption

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Luo, L., Feidt, M., 1992. Thermodynamic of adsorption, Wu, C., 1993b. Specific heating load of an endoreversible Carnot

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Luo, L., Feidt, M., Boussehain, R., 1994. Etude thermodynamique Wu, C., Chen, L., Sun, F., 1996a. Optimization of steady flow

de machine a` cycle inverse a` adsorption. Entropie 183, 3e11. refrigeration cycles. Int. J. Ambient Energy 17 (4), 199e206.

Mastrullo, R., Mazzi, P., 1987. Exergetic analysis of compound Zheng, T., Chen, L., Sun, F., Wu, C., 2003. Performance

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