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# Simple Strain

Stress-strain diagram ( in a tension test):

Gage length

Elongation,

## Strain ( i.e, unit deformation)

.....................(2.1)
L
o The strain computed by eq.(2.1) measures only the average value of the strain. The correct
expression for strain at any position is

d
......................(2.1a)
dL
Where d is the differential elongation of the differential length dL . Thus eq.(2.1a) detrmines the
average strain in a length so small that the strain must be constant over that length.

o However under the following conditions the strain may be assumed constant and its value computed
from eq.(2.1).

## Proportional limit. (Hookes law)

Elastic limit

Yield point

Ultimate strength

Rupture strength.

Necking

Fig.2. Necking

## Yield strength determined by offset method.

Fig.3. Stress-strain diagram for different materials Fig.4. Offset yield strength.
Working stress and Factor of safety

o The working stress (or allowable stress) is the maximum safe stress a material carry. In design,
the working stress should be limited to values not exceeding the proportional limit so as not to
invalidate the stress-strain relation of Hookes law.

o Working stress is designed based on either the yield point or the ultimate strength. Why?

yp ult
w or w .....................(2.2)
N yp Nult

For structural steel yield point //// and, for other materials ultimate strength.

## Homogeneity and uniformity of materials.

Hookes Law :

o E ........................(2.3)
E = Slope of the straight-line portion of the stress-strain diagram ( modulus of elasticity or
modulus of elasticity). It is a specific property of a material, indicating its elastic behavior.

L PL
..............(2.4)
E AE
The conditions under which eq.(2.4) is valid:

## The stress must not exceed the proportional limit.

Shearing deformation

s
..............(2.5)
L
G .............(2.6)
VL
s ..........(2.7)
As G
s = Shearing deformation.

= Shearing strain.

G = modulus of rigidity.

## Fig.6. Shearing deformation.

Poisson ratio

o An object being subjected to an axial force not only deforms in axial direction. It also deforms
in its lateral direction, the directions acting perpendicular to the applied load. This phenomena
is another property of a specific material. It is known as the Poissons Ratio, .

y
z ..............(2.8)
x x

## Generalized Hookes Law of Strain

o Poissons ratio permits us to extend Hookes Law of uniaxial stress to the case of multiaxial
stress. General strain of an element in a multiaxial state of stress.

## Fig.8. Orientation of stress on a 3D element

All these equations are valid for compressive effects also, but proper sign convention is needed.
An important relation among E, G, and is expressed by,

E
G .....................(2.13)
2(1 )
Statically Indeterminate members

o Reactive forces or the internal resisting forces over a cross section exceed the number of
independent equations of equillibrium.

## Procedure to solve the statically indeterminate members:

o Draw free-body diagram
o Apply the equations of static equilibrium,
o Pbtain additional equations from the geometric relations between the elastic deformations
Solution
Thermal Stresses

o Any change of temperature has an impact on the shape of an object. It shrinks at a thermal decline
and expands at a thermal increase.

o If a temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely, no load or stress will be induced in the
strucrure. But, in many cases, it may not be feasible to permit these temperature deformations
freely; the result is that internal forces are created that resist them. The stresses caused by these
internal forces are known as thermal stresses.

o The amount of strain is a property being specific to a certain material. It is represented by the
coefficient of thermal expansion denoted by T . The amount of linear deformation, T, is

T = TL(T) (2.14)
where,

## Thermal strain, T = T (T)

The general procedure for computing the loads and stresses caused when temperature deformation is
prevented is as follows:

o Imagine the structure relieved of all applied loads and constraints so that temperature deformations
can occur freely. Represent these deformations on a sketch and exaggerate their effect.

o Imagine sufficient loads applied to the structure to restore it to the specified conditions of restraint.
Represent these loads and corresponding load deformations on the sketch for step1.

o Establish the geometric relations between the temperature and load deformations along with
equation of static equilibrium.
Problem
A rod with fixed ends and no external loads, shown in the figure, is subjected to a thermal increase of T.
Determine the compressive stress in the rod caused by that impact.

Solution:
Solution