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INDEX

Acme threads (continued)


general purpose 17921802
A multiple start 1795, 1800
stub type 18111816
Abbreviations taps for 898901
accuracy 1221 thread profile form 17931794
geometric 609614 types of 1792, 1802, 1811
mathematical and signs 2 wire sizes for checking 18721874
scientific and engineering terms 2554 Acres to hectares 2541
2555 Acrylic plastics 380, 588, 597, 601
symbols for mechanics 115 Active face width 1998
welding 1396 Active spline length 2127
ABEC bearing tolerances 22562261 Actual space width 2127
Abrasive Actual tooth thickness 2127
belt Adaptive control, NC 1233
grinding 11931194 Addendum 1998
selecting 1194 chordal 20172018, 2062
contact wheel modification 2044
selecting 1195 involute spur and helical gears 2044
cubic boron nitride (CBN) 755757, Addresses, letter, NC 1243
1140, 1157, 1166 Adhesives, bonding 24602466
cutting 11951196 one-component 24612463
diamond 1139 retaining compounds 24632464
grains and materials 1139 sealants 24642466
grinding 1139 thread-locking 24632464
honing 11961199 two-component 24602462
lapping 11991202 Adiabatic expansion and compression 395
polishing 14401441 401
ABS plastics 380, 579, 588, 601, 2511 Adjusting gear blanks for milling 2062
Absolute Aerodynamic lubrication 2321
programming, NC 1240 Aging of metal 479
system of measurement 114 AGMA
temperature 2514 backlash allowance and tolerance
zero 2514 fine-pitch spur, helical and herringbone
Acceleration 114, 151, 153154 gearing 2041
angular 153 recommended backlash range
constant 152 bevel and hypoid gears 2038
linear, of point on rotating body 154 coarse-pitch spur, helical and
of gravity, g 114 herringbone gearing 2037
Accuracy AGMA Standard
effect of, on part tolerances 1220 AGMA 112.05 2001
of NC machine tools 12181219 AGMA 115.01 2001
positioning 1216 AGMA 116.01 2001
repeatability, and resolution, NC 1216 AGMA 202.03 2054
significance of 12181219 AGMA 208.03 2054
Acetal plastics 380, 579, 588, 597, 601 AGMA 209.04 2054
Acetylene, specific gravity 371 AGMA 330.01 2054
Acme threads AGMA 370.01 2066
abbreviations 1795 AGMA 390.03 2038
ANSI Standard 17921816 backlash recommendations 20372038,
centralizing 18021811 2041
checking 18701874
drill sizes for 901

2556
INDEX 2557
Air Alloys (continued)
adiabatic expansion and copper-beryllium 565566
compression 395396 copper-silicon 565
compression and flow 393, 396401 die casting 13421344
density 394 magnesium 557560
flow in pipes 401 nickel 561563
isothermal expansion and nonferrous 525566
compression 396 nonferrous, strength 477
power or work to compress 396, 398400 numbering systems for 403
pressure, temperature, and volume soldering 13521355
relationships 395 titanium 561, 564
properties of 393394 Alternating current motors 24492452
velocity of escaping 401 Alternating stress 197
volume and weight at different Aluminum
temperatures 393 alloys 542557
volume transmitted through pipes 401 Association 543, 546548
Airdry wood, weight per cubic foot 377 bearings 2241
AISISAE 406408 cast
Alcohol, specific gravity 371 composition of 546548, 550551
Algebra and equations 20 strength of 477
Algebraic strength of 550551
expressions and formulas 32 characteristics of 542543
rearrangement and transposition of clad 546
terms 2021 composition of
Alignment variation 2127 wrought 556557
Allowances and tolerances for designations 546
cylindrical fits, ANSI Standard for 627 die casting 13421343
657 heat treatability of wrought 546
fits 621667 machining 1116
fits, preferred series 628630 melting point 368369
metric ISO fits, British Standard for 657 properties of 550557
666 series groups 546549
Allowances for bending sheet metal 1304 soldering 13521354
1310 structural shapes 2498
Alloy cast iron 1330 temper designation 543546
Alloy steels 406 welding 1365, 13861387, 1390
AISI-SAE designations 409410 wrought 477, 546557
basic numbering system 403, 405 Aluminum bronze
carburizing grades 422423 casting alloy 532
castings 1335 strength 477
compositions 411412 cast 550551
directly hardenable grades 424425 American
effects of alloying elements 21142117 Boiler Makers Association 268
hardness of heat-treated 432436 Brass Company 565
heat treatments 505 Bureau of Shipping 355, 1335
mechanical properties 432436 Foundrymen's Association 479
numbering system 403, 405 Gear Manufacturers Association
quality variations 418 (AGMA) 2001, 2004, 20372038,
selection for making tools 452456 2041
speeds for drilling and reaming 1030 Institute of Steel Construction 265
1033, 1035 column formulas 267
speeds for milling 10141019 Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 360, 403,
speeds for turning 996999 405
strength of heat-treated 432436 Steel Products Manual 411412
Alloys Wire and Rods, Carbon Steel 435
aluminum 542557 National fire hose connection
bearing 1344, 22382242 threads 18421845
brazing 13541361 Railroads, Assn. of 1335
cast iron 13281329 Screw threads, wire sizes for
cast steels 13321335 measuring 18611862
copper 525542 Society for Metals (ASM) 479, 521
2558 INDEX

American (continued) Anodizing (continued)


Society for Testing and Materials hard 1448
(ASTM) 479, 520521, 557560, ANSI / RMA IP-26, 1977 2398
13281331, 1335 ANSI Bl.20.5 1854
annealing temperatures 496497 ANSI B1.1 1506, 1508, 1712
copper alloys 525542 ANSI B1.12 1786
Standard Code for Information ANSI B1.13M 1538, 1544, 1762
Interchange (ASCII) 1295 ANSI B1.18M 1755
wire gage 24992500 ANSI B1.20 1848
American Standard B1.1 1712 ANSI B1.20.1 1848, 1851
Ammonia, specific gravity 371 ANSI B1.20.3 880, 18531854
in nitriding 417 ANSI B1.3 1879
Amortization 27 ANSI B1.3M 1774
AMS 2404C 1447 ANSI B1.5 1792, 1811
AMS 2405B 1447 ANSI B1.9 1818, 18221823, 1877
AMS 2433B 1447 ANSI B17.1 23422343, 23452347
Analysis, break-even 4042 ANSI B17.2 23482350
Angles ANSI B18.1.1 1464, 14681470
bent to circular shape, lengths of 2488 ANSI B18.1.2 14641467
between lines tangent to two circles 685 ANSI B18.16.1M 1542, 1547
compound 688690 ANSI B18.16.3M 1520, 1542, 1547
cutting tool 723730 ANSI B18.17 16931701
cutting tool inserts 12811284 ANSI B18.2.1 1492
degrees into radians 90, 92 ANSI B18.2.2 1492, 1510
functions of 83101 ANSI B18.2.3.1M 15201521
helix 1933 ANSI B18.2.3.2M 1520, 1522, 1524
indexing 19501993 ANSI B18.2.3.3M 1520, 1523
involute functions of 97101 ANSI B18.2.3.4M 1524
lead 1933 ANSI B18.2.3.5M 1520, 1524, 1530
length of arc of given radius 8081 ANSI B18.2.3.6M 1520, 1524, 1529
length of chord 8081 ANSI B18.2.3.7M 1520, 15281529
measuring by disc method 682683 ANSI B18.2.3.8M 1520, 1525, 1532
minutes into decimals of a degree 90, 92 ANSI B18.2.3.9M 1524
moment of inertia 24952497 ANSI B18.2.4.1M 1520, 15421543
radius of gyration 24952497 ANSI B18.2.4.2M 1520, 15421543
section modulus 24952497 ANSI B18.2.4.3M 1520, 1542
sine bar for measuring 673682 ANSI B18.2.4.4M 1520, 1542, 15441545
structural 24952497 ANSI B18.2.4.5M 1542, 1548
taper per foot corresponding to 684 ANSI B18.2.4.6M 1520, 1542, 1548
rules for figuring 682683 ANSI B18.22.1 15121513, 1515
thread, tolerances on gages 1882 ANSI B18.22M 1520, 1549
to find, for given taper per foot 682685 ANSI B18.3 1541
useful relationships among 93 ANSI B18.3.1M 1522
weight per foot 24952497 ANSI B18.6.1 1456
Angular ANSI B18.6.3 15681577
acceleration 153 ANSI B18.6.4 1620, 16221625, 1627, 1635
torque, relation to 156 ANSI B18.6.7M 1568
backlash in gears 2042 ANSI B18.8.1 1649
clearance for dies 1302 ANSI B212.1 738739, 741746, 859860,
indexing 19561977 862864
velocity 151153, 187 ANSI B212.12 730
of rotating bodies 187 ANSI B212.4 731
Annealing 414415, 479, 495 ANSI B212.5 733734
constant temperature, ANSI B27.7M 16651668, 1670, 1672
transformation 496497 1673
double 496 ANSI B29.1M 2435
temperatures 496 ANSI B32.1 2501
Annual cost method 2729 ANSI B32.4M 644
Annuities (calculation of) 2627 ANSI B4.1 627, 630, 634, 636, 638640,
Anode 1319 22672268
Anodizing 1444 ANSI B4.2 642, 644, 646, 648655, 657
INDEX 2559
ANSI B4.4M 656 ANSI Standard (continued)
ANSI B47.1 1882 geometric characteristic symbols for
ANSI B5.18 920, 922924 engineering drawings 609614
ANSI B6. 7 2024 geometric dimensioning and
ANSI B6.1 20042006, 20082009, 2011, tolerancing 606611
2019, 2023 grinding wheel safety 11701174
ANSI B6.7 2008, 2011, 20232026, 2079 grinding wheels 11411149, 1157, 1166
ANSI B6.9 20642065 hexagon socket head shoulder
ANSI B7.1 1170, 1174, 1196 screws 1605
ANSI B7.1-1988 1173 hose coupling screw threads 18411845
ANSI B74.13 1141, 1166 interference-fit threads 17861791
ANSI B74.2 11421143, 1148, 1150, 1204 involute spline symbols 2130
1206 involute splines
ANSI B74.3 11631165, 1167 inch dimensions 21262147
ANSI B92.1 21302131, 21332134, 2137, metric module 21482155
2139, 21492150 jig bushings 941951
ANSI B92.2M 2126, 21482150 key drive 911912
ANSI B94.11M 827, 837 keys and keyseats 23422354
ANSI B94.2 813820, 822826 keys and keyways for milling cutters and
ANSI B94.25 731 arbors 794
ANSI B94.33 942943, 945950 knurls and knurling 12111215
ANSI B94.35 848, 850 letter symbols for mechanics 115
ANSI Standard limits and fits 627657
abbreviations 115, 25542555 lock washers 15151519
Acme threads 17921816 machine screws 15681577
bolts, nuts, screws, and washers, binding head 1576
inch 14921519 fillister head 1574
bolts, screws, and nuts, metric 1520 flat, countersunk head 15691571
1524, 15481549 hexagon washer head 1571
boring tools, carbide 859864 metric 15781585
buttress inch type threads 18181824 oval head 15741576
cap screws, hex head 1496, 1520 pan head 1573
cap screws, metric 15201523 round head 1577
castle and slotted nuts 15001502 slotted hexagon 1572
chain, transmission 24212426 truss head 1572
Class 5 threads 17861788 manufacturers' standard gage for sheet
cutting tools 730746 steel 25012502
diamond wheels 11631168 metric
drafting practices 606 cap screws 15201523
drafting room practice 606611 retaining rings 16661673
drill drivers 848850 screw threads, M profile 17551776
drive screws 1635 screw threads, MJ profile 17771780
electric socket and lamp base screws, bolts, nuts, and washers 1520
threads 1846 1525, 15331534, 15461549
engineering drawings 606 microscope threads 1846
fine pitch standard gear tooth parts 2009 milling cutters 772795
fine-pitch miniature threads 17811785
helical gears 20772080 numerical control 1226
worm gearing 20642066 nuts 14921504
fine-pitch worm gearing nuts, metric 1541, 15431548
ANSI B6.9 2064 pins 16481664
flat metal products pipe and pipe fittings 25042508
inch sizes 25012502 pipe thread 18461855
metric sizes 2503 plain washers 15121517
gage usage, recommended 656 position symbols 1221
gagemakers preferred
tolerances 656 basic sizes 644
gages 18761884 fits 644647
for self-holding tapers 914 metric limits and fits 632, 642657
for Unified screw threads 18771884 metric sizes 642644
gear tooth forms 20042010 numbers 19
2560 INDEX

ANSI Standard (continued) ANSI Standard (continued)


thicknesses, thin, flat metals 2501 tang drives 909910
reamers 813815, 820826 tapers 906918
retaining rings 16661673 taps and threading dies 872898
rivets 14641470 threads for electric sockets 1846
roundness symbols 1222 T-nuts, T-bolts, T-slots 16451647
runout symbols 1224 tolerances 630
screw thread symbols 1787, 17931794, gagemakers 656
1811, 1816, 1824 symbols 578579, 609614, 622
metric 17561778 tolerances and allowances for cylindrical
screw threads 17061710, 17121790, fits 621657
17931816, 18181824 tooth proportions, fine-pitch involute spur
metric M profile 17551776 and helical gears 2008
metric MJ profile 17771780 total runout symbols 1224
screws and bolts twist drills 827849
inch 14921509 Unified threads 17061710, 17121754,
metric 15201527, 1529, 15321534, 17811786
1541 washers, inch 15121519
section lining symbols 606, 608 metric 1547, 1549
self-tapping thread inserts 1635 welded and seamless wrought steel
self-threading screws, inch 16201635 pipe 2505
metric 16351644 wing nuts, wing screws, and thumb
serrations, involute 2126 screws 16931701
set-screw heads and points 16061610 wood screws 1456
set-screws, socket type 1607, 1612 woodruff keys 23482354
shoulder screws 1605 worm gearing, fine pitch 20642066
single-point tools and tool posts 740746 wrench openings 15101511
slotted head cap screws 15991600 ANSI Standard Z17.1-1973 19
slotted headless set screws 1606 ANSI X3.37 1264
socket head cap screws 16011605 ANSI Y10.4 115
spindles and drives for portable ANSI Y14.1 606
tools 12071210 ANSI Y14.2 1294
spline socket set screws 1607, 1612 ANSI Y14.2M 608
splines, involute ANSI Y14.36 606
inch dimensions 21262147 ANSI Y14.5M 1286
metric module 21482155 ANSI Z136.1 1413
spur gear tooth forms 20042010 ANSI 14.5M 1221
stub threads, 29- and 60-degree 1811 ANSI, RMA IP-25 2402
1816 ANSI/AFBMA Std 10 2303, 2306
stud threads 17861791 ANSI/AFBMA Std 11 2291
studs, drive 1659, 1662 ANSI/AFBMA Std 111978 2297
surface texture 697708 ANSI/AFBMA Std 18.1 2263, 22702271
symbols ANSI/AFBMA Std 18.2 22632264, 2269
accuracy 1221 2271
accuracy symbols 1221 ANSI/AFBMA Std 20 22562257
comparison to ISO 609 ANSI/AFBMA Std 20, 1987 22582260
concentricity 609, 1223 ANSI/AFBMA Std 24.11989 2261
datum referencing 614 ANSI/AFBMA Std 24.2 2262
diameter 609, 1222 ANSI/AFBMA Std 24.21989 2261
drawing practices for surface ANSI/AFBMA Std 7 2265, 22672268
texture 704708 ANSI/AFBMA Std 8.2 22762279
parallelism 609 ANSI/AFBMA Std 9 2286, 2297
part tolerance 609, 642644 ANSI/AGMA 2005 2054
perpendicularity 609 ANSI/AMSE B18.16.3M 1546
position 609 ANSI/ASME B1.1 1712
roundness 609 ANSI/ASME B1.12 17881791
runout 609 ANSI/ASME B1.13M 1755, 17571759,
section lining 606, 608 17631764, 17661768, 1774, 1776
total runout 609 ANSI/ASME B1.2 1864, 1877, 1880, 1883
welding 1393 1884
symbols for section lining 608 ANSI/ASME B1.20.1 18471851
INDEX 2561
ANSI/ASME B1.20.7 18411842 Applying surface texture symbols 706
ANSI/ASME B1.21M 1755, 1777 APT (automatically programmed
ANSI/ASME B1.3M 1712, 1791 tool) 12631280
ANSI/ASME B1.7M 1707, 1712 axis nomenclature 1235
ANSI/ASME B18.1.3M 1464 circles 12651270, 1272
ANSI/ASME B18.2.1 14921498, 1551 computational statements 1265
ANSI/ASME B18.2.2 14921493, 1499 example program 1277
1502, 1510, 1551 for turning 12791280
ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.4M 1527 geometry statements 1265
ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.5M 1530 geometry, 3-D 1274
ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.9M 15261527 motion statements 12701275
ANSI/ASME B18.21.1 15151519 planes 1273
ANSI/ASME B18.21.2M 1515 points 1266
ANSI/ASME B18.3 16011605, 1607 postprocessor statements 12751280
1608, 16111613 programming 12631280
ANSI/ASME B18.3.1M 1532, 1539, 1541 tabulated cylinder 1274
ANSI/ASME B18.5 15051509 Arbors
ANSI/ASME B18.5.2.2M 15271528, 1531 circular saw 1203
ANSI/ASME B18.6.2 15991600, 1606, diameters for spring-winding 332
16091610 dimensions of centers 813
ANSI/ASME B18.6.5M 1623, 16351640 driving slots and lugs for shell
ANSI/ASME B18.6.7M 15771585 reamer 823
ANSI/ASME B18.8.2 16511655, 1658 keys and keyways for 794
1664 lathe 858
ANSI/ASME B29.1 M 2421 shell reamer 823
ANSI/ASME B29.1M 24212422, 2425 standard milling machine 920924
2429, 2438, 2442 steels for 456
ANSI/ASME B29.3M 2422 Arbor-type milling cutters 790
ANSI/ASME B32.3M 2503 Arc
ANSI/ASME B36.10M 25042505 checking radius of 690692
ANSI/ASME B5.1M 16451647 electric, cutting of metals 1391, 1428
ANSI/ASME B5.10 848, 909914, 918 1429
ANSI/ASME B5.15 2156 length of given angle and radius 8081
ANSI/ASME B5.50 12841286 of action 1998
ANSI/ASME B92.2M 2156 of approach 1998
ANSI/ASME B94.11M 829, 839841, 846 of recession 1998
847, 849 plasma welding 13871391
ANSI/ASME B94.19 772795 thickness of internal gear tooth 2047
ANSI/ASME B94.6 1211, 12131214 thickness of pinion tooth 2047
ANSI/ASME B94.9 872 welding 13621387
ANSI/ASME Y10.3M 115 Arc of recession 1998
ANSI/ASME Y14.2M 607 Area
ANSI/AWS A2.4 1396 circle 63
ANSI/AWS 2.4-79 1408 circular
ANSI/EIA RS 274-D 1227, 12401241, ring 64
1243, 1245, 12481249, 1264 ring sector 64
ANSI/RMA IP-20 23792381 sector 63
ANSI/RMA IP-21 2386 segments 63, 78, 8081
ANSI/RMA IP-22 23732375, 2377 cycloid 63
ANSI/RMA IP-23 23942396 different sections 217227
ANSI/RMA IP-24 2409, 24112414 ellipse 65
ANSI/RMA IP-25 24022403 enclosed by cycloidal curve 58
ANSI/RMA IP-26 2397, 2400 fillet 64
ANSI/RMP IP-21 2387 finding by Simpsons rule 5758
ANSI/RMP IP-24 2411 geometrical figures 6065
ANSI/SAE AS568A 2482 hexagon 62
Antifriction bearings 22462302 hyperbola 65
Apothecaries' irregular outline 5758
fluid measure 2518 octagon 62
weight 2519 parabola 6465
Application factor 20442045 segment of 65
2562 INDEX

Area (continued) ASTM F594 1494


parallelogram 60 ASTM F837M 1531
plane figures 6065 ASTM 574M 1530
plane surface of irregular outline 5758 Atmospheric pressure 393, 2519
polygon 62 Austempering 479, 491492
rectangle 60 Austenite 483484, 514
spandrel 64 Austenitic manganese cast steel 1335
square 60 Autocollimation 12191220
surface of revolution 5657 Autogenous, (welding) 1362
trapezium 62 Automatic screw machines 10941099
trapezoid 61 knurling on 1094
triangle 61 Avoirdupois or commercial weight 2518
Areas and volumes 5659 Axial
Argon, welding gas 13641366, 1374, 1387 pitch 1998
1388 plane 1998
Arithmetical thickness 1999
operations, sequence of 21 Azimuth reading displacements 1219
progressions 4344
ASA B1.10 1902
ASA B1.12 1559
ASA B17c 281
B
ASA B18.2 1492, 1510 B & S automatic screw machines 1094
ASA B5.38 12071210 Babbitt metals 22382242
ASA B6.1 2005, 20092010 properties of 22402242
ASA Code for transmission shafting 280 SAE general information 2238
Asbestos, specific gravity and weight 370 Backlash 1999
ASCII, American Standard Code for allowance in checking gears by the pin
Information Interchange 1295 method 2103
ASME Y14.5M 609 control of allowances in production 2039
ASME/ANSI B 1.8 1800 control of in assemblies 2041
ASME/ANSI BI.5 1807 determining proper amount of 2036
ASME/ANSI B1.1 1739, 17531754 fine-pitch gears 2040
ASME/ANSI B1.12 1786 gearing 20362042
ASME/ANSI B1.3M 1753 recommended 2038
ASME/ANSI B1.5 902, 17921794, 1796, Bainite 481
17991805, 18081811 Balance wheels 173
ASME/ANSI B1.8 1793, 1801, 18111813, Balancing
1815 calculations 167172
ASME/ANSI B29.1M 2423, 2443 counterbalancing masses located in two or
ASME/ANSI B94.9 872, 876895, 897898 more planes 170171
ASTM A 220 1331 counterbalancing several masses located
ASTM A297 1334 in single plane 168170
ASTM A307 1488, 1495 dynamic 167
ASTM A325 1488 lathe fixtures 171172
ASTM A325M 1530 machines 167
ASTM A354 1488, 1496 rotating parts 167172
ASTM A449 1488, 1496 running or dynamic 167
ASTM A490 1488 static 167
ASTM A490M 1530 Ball bearings 22462252, 22542261, 2264
ASTM A563M 1542, 1544, 1547 2266, 22712301
ASTM A574M 1531 alignment and squareness 22732274
ASTM A743-81a 1335 allowance for axial displacement in 2264
ASTM B23-83 2239 angular contact 22462248
ASTM B253 1447 cage materials 22542255
ASTM B438-83a 22432245 clamping and retaining methods 2274
ASTM B439-83 2243, 2245 2280
ASTM B633 1451 clearances, running 22822284
ASTM E-140 2306 closures 2275, 2280
ASTM E-18 2306 design and installation 2264
ASTM F467M 1544 designation of 2267
ASTM F568 1530 failures 2285
INDEX 2563
Ball bearings (continued) Barrel
fits 2275, 2280 liquid capacity 2518
flanged housing 2254 volume 71
friction losses 2280 Barrel effect 1319
handling precautions 22842285 Base
housing bore tolerances 22672268 circle 1999, 2127
housings, soft metal and other 2274 diameter 2127
2275 helix angle 1999
life 2285 pitch 1999
life adjustment factors 2296 tooth thickness 1999
locknuts and shafts for 22772278 Base circle 1999
lockwashers for 2276 Base circle, spur gear
lubricants 23182320 diameter 2004
lubrication 2282 Base helix angle 1999
materials for 2254 Base oils for metal cutting 1109
mounting 22712284 Base pitch 1999
pillow block 2254 Base tooth thickness 1999
plastics 2254 Basic
quiet or vibration-free mountings 2275 endurance limit 2044
radial and axial clearance 22832284 gear dimensions 2010
rating life 22872291 rack profiles 2153
seating fits for 2275 space width 2127
selection 22812283 Basic dimension 621
shaft hole 621
and bore limits 22672268 shaft or hole 621
and housing fits for metric radial 2264 Baths, hardening or quenching 488490
2266 for heating steel 487
tolerance tanks for 490491
classifications, metric 22652266 Baums hydrometer 372
limits, metric 22662267 conversion to specific gravity 371
special or unconventional types of 2254 Beams 239, 241242, 248249, 251259,
squareness and alignment 22732274 24882494
starting torque 2281 channel 2494, 2498
static combined stresses in 206210
equivalent loads 23002301 curved 254257
load ratings 22972300 deflections 236, 239, 241242, 253254
thrust 2250 designing for 253254
tolerances 22552261 fixed at
types of 22462254 both ends 252
Ball, roller, and needle bearings 22462302 one end 241242, 249, 251
Balls, standard 23022310 formulas 207
grades 2305 I-beams 24882493, 2498
hardness corrections 2306 reactions 236
hardness ranges 2306 rectangular solid 249
materials 2305 simple stresses in 204205
number per kilogram 2310 stresses in 204210, 236, 239, 241242,
number per pound 2309 248, 252258
ordering specifications 2303 stresses produced by shocks 257258
package markings 22932294 supported at both ends 239, 249
preferred gages 2303 uniform strength 248, 251252
preferred sizes 23062308 Bearing lubricants
tolerances 23052306 ball and roller bearings 23182320
Band brakes 23372339 plain bearings 22022205
Band saw Bearing materials, plain 22362244
blade selection 11011102 aluminum 2238, 2241
break-in 11051106 ASTM compositions 22392245
speeds and feeds, metal cutting 1103 babbitt metals 22382242
1105 cadmium alloys 22402242
Bar, small diameter radius of gyration 147 carbon-graphite 22412245
Barometer reading and equivalent cast iron 2241
pressure 395 copper-lead 22382242
2564 INDEX

Bearing materials, plain (continued) Bevel gearing (continued)


die casting in place 1344 shaft stiffness 2053
graphitic 2242, 2245 spiral 2050
laminated phenolics 2242 straight 1998, 2050, 2052, 2054
leaded bronze 22402242 tooth measurement for milled 2062
nylon 2242 types of 2050
oil impregnated 22422245 typical steels used for 2063
plastics laminates 2242 Zerol 1998, 20502052
porous 22412245 Bilateral and unilateral tolerances 621622
properties 22362237 Binary multiples 2533
rubber 2242, 2245 Birmingham wire gage 24992500
SAE compositions 22382239 Birnie's equation 272
seals 21982199 Blank diameters, drawing dies 13021307
silver 2241 Blanks, sintered carbide 738740
Teflon (TFE) 2242, 2245 Blast cleaning of castings 1338
tin-bronze 22402242 Block
white metal 22382242 brakes 2340
wood 2242, 2245 NC 1241, 1243, 1245
Bearing spacing and shaft stiffness 2053 or multiple indexing 19901991
Bearings 21932218, 22202244, 2246 Blow, force of 159160
2300 Boilers, strength of flat stayed surfaces 268
guide 22362237 Boiling temperature,various substances 364
Belleville springs or washers 326 Bolt head
Belts and pulleys 23682420 markings, inch 14841488
flat belts 23682371 metric 1532, 1534, 15601561
V-belts 23722420 wrench and socket clearances 15101511
Bending Bolt hole circles
allowances, sheet metal 13041310 chordal distance 78
formulas coordinates for 953970
for beams 239, 241242, 249, 251257 Bolts and nuts
for shafts 275277 ANSI, inch dimensions
stress in beams 236, 239, 241242, 248 cap or acorn nuts 1503
249, 251254 countersunk bolts 15081509
structural angles 24952497 fin neck bolts 1506
Bending load wood 375 flat jam nuts 1500
Beryllium and copper alloys 566 heavy hex bolts 1495
Bevel gearing 20502063 heavy hex structural bolts 14931494
ANSI/AGMA Standard 2054 hex
applications 20512053 bolts 1493
applications of 2051 flat nuts 1500
backlash 20372038 high nuts 1504
bearing spacing 2053 nuts 14931494, 1499
blank design 20522053 slotted high nuts 1504
cutting teeth in 20532062 slotted nuts 15001502
face angles 2054, 20562057 thick slotted nuts 15011502
face widths 2054, 20562057 jam nuts 1499
German standard tooth form 2090 machine screw nuts 1568
Gleason system, straight bevel ribbed neck bolts 1507
gears 2054 round head bolts 15051507
Zerol bevel gears 20502051 square
hypoid gears 2051 bolts 14921494
materials for 2063 neck bolts 15051508
milled 2054, 20562062 nuts 14921493, 1502
milling cutters for 792, 20582060 step bolts 1508
milling setup 20612062 T-bolts 1646
mountings 20522053 T-head bolts 1505
nomenclature 20542056 T-nuts 1647
octoid tooth form 2053 types of 14921493
planetary 2083, 2087 Unified 14891490, 14921496, 1499
replacement gear dimensions 21222125 1502
selecting formed cutters for 2060 wing nuts 16931697
INDEX 2565
Bolts and nuts (continued) Brakes
ANSI, metric dimensions band 23372339
clearance holes 1532 block type 2340
designation 1532 coefficient of friction 23382340
diameters 1523 Brass
heavy hex castings 525532
bolts 1529 coloring 14411442
nuts 1548 strength and physical properties 477
structural bolts 1529 wire, strength 477
hex EDM 13281329
flange nuts 1545 Brazing 13541361
jam nuts 1548 filler metals for 13541359
hex nuts 1543 fluxes for 13541359
identification symbols 1532 heating for 1360
materials and mechanical symbols 1361
properties 1534 workholders for 1360
prevailing torque hex Break-even analysis 4042
flange nuts 1547 Bricks
nuts 1546 specific gravity and weight 370
reduced diameter bolts 1524, 1527 strength 478
slotted hex nuts 1544 Briggs (now ANSI) standard pipe
thread series 1532 thread 18491850
British Standard Brinell hardness 473, 475, 516524
Fine thread 15521559, 1619, 1838 aluminum alloys 550555
1840 cold-drawn carbon steel rounds, squares,
hexagon 15511554 and hexagons 395396
metric hexagon 15551561 heat-treated steels 432436
standard thread 1839 magnesium alloys 560
Unified 1597 Rockwell conversion tables 520
Whitworth 15511554, 1591, 1595 stainless steels 439
1598, 1619, 18361838, 1868 British Association
eye bolts and nuts 358359 standard screw threads 1839
grade markings for steel 14841488, tolerance formulas 1839
1532, 1534, 1541, 15601561 British Standard
load allowable on bolts 14891491 BS 1083 1551, 15531554
spacing for wrench clearances 1510 BS 1157 1838, 19031904
1511 BS 1387 1857
tightening 1475 BS 1449B 1565
torque required to tighten 14751488 BS 1580 1551
working strength of bolts 14891491, BS 1657 1825
15591560 BS 1768 1492, 1551
wrench clearances for 1510 BS 1769 1492, 1551
wrench openings 1510 BS 1807 2043
Bolts and screws 1492 BS 1916 1650
Bonding, adhesives 2460 BS 1981 1595, 1597
Boring BS 2059 2156
carbide tools for 859864 BS 21 18561858
cutting time for 1044 BS 235 2043
wood 378 BS 2519 2043
Boring-bar, cutters, carbide 859864 BS 2693 1551, 1559, 1562
Boron nitride BS 2708 1551
cubic (CBN) abrasive 982, 1140, 1157, BS 275 1464, 1471
1166 BS 2779 18561857
cutting tool materials 982 BS 2827 1586
speeds and feeds for 1002, 1008, 1018 BS 2870 1565
1022 BS 2963 1559
Bottom land 1999 BS 3027 2043
Box wrench clearances 1510 BS 308 2043
Brads and wire nails 1455 BS 328 848, 850856
BS 3382 1559, 1586
BS 3550 2156
2566 INDEX

British Standard (continued) British Standard (continued)


BS 3643 902, 904, 1560, 1587, 1826, keys and keyways 23542367
1831, 1834 limits and fits for holes and shafts 657
BS 3692 1551, 15551559, 19041905 666
BS 3696 2043 machine screws 15861598
BS 4084 1825 metric
BS 4168 16131618, 19041905 and inch pipe threads 18561858
BS 4183 1586, 15881589, 15921594, basic sizes, preferred 667
19041905 bolts, clearance holes 19031904
BS 4186 1904 comparison of British, French, German
BS 4190 1551, 1904 and Swiss 1780
BS 4235 23542355, 23572360 dowel pins 16481650
BS 4320 15651567 drills 850856
BS 436 20422045 hexagon socket screws 16131618
BS 4464 15631565 keys and keyways 23542367
BS 45 1840 limits and fits 657666
BS 450 1586, 1595, 1598 machine screws and nuts 15861595
BS 4500 657, 660663, 665666, 2356 series plain washers 15651566
BS 46 2359, 23612364, 2367 series spring washers 15631565
BS 4620 14731474 taps, ISO 902903
BS 545 2043 threads 1780
BS 57 1586 nuts 15521555, 15571559, 15861597
BS 6 2365 PD 3376 2043
BS 6104 1613 PD 6457 2044
BS 6105 1613 pipe threads, parallel 18561857
BS 6186 2156 pipe threads, taper 18571858
BS 641 1472 preferred metric basic sizes 667
BS 721 2043 preferred numbers 667
BS 821 2043 rivets 1464, 14711474
BS 84 1551, 1838 screws 15511560, 15861598, 1613
BS 93 1551, 1839 1619
BS 949 902903 thread dimensions 18251858
BS 970 2354 thread profiles 1825, 1836
BS 978 2043 spark plugs 1840
clearance holes for metric bolts and spur and helical gears 2042
screws 19031904 striaght splines 2156
combined drills and countersinks 847 studs 1551, 1562
countersunk head screws 15911598 tapping drill sizes, ISO metric
dowel pins, metric 16481650 threads 19011903
drills, metric 850856 taps, ISO, metric 902903
fasteners, mechanical properties 1559 thermal units, (BTU) 2514
1560, 1613 converted into foot-pounds 2553
Fine threads (BSF) power and heat equivalents 2551
basic dimensions 1838 Unified
tolerance formulas 1836 machine screws and nuts 15951597
hexagon bolts 15511554 screws and nuts 15951597
hexagon socket screws, metric 1613 thread sizes 17061710, 17121754,
1618 17811785
button head 1617 UNJ profile threads 18251826
cap 16141615 washers, plain, metric 15651567
set 16161618 Whitworth threads (BSW)
Imperial wire gauge 24992500 machine screws 15951598
interference fits 1551, 1562 set-screws 15951598, 1619
ISO metric thread form 18361837
grade markings 15591560 tolerance formulas 1836
hexagon bolts, screws, and nuts 1555 Broaches
1561 chip breakers 930931
limits and fits 657666 clearance angles for teeth 930
tapping drill sizes for 1903 depth of cut per tooth 929
taps 902903 depth of teeth 930
threads 18251834 face angle or rake 930
INDEX 2567
Broaches (continued)
land width 930
pitch of teeth 927930
radius of tooth fillet 930
C
shear angle 930931 Cables, wire, breaking strength 336341
surface 928 CAD/CAM 12871297
total length of 930 drawing exchange standards 12941296
types 926927 projections 1289
Broaching 926932 rapid prototyping 1296
cutting oils for 11081109 standard lettering sizes 1294
cutting speeds for 1043 tips 1290
difficulties 932 Cadmium
pressure 928 bearing alloys 2240
types of machines 930931 plating 1444
Broken tap, removal of 19051908 vacuum coating 1451
Bronze 525 Cage materials, anti-friction bearings 2254
castings, strength 477 2255
strength 477 Calculation procedure 1137
Brown & Sharpe Calculations
automatic screw machines 10941099 strength of materials, sample 212
milling machines 1979 Caliper
taper 906, 915916 gear tooth 20182020, 21082111
taper reamers for sockets 825 measurement of 2020
wire gage 24992500 vernier 669
Brush finishing, power 14351438 Calorie, kilogram 2514, 2546
Buckingham formula for pin method of Cams and cam design 10981099, 2163
checking screw threads 18671870 2188
Buckling, columns 261262 acceleration, velocity, and displacement
Buffing and polishing 14391440 formulas 21632167
wheels for 1440 classes of cams and followers 21632164
Built-up Sections, Moments of Inertia 217 cylindrical cams 21852187
Bulk modulus of various material 384 design example 21812184
Bulk temperature thermal flash factor 2045 displacement
Burs and files, rotary 1433 constant velocity 2165
Bushings curves 21632167
gear 2117 cycloidal 21662167
jig, materials for 941 diagrams 21632169
standard, for jigs 941951 harmonic 21652167
steels for 456 parabolic 21652166
Butt joint, riveted 14571462 synthesis of 21672169
Buttress threads 18171824 forces 21792184
allowances and tolerances 18211823 machining errors, effect on
ANSI Standard inch type 18181824 acceleration 21832184
basic dimensions 18171818 materials 21792186
British Standard 1825 milling 21862188
designations 1824 pressure angle 21712178
diameter-pitch combinations 18171818 profile determination 21682171
miscellaneous types 18171824 radius of curvature 21782184
symbols and formulas 1820 rollers 21862187
thread form 18181819 size determination 21722176
wire method of measuring 18751877 stresses, contact 21792180, 2184
Byte 2533 threading cams, screw machine 1094
Byte, PLC 1229 1098
B18.2.1 1492 Canned (fixed) cycles, NC 12581262
B18.2.2 1492 Cap screws 1496, 15991604
B18.6.7M 1577 button head 1604
drill and counterbore sizes for 1601
1602
fillister head 1600
finished, hexagonal 1496
flat head 1599, 1603
2568 INDEX

Cap screws (continued) Cast iron (continued)


hexagon socket type 16011604 alloy 13281329
hexagonal 1496 bearings 2241
metric 1521 chilled 13281329
round head 1600 density 370
spline socket type 16011604 ductile 1332
tap drill sizes 18891907 gray 13281329
Capacitor 1319 malleable 13301331
Capital recovery 28 Meehanite 13281329
Carat 2518 nodular 1332
Carbide tools speeds and feeds for
application of cutting fluids to 1111 drilling, reaming, and threading 1037
boring 859865 1038
coated 980981 milling 10211022
cutting 738740 turning 10021003
grinding 937940 strength 476
insert holders 726, 732738, 12811284 white 13281329
insert type 726, 730738 Cast roller chains 2421
materials for 747757, 979981 Cast steel 13321336
sharpening 937 strength 476, 13321335
standard blanks for 738740 Casting processes
tips for boring tools 859864 aluminum alloys 13421343
tips for turning tools 741746 die casting 13371344
Carbides and carbonitrides 747752 ductile iron 1332
Carbon gravity die casting 13371338
monoxide, specific gravity 371 gray iron 13361337
steel castings 13331334 green-sand molding 13361337
steels 403, 406 investment casting 13451347
AISI-SAE designations 409410 low pressure casting 13371338
cold drawn 430431 permanent mold 13371338
composition of, SAE 420 shell-molding 13361337
heat treatments 504 squeeze casting 13371338
mechanical properties 432436 V-process 13361337
numbering system 403, 405 Castings
quality variations 418 alloy steel 13321335
speeds for milling 10141019, 1022 blast cleaning 1338
speeds for turning 996999 brass and bronze 525532
structure of 483 bronze and brass for gears 21172119
tool steel as a cutting tool material 978 carbon steel 13331334
unified numbering system 403, 405, cleaning methods 1338
413 ductile (nodular) iron 1332
Carbon dioxide finishing operations 1338
solidification temperature 623 heat treatment 1338
specific gravity 371 heat-resisting 13281329
Carbonaceous mixtures 498 investment 1345
Carbon-graphite bearings 2242, 2245 malleable iron 13301331
Carbonitrides and carbides 747752 malleable iron, strength 476
Carbonitriding 417418 manganese steel 1335
Carburizing 417, 479, 498 Meehanite 13281329
gas 498 nodular cast iron 1332
liquid 498 nonferrous strength 477
solid materials 498 removal of gates and risers 1338
steels for 422423 shrinkage of 13391343
temperatures 504505 steel 13321336
vacuum 499 steel, for gears 2063, 21132117
Cartesian coordinates 36 surface texture of 708
Case hardening 416418, 479, 498 weight, obtained from pattern
steel 497 weight 1340
Cash flow 3031 Castle and slotted nuts 1493, 15001502,
discounted 3031 1552, 1554
Cast iron Cathode 1319
INDEX 2569
Cell, flexible manufacturing, NC 1235 Centistokes 22012202, 23122313, 2319
Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit Central plane 1999
temperatures 25142516 Centralized lubrication systems 23132315
Cement, strength of 478 Centralizing Acme threads 18021811, 1816
Cementation 479 alternative series 1816
Cemented carbide tools 747752 designation 1811
coated 750752 formulas for determining diameters 1804
grinding 937940 limiting dimensions 18041807, 1811
materials for 979981 major and minor diameter allowances and
speeds for drilling with 10301033, tolerances 1810
10351041 pitch diameter allowances 1808
speeds for milling with 10131022 thread data 1807
speeds for turning with 9961009 thread form 1794, 1803
Cementite 483 Centrifugal
Cements, pipe joints 24642466 clutches 2332
Center force 163166
distance, gear set 2010, 2012, 2080 calculation 164
drills reamers and machine stresses in flywheels 178
countersinks 813 Ceramic cutting tool materials 752755, 981
of oscillation 151 Cermets 747
of percussion 151 Chain
Center distance 1999 cast roller 2421
Center distance, gearing 1999 close-link 355
Center of gravity 136142, 151 crane and hoisting 351360
any four-sided figure 137 detachable 2421
circle sector 138 pintle 2421
circular arc 137 Chamfers and corner clearance, gearing 2135
cone 140 Change gears
cone, frustum 140 helical gear hobbing 20802083
cylinder 139 helical milling 1931
cylinder, portion of 139 leads and angles for helical milling 1946
ellipse segment 138 1947
ellipsoid, segment of 141 relieving helical-fluted hobs 19161917
fillet 138 thread cutting, lathe 19121916
of two bodies 141 fractional ratios 19131914
parabola, area of 139 fractional threads 1912
paraboloid 141 metric pitches 19121913
part of circle ring 138 modifying the gearbox output 1913
perimeter or area of parallelogram 136 1916
pyramid 140 threads per inch with given
pyramid, frustum 140 combination 1912
spandrel 138 Channels
sphere, hollow 141 aluminum 2498
spherical sector 141 elements of 2494, 2498
spherical segment 141 moment of inertia 2494, 2498
spherical surface 138 radius of gyration 2494, 2498
spheroid, segment of 141 section modulus 2494, 2498
trapezoid 137 steel 2494
triangle 136 structural 2494, 2498
wedge 140 weight per foot 2494, 2498
Centering tools Characteristic, logarithm 102, 104
feeds for 10941095 Charcoal, weight and volume 371
length of point 925 Checking
Centerless grinding 11831185 Acme threads by three-wire method,
screw threads 19261927 table 1872
troubles 11841185 American standard threads by three-wire
Centers, for arbors and reamers 813 method, table 18661867
Centimeter-gram-second system of assembly 619
measurement 2520 castings 619
Centimeter-inch conversion tables 2533 dimensions 619
Centipoises 22012202, 23122313, 2319 drawings 618619
2570 INDEX

Checking (continued) Circular (continued)


for strength 618 gear teeth 20062008
gear size 20942112 interpolation, NC 12541255
machined parts 620 mil gage for wires 2517
radius of arc 690693 pitch 1999, 2127
Whitworth threads by three-wire method, given center distance and ratio 2014
table 1868 pitch gears, diameters of 2022
Cheese head screws, British Standard 1591, ring sector, area 64
15951596, 1598 ring, area 64
Chemical ring, thin flat 148
treatment of metals 14401443 saws, arbors for 1203
vapor deposition (CVD) 750 sector segment 955958
Chilled cast iron 1330 sector, area 63
Chipbreakers 728 segment, area 63
grinding 939940 thickness 1999
Chisels, cold steels for 456 milled bevel gear teeth 2064
Chord outside diameter
length for given angle and radius 8081 has been enlarged 2015
length for given number of has been reduced 2015
divisions 955958 is standard 2014
Chordal addendum 1999, 2018 Circular arc
milled bevel gear teeth 2064 enter of gravity 137
milled, full-depth gear teeth 20162017 Circular pitch 1999
Chordal distance of bolt circle 78 Circular pitch in gears 2022
Chordal thickness 1999 Circular thickness 1999
gear teeth 20152017, 2062 Circumference, chords for dividing 955958
milled bevel gear teeth 2064 CL data, NC 1242
milled, full-depth gear teeth 20162017 Classical V-belts 23792386
OD is special 2018 Clavarino's equation 271
OD is standard 2015 Cleaning castings 1338
Chrome 1445 Clearance 1999
Chromium angles
plating 1427 boring tools 859864
tool steels 458, 460, 462 milling cutters 800
Chucking reamers 808822 punch and die 1301
expansion 814 reamers, tooth rest position 811
rose 808, 822 single-point tools 740746
Chucks turning tools 740746
drill, tapers and threads for 919 drill sizes, machine screw 1900
hexagonal, for portable tools 1210 for wrench 15101511
spindle, for portable tool grinders 1207 ANSI Standard 1532
Cincinnati milling machines, indexing British Standard 19031904
movements 19861989 Clevis pins 1648
Circles Closed-loop system 1233, 24682470
chords for dividing circumference Clutches 23292336
of 955958 centrifugal and free-wheeling 2332
dividing, on jig boring machine 959970 cone 23302331
enclosed within a circle 7275 cutting with angular cutters 23342336
enclosed within a rectangle 77 disk 2329
geometry of 4850 friction 23292330
lengths of chords for dividing 955958 friction coefficients 2330
packing magnetic 23312332
in circles 7275 positive 23332334
in circles and rectangles 7277 power capacity of 2329
in rectangles 77 saw tooth 23352336
programming in APT (NC) 12671270 slipping 2332
segments 8081 wrapped spring 23322333
squares of equivalent areas 79 CNC 12251226
Circular programming 12401280
disk Coatings 14441451
radius of gyration 147 Coatings, conversion, of metals 14401443
INDEX 2571
Cobalt 939 Conductivity (continued)
alloy 981 electrical, of plastics 580581
Cobaltchrom steel 508 thermal 368370, 379
Coefficient of friction 190191, 2045, 2330, Cone
2341 center of gravity 140
rolling resistance 191 clutches 23302331
Coefficient of heat radiation 367 frustum
Cold-form tapping 19041907 center of gravity 140
Collets 971973 polar moments of inertia 144
Colloidal suspension 1319 radius of gyration 150
Coloring metals 14401443 frustum of 68
Columns 261267 polar moments of inertia 144
American Institute of Steel radius of gyration 149
Construction 264265, 267 Cone volume 68
American Railway Engineering Conical pendulum 188189
Association formulas 261 Conjugate fractions 1416
eccentrically loaded 262 Constructional steels 11501151
Euler formula 261263, 266267 Contact
J. B. Johnson formula 262, 266267 diameter 1999, 2028
Rankine or Gordon formulas 261, 263 diameter, gearing 20282033
steel pipe, allowable concentric ratio 1999, 2029
loads 264265 face 1999
Combination factor 20442045
drill and tap 1909 total 1999
shanks for end mills 781 ratio, gearing 20242029
Combinations of involute spline types 2138 stress 1999, 2045
Combined stress 206 stresses, cams 21842186
normal stresses at right angles 206 Contact diameter 1999
Combined stresses 207210 Contact ratio 1999
Compensation, insert radius, NC 12811284 Contact ratio factor 20442045
Complex conjugate 39 Contact stress 1999
Complex or imaginary numbers 38 Contents of tanks 5859
Composite, checking of gears 2042 Continued fractions 1314
Compound use of as conjugates 1516
angles 688690 Contour Milling 1994
indexing 19501956 Contourmilling 1994
thread cutting, NC 1263 Control, adaptive, NC 1233
Compression Convergents 1316
in beams 236, 256257 Conversational part programming,
in columns 261267 NC 12401241
of air 395401 Conversion
springs 285305 coating of metals 14401443
Compressive properties cutting speed formulas 985
ceramics 379 tables
definitions 196 angular measure 90, 92
strength, values of 476, 478 cutting speed and diameter to rpm 986,
wood 375376 1174
Computer numerical control, CNC 1225 cutting speed formulas 19081909
1226 decimal equivalents of inch
programming 12401280 fractions 2519
Computer-aided (or-assisted) decimal multiples of SI units 2522
design (CAD) 12871297 foot-pounds into Btu 2553
manufacturing (CAM) 1287 hardness 520524
Concave arbor-type milling cutters 790 horsepower into kilowatts 2553
Concrete metric into English measure 2525
specific gravity and weight 370 2550
strength 478 miscellaneous English units 2532
Conditional expressions, NC 1258 oil viscosity unit 22012202, 2312
Conductance, thermal 366 2313
Conductivity pounds-force into newtons 2550
electrical, of metals 13231324 radians into degrees 90, 92
2572 INDEX

Converting numbers to powers-of-ten Couplings (continued)


notation 18 fire-hose 18421845
Convex arbor-type milling cutters 790 flexible 2327
Coolants for hose 18411843
lapping 1202 interference fits 2326
machining knuckle joint 23282329
aluminum 1116 safety flange 2325
magnesium 11171118 single keys used as fixed 2140, 2143
tool sharpening 939940 slipping 2332
zinc alloys 1118 universal 23272328
tapping 18891890, 1909 CPVC plastics 380, 601, 2511
Coordinate system, converting to another 36 Crane chain
Coordinates, for jig boring 953970 hoisting 351360
Copolymer 569 safe loads 352
Copper strength 351354
flat products, strength 477 Crane motors 24562457
lead bearings 22382241 Crane, hooks 351360
linear expansion 368369 capacity of 357
plating 1445 dimensions 357
silicon alloys 565 Crater-resistant carbide tools
wire, strength 477 materials for 980
zinc-tin alloys, strength 478 Craters 1319
Copper and copper-base alloys Creep 524, 576577
cast 525532 rupture 524, 576577
classification 525 Critical
Copper-beryllium 565566 slenderness ratio 261262
die casting 1343 speeds 185186
passivation 14411442 formulas for 185186
speeds, for drilling and reaming 1041 of rotating bodies and shafts 185
for turning and milling 1006 speeds of rotating shafts 283
wrought 533542 temperatures, heat treatment 479, 485
Copper- and iron-base sintered determining 486
bearings 22432245 Crobalt alloy 981
Copper Development Association 525542 Croning shell mold process 13361337
Cordage Institute 353, 360 Crosby Group 356359
Core drills 846849 Cross recesses
Corner-rounding milling cutters 775, 790 for machine screws 1577
Corrosion-resisting alloys 425, 428, 525 for self-tapping screws 1623
566 Cross section lining, ANSI Standard for
castings 1335 drawings 606, 608
Cosecant 83 Crossed helical gears 1998
Cosine 83 Crowned
Cosine law of 84 involute splines 2145
Cotangent 83 splines for large misalignments 2145
Cotter pins, standard sizes 1648, 1659, 1662 Crowned involute splines 2145
Cotters 2354 Crushing strength, wood 375
Coulomb shear theory (plastics) 584585 Cryogenic treatment, steel 514517
Counterbores 857858 Cube, volume 66
Countersinks 813, 862 Cubes of wire diameters 330
combined with drills 845 Cubic
machine 813 boron nitride (CBN) 982, 1002, 1004,
Countersunk head 1008, 1018, 10211022, 11391140,
rivets 1466, 14701472 1157, 1166
British Standard 1464, 14721474 grinding wheels 1157, 1166
screws 15691571, 15741575, 1591 conversions 2542
1599, 1603 equations 33
British Standard 15911598 measure 2517, 2542
Couples and Forces 120 Cumulative fatigue damage 198
Couples of forces 121 Cupola malleable iron 13301331
Couplings Curve, normal distribution 12161219
double-cone 2326 Cutoff 701
INDEX 2573
Cutoff or roughness sampling length 707 Cutting speeds and feeds (continued)
Cutter diamond tools 981982
checking relief and rake angles 801, 805 drilling and turning titanium and titanium
clearance angles 800801, 806 alloys 1007
compensation, NC 12511253, 1281 drilling superalloys 10081009
1284 drilling, reaming, and threading 1012
grinding 798806 1043
location data (CL data) 1242 copper alloys 1041
radial relief, eccentric type 801805 feeds 1012
rake angles 800801 ferrous cast metals 10371038
spline 799 glass 1034
tooth rest positions 806 light metals 1039
wheels for sharpening milling plain carbon and alloy steels 1030
cutters 798800 1035
Cutter compensation, NC 12511253, 1281 stainless steels 1036
1284 tool steels 1035
location data, NC 1242 equivalent
Cutters chip thickness (ECT) 992994
angular, milling 777, 783, 796799 rpm for given cutting speed 986990
bevel gear, formed types 20582061 rpm for given drill sizes and speed 986
boring-bar 859864 formulas for 985, 1005
box-tool 1095 honing 11961198
fluting, for reamers 808810 metal cutting saws 1044
helical gear, formed type 20772079 milling 10091012
internal gear 2047 feeds for high-speed steel cutters 1023
milling 771806 ferrous cast metals 10211022
speeds and feeds for sharpening 800 plain carbon and alloy steels 1014
milling, steels for 452456 slit and slot 10121013
roller chain sprocket 24392441 stainless steels 10191020
spur gear, formed type 20172021 superalloys 10081009
T-slot 775 titanium and titanium alloys 1007
Woodruff keyseat 795 with cemented carbide cutters 1009
Cutting 1012
abrasive 1204 planing 1044
electric arc 14281429 rpm for different speeds and
fluids 1106, 11081111 diameters 987990
application of to carbides 1111 shaping 1044
aqueous solutions 1107 tapping 10121039, 10411043, 1959
broaching 11081109 1975
carbides 1111 thread chasing 10411043
chlorinated oils 11071109 tool
magnesium 11081109, 1111 angles 723730
mineral oil 1109 inserts 747757, 12811284
selection 11071109 life 982983, 992994
soluble oils and compounds 1107 adjusting 755757, 10041005, 1009,
sulfurized oils 1107, 11091110 1012, 1028
various alloys 11071109 materials related to 978
gas torch cutting 14281429 tool steels 1000, 10181019, 1035
roller chain sprocket teeth 2437 turning
time for turning, boring and facing 1044 copper alloys 1006
wire rope 344 ferrous cast metals 10021003
Cutting bevel gear teeth 2053 hard-to-machine materials with CBN
Cutting speeds and feeds 978, 10401046 tools 10081009
automatic screw machine 1095 light metals 10071008
bandsaw 11031105 plain carbon and alloy steels 996999
broaching 1043 stainless steels 1001
chip thickness 992994 superalloys 10081009
cutting speed calculations 1005 titanium and titanium alloys 1007
cutting tool materials 444471, 747757 tool steels 1000
CVD diamond tools 982 unusual materials 1044
work materials 978
2574 INDEX

Cutting tools 723726 Cylindrical grinding (continued)


angles 723738, 12811284 high speed 11781179
application codes, ISO 753 machines 1175
carbide grade selection 747757, 980 operating data 1177
981 selection of grinding wheels 1142, 1156
carbon tool steels 978 1157, 1166, 11761177
carbonitrides (cermets) 747752, 981 traverse and plunge grinding 1175
cast nonferrous alloy 981 troubles 11791183
cemented carbides 747757, 979981 workholding 1176
ceramics 752755, 981 Cylindrical tank, contents 5859
coated carbides 980 Cylindrical to rectangular coordinates 38
coatings 750, 980
compositions and properties 748750
crater-resistant carbides 980
cubic boron nitride (CBN) 754757, 982,
D
1140, 1157, 1166 Data input, manual, NC 1240
CVD diamond 982 Datum referencing 610611, 614
diamond 750757, 981982 Datum target points 616
CVD 982 Datum targets 615
polycrystalline 754755, 981982 Decalescence point in steel hardening 479,
synthetic 755757 485
grades 752, 980981 Decimal
high-speed steel 979 equivalents, fractions 2519
inserts 12811284 multiples and submultiples of SI
machining data 755757 units 2522
materials 978982 point programming, NC 1245
sharpening 934935 Dedendum 1999
single-point 723738 Definitions
specifications, ISO 751752 gear terms 1998
titanium carbides 749752, 980 geometric dimensioning and
trouble-shooting checklist 983 tolerancing 610
tungsten carbide 747, 979 spline terms 2142
combined with other elements 749750 surface texture 699
whisker-reinforced 754 surfaces of solid materials 697
Cyanide Deflection
bath for heating steel 487 beams 236, 239, 241242, 253254
hardening 498 calculating 206
Cyaniding 417418, 480 flat plates 268270
Cycloid 1999 shaft, linear 280
area 63 shaft, torsional 277280
curves, area enclosed by 58 springs
Cylinder compression and extension 302
center of gravity 139 torsion 321324
collapsing pressure 273274 Degrees, expressed in radians 90, 92
hollow Density 370
polar moment of inertia 144 air 394
radius of gyration 149 ceramics 379
volume 68 metals 368370
plates and shells 268274 plastics materials 380
polar moment of inertia 144 powdered metals 383
portion of volume 6768 wood 376
portion of, center of gravity 139 Department of Commerce 272273
radius of gyration 148 Deposition rates (welding) 1367, 1375
strength to resist internal pressure 270 1378, 13901391
274 Depth of cut 982983
working pressure vs. radius ratio 272 Depth of engagement 2127
Cylindrical coordinates 38 Derivatives of functions 3435
Cylindrical grinding 11751183 Detachable chains 2421
automation in 11781179 Deviation, mean positional 1217
basic process data 1178 Diameter of circle enclosing smaller
circles 7275
INDEX 2575
Diameters for finished shafting 280 Dies, sheet metal (continued)
Diametral heat-treatment, steels for 452454
equivalent circular pitch and tooth lubricants 1302
proportions 20072008, 20912093 press speeds and pressures 13021304
equivalent modules 20912093 punching pressures 13021304
pitch 1999 rectangular drawing 13021304
pitch knurls, (ANSI) Standard 1212 shut height of press 13021304
1215 steels for various classes of die parts 452
pitch, gear teeth 454, 456
sizes 20022004 Dies, steel rule 13151317
Diamond Dies, threading, maximum pitches 1929
concentration 937938 1930
dust for lapping 1201 Differential
grinding wheels 11521169 indexing 19761985
laps and lapping 1201 pulley 135
tool materials 754757, 981982 Dimensioning and tolerancing,
truing 11581162 geometric 606, 610611
wheels 937939, 11631169 DIN 867 2090
composition 1166 Direct (or distributed) NC 1296
designation symbols 11631166 Discounted cash flow 3031
diamond concentration 937939 Disk
feeds and speeds 1169 circular, radius of gyration 147
grades, grit sizes 937938 clutches 2329
modifications 1166 method of measuring tapers 682683
operating guidelines for 1169 springs 326
selection of 1168 Displacement in ball and roller bearings,
shapes of standard 11631166 allowance for axial 2264
speeds and feeds 1169 Distance across bolt circle 687
terminology 1163 Distributed numerical control (DNC) 1296
thread grinding 1923 Distribution curve, normal 1216
Die blocks, steels for 452456 Dividing
Die casting 13371344 circles 959970
alloys used 1342 head
bearing metals 1344 angular position 796799
design 13411342 indexing 19471993
dies 13431344 numbers written in powers-of-ten
machining zinc alloy 1118 notation 19
porosity 1341 DNC 1296
Die sinkers files 1432 DOD-P-16232-F 1450
Diemaker's reamers 797 Dolly bars for riveting 1467
Dies and punches, steel for Double angle milling cutters 777
drawing 13021307 Double V-belts 23862394
hot-working 452454, 456 Double-cone clamping couplings 2326
Dies and taps Dovetail slides, measuring 682683
combination drill and tap 1909 Dowel pins 16481654
maximum pitches 19291930 metric 16481650
selection of 18851887 Drafting practices, ANSI Standard 606611
square thread 883, 887890 Draw-in bolt ends 923
tap drill size 901, 18891908 Drawing
Acme threads 901 ANSI Standard
formula 19001901 drafting practices 606611
metric 1903 lines 606
pipe 19071909 sheet sizes 606
Unified 18891902 surface texture symbols 704708
Dies, sheet metal welding 13941409
angular clearance for 1302 bisect angle 52
bending allowances 13041310 checking 618
blank diameters for drawing 13041307 circle around square 54
blocks, steels for 452454, 456 circle around triangle 53
clearance between punch and die 1301 circular arc 53
diameter reductions in drawing 1305 data for gear blanks 2033
2576 INDEX

Drawing (continued) Drilling (continued)


data for gears 20332036 estimating thrust, torque, and
data for involute splines 2139 power 10511055
divide line into equal parts 51 feed rates for 1012
ellipse 54 holes in glass 1034
equilateral triangle 52 holes, accuracy of 856858
helix 55 horsepower and thrust for 10511055
hexagon around circle 54 machine, shaftless motor type 2454
hyperbola 55 spade 865871
involute 55 Drills
metric dimensions on 708 accuracy of drilled holes 856858
parabola 55 angle of cutting point 934936
parallel lines 52 chucks, tapers 919
perpendicular lines 51 cobalt high-speed steel 857
sizes of sheets 606 combined drills and countersinks 845
square around circle 54 847
symbols core, taper shank 847
ANSI Standard 606611 cutting speeds and equivalent rpm 986
section lining 606 definitions of terms 827
geometric 609 diameters of tap 18891903
ISO 609 drivers 848850
tangent to circle 53 for taper pin reamers 16551658
triangle around circle 53 grinding 934937
45-degree angle 52 jobbers length 829835
60-degree angle 52 length of point 925
Drawing data, splines 2140 metric, British Standard 847856
Drawing dies nomenclature 827
annealing drawn shells 1302 screw machine drills 829840
blank diameters 13041307 sharpening 935937
brass 1302 sizes for tapping 18891903
depth drawn in one operation 13051307 for Acme threads 901
diameter reduction in one spade 865871
operation 13051307 steels for 856857
rectangular 13021304 straight-shank drill sizes
Drawing, or tempering, steel 493495 core drills 849
Drawings letter 833834
checking metric 829839
inspecting a new design 618 number 829833
materials specified 618 straight-shank, taper-length, drill sizes
method of making drawing 619 fractional 830839
data for spur and helical gear 2036 letter 833834
metric dimensions on 710 metric 830839
scales of metric drawings 711 number 830833
specifying spur and helical gear data screw machine length 840
on 2034 tangs for 839
Dressing grinding wheels 11581162 tap and clearance hole sizes 1900
Drill taper-shank core drills 846849
sizes for tapping Acme threads 901 taper-shank drill sizes
sizes for wood screws 1456 fractional inch 841846
Drilling metric 841846
accuracy of drilled holes 856858 twist 827858
automatic screw machine feeds and types 827
speeds 1095 Drives
cutting speeds for 1094 motors, NC 24712473
ferrous cast metals 10371038 nose key 911912
light metals 1039 screws 16201621, 1635
superalloys 10081009 square, for portable tools 1208
titanium and titanium alloys 1007 studs 1662
tool steels 1035 taper 910911
difficulties 1034 Driving slots and lugs for shell reamers and
arbors 823
INDEX 2577
Drop-forging dies, steels for 452456 EDM (continued)
Drums, chain and wire rope 342343, 360 recast layer 1320
Dry measure 2518, 2523 secondary discharge 1320
Dryseal pipe threads 18521855 spark in 1320
taps for 881 spark out 1320
Ductile square wave 1321
cast iron 1332 stroke 1321
iron 476, 1332 UV axis 1321
Duranickel, machining 1118 white layer 1321
Durometer tests 521 wire EDM 1321
Dynamic wire guide 1321
balance 167 wire method 1318, 13281329
stresses 257258 wire speed 1321
Dynamic factor 20442045 workpiece materials 13231324
Dynamic viscosity coefficient for Effective
lubricants 2324 dimensions, splines 2127, 2136
Dynamometers 23382341 length of bolt 1479
Dyne 2520 vs. nominal interest rates 25
Efficiency 2000
influence of friction on 191
E machine tool 10481051
spade drilling 870
Earth, weight of 370 riveted joints 14591462
Eccentricity 2136 Elastic
Economic Tool-life 1073 limit 196
ECT modulus 196
grinding 1121 for various materials 196
ECT (equivalent chip thickness) 992994 plastics 583
EDG (electrical discharge grinding) 1319 region 196, 14831484
EDM 13181329 tightening fasteners in 14771481
dielectric filter 1319 Elastic properties of material 384
dielectric fluid 1319 Elasticity (rigidity)
dielectric strength 1319 modulus of 196
discharge channel 1319 in shear (torsion) 196
dither 1319 spring materials 326329
duty cycle 1319 various materials 196
electrode growth 1319 Elasticity factor 20442045
electrode wear 1319 Elastohydrodynamic lubrication 2321
electro-forming 1319 Electric
Farad 1319 arc, cutting metals 14281429
gap 1320 dielectric strength
gap current 1320 ceramics 379
gap voltage 1320 plastics 380
heat-affected zone 13231324 socket and lamp base threads 1846
ion 1320 Electrical relationships 2532
ionization 1320 Electrodes (welding)
low-wear 1320 characteristics of standard types 1378
negative electrode 1320 1382
no-wear 1320 AWS E60XX 13791383
overcut 1320 AWS E70XX 13811383
overcut taper 1320 current to use with 13671386
plasma 1320 deposition rates 1364, 13671370, 1375
plunge (sinker) method 13211328 1377
electrode materials 1324 diameter to use 13631364, 1372, 1381,
machine settings 1322 1383
making electrodes 1327 selecting GTAW tungsten type 1385
metal removal rates 1323 1387
positive electrode 1320 wire, feed rates 13671375
power parameters 1320 Electropolishing 1447
process 1321 Elements, table of chemical 363
quench 1320 Elevation reading displacements 1219
2578 INDEX

Ellipse Equilateral triangle 83


area 65 Equivalent chip thickness (ECT) 992994
methods of drawing 54 Equivalent pitch ratio 2000
moment of inertia 222 Equivalents, power and heat 2551
radius of gyration 222 Erg 2520
section modulus 222 Etching and etching fluids 14401441
segment, center of gravity 138 Euler's formulas for columns 261263
Ellipsoid Evaluation length 701
polar moment of inertia 145 Evaporation, latent heat of 364
radius of gyration 150 Everdur copper-silicon alloy 565
volume 69 exbi 2533
Elongation Expansion
carbon and alloy steels 432436 air 395396
carbon steel rounds, squares, and chucking reamers 814
hexagons 430431 coefficient of (linear)
copper alloys 526542 ceramics 379
copper-beryllium alloys 566 metals 368370
copper-silicon alloys 565 plastics 370
high-strength, low-alloy steels 441 fits 623
Investment casting alloy 381 hand reamers 817
magnesium alloys 560 pipe 392
nickel alloys 562563 Exponent 17
plastics 380 External spline 2128, 2138
stainless steels 439 External spur gear 1998
titanium alloys 564 Extrusion process 13471351
various metals 383 Eye bolts and nuts 358359
Emery
grades 1440
grain numbers for polishing 1440
End mills
F
angles for milling teeth in 796797 Fabric, bonding 24622463
ANSI Standard 779789 Face advance 2000
combination shanks for 781 Facing
terminology of 778779 cutting time for 1044
Endurance limit 197, 20442045 hard 14231427
for spring materials 295 Factorial 97
Energy 156158, 1319 Factors
kinetic 157159 of numbers 312
of flywheels 173, 175 prime number 312
potential 157158 Factors of safety 199
Energy and momentum 154 machine columns 265
Engagement, length of thread 14891491 shafts 276, 283
Engine lathe, change gears 1912 tubes subject to external pressure 274
Enlarged pinions wire rope 339340
center-distance system for 2027 Fahrenheit and Celsius (Centigrade)
in helical gearing 20772080 temperatures 25142516
in spur gearing 20192027 Failure
Epicyclic gearing 20832087 fatigue, modes of 199
bevel gear type 20852087 fatigue, springs 293295
compound drive 2087 of riveted joints 1458
ratios 20852087 of springs 331
Epicycloidal curves, areas 58 Fatigue
Equations combined with creep 199
cubic 33 contact 199
quadratic 33 corrosion 199
solution of cumulative damage 198
first degree with one unknown 32 failure, modes of 199
first degree with two unknowns 33 influence of stress on 197198
numerical with one unknown 35 low/high cycle 199
quadratic with one unknown 33 properties 197
using Newton-Raphson method 35 S-N diagrams 197198
INDEX 2579
Fatigue (continued) Fits
springs 293295 and limits
surface 199 graphical representation 631633
thermal 199 tolerances designation 642644
FCAW (flux-cored arc welding) 13711378 cylindrical
Federal Specification allowances and tolerances for 621667
gage blocks, inch and metric sizes 717 ANSI Standard 627657
GGG-G-15A 717 application of tolerances 622
GGG-G-15B 717 British Standard 657667
GGG-G-15C 717719 clearance 631637
Feed definitions 621644
function, NC 12491250 expansion 623
rate override, NC 1251 forced 622, 640
rates metric ISO, British 657666
centering tools 1095 metric radial, ball and roller bearing
for drilling 868870, 10121043, 1095 shaft and housing 2264
for milling 10091012 preferred series 630
for turning 9961009 running 631635
hollow mills 1095 shrinkage 623640
Feeds and speeds 597599, 869, 9781046, transition 631, 633, 638
10941095, 11031106 pressure in assembling 622623
Feet Fittings, pipe 25042512
into meters 2541 friction loss in 392
into millimeters 2538 Fixed (canned) cycles, NC 12581262
per minute into rpm 985990, 19081909 Fixtures and jigs 941951
Fellows stub tooth gears 2010 Flame
Ferrite 483 cutting of metals 14281429
Ferrous hardening 417, 499500
cast metals, speeds spraying process 1351
for drilling, reaming, and Flanged housing and pillow block
threading 10371038 bearings 2254
for milling 10211022 Flank of tooth 2000
for turning 10021003 Flat
metals, properties of 473, 475476 belts 23682369
Fiber, vulcanized, strength of 478 length formula 2369
Fiberglass sheet, properties 380 rivets for belts 1469
Files 1430 rules for diameters and speeds of
applications 14311432 pulleys 23702371
characteristics 1431 speed limitations 2368
classes 1431 head cap screws 1599, 1603
cross sections 14311432 head machine screws 15691571, 1597
curved tooth 14311432 1598
machinists 14311432 metal products, preferred
mill or saw 14311432 thicknesses 2503
rasps 14321433 plate
rotary 14331434 circular 270
special purpose 1432 square and rectangular 268269
steel for 854 strengths 268270
Swiss pattern 14321433 thin 148
teeth, cut of 1431 thrust bearings 22192225
Filler metals for brazing 13541359 stayed surfaces in boiler work,
Fillet strength 268
area 64 Flat knurls 1213
center of gravity 138 Flexible
Fillet radius 2000 belts 2372, 2419
Fillister head machine screws 1574 couplings 2327
Fine blanking 13121314 manufacturing
Finishing of castings 1338 cell 1235
Finishing, power brush 14351438 module 1235
Fire hose connection screw thread 1842 systems, (FMS) 1234
1845 Floor and bench stand grinding 1192
2580 INDEX

Flow of air in pipes 401 Force (continued)


Flow of water through nozzles 390 of blow 159160
in pipes 388389, 2509 of gravity 155
Fluid Maintenance on inclined plane 131
1114 parallel 119
biocide Treatment 1114 parallelogram of 119
personal protective clothing 1114 polygon of 119
system service 1114 pound 114, 116
Fluidized bed furnace 479, 485 relationship to time 195
Fluting cutters, reamers 808810 resolution of 118, 121
Fluxes into rectangular components 126
brazing 13541359 resultant 118, 121
soldering 13521354 any number of concurrent forces 126
Flywheels 173184 locating when components are
bursting speed tests 182183 known 129
calculations 173184 non-intersecting forces 124125
centrifugal stresses in 178 non-parallel, non-intersecting
classification 173 forces 128
design, general procedure 174 parallel forces 123
energy of 173, 175 parallel forces not in same plane 127
for presses, punches, shears 174178 single force and couple 123
dimensions of 176 three or more concurrent forces 122
rim velocity 176 two concurrent forces 122
simplified calculations 177178 screw 135
weight of rim 177 systems 118135
pulley 173 toggle joint 133
spokes or arms of 184 work performed by 158
stream engine 183184 Forced fits, allowances 622, 640
stresses 183 Forces and Couples 158
centrifugal in rim 178 Format
combined bending and centrifugal 179 classification 12431245
in rotating disks 183 detail, NC 12431245
types of 173 word address, NC 12431245
Foot-pound Formed cutters for internal gears 2047
equivalents 2551 Forming tools 758770
into British thermal units 2553 arrangement of 770
Force 113, 195 circular 760770
acceleration resulting from 154156 diameters of 762770
addition and subtraction of 118 with top rake 762764
algebraic composition and resolution feeds per revolution 770, 1094
of 121129 speeds for 770, 1094
algebraic solution straight 758761
forces in same plane 122124 with rake 758761
forces not in same plane 126129 Formulas
and couples, work performed by 158 algebraic 32
centrifugal 163166 beam 207
calculating 164 calculating dimensions of milled bevel
colinear 121 gears 2056
components of 118, 121 column
composition 118, 121 American Railway Engineering
concurrent 121 Association 261
components of single force 122 Euler 261262, 266267
coplanar 121 Johnson 262
couples of 120121 Rankine or Gordon 261
differential pulley 135 straight-line 261
for moving body on horizontal plane 135 contour milling 1994
friction 155 critical speeds 185186
graphical representation 118120 cutting speed 985
moment of 113, 120 dimensions of milled bevel gears 2054
noncoplanar 121 dimensions of SAE standard splines 2160
normal component 155 dimensions of standard spur gears 2004
INDEX 2581
Formulas (continued) Functions (continued)
distance across bolt circle 687 sevolute 97
internal gears 2048 trigonometric 8385, 93
linear motion, constant acceleration 152 tables of 9396
pendulum 189 versed cosine 97
proportions of ANSI fine-pitch worms versed sine 97
and wormgears 2065 Functions of angles
rearrangement of 2021 graphic illustration 92
rotary motion, constant acceleration 153 Furnaces, steel heat-treating 479, 484485,
tooth parts 512513
former American Standard spur Fusion, latent heat of 364
gear 2010
tooth parts, coarse pitch spur gear 2004
torque capacity of involute splines 2141
transposition 2021
G
trigonometric 8485 Gage block sets
work and power 162 inch sizes 718
Formulas for center of gravity 136 metric sizes 719
Fourth powers of wire diameters 330 Gage blocks 717
Fractional threads 1912 Gage blocks, precision 717719
Fractions federal specifications for 717
conjugate 1415 inch sizes 718
continued 1314 metric sizes 719
use of 1516 Gage tolerances 1883, 18851898
decimal equivalents 2519 Gagemakers tolerances 656662
one inch into decimal inches 2519 Gages
one inch into millimeters 2538 ANSI Unified thread
Free allowances and tolerances 18821884
body diagram 155 angle tolerances 1882
cutting steels 409, 422 classification 18771879
wheeling clutches 2332 constants for computing
Freezing mixtures 367 dimensions 1883
French diameter tolerances 1882
metric screw threads 1780 form 1879, 1883
thermal unit 2514 formulas for limits 18831884
Fretting damage 2145 tolerances for plain gages 1883
Friction 155, 190192 tolerances on lead 1882
brakes 23372341 rods 2499
clutches 23282330 sheet metal 25012503
coefficients 191, 2330, 23382341 sheet zinc 2502
rolling resistance 191 thickness and diameter sizes, galvanized
static steel on various materials 191 sheet 2502
effect on efficiency 191 tubing 2499
laws of 190 usage, ANSI Standard recommended 656
rolling 191 wire 330, 24992500
wheels, power transmission 23392341 zinc 2502
Friction loss Gaging methods and measuring
Elbow instruments 669
45 degree 392 Gallons
90 degree 392 cylindrical tanks 5859
in bearings 2280 in tank at given level 5859
Standard tee into cubic inches 2518
Flow thru branch 392 U.S. into liters 2545
Flow thru run 392 Galvanized, (welding) 1363
Fuels Gas
average weights and volumes 371 carburizing 417, 498
weight 372 illuminating, specific gravity 371
Functions metal arc welding (GMAW) 13631371
derivatives 3435 specific gravity 371
involute 97101 tungsten arc welding (GTAW) 1382
1387
2582 INDEX

Gasket materials 14581459 Gearing (continued)


Gasoline, specific gravity 371 helical gears 20682083
G-code programming, NC 12431263 replacement gear dimensions 2123
Gear 2125
blanks 20332034, 20522053 spur gears 20042033
crossed helical 1998 calculating dimensions of milled bevel
helical 1998 gears 2056
hypoid bevel 1998 case hardening steels for 2113, 2117
materials 2063, 21132120 checking gear sizes 20942112
set, center distance 20102015 checking pressures 2042
shapers, root diameters of gears cut chordal measurement of teeth 2015
on 2011 2017, 21082111
shaving 20112013 circular pitch system 2002
size, checking 20942112 compound 1912, 1978
specifications 20332036 contact ratios 20242026
spur design of bevel gear blanks 2052
internal 1998 diametral and circular pitch 2003
spur, external 1998 diametral pitch 1999, 2009
straight bevel 1998 diametral pitch system 2002
teeth drawing data 20332036
induction hardening 502 efficiency 2000
invention of 21212122 elasticity factor 20442045
tooth caliper, vernier 2020, 21082111 enlarged fine-pitch pinions 2023
trains, for fractional ratios 19131914 enlarged pinion and reduced dimensions
worm 1998 to avoid interference 2019
zerol bevel 1998 enlarged pinions meshing without
Gear cutters, formed backlash 2027
involute 20172021, 2047, 20772079 epicyclic 20832087
milling cutters for chain sprockets 792 equivalent pitch radius 2000
793 external spur gears 1998
milling cutters for 14.5 deg. pressure face advance 2000
angle gears 791 Fellows stub tooth 2010
milling cutters for 14.5 deg. pressure fillet radius 2000
angles 791 fillet stress 2000
for miter and bevel gears 792 fine-pitch gears, blanks for 2033
number for bevel gears 20582060 finishing gear milling cutters 2023
Gear cutting flank of tooth 2000
block or multiple indexing 19901991 for given center distance and ratio 2010,
excess depth to obtain backlash 2039 20122013
2040 forged and rolled
formed cutter selection 2021, 2058 alloy steels for 21132117
2059, 20772079 carbon steels for 21132117
helical 20772078 formed cutters for milling bevel
internal gears 2047 gears 2060
methods for bevel 20532062 geometrical factor 2046
shaving 20112013 geometry factors 2045
Gear ratio 2000 geometry of gear teeth 2002
Gear teeth, comparative sizes and shape heat treatment to permit
of 2002 machining 21132114
Gear to Mesh with Enlarged Pinion 2027 helical 20682083
Gear tooth stiffness constants 2045 herringbone 2083
Geared chucks, spindles for 1203 highest point of single tooth contact
Gearing 20482066, 2068, 2070, 2077, (HPSTC) 20302031
20932125 hypoid 2051
AGMA Standards 2037, 2041 idler gears 1977
angular backlash 20362042 increasing pinion diameter to avoid
backlash 20362042, 2103 undercut or interference 2022
backlash, recommended 2038 induction hardening 502
bevel 20502063 information to be given on
bronze and brass castings for 2117 drawings 2043
calculating inspection 2042
INDEX 2583
Gearing (continued) Gearing (continued)
inspection of gears 2042 surface condition factor 2045
integral temperature criterion 2046 tangent plane 2001
interference 2000 tangential force 2044
internal 20472048 terms used in specifications 2034
internal diameter 2000 through hardening steels for 21132114
internal gear 2000 tip relief 2001
internal spur gears 1998, 2047 tooth face 2001
invention 2122 tooth proportions
involute curve 2002 fine-pitch involute spur and helical
land 2000 gears 2008
lead 2000 for enlarging fine-pitch pinions 2025
length of action 2000 2026
life factor 20442045 tooth surface 2001
line of action 2000 tooth thickness allowance for
load distribution 20442045 shaving 2013
lowest point of single tooth contact tooth-to-tooth composite error 2042
(LPSTC) 2000, 2029 total composite error 2042
lubricant influence 2044 total face width 2001
lubricant influence, roughness, and transverse load distribution factor 2045
speed 2044 transverse plane 2001
lubrication film factor 2045 trochoid 2001
material quality 2044 true involute form (TIF) 2030
materials for 20632066, 21132120 true involute form diameter 2001, 2030
measuring 2020, 20942112 undercut 2001
methods of cutting internal gears 2047 undercut limit for hobbed involute
metric gears 2030
module gear cutters 2021 welding factor 2045
minimum demanded and actual safety work Hardening Factor 2045
factor 2045 work hardening factor 2044
minimum demanded and calculated safety working depth 2001
factors 2045 worm 20642066
minimum number of teeth to avoid worm gearing 2064
undercutting 2027 worm gears 1998
module 2000 zone factor 20442045
module system 20902093 Gearing ratios
mountings for bevel gears 2053 change, for lathe 19121915
non-metallic 601604, 21182122 differential indexing 19761985
outside diameter 2000 finding accurate 19151917
pin method of checking size 20942112 Gears for given center distance and
pitch diameter 2002 ratio 2012
obtained with diametral pitch General purpose Acme threads 17921802
system 2003 data 1799
pitch point 2000 designation 1795
plane of rotation 2001 form 17931794, 1796
planetary 20832087 formulas for diameters 1796
pressure angle 2001, 2008 limiting dimensions 1795, 1797, 1802
profile checker settings 2031 pitch diameter allowances 1800
rack 2001 thread form 17931794, 1796
ratchet 20882089 Geometric dimensioning and
relative sizes of internal gear and tolerancing 606, 610
pinion 2047 datum
replacement gear dimensions 21222125 feature 610
roll angle 2001 identifier 610
root diameter 2001 plane 611
selection of involute gear milling reference frame 611
cutter 2021 simulator 611
size factor 2044 target 611
spur 20022033 target areas 616
standard normal diametral pitches 2043 target lines 616
steels for 21132117 definitions 610
2584 INDEX

Geometric dimensioning and (continued) Grams


degrees of freedom 611 into ounces, avoirdupois 2547
dimension per cubic centimeter into pounds per cubic
basic 612 inch 2549
origin 612 Granite
reference 612 specific gravity and weight 370
feature 612 strength 478
feature control frame 612 Graphical Resolution of Forces 118
free state 618 Graphical solution of force systems 118120
least material condition (LMC) 612 Graphitic materials for bearings 2242, 2245
material removal required or Gravel, weight 370
prohibited 706 Gravitational system of measurement 114
maximum material condition Gravity 114
(MMC) 613 acceleration due to 114
mean line 699 center of, in various geometrical
modifiers 616 figures 136142
position 613 force of 155
positional tolerance 616 lubrication systems 23142316
projected tolerance zone 616 specific 370
regardless of feature size (RFS) 613 gases 371
relation of surface roughness to liquids 371
tolerances 702 plastics 380
size, actual 613 various substances 370371
size, feature of 613 Gray cast iron 1330
tangent plane 618 Grease lubricants 23162318
Geometric symbols Greek symbols 2554
comparison of ANSI and ISO 609 Green sand molding 13361337
Geometrical Green wood, weight per cubic feet 377
constructions 5155 Grindability of tool steels 11511152
dimensioning and tolerancing 606, 610 Grinders
611 safety for 1170
progression 43, 45 spindles for portable 1207, 1209
propositions 4650 Grinding 11391193
symbols for drawings 609614 abrasive belt grinding 1193
Geometrical factor 2046 abrasives 11391141
Geometry factors 2045 basic rules 1120
German standard carbide materials, diamond wheel 1135
gear tooth 2090 carbide tools 937940
screw threads, metric 1780 cast iron 1132
Gib-head keys 23452367 centerless 11831185
gibi 2533 centerless grinding troubles 11841185
Gleason system ceramic materials, diamond wheel 1135
bevel gears 20512054 chip breakers 939940
Zerol bevel gears 20502051 cylindrical 11751183
Glue, pattern 13391340 cylindrical grinding troubles 11791183
GMAW diamond wheel 937939, 11631169
(gas metal arc welding) 13631371 ECT 1121
welding aluminum 13651366 equivalent diameter (work conformity)
welding stainless steel 13641366 factor 1125
GO and NOT GO gages 2147 finishing 1128
Gold floor and bench stand 1192
plating 1447 fluids 1107
Goodman diagram 197198 grindability groups 1128
Gordon formula for columns 261, 263 grinding cost, optimization and process
Grade markings on bolts and nuts planning 1138
ASTM and SAE 14881489 grinding cutting forces, torque and
inch 14841488 power 1126
metric 1534, 15591560, 1586 grinding data selection including wheel
life 1127
grinding rules and data selection 1120
heat resistant alloys 1134
INDEX 2585
Grinding (continued) Grinding (continued)
internal centerless 1183 markings, standard 11411142
milling cutters 798801 mounted wheels and points 12051206
minimum cost conditions 1123 metric 1204
offhand grinding 1192 mounting and safety 1170
optimization 1138 selection of 11421162
optimum grinding data for roughing 1123 shapes and sizes, standard 11421150
planing tools 729730 metric 11481149
plunge 1175 structure 11401141
portable grinding 1192 truing
procedure to determine data 1130 diamond feeds 1161
relative grindability 1129 diamond sizes 1161
rpm, various speeds and diameters 1174 dressing of 11581162
screw threads 19231927 wheel markings 1141
side feed, roughing and finishing 1128 work speed and depth of cut
silicon carbide wheels 937939 selection 1121
spark-out time 1125 work speeds in rough and finish
specific metal removal rates 1125 grinding 1125
spindles for portable tools 1203 Grooved pins 1656, 16581662
surface 11851192 Grooving and oil feeding of bearings 2204
surface finish, Ra 1124 2205
surface grinding troubles 1190 Ground thread tap, designations 898
swing-frame 1192 GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) 1382
terms and definitions 1129 1387
tool steels 11321134 Guide bearings 22362237
tools Guldinus or Pappus rules 56
carbide 937939 Gutta percha, turning 1045
twist drills 934937 G-word, NC 12451249
traverse 1175 Gyration radius of 146
unhardened steels 1131 bar, small diameter 147
user calibration of circular disk, thin 147
recommendations 1136 circular ring, thin flat 148
wheel life and grinding ratio 1120 cone 149
wheel life relationships and optimum cone, frustum 150
grinding data 1122 cylinder 148
wheel life vs. cost 1138 cylinder, hollow 149
wheel safety 11701174 ellipsoid 150
handling 1170 flat plate, thin 148
inspection 1170 hollow cylinder, thin 148
machine conditions 1170 hollow sphere 150
mounting 1170 paraboloid 150
portable grinders 1172 parallelepiped 149
safe operating speeds 11711174 parallelogram 148
speed conversion table 1174 prism, rectangular 149
speeds, maximum 1173 ring 147
storage 1170 sphere 150
wheel safety grades 1140 sphere, hollow 150
wheels 11391162, 11701174 spherical shell, thin 150
abrasive materials for 11391140 thin flat plate 148
angles for eccentric type radial relief
angles on milling cutters 804
bond properties 1140
CBN 1140, 1157, 1166
H
cubic boron nitride 1139, 1157 H- and L-limits 879880, 896897
diamond 754755 Hand
truing of 11581162 expansion reamers 817
dressing and truing of 11581162 of flute helix 774
faces, shapes of 1150 of milling cutter 773
grades 1140 reamers 807817
Hard facing 14231427
Hard rubber, machining 1119
2586 INDEX

Hardenability 415416 Heat (continued)


test methods 416 power equivalents 2551
Hardening steel 479, 485486, 491492 quantity measurement 2514
flame 499 radiating capacity of bearings 2204
induction 500 radiation coefficient 367
laser and electron beam 503 scales 2514
Hardmetals 747757 specific 364
carbonitride based 749750 temperature scales 25142516
coated 750752 thermal energy 2514
ISO classifications 753 Heat radiating capacity of bearings 2206
tooling for wood and nonmetals 757 Heat treatment 479483
Hardness 415 high-speed steels
aluminum alloys 550555 annealing 510511
bearings 21992200 furnaces for 512513
ceramics 379 hardening 508514
heat-treated steels 430436 steel 414415, 479517
magnesium alloys 560 annealing 414, 479, 483, 495497
O-ring 24832484 annealing temperatures 496497, 503
plastics 380 505
powdered metal alloys 383 baths
relation to tensile strength 473, 475, 521, heating 487
524 quenching 488492
steel tempering 492495
carbon and alloy 432436 carbonitriding 417
castings 1333 carburizing 417, 498
cold drawn, rounds, square, and temperatures 504505
hexagons 431 case hardening 497499
stainless 439 case hardening steels 504505
tool steels 458, 460, 462, 464, 468, 471 cleaning work after case hardening 499
surface (case) 415416 colors for tempering 495
testing 516524 cooling
Brinell 516524 low-temperature, to stabilize
conversion errors, causes 521 dimensions 514517
conversion tables 520524 subzero, to improve properties 516
correction for curvature 2304 517
diamond pyramid 518520 cyanide hardening 498
durometer 521, 2485, 2487 decalescence point 479, 485
Hultgren ball 517521 defects in hardening 488
Keeps test 519 double tempering 494
Knoop hardness numbers 518519 flame hardening 499
Mohs hardness scale 521, 524 furnaces 479, 484485
monotron 518519 hardenability test, Jominy 416
relationship between hardness and hardening temperatures 479, 485486,
tensile strength 473, 475, 521, 524 504505
Rockwell 520524 hardening, defects in 488
scleroscope 518521 heat treatments for SAE steels 503505
Turner's sclerometer 521, 524 induction hardening 500503
Vickers 518521 interrupted quenching 490492
H-bands (hardenability) 416 lead bath temperatures 487, 494
Heat liquid baths 487
absolute temperature and zero 2514 nitriding 417, 513
coefficients of radiation 367 normalizing 414, 496497
coefficients of transmission 367 normalizing temperatures 503505
Fahrenheit-Celsius conversion 2514 oil hardening steels 503505
2516 pack-hardening 498
freezing mixtures 367 protective coatings for molybdenum
ignition temperatures 367 steels 512
latent 364 quenching 414, 481485, 488492, 510
loss from uncovered steam pipes 365 recalescence point 479, 485
366 salt baths 487
mechanical equivalent 2514 scale formation 488
INDEX 2587
Heat treatment (continued) Helix angle 2000
spheroidizing 496497 Herringbone gearing 2083
stabilizing dimensions 515 Hertz stress, 2000
strength and hardness of AISI Hexagon
steels 432436 area 62
stress relieving 415 distance across corners 82
subzero treatments 516517 Highest point of single tooth contact
surface hardening 503 (HPSTC) 2000, 2030
tanks for quenching baths 490 High-speed steels 457460, 979
tempering 416, 482, 493495 as cutting tool materials 979
time aging 515 cobalt 856857
water quenching 489 cobaltcrom 508
Hectares into acres 2541, 2544 heat treatment 508514
Helical annealing 510511
gearing equipment 513
enlarged fine-pitch pinions 20772080 forging 513
fine pitch 20772079 hardening
formed cutter number 20772079 molybdenum 510512
hobbing 2080 temperatures 509510
replacement gear dimensions 2122 tungsten 508510
2125 nitriding 512513
shafts preheating tungsten 508
at any angle 20692078 quenching
at right angles 20722074 molybdenum 512
parallel 2070 tungsten 509510
interpolation, NC 1255 subzero treatment 514517
milling 20772079 tempering
change gears 19311948 molybdenum 512
wire screw thread inserts 1635 tungsten 510511
Helical gearing 1998, 20682083 time for through hardening 509
center distance for enlarged 2080 molybdenum 457458, 464, 510513
change gears for hobbing 20802083 tungsten 458, 460, 462, 508511
checking gear size 2094, 21032109 High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA)
checking size by pin method 2103 steels 409410, 440443
chordal thickness and addendum 2015 Hob tip radius, maximum 20302033
2017 Hobbing helical gears, change gears 2080
data on drawings 20332036 2083
direction of thrust 2068 Hobs
enlarged fine-pitch pinions 2080 change gears for relieving 19161917
fine pitch 20062008 roller chain sprocket 2437, 2439
helix angles 2069 Hobs, worm gear 2064
herringbone type 2083 Hoisting chain and wire rope 333360
hobbing 20812083 Holders for NC, insert 732738, 12811284
normal tooth thickness 2006, 2008 Hold-on or dolly bars for riveting 1467
pin method of checking size 20942109 Holes
pitch of cutter 2069 accuracy of drilled 856858
problems 2083 coordinate dimension factors for jig
spur gear replacement by helical boring 959970
gears 2122 difficulties in reaming 812
tooth number for selected formed for riveted joints 1457
cutter 20772079 for tapping 18891907
tooth proportions 2008 in glass, drilling 1034
Helical gears 1998 sizes for self-tapping screws 16281635
Helical overlap 2000 spacing of, on a jig borer 959970
Helix 1933 Hollow
angle 2000 cylinder 149
angle factor 2045 mills, feeds and speeds 1095
angles, screw threads 17401749 sphere 150
constructing 55 Honing process 11961199
lead for given angle 19431948 abrasive stones for 1198
measurement of angle 1933 adjustments 11981199
2588 INDEX

Honing process (continued) Ice, specific gravity and weight 370


carbide tools 939940 Identities, trigonometric 8485
rotative speeds in 11961198 Idler gears 1977
stock removal, rate of 1197 IGES (initial graphics exchange
tolerances 1199 specification) 12941296
Hooks, dimensions of crane 357 Ignition temperature 368
Horsepower 113 Impact force of 159
air compression 396400 Impact strength, Izod
chain transmission 24312444 carbon and alloy steels 432433
converted into kilowatts 2551, 2553 plastics 380
disk clutches 2329 Impulse 160162
drilling different materials 10511053 Impulse and momentum, angular 161
dynamometer test 23382341 Inch
electric motor ratings 2446 decimals of, into millimeters 25252535
equivalents 2551, 2553 fractional, into millimeters 2538
formulas 162 into centimeter and millimeter 2533
friction wheels 23392341 millimeters into decimals of 2536
gearing 21182121 Inclined plane 130, 155
helical gearing 20682083 force for moving body on 130
machining 10461051 motion on 155
nonmetallic gears 21182122 Inclined plane, forces on 131
planing and shaping 10471049 Inconel metals 562563
roller chains 24312444 Incremental programming, NC 1248
set-screw transmitting capacity 1619 Indexable
shafting 275277 carbide inserts 729732
spade drilling 870, 10511054 insert holders, NC 732738, 12811284
spur gears 21182122 inserts, single-point tools 729732
torque equivalent 275277 Indexing
V-belt drives 23722419 angular 19561976
water at a given head 389 block or multiple 19901991
Horsepower-hour equivalents 2551 compound 19471948, 19501956
Hose coupling screw threads 18411845 differential 19761985
Hot short alloy 13371338 head worm wheel with 64 teeth 1992
Hot-working, tool steels for 452454, 456 milling machine 19471993
HSLA steels 409410, 440443 movements 19511975, 19791989,
Hydrant screw thread 18421845 19921993
Hydrochloric acid, specific gravity 371 rack cutting on milling machine 1993
Hydrometer, Baums, and specific reamer teeth for irregular spacing 807
gravity 371 808
Hydrostatic bearings 21952196 simple 19471948, 19791985
Hyperbola area 65 Indexing head, angular position for
constructing 55 milling cams 21862188
Hypocycloidal curves, areas 58 milling clutches 23342336
Hypoid bevel gears 1998 milling end mills and angular
Hypoid gears 2049, 2051 cutters 796799
applications of 2051 Induction hardening 417418, 500503
Hypotenuse 83 equipment 500501
Hysteresis 290 gear teeth 502503
quenching 502
steels for 501
I Industrial assets, investments in 2731
Inertia 113
I-beam moment of 217
aluminum 2498 polar 277278
standard structural Initial graphics exchange specification
steel 2493 (IGES), NC 12941296
structural Inserts
moment of inertia 24892493 hardmetal materials 747757
section modulus 24892493 holders for NC 732738, 12811284
steel 2489 indexable 730738, 12811284
weight per foot 24892493 radius compensation, NC 12811284
INDEX 2589
Inserts (continued) Involute (continued)
screw thread 1635 gear cutters, formed type 2021, 2047,
self-tapping screw 1635 2054, 20562060, 20772079
superhard materials 754757 serrations 2126
Inspection methods 669719 splines 21262150
Instrument maker's thread system 1846 ANSI Standard, inch dimensions 2126
Instrumentation 2147
surface texture measurement 704 basic dimension formulas 2131, 2151
Interest basic rack profile 2155
compound 24 chamfers and fillets 2135, 2155
finding unknown rate 26 combinations of types 2138
formulas 28 compressive stresses,allowable 2145
nominal vs. effective 25 crowning for misalignment 2145
simple 24 dimensions, effective and actual 2135
Interference 2000 2151
Interference fit threads 17861791 drawing data 2139
British Standard 1551, 1562 fillets and chamfers 2135, 2155
coarse threads 17891790 fits, types of 2133, 21482150
designation symbols 1787 fretting damage 2145
dimensions 1788 inspection methods 2146
engagement lengths 1789 interchangeability 2138
interferences 1787, 1789 metric module 21482155
lubrication 1789 pin measurement of 2147
materials for 1789 reference dimensions 2138, 2155
profile 1786 shear stresses allowable 2142
spur gearing 20192022 sizes and lengths, estimating 2140,
torques for 1791 2143
Interferometer 1219 space width limits 21362138, 2151
Internal diameter 2000 2153
Internal gear 2000 symbols for 2129, 2139, 21482150
Internal spur tensile stresses, allowable 2145
gear 1998 terms 21262129, 21482153
gearing 20472048 tolerances 21332134, 21512153
International System (SI) units 25202524 tooth numbers 2129, 2133
Interpolation tooth proportions 21292133, 2148
circular, NC 12541255 2155
helical and parabolic, NC 1255 tooth thickness limits 2136, 21512153
linear, NC 1253 torque capacity formulas 21402145
Interrupted quenching 490492 variations
Inverse effect of 2135, 2153
and direct proportions combined 23 types of 2127, 2135, 2153
ratio or reciprocal 21 Involute splines 2000, 2126, 2129
Investment American National Standard 2126
annual cost method 2729 basic dimension 2133
casting 13441346 classes of tolerances 2133
in industrial assets 2731 diametral pitch 2128
present worth method 2930 effect of spline variations 2136
prospective rate of return method 3031 effective
Investment casting alloy clearance 2128
aluminium 381382 space width 2128
bronge 381382 tooth thickness 2128
carbon and low alloy steel 381382 variation 2128, 2153
cobalt 381382 effective and actual dimensions 2136
copper 381382 2137, 2147
stainless steel 381382 fillet 2128
Involute 2000 fillet root splines 2128, 2135
constructing 55 fillets and chamfers 2135
curve properties 2004, 2006 fit Classes 2152
curve, properties of 2002 flat root splines 2128, 2135
functions 97101 form circle 2129
form clearance 2129
2590 INDEX

Involute splines (continued) ISO Standard (continued)


form diameter 2129 ISO DR 911 1559
formulas for 2-pin measurement 2148 ISO DR 947 1559
inspection ISO DR 950 1559
types of gages 2147 ISO DR 952 1559
inspection methods 2146 ISO DR 987 1559
inspection with gages 2147 ISO Recommendation R273 1904
interchangeability 2138 ISO R272 1559
internal splines 2129, 2138 ISO R288 1559
lead variations 2129, 2136 ISO R53 2043
length of engagement 2129 ISO R54 2043
length of splines 2141 ISO R773 2354
load distribution factors 2142 ISO R861 1522
machining tolerance 2129, 2154 ISO TC/600 2045
major circle 2129 ISO 261 1777
major diameter 2129 ISO 4032 1542
major diameter fit 2133 ISO 4033 1542
manufacturing 2162 ISO 4035 1542
maximum ISO 4156 2148
actual space width 2137 ISO 4161 1542
effective space width 2138 ISO 4762 1522
effective tooth thickness 2137 ISO 68 17551756, 1760
maximum actual tooth thickness 2137 ISO 6983/1 1248
minimum ISO 6983/2 1248
actual space width 2137 ISO 6983/3 1248
effective space width 2137 ISO 887 1549
effective tooth thickness 2138 ISO 898/I property class 8.8 1776
minimum actual tooth thickness 2137 ISO 965 1755, 1766, 1768
minor circle 2129 ISO 965/1 17621764, 17671768
minor diameter 2129 ISO/TC2/WG6/N47 1549
parallelism variation 2129 metric
pitch 2129 British Standard taps 902903
pitch circle 2129 grade markings on bolts 15591560
pitch diameter 2129 hexagon bolts, screws and nuts 1555
pitch point 2129 1560
pressure angle 2129 limits and fits, British Standard 657
shear stress 666
at the pitch diameter of teeth 2144 thread 18251834
under roots of external teeth 2144 surface texture symbology 713
side fit 2133 tapping drills for 19011903
space width and tooth thickness washers, compared with ANSI 1549
limits 2137 ISO surface finish 711
stub pitch 2129 ISO surface parameter symbols 715
tooth numbers 2133 Isosceles triangle 83
tooth proportions 2130 Isothermal
tooth thickness modification 2153 expansion, compression of air 396
total index variation 2129 quenching 492
total tolerance 2129 Izod impact strength
types and classes of fits 2133 carbon and alloy steels 432433
variation allowance 2129, 2136 plastics 380
wear life factors, flexible splines 2142
Iron- and copper-base sintered
bearings 22432245
Iron castings 13281331
J
ISO Standard Jacobs tapers 919
drawing symbols, compared with Jam nuts, standard 1493, 14991500
ANSI 609 metric 1548
geometric dimensioning and Japanese Industrial Standard
tolerancing 606 JIS B 1083 1482
Jarno taper 906, 917
INDEX 2591
Jig Keys and keyseats (continued)
boring 951954 transmission chain 2426
hole coordinate dimension factors Woodruff 23482365
for 959970 kibi 2533
transfer of tolerances in 952954 Kilogram calorie 2514
bushings 941951 Kilograms
definitions 941 into pounds 2546
designation system for 942, 951 per cubic meter into pounds per cubic
locking mechanisms for 950 foot 2549
materials 941 per square centimeter into pounds per
plate thicknesses 941 square inch 2548
Jigs and fixtures 941951 per square meter into pounds per square
definitions 951 foot 2548
Jobbers reamers 818 per square meter into pounds per square
drills 829835 inch 2548
Johnson, J. B., column formula 262, 266 Kilometers into miles 2541
267 Kilopascals into pounds per square inch 2548
Joints Kilowatt
plastics pipe 25102512 into horsepower 2553
riveted 14571463 power required for machining 1046
toggle 133 Kilowatt-hour equivalents 2551
universal 2327 Kinematics 113
Jominy hardenability tests 416 Kinetic energy 157159
Journal or sleeve bearings 22042219 Kinetics 113
Kingsbury thrust bearing 22182219, 2232
2235
K Kips 13331334
K-Monel, machining 1118
Keeps hardness test 519 Knee tools, speeds and feeds 1095
Kelvin, degrees 2514 Knoop hardness numbers 518519
Kerosene, specific gravity 371 Knuckle joints, proportions 2329
Key and spline sizes and lengths 2140 Knurls and knurling 12111215
Keying bearings 21972198 ANSI 12111215
Keys and keyseats 2342 automatic screw machines 10941099
ANSI Standard 23422354 concave 1215
British Standard 23542367 diametral pitch knurls 12111215
chamfered keys 2347, 2353 formulas 1213
cotters 2351, 2354 lathe knurls 1211
depths for milling keyseats 23422344, revolutions required for top
2353 knurling 1094
effect on shaft strength 283 sizes, preferred 1211
estimating key sizes 2140 speeds and feeds 1095
filleted keyseats 2347, 2353 straight knurls 12131215
fitting 2346 tracking correction 1211
gib-head keys 2345, 2359, 23632367 work diameter tolerances 12141215
key fitting 2346 Ksi 13331334
keyseat milling cutters, Woodruff 795
keyseats, depth of 23432344, 2346,
2353
keyway stresses, nonmetallic
L
gears 21212122 Lag screws and threads 14971498
metric 23542360 metric 1525
milling cutters and arbors 794 Lames formula for internal pressure 271
parallel 23422353 Laminated phenolic bearings 2242, 2245
plain 2345, 23632367 Land 2000
setscrews for keys 2347 Land, gear tooth
size vs. shaft diameter 23422346, 2353 drill 827
2357, 23612364 Lapping
strength considerations for shafts 283 abrasives 1202
taper 23452354, 23592364 carbide tools 939940
tolerances 2345, 23472349, 2353 grading abrasives for 1200
2592 INDEX

Lapping (continued) Lead (continued)


grading diamond dust for 1201 of screw thread 18591864, 1933
lubricants 1202 Lead bath
pressures 1202 alloys, temperatures 494
tests 1203 for heating steel 487
wet and dry 1202 tempering 494
Laps 11991203 Lead, melting point 494
charging laps 1200 heat transmission coefficient 367
cutting properties 1201 solder 1353
flat surfaces 1199 specific gravity 370
materials for 1199 strength 477
rotary diamond 1200 tempering in 494
wear 1202 Lead-base alloys, die casting 1343
Laser and electron beam surface Leaded-bronze bearings 22382241
hardening 503 Least material condition (LMC) 612
Lasers 14101422 Length
beam focusing 14101411 differences due to temperature 668
beams 1410 engagement of screw thread 14891491
cladding 14211422 measures 2517, 2522
cutting metal with 14141415 of rivets for forming heads 1463
cut edge roughness 14151416 standard 2522
cutting speeds 14181419 Length of action 2000
heat-affected zone 14161417 Letter
kerf widths 14151416 addresses, NC 1243
cutting nonmetals 14161417 symbols for mechanics 115
drilling 14201422 Levers 132
heat treatment 14211422 Life adjustment factors for rolling element
light 1410 bearings 22962297
marking 1422 Life factor 2045
safety 1413 Light
types of industrial 14111412 duty V-belts 23902397
welding 14181421 laser 1410
joint design 14191420 metals
processing gas 14201421 speeds for drilling, reaming, and
theory 14181419 threading 1039
welding rates 14191421 speeds for milling 10131014
Latent heat 364 speeds for turning 10071008
Lathe wave interference bands, measuring
arbors 858 surface variations with 695696
centers, steel for 456 Limestone
change gears 19121916 cutting speed for 1045
fixtures, balancing 171172 specific gravity and weight 370
screw constant 1912 strength 478
types of motors for driving 2449 Limit
Law of elastic 196
cosines 84 endurance 197
sines 84 proportional 195196
Lead 2000 Limits and fits
angle of cutting tools 723730 ANSI Standard preferred metric 632,
tool inserts 1281 642657
angle of screw thread British Standard (metric ISO) for holes
finding 18631864, 1933 and shafts 658666
tables for 17401749, 1784, 1799, cylindrical fits, ANSI Standard 627642
1807, 1815, 18721874 definitions 632, 642, 644
angle of screw thread tables for 1815 gages, plain 622, 656
of helix for given angles 19431948 gages, thread 18771884
of helix known, find change gears for graphical representation 632633
milling 19311943 indicating on drawings 621622
of helix, change gears and angles for metric 632, 642651, 657
milling 18631864, 19461947 screw thread gages 18771884
of milling machine 1931 symbols 642644
INDEX 2593
Limits and fits (continued) Logarithms (continued)
tolerance designation 642 obtaining powers by 106
Woodruff keys 23482349 tables 108111
Limits, upper and lower (UL and LL) 613 common 108109
Line natural 110111
conventions and drawings 606 using calculator to find 104
geometry of 48 Long angle lathe file 1433
Line conventions and drawings 606 Low pressure casting 13371338
Line of action 2000 Lwenherz thread 1825
Linear Lubricants 23112320
coefficient of expansion 367 application of oils 23122314
ceramics 379 bearings 22022205, 23182320
metals 368371 cutting 1106, 11081111
pipe material density 23112313
copper 392 dynamic viscosity coefficient 2324
FRP 392 electric motors 24582459
PP & PVDF 392 grease 23152318
PVC 392 oil mist 23152316
steel 392 oils 23112320
plastics 380 pressure-viscosity coefficient 2324
deflection of shafting 280 presswork 1302
interpolation, NC 1253 solid films 2318
Lines, points, circles (APT) NC 12651270 specific gravity 23122313
Liquid temperature vs. viscosity 22022203,
baths, heating steel in 487 23122313
carburizing 417 viscosity 23112313, 2319
depth to volume conversion 5859 Lubrication 22012205, 23122320
measure 2518, 2523 aerodynamic 2321
specific gravity 370371 analysis, journal bearings 22072219
Liters application of oils 23152318
into cubic feet 2545 ball and roller bearings 23182320
into U.S. gallons 2545 centralized systems 23132315
Load chain 2443
rating, static, bearings 22972301 density 23112313
ratings and fatigue life, bearings 2285 elastohydrodynamic 2321
2303 films 2318
Load distribution 20442045 gravity systems 23142316
Lobing 694696 grease 23152317
Lock wire proceedure 1491 motors 24582459
Locknut threads, pipe 1848, 18511852 oil mist 23152316
Locknuts, ball and roller bearing 2277 oils 23152318
shafts for 22782279 plain bearings 22012204
Lockwashers relubrication with grease 23172318
ANSI Standard 15151519 roller chain 2443
ball and roller bearing 2276 selection for bearings 22022205
British Standard, metric solid films 2318
plain 15651566 specific gravity 23122313
spring 15631565 systems 23132316
spring type 15161517 viscosity 22022203, 23112320
tooth type 1515, 15181519 viscosity-pressure relationship 2324
Logarithms 102111 wicks and wick feeds 23142316
avoiding negative characteristic 104 Lubrication film factor 2045
characteristic 102
common 102, 108109
division by 105
extracting roots by 107
M
mantissa 102 Machinability of wood 377378
multiplication by 104 Machine
natural 102, 104, 110111 accuracy, effect of on part
tolerances 1220
countersinks 813
2594 INDEX

Machine (continued) Machining processes


elements, subjected to compressive ANSI Standard tolerance grade
loads 262 relationships 630, 657
platens, NC ??1285 effect on surface roughness 702703
Machine screw taps 872, 883886 Macro, NC 12571258
metric (ISO) 883893 Magnesium alloys 557560, 1343
Machine screws applications 557
ANSI Standard 15681585 compositions 559
binding head 1576 cutting fluids for 1111, 11171118
British designations 557
metric 15861598 die casting 1342
Unified 15951597 machining 11171118
British Metric 1598 properties 560
British Unified 1597 soldering of 13521354
BSW and BSF 1586, 1591, 15951598 strength 477, 560
cheese head 1593 Magnesium, coating 1446
clearance holes, metric 1585 Magnetic clutches 23312332
cross recesses 1577 Malleable
fillister head 1574 cast iron 1331
flange head 1583 iron castings 13301331
flat head 15691571, 1579 Iron Research Institute 1340
header points for 15741575, 1582 strength 13301331
hexagon head 1572, 1583 Malleablizing 481
hexagon washer head 1571 Manganese steel 411412
metric, ANSI standard 15771585 Manganese, in welding electrodes 1362
nuts for 1568 1363
oval head 15741576, 1580 Manganese-bronze castings 529530
pan head 1573, 1581, 15911592 Manila rope, strength 354, 360
recommended nominal screw lengths, Mantissa, logarithm 102
metric 1585 Manual data input, NC 1240
round head 1577 Manufacturers' standard gage for sheet
tap and clearance drills 18891903 steel 2501
tap drill sizes 1900 Manufacturing cell
taps for 872, 883893 flexible, NC 1235
truss head 1572 Manufacturing cell, flexible, NC
washerhead 1571 module 1235
washers for 15121517, 15651567 system 1235
Machine tool Marble
lathe, change gears for fractional specific gravity and weight 370
ratios 19131914 turning 1045
motor types 24562457 Martempering 492
Machinery noise 1297 Martensite 484, 514
Machining Masonry, weight per cubic foot 370
aluminum 1116 Mass 113114, 116
bearings 21992201 Material quality 2044
copper alloys 1119 Materials
hard rubber 1119 mechanical properties of 195196
magnesium 11171118 Materials for worm gearing 2067
Monel and nickel alloys 11181119 Mathematical signs and abbreviations 2
nonferrous metals 11161119 Matter 113
power constants 10461047 Maximum material condition (MMC) 613
power factors MBEC bearing tolerances 2240
chisel-edge 1053 M-codes (M-words), NC 1249
drill diameters 1055 Mean positional deviation 12161219
feeds 1047, 1054 Mean proportional 22
machine tool efficiency 1049 Measurement of backlash 2040
metal removal rates 1050 Measurement over pins 687
tool wear 1048 Measurements with pins 2147
work materials 1053 Measures and weights 25362553
power, estimating 10461054 Measuring
zinc alloy die castings 1118 angles with sine-bar 673682
INDEX 2595
Measuring (continued) Mechanics of materials (continued)
compound angles 688690 graphical solution of force systems 118
dovetail slides 682683 120
gear size 20942112 impulse and momentum 160162
instruments and gaging methods 669 angular 161
719 inclined plane 130, 155
radius or arc, over rolls 690 kinetic energy 157159
surface texture 697705 levers 132
tapers 682686 linear velocity 151152
threads metric SI units 113, 116, 118
Acme 18701875 decimal multiples and submultiples
American standard 18661867 of 2522
buttress 18751877 moment of inertia 143146
tapered 1872, 18751876 momentum 160162
using micrometer 18591861 Newton's laws 154155
using screw thread gage 18761884 pendulums 188189
using three-wire method 18601877 potential energy 157158
Whitworth 1868 pound force 114
V-shaped groove, over pins 690 power 162163
with light-wave interference bands 695 pulleys 134135
696 radius
with micrometer 670672, 18591861 of gyration 146
with vernier 669670 radius of gyration 147151
mebi 2533 radius of oscillation 151
Mechanical equivalent of heat 2514 scalar and vector quantities 118
Mechanical properties screw 135
aluminum 550, 556557 SI metric units 113, 116118
bolts, inch sizes 14881489 statics 113
bolts, metric sizes 1520, 15591560 toggle joints 133
ceramics 379 torque 156
copper 565 units 113116
magnesium 557560 vectors 118
nickel 561563 velocity, angular 151152
plastics 380 velocity, linear 151152
powdered metal alloys 383 wedge 130
spring wire 385 wheels 134
steel 452454, 473, 476 work 158159, 162163
strengths 473478 work and energy relation 158159
titanium 561, 564 work and power formulas 162163
various materials 195196 work performed by forces and
wood 375376 couples 158
Mechanics of materials 113 Meehanite castings 13281329
acceleration 151, 153154 Melting points
due to gravity, g 114 alloys of copper and zinc 13561357
algebraic solution of force systems 118, alloys of lead and tin 1353
121129 brazing alloys 13561358
angular metals 368370
impulse 161 solder 1353
momentum 161 various metals 368370
velocity 151154 Mercury inches of, and equivalent
center and radius of oscillation 151 pressure 388
center of gravity 136142, 151 Metal
center of percussion 151 alumimium alloys 368369
centrifugal force 163166 balls, standard 23022310
calculating 164 bonded grinding wheels 937938, 1140
couples 120121 bonding 24602463
differential pulley 135 cast iron and steel 368369
dynamics 113 coloring 14401443
energy 156158 copper-base alloy 368369
force 118121 foundry patterns 1340
force of a blow 159160 identification 521
2596 INDEX

Metal (continued) Metric (continued)


inert gas (MIG) welding 13621371 SI 1825
manganese bronge 368369 twist drills
melting points 368369 ANSI 827846
nickel 368369 British Standard 856
numbering systems for 403, 405 vernier, reading 670
plasma welding 13871390 washers, plain, ANSI 1547, 1549
properties of 473478 Metric (SI) System 116
slitting saws 776 Metric module gear cutters 2021
specific gravity and properties 368370 Metric system 113114
spraying process 1351 base units 116
stainless steel 368369 in strength of materials calculations 195
temperature effect on strength 475, 478 use of 116
titanium alloy 368369 Microinch 2517
Metal working into micrometers (microns) 25392540
application 1113 Micrometer
fluid selection 1113 into microinches 25392540
use 1113 reading 670672
Metal working Fluids screw thread 1859
classes 1112 Microprocessor 12291230
occupational exposure 11121115 Microscope screw thread 1846
Metallurgy, powder 1350 Mil 2517
Meters into feet 2541 MIL-A-8625F 1444, 1448
Metric MIL-C-13924C 1444
basic sizes, British Standard MIL-C-14538C 1444
preferred 667 MIL-C-14550B 1445
bolts and screws, British Standard MIL-C-5541E 1445
clearance holes for 19031904 MIL-C-8837B 1451
conversion factors 25252531, 2533 Miles into kilometers 2541
tables 25252553 MIL-F-495E 1445
dimensions on drawings 708, 710 MIL-G-45204C 1447
dowel pins, British Standard 16481650 Military plating specifications 14441451
equivalents 25252553 Mill or saw files 1431
fasteners, ANSI 15201527, 1529, 1532 Millimeters
1534, 1541, 15441549 hundreds of, into inches 2533
inch vernier, dual 670671 into feet 2538
International System of Units (SI) 2520 into inches 2533, 2536
2524 thousandths of an inch, into 25342535
ISO limits and fits, British Standard 657 Milling
666 angular 777, 783
keys and keyways, British cam 21862188
Standard 23542360 change gears for helical or spiral 1931
micrometer, reading 671672 1948
module, gear cutter 2021 contour 1994
gear teeth 20902093 feeds for
series British ISO cemented carbide cutters 10131022
hexagon bolts, nuts, and screws 1555 high-speed steel cutters 1023
1560 in inches per tooth for cemented carbide
machine screws and nuts 15861595 cutters 10131022
metal washers 15651566 helical, change gears for different
socket screws 16131618 leads 19311948
spring washers 15631565 horsepower for 10441051
taps 902903 short lead 1931
SI system in mechanics, calculations 113, speeds and feeds 10091012
116118 automatic screw machine 1095
SI units, factors and prefixes 2522 copper alloys 1006, 1024
sizes, preferred for flat metal ferrous cast metals 10211022
products 2503 light metals 10131014
systems of measurement 25202523 metal slitting (saws) 776, 1012
threads plain carbon and alloy steels 1014
British (ISO) 18251834 stainless steels 10191020
INDEX 2597
Milling (continued) Milling machine (continued)
superalloys 10081009 V-flange, NC 12841285
titanium and titanium alloys 1007 MIL-L-46010D 1448
tool steels 10181019 MIL-M-3171C 1446
thread 19281930 MIL-M-45202C 1446
Milling cutters 771806 MIL-P-45209B 1449
ANSI Standard 772795 MIL-P-81728AT 1446
arbor keys and keyways 794 MIL-R-27426 1674, 1676, 1678, 1680
arbor type 790 MIL-R-46085B 1450
bevel gear 792, 20582061 MIL-T-10727C 1451
casting 1346 Miner's law of linear damage 198
classification of 772773 Miniature screw threads 17811785
concave and convex 790 Minutes into decimals of a degree 90, 92
corner rounding 775, 790 Miscellaneous functions (M-words),
double angle 777 NC 1249
eccentric type radial relief 801 Module 2000
elements of 776779 flexible manufacturing, NC 1235
end mills 779789 splines, metric 21482155
gear 791792 system of gear teeth 20902093
grinding or sharpening 798806 Modulus
hand of polar moment 278
cut 772 polar section 278
cutter 773 Modulus of
flute helix 774 elasticity
rotation 772 for various materials 196
helical gear 20772078 perforated metal 235
hollow 1095 shear 196
indicator drop methods of checking relief elasticity, E (Youngs) 196, 326329
and rake angles 801805 for various materials 196
keys and keyways for 794 iron and steel 476
keyseat 795 nickel-based alloy 289290
metal slitting (saws) 776 nonferrous metals 477
number of teeth 771772 plastics 380
plain 773 flexural 380
rake angles 800801 rupture 375376
roller chain sprocket 792793 wood 375
selection of 771 shear (G) 196
setting angles for milling teeth in 796 for various materials 196
799 in plastics 573575
shell mills 778 in spring design 329
side 774 spring materials 326329
single angle 777, 783 Modulus section
spline shaft 799 polar 277
spur gear 791, 2021 Mohs hardness scale 521, 524
steels for 452456 Molding
terminology 776779 green sand 13361337
T-slot 775 shell 13361337
Woodruff keyseats 795 Molds, steels for permanent 468469
Milling machine Molybdenum
Brown & Sharpe 1979 high-speed steels 510512
centering plugs 923 heat treatment of 510512
Cincinnati 19861989 tool steels 457458, 460, 462, 464
cutters for 14.5-deg. pressure angle steels, SAE 409
gears 791792 Moment of a force 113, 120
draw-in bolt ends 923 Moments of inertia 143146
indexing 19471993 angles, steel 24952497
lead of 1931 built-up sections 217
platens ??1285 channels, aluminum 2498
spindle noses 920921, 924 channels, steel 2494
tapers for 920, 19291930 cross-sections 217227
tool shanks 922 formulas for various sections 217227
2598 INDEX

Moments of inertia (continued) Motion control (continued)


I or S shapes, steel 2493 hydraulic systems
I-beams, aluminum 2498 control systems 24762480
I-beams, steel 24892493 electronic controls 2480
of complex areas 146 proportional control 2479
pipe 23392341 pumps and fluids 24752476
plane areas 143 mechanical stiffness and vibration 2471
polar 143146, 229, 277278 open loop systems 24672469
cone 144 pneumatic systems 24762477, 2481
cone, frustum 144 synchros and resolvers 2475
cylinder 144 system application factors 2467
cylinder, hollow 144 Motors, electric 24452459, 24722474
ellipsoid 145 adjustable-voltage, shunt-wound 2449
paraboloid 145 alternating current 24492452
prism 144 characteristics 24482457
pyramid 144 classes of standards 2445
solid ring 145 compound-wound 2449
sphere 145 control 24722474
spherical sector 145 current definitions 24452448
spherical segment 145 DC 24482449
torus 145 brushless, NC 24712473
rectangles 228 brush-type, NC 24722473
round shafts, table for 229234 design letters 2445
structural channels 2494, 2498 direction of rotation 2447
wide flange, steel 24892492 factors governing selection 24532455
Moments of Inertia, Section Moduli and frame sizes, standard 2445
Radius of Gyration 218 high frequency induction 2451
Momentum 160162 hydraulic, NC 24752476
Monel metals, machining 1118 injurious operating conditions 2455
properties 562563 inspection schedule 24582459
Monotron for hardness testing 518519 locked rotor current and torque
Morse ratings 24452446
reamers for sockets 824 lubrication, proper 24582459
stub taper shanks 907908 maintaining and repairing 24582459
tapers 906917 mounting dimensions, standard 2445
twist drill gage 2499 multiple speed induction 2451
Mortising wood 378 NEMA 24452447
Motion standards for 2445
accelerated 153156 polyphase 24452450
constant acceleration 152 polyphase wound-rotor 2446
constant velocity 151 pull-up torque 2446
force and work 154155, 158 rotation, standard direction 24472448
general formulas 151153 selection 24532455
linear motion, constant shunt-wound 24482449
acceleration 152 single-phase motors 24512452
rotary motion, constant speed reducer type 24522453
acceleration 153 squirrel-cage induction 24452449
Newton standards for 24452446
first law 154 stepper, NC 24712473
second law 154155 synchronous 2451
third law 155 torque definitions 24452448
on inclined plane 130, 155 type, dc and ac 24482453, 2472
rotary, formulas 153 types and characteristics for different
uniformly accelerated 151 applications 24562457, 2472
Motion control used for motion control 24722473
analog transducers 2475 variable speed 24472448
closed-loop systems 24682470 wound rotor induction 2451
control function 2471 Mounted wheels and mounted points 1204
features of controllers 2470 1206
control motors 24722474 Mounting bearings 22712284
feedback transducers 2474 MS 16624 1682
INDEX 2599
MS 16632 1685 Nondestructive testing symbols 14081409
MS 16633 1686 Nonferrous alloys 525566
MS 3215 1687 machining 11161119
Multiple or block indexing 19901991 strength 473, 477478, 525564
Multiplying numbers written in powers-of- Nonmetals, strength of 478
ten notation 1819 Normal
Muriatic acid, specific gravity 371 distribution curve 12161219
Music wire, gages 24992500 positional deviation 12161219
spring material 286, 385 Normal lane 2000
M-words, NC 1249 Normal plane 2000
Normalizing 414415, 481, 495496, 503
505
N temperatures 504505
Norton Company 1142, 11501156
Nails and spikes, standard 1455 Nozzles, flow of water through 390
Narrow V-belts 23732379 Number of nails and spikes in a pound 1455
National Fire Protection Association Number of teeth 2000
NFPA No. 194 1843 Numbering systems
NFPA 1963 18441845 for metals and alloys 403, 405
National Tube Co. 274 for steel 405, 409410, 413
Nautical measure 2517 Numbers
NC programming 12401284 positive and negative 16
Needle roller bearings powers-of-ten notation 17, 19
designations of 2267 preferred series 19, 632, 642, 667
fitting and mounting practice 2269 progressions 4345
roller and cage assemblies 2269 Numerical control 12251297
shaft and housing tolerances 22702271 absolute programming 1248
tolerances 22612264 accuracy, repeatability, and
types of 22532254 resolution 12161219
Negative and positive numbers 16 adaptive control 1233
Negative functions of angles 93 addresses, letter 1243
NEMA standards for electric motors 2445 APT programming 1263, 12741280
2447 circles 12691270, 1272
Newton's laws of motion 154155 computational statements 1265
Newtons second law 117 example program 1277
Newton-meters into pound-inches 2550 for turning 12791280
Newton-Raphson method 35 geometry statements 1265
Newtons into pounds force 2550 lines 1267
Nickel motion statements 12701275
alloys 561563 planes 1273
machining 11181119 points 1266
chromium steels, SAE strength 476 postprocessor statements 12751280
melting point 368370 tabulated cylinder 1274
plating 14471448 automatically programmed tool
Nickel steels 411412 (APT) 12631280
Nickel-chromium steels, SAE 413 axis nomenclature 12351239
Nitinol, machining 1118 bit 1229
Nitralloy steels 498 block 12431245
Nitric acid, specific gravity 371 byte 1229
Nitriding 417, 498 CAD/CAM 1287, 12961297
high-speed steel tools 512513 central processing unit 1229
ion nitriding 498 circular interpolation 12541255
Nitrogen, liquid temperature 623 closed-loop system 1233
Nodular cast iron 1332 computer-aided part programming 1241
Noise, machinery 1297 control, adaptive 1233
Nomenclature cutter compensation 12511253, 1281
bevel gears 2054 1284
gear teeth 2002 cutter location data 1242
spur gears 2003 decimal point programming 1243
Nominal clearance 2129 direct (or distributed) NC 1296
Nominal vs effective interest rates 25 drive motors 24722473
2600 INDEX

Numerical control (continued) Numerical control (continued)


feed rate override 1251 nose radius compensation 1253, 1281
fixed (canned) cycles 12581262 1284
flexible manufacturing offset 1252
cell 1235 total indicator reading 1238
module 1235 turning cycles 1262
system 1234 T-word 12511253
format detail 1243 V-flange tool shanks 1285
F-word 1250 word address format 12431245
G-code addresses 12451249 zero suppression 1245
helical interpolation 1255 Nut taps 872, 884, 890891
incremental programming 1248 Nuts
initial graphics exchange specification acorn 1503
(IGES) 12941296 ANSI, inch dimensions
insert holders for NC 732738, 1281 flat jam 1500
1284 hex 14931494, 1499
insert radius compensation 12811284 hex flat 1500
interpolation hex high 1504
circular 12541255 hex slotted 15001502
helical and parabolic 1255 hex slotted high 1504
linear 1253 hex thick slotted 15011502
letter addresses 12431245 jam 1499
linear interpolation 1253 machine screw 1568
machine platens ??1285 square 14931494, 1502
macro 12571258 T-type 1647
manual data input 1240 types of 1495
microprocessor 12291230 Unified 14921496, 14991502
miscellaneous functions, (M- ANSI, metric dimensions
Words) 1249 heavy hex 1548
open-loop system 1233 hex flange 1545
parabolic interpolation 1255 hex jam 1548
parametric hex, styles 2 and 3 1543
expressions and macros, NC 1257 prevailing torque, hex 1546
1258 prevailing torque, hex flange 1547
programming, NC 12571258 slotted hex 1544
subroutine 12571258 British Standard
part programming 12401243 Fine 15511554, 1586, 1598
part tolerance symbols ISO metric 15551561
ANSI 1221 metric 1586, 1589, 1591, 15951596
compared to ISO 609 Unified 15951597
points, lines, circles (APT) 12661270 Whitworth 15511554, 15951598,
postprocessor 1243, 1265 1619
preload registers (G92) 1249 crown, low and high (SAE) 1503
preparatory word 12451249 eye nuts 359
programmable controllers 12291233 high, SAE 1504
programming slotted, high hex (SAE) 1504
absolute 1248 wing nuts 16931696
incremental 1248 wrench clearances 15101511
NC 12401284 wrench openings 15101511
repeatability, accuracy, and Nylon
resolution 12161219 bearings 2242
sequence number 1245 machining 597599
standards 1226 properties 380, 579, 582583, 588, 601
subroutine 12561258 rope, strength of 353
S-word 1251
thread cutting 1262, 19081909
tool
compensation 12811284
O
data table 1251 Oblique-angle triangles
length offset 1253 solution 8889
Octagon area 62
INDEX 2601
Octoid gear teeth 2053 Paraboloid (continued)
Offhand grinding 1192 polar moment of inertia 145
Offset method of determining yield radius of gyration 150
strength 196 segment volume 71
Ohms law 2532 volume 70
Oil feeding and grooving of bearings 2204 Parallelepiped 149
2205 Parallelogram
Oil impregnated bearings 22422245 area 60
Oilless bearings 2242, 2245 center of gravity 136
Oils geometry of 48
and compounds, machining 1106, 1108 of forces 119
1119 radius of gyration 148
emulsifying or soluble 1107 Parametric subroutine, NC 12571258
mineral 11091110 Passivation of copper 14411442
sulfurized and chlorinated 11091110 Patenting process in wire making 481
coating 1448 Patterns for castings 13391340
lubricating 23112314, 2319 materials 13391340
viscosity unit conversion 22012202, metal 1340
23122313 shrinkage allowances 13391340
tempering 493 varnish 13391340
Open-end wrench clearances 1511 weight of casting from 1340
Open-loop system 1233, 24672469 wood 13391340
Operations on complex numbers 39 PD 6481 667
Orbit 1320 Pearlite 483484
Order of performing arithmetic 21 Pearlitic malleable iron 13301331
O-ring 24822486 pebi 2533
groove dimensions and clearances 2483 PEEK plastics 380
2485 Pendulum 188189
ring materials 24862487 calculations 189
squeeze 24822483 conical 188189
surface finish in contact with 24842485 formulas for 189
Oscillation, center and radius of 151 physical 188189
Ounces, avoirdupois, into grams 2546 simple and compound 188189
Out of roundness 694696 torsional 188189
Oval head machine screws 15741576 types of 188
Oxygen Percentage 2324
gas in welding 13641367, 14281429 Percussion, center of 151
specific gravity 371 Perforated metals, strength and stiffness
of 235
Permanickel, machining 1118
P PET plastics 380
Petroleum, specific gravity 371
Pack Phenolic plastics 2242
carburizing 417 Phosphate coating 14491450
hardening 498 Phosphor-bronze
Packing wire strength 477
in circles 7275 worm gearing 2117
in circles and rectangles 7277 Phosphorus
in rectangles 77 specific gravity and weight 370
Palladium, plating 1449 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) 750
Pan head machine screws 1573 Piano wire, working stresses 293295
Paper, bonding 24622463 at elevated temperatures 295297
Pappus or Guldinus rules 56 Piles, weight of 373
Parabola Pillow block bearings 2254
area 6465 Pilot hole for wood screws 1456
center of gravity 139 Pin method for checking
constructing 55 gear sizes 20942108, 21112112
segment of area 65 allowance for backlash 2103
Parabolic interpolation, NC 1255 for involute splines 2147
Paraboloid wire diameters 2094, 2103
center of gravity 141 screw threads 18601877
2602 INDEX

Pin method for checking (continued) Pitch 2000


V-shaped grooves 690 broach teeth 926929
Pinion, spur gear circle 2000
checking by measurement over circular, of gears 20022004
wires 21112112 diameter 2000
enlarged to avoid undercut 20192028 diameters, gears
Pins bevel 20542057
clevis 1648 circular pitch 2022
cotter 1648, 1659, 1662 helical 1932, 2068
dowel 16481654 pin method of checking 20942108,
grooved 1656, 16581662 21112112
metric dowel 16481650 spur 2004, 2022
spring 16631664 worms 2065
straight 16531655 diameters, roller chain sprockets 2427
strength of taper 215216 2428
taper 16551658 diameters, thread
Pintle chains 2421 (see also type of thread)
Pipe and pipe fittings 25042512 lead angle at 1932
ANSI Standard wrought steel 25072508 Unified 17161749
British threads 18571858 checking 18591877
columns 264265 for tensile stress area 1482
cross-sectional area of metal 25072508 lead angle at 1932
cubic contents for given length 392, metric, M profile 17661775
25072508 wire sizes for measuring 18611862
definitions 2504, 25102511 gear 2004
Dryseal 18521855 plane 2000
measuring by wire method 1872, 1875 point 2001
1876 rivets 1457, 14611462
straight 1848, 18511852 screw threads, measuring 1859
taper 18461850 worms 2064
threads 18521855 Plain bearings 21932210, 2214, 2220
flow in 2509 2232, 22372244
gallons per foot 392, 25072508 allowable pressures 2209
grades of 25052508 boundary lubrication mode 21952196
heat loss from uncovered steam 365 circumferential-groove 2193
length per cubic foot 25072508 classes of 2193
loads, table of 264265 clearances 2209
moment of inertia 25072508 cylindrical-overshot 21932195
plastics 25102512 cylindrical-undershot 21932195
radius of gyration 25072508 design 2195, 22062218, 22202234
reamers, taper 825 displaced elliptical 21932195
schedule numbers 2505 elliptical-overshot 21932195
sealing joints 14581459 full film operational mode 2197
section modulus 25072508 grooving and oil feeding of 22042205
steel, welded and seamless 2505 hardness and surface finish 21992200
taps, dimensions 879882, 894 heat radiating capacity 22042205
Briggs and Whitworth 19071908 hydrostatic 21952196
British Standard 19011903 journal or sleeve 21932196, 22052219
Internal Dryseal 1855 length-to-diameter ratio 2209
internal dryseal 1855 lubricants 22022205
power for driving 19071908 lubrication analysis 22072219
straight 872, 879896 lubrication methods 22012203
taper 872, 879881 machining 21992201
threads materials 22362245
American National Standard 1846 mixed-film lubrication mode 2197
1855 modes of operation 21952197
British Standard 18561858 multiple-groove 21932195
weight per foot 25052508 nutcracker 21952196
wrought steel 25042505 oil grooves 22042209
Pipe welding 1402 operating temperatures 22102219
procedure 1405 pivot-shoe 21932195
INDEX 2603
Plain bearings (continued) Plastics (continued)
pressure 21932195 physical properties 571
retaining methods 21972199 density 568569
sealing methods 21982200 opacity 569570
sleeve or journal 21932196, 22052219 shrinkage 568569
surface finish and hardness 21992200 water absorption 568569
three-lobe 21932195 pipe and fittings 25102511
thrust, design 22182235 sawing, speeds and numbers of teeth 599
types 21932196 structural analysis 582, 584
viscosity conversion table 22012202, structures 567570
23122313 thermal properties 578579
viscosity temperature chart 22022203 thermal stresses 585586
Plain milling cutters 773 thermoplastic 567570
Plain washers thermosetting 567570
inch 15121519 Vicat softening point, plastics 578579
metric 1549 wall thicknesses 587588
Plane figures, areas and dimensions 6065 Plastics bearings
Plane of rotation 2001 anti-friction 2254
Planetary gearing 20832087 laminated, plain bearings 2242, 2245
compound drives 2087 sleeve 2242, 2245
Planetary thread milling 19291930 Plastics pipe 25102512
Planing joining 25102511
estimating cutting speeds 1044 pressure ratings 2512
power required 10461050 properties and use of 2511
speeds and feeds 1044 weights and dimensions 2510
time 1044 Platens, machine, NC ??1285
tool grinding 729730 Plates
wood 378 flat, strength and deflection of 268270
Plaster of Paris, weight 370 shells and cylinders, strength of 268274
Plastic region 196 Plating 14441451
Plastics 567, 582604 chromium 1427
assembly with fasteners 595597 Plating, chromium 1427
bonding 591, 24602466 PLC (programmable logic control) 1229
chemical resistance of 583 1233
definitions 568571 Plow steel haulage rope, strength of 336
design 341, 352354
for assembly 591595 Points, lines, circles, (APT) NC 12651270
for injection molding 586591 Poise 22012202, 23122313, 2319
developing prototypes 599600 Poisson's ratio 268
draft angles and depth of draw 590 for various materials 270
drilling speeds and feeds 598599 Poissons ratio 196, 268
effects of temperature 578581 for various materials 196
elastomers 567570 of various material 384
electrical properties 581582 perforated metal 235
environmental effects 581584 plastics 573574
finishing 600 Polar
gearing 601604 coordinates 36
accuracy 603604 Polar moment of inertia 143146, 229, 277
backlash 603604 278
service factors 603 cone 144
tooth form factors 602 cone,frustum 144
machining 597600 cylinder 144
materials 567570 cylinder, hollow 144
machining 600 ellipsoid 145
mechanical properties 570579 masses 143
effect of temperature on 578581 paraboloid 145
related to time 576577 plane areas 143
mixtures 567570 prism 144
modulus, E 576 pyramid 144
modulus, G 573575 solid ring 145
opacity 569 sphere 145
2604 INDEX

Polar moment of inertia (continued) Pounds (continued)


spherical sector 145 per square inch into kilopascals 2548
spherical segment 145 Powder metallurgy 1350
torus 145 Powdered metal bearings 22422245
Polar moments of inertia 144 Power
Polar section modulus 229, 277278 brush finishing 14351438
Polishers, spindles for portable 1209 constant for machining 1052
Polishing and buffing 14391440 for driving pipe taps 19071908
abrasives 1439 general formulas 162
speeds 1440 heat equivalents 2551
wheels for 14391440 in mechanics 113
Polycarbonate plastics 380, 579, 588, 598, required for machining 10461055
601 Power and roots of numbers 17
Polygon Power of ten notation 17, 19
area 62, 78 expressing numbers in 18
formulas and table 78 Power transmission
length of side 78 belting 23682369, 23722417
of forces 119 chain 24312435, 2442
radius of circumscribed circle 78 friction wheels 23392341
radius of inscribed circle 78 wire rope 336344
shafts 21602161 Precipitation
Polygon-type shaft hardening 480
connections 2160 heat-treatment 546
dimensions of 2161 Precision
three- and four-sided designs 2161 bolts and screws, British 15521553,
Polyphase motors 24452450 1559
Polypropylene plastics 380, 579, 588, 598, gage blocks 717719
2511 investment casting 13441346
Polysulphone plastics 579, 588, 598 Precision gage blocks 717
Polyurethane plastics 380, 579, 588, 598, Preferred 646
601, 2486 basic sizes, ANSI Standard 628644
Porosity, pressure die castings 1341 fits, ANSI Standard 646647
Porous bearings 22412245 hole basis metric fits, ANSI Standard 651
Portable grinding 1192 metric sizes
safety 1172 ANSI Standard 642644
Portable tools British Standard 667
hexagonal chucks for 1210 numbers 19
hexagonal shanks for 1210 British Standard 667
spindles and drives for 12071210 series for tolerances and allowances 630
Positional deviation, mean 12161219 series of basic sizes 628
Positional tolerances 611 shaft basis metric fits, ANSI
Positioning accuracy 12161219 Standard 646, 652655
Positive and negative numbers 16 thicknesses for flat metal products,
Positive clutches 2333 metric 2503
Positive functions of angles 93 thicknesses for uncoated metals and
Postprocessor, NC 1243, 1265 alloys 2501
Potential energy 157158 Preferred roughness average values (Ra) 708
Pound force 114 Preferred roughness values and roughness
Pound-inches into newton-meters 2550 grades 716
Pounds Preferred series maximum waviness height
force 114, 116 values 708
force into newtons 2550 Preload registers, (G-114 word) NC 1249
mass 116 Preparatory word, (G-word) NC 12451249
per cubic foot into kilograms per cubic Present
meter 2549 value and discount 26
per cubic inch into grams per cubic worth 27, 3031
centimeter 2549 method 2930
per square foot into kilograms per square Press work 13011311
meter 2548 Presses power, shut height 13021304
per square inch into kilograms per square Pressure 117
centimeter 2548 and flow of water 386392
INDEX 2605
Pressure (continued) Properties (continued)
comparison of various unit of 388 nickel alloys 561563
head in feet of water 387 nonferrous alloys 477, 525566
head in foot to psia relation 386 pipes 392
head of mercury in mm 387 plastics 380
pascal 387 powdered metal alloys 383
psia 387 specific gravity 370371
to Head in feet relation 386 spring wire 385
unit conversion 388, 2519, 25482550 standard steels 403, 413, 420428,
Pressure angle 2001 430443
cams 21712173, 21762178 titanium alloys 561, 564
Pressure effect on wood property 376 tool steels 444458, 460, 462, 464471
Pressure for composite checking of fine-pitch water 386388
gears 2042 wood 375377
Pressure-viscosity coefficient for strength
lubricants 2324 effect of heat or temperature on 578
Prime numbers and factors 312 581
Principle reference planes 2001 Proportion 2123
Prism compound 2122
polar moment of inertia 144 inverse 23
rectangular 149 Proportional limit 195
volume 66 plastics 583
volume formula 56 Prospective rate of return method 3031
Prismoidal formula for volume 56 Protractor, reading vernier scale on 669
Profile checking, gearing 20302031 Providing backlash 2039
Programmable logic controller, NC 1229 PTFE plastics 380, 598, 2242, 24652466
1233 Public Law 101-592 1492
Programming Pulley flywheel 173
absolute, NC 1248 Pulley taps 884, 890891
APT 12631280 Pulleys
G-code 12431263 center distances, V-belt 23722419
incremental, NC 1248 diameter of V-belt 23742420
numerical control 12401280 Pulleys (sheaves)
Progression differential 135
arithmetical 4344 flat belt 2369
geometrical 43, 45 rules for calculating diameters and
Projected tolerance zone 611 speeds 23702371
Prony brake dynamometer 23392341 speeds, rpm into feet per minute 985
Properties 464 990, 19081909
mechanical 195196, 430436, 439441, Pulleys and belt drives 134135, 23682371,
476478 23732419
compressive 196 flat belt 23682371
fatigue 197 lengths of open and crossed belts 2369,
perforated metal 235 2371
shear 197 Pulleys and wheels in mechanics 134135
strength 385, 430436, 439, 441, 476 Pulleys, V-belt 23722419
478, 550555 Pull-up torque 2446
effect of heat or temperature on 475 Punch presses speeds and pressures 1302
478 1304
thermal 364, 367370, 478 Punches and dies 13011306
of materials 473478 pressures required 13021304
Air 393 steel for 452456
air 393394 steel for hot-working 452456
aluminum alloys 542557 Punches, steels for 452456
ceramics 379 PVC plastics 380, 598, 601, 2511
copper alloys 525542 PVDF plastics 380
copper-silicon and copper-beryllium Pyramid
alloys 565566 center of gravity 140
copper-zinc-tin alloys 478 frustum center of gravity 140
magnesium alloys 557560 frustum of volume 67
metals 473, 475478
2606 INDEX

Pyramid (continued) Radius (continued)


polar moment of inertia 144 spherical shell, thin 150
volume 66 structural angles 24952497
thin flat plate 148
thin spherical shell 150
Q wide flange, steel 24892492
of oscillation 151
QQ-C-320B 1445 radius
QQ-N-290A 1448 of gyration 150
QQ-P-35C 1449 Radius of gyration
QQ-P-416F 1444 various cross-sections 217227
QQ-S-365D 1450 radius of gyration 148150
Quadrant 93 Rails
Quadratic equations 33 size to carry given load 259
Quartz, specific gravity and weight 370 strength of 259
Quenching 414 Rake angles
baths 414, 491492 checking milling cutter 801805
media 415416 turning tool 723, 726728
tanks for 490 Rankine's formulas for columns 261, 263
interrupted 490492 Rankine, degrees 2514
isothermal 492 Rasps 14321433
media 416 Ratchet gearing 20882089
Rate of return (interest) 2427, 3031
prospective 27, 3031
R Rating life, bearings 22862296
Ratio 2123
Rack 2001 and proportion 2123
gear 2005 compound 21
milling, indexing 1993 contact, in gearing 20242029
spline, metric 2155 epicyclic gearing 20832087
Radian per second conversion from rpm 187 fractional, change gears for 19131914
Radians equivalent to degrees 90, 92 gear
Radius for differential indexing 19761978
of arc, checking 690692 geometrical 43, 45
of curvature 21782184 inverse or reciprocal 21
of gyration 146151 of volumes 71
angles, steel 24952497 Poissons 196
bar, small diameter 147 slenderness, columns 261
channels, aluminum 2498 V-belt drives 23722419
channels, steel 2494 Ream, paper 2519
circular disk, thin 147 Reamer arbors, driving slots and lugs for
circular ring, thin flat 148 shell 823
cone 149 Reamers 807826
cone, frustum 150 ANSI Standard 813826
cylinder 148 arbors for shell 823
cylinder, hollow 149 Brown & Sharpe taper socket 825
ellipsoid 150 center and countersink 813
flat plate, thin 148 centers for 813
hollow cylinder, thin 148 chucking 815, 820822
hollow sphere 150 die-maker's 826
I-beams 24892492 difficulties with 812
I-beams, aluminum 2498 drills for taper pin 16561658
paraboloid 150 driving slots and lugs for shell 823
parallelepiped 149 expansion chucking 814
parallelogram 148 expansion hand 817
pipe 25072508 finishing 824
prism, rectangular 149 fluting cutters for 808810
ring 147 fluting to obtain negative rake 807
S- or W-shape, steel 2493 hand 816817
sphere 150 jobbers 818
sphere, hollow 150 machine 819820
INDEX 2607
Reamers (continued) Retaining rings (continued)
Morse taper socket 824 metric 16661673
pipe 825 failure of 16831690
rose chucking 808, 821822 groove design and machining 16871688
shell 822 inch 16741689
steels for 452456 selection 1665, 1669, 1678, 16831687
stub screw machine 819820 standards 16891692
taper pin 826 Retarded motion motion 151
taper pin reamers, drills for 16551658 Retention knobs, V-flange tool shanks 1284
taper pipe 825 1285
taper, milling teeth 796 Reyn 22012202, 23122313
teeth, irregular spacing 807808 Rhodium plating 1450
terms applying to 814815 Right-angle triangles
threaded end, hand 807808 solution 8687
tooth-rest position for grinding Rigidity
clearance 811 modulus of (shear) 196
Reaming spring materials 326329
cutting speeds for Ring
copper alloys 1041 area and volume 56
ferrous cast metals 10371038 radius of gyration 147
light metals 1039 stresses in loaded 215
stainless steels 1036 Rivet
tool steels 1035 ANSI Standard 1464, 14681470
difficulties 812 belt 1469
feeds and speeds on automatic screw British Standard 1464, 14711474
machines 1095 button head 1465, 1470
taper pin 1657 cone head 1465
Rearrangement and transposition of terms in cooper's 1468
formulas 2021 countersunk 1463, 1466, 14681472
Recalescence point in steel hardening 479, diameters for given plate
485 thicknesses 1457
Recesses, square and cross-shaped, for excess length to form head 1463
machine screws 1577 flat head 1470
for self-tapping screws 1623 hold-on or dolly bar sets 1467
Recessing tools, speeds 1095 large rivets, standard 14641466
Reciprocal or inverse ratio 21 material 1458
Reciprocals of numbers 17 pan head 1465, 1470
Rectangle pitch 1457, 14611462
area 60 sets, dimensions of impressions in 1467
table of section moduli 229 shearing strength 14611462
Rectangular and spherical coordinates, small rivets, standard 1464, 14681470
relationship 37 spacing 1457
Rectangular coordinates 36 steel 1458
Rectangular to cylindrical coordinates 38 strength 1459
Refrigeration of steel 514517 tinner's 1469
Relative density 370 truss 1468
Relief and rake angles types of 1457
for single-point cutting tools 726 Riveted joints 14571463
for single-point thread cutting allowable stresses 1459
tools 19101911 design of 14571463
indicator drop method of checking 801 double and triple 1301, 1461
805 efficiency 14591460
Repeatability, accuracy, and resolution 1216 holes for 1457
Replacement-gear dimensions, joint failure 14581459
calculating 21222125 joint strength 14591460
Resinoid bonded wheels 937938, 1140 rivet length for forming heads 1463
thread grinding 1923 rivet materials 1458
Resolution of force systems 121 types of riveted joints 1457
Resultant 154 working strength 1459
Retaining rings RMS (root mean square) 702
ANSI Standard Rockwell hardness
2608 INDEX

Rockwell hardness (continued) Roller bearings (continued)


relationship to Brinell 521, 524 tapered roller thrust type 22522254
test 517524 thrust 22512252, 2262
Rockwell-Brinell hardness conversion tolerances for 22552264
tables 520524 torque, starting 2281
Rod gages 2499 types of 22492254
Roebling wire gage 24992500 Rolling
Roll angle 2001 contact bearings 22462302
Rolled threads, electric socket and lamp friction 191
base 1846 resistance 191
Roller bearings 22462302 Rolling screw threads 19181922
ABEC and RBEC tolerances 2267 cylindrical die machines 1918
alignment and squareness 22732274 diameter of blank 19181919
allowance for axial displacement 2264 diameter of threading roll 1919
barrel type 2253 flat die machines 1918
bearing closures 2280 in automatic screw machines 1919
cage materials 22542255 speeds, and feeds 19201922
clamping and retaining methods 2275 steels for 19181919
clearances, running 22832284 Root diameter 2001
closures 2280 Roots
cylindrical type 22492253 and powers of numbers 17
design and installation finding square and cube 17
considerations 2264 mean square, surface texture 702
designation of 2267 Rope
failures 2285 Manila, safe loads and strength 354, 360
fits 2275, 2280 nylon, safe loads and strength 353
flanged housing 2254 safe loads for 352354
friction losses in 2280 slings, strength 353354
handling precautions 2284 weight per 100 feet 360
housing bore tolerances 22672268 wire 333350
housings, soft metal and resilient 2274 definitions of terms 333334
2275 strength and properties 336341
life 2285 winding drum, grooves for 342343,
life adjustment factors 2296 360
limitations for 2291 Rose chucking reamers 808, 821822
location and seating 22712280 Rotary file or burs 14331434
locknuts and shafts 22772279 Rotary motion
lockwashers 2276 formulas 153
lubricants 23182320 formulas for accelerated 153
lubrication 2282 Rotating parts, balancing 167172
materials for 2254 Roughness
method of designation 22662267 control of 697708
mounting 22712284 cutoff 697, 707708
needle type 22532254, 22692271 height values 699700
pillow block 2254 parameters
plastics 2254 rules for determining 715
quiet or vibration-free mountings 2274 rules for measurement of 716
2275 symbols indicating degree of 697700
radial and axial clearance 22832284 Round head machine screws 1577
rating life of radial 22912296 British Standard 15911598
seating fits for 22742275 Rpm
selection 22822283 conversion to radian per second 187
self-aligning 22502251 for various cutting speeds and diameters,
shaft and housing fits for 2275, 2280 inch units 987990
metric radial 22642266 metric units 989990
special or unconventional types of 2254 for various grinding speeds and
spherical type 2253 diameters 1174
squareness and alignment 22732274 RS-232-D interface 1227
static equivalent load 23012302 Rubber
static load rating of 23002301 bearings 2242, 2245
tapered 22522254 bonded grinding wheels 1140
INDEX 2609
Rubber (continued) Sandstone
bonding 24612462 and limestone, strength 478
mold casting 13371338 specific gravity and weight of 370
turning 1044 Saw tooth
Rules to compare measured values 715 clutches 23352336
Running threads 1817
balance 167 Sawn lumber size 378
fits, allowances 631635 Saws
band 1101, 11051106
circular, arbors for 1203
S metal-cutting, speeds 1044
metal-slitting 776
SAE General Information 2238 sharpening files 14311432
SAE Grade 1 1488 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) 2312
SAE Grade 2 1488 2313, 2319
SAE Grade 4 1488 Scalar and vector quantities 118
SAE Grade 5 1488 Sclerometer 521, 524
SAE Grade 5.2 1488 Scleroscope 518521
SAE Grade 7 1488 Screw
SAE Grade 8 1488 force for turning 135
SAE Grade 8.2 1488 mechanical principle of 135
SAE J1199 1530 Screw machines
SAE J429 1496 automatic 10941099
SAE J995 1489, 1494 automatic box-tools 1095
SAE Recommended Practice J483a 1503 cam and tool design, pointers 10981099
SAE Standard 2352 drilling speeds and feeds 1095
steel specification numbers 409412 drills 833, 840
SAE Standards forming speeds and feeds 1095
babbitt metals 22392240 forming tools 758770
bearing metals 22392240 forming tools with rake 758764
crown or acorn nuts 1503 knurling 10941095
die casting alloys 13421343 reamers, stub 819
high nuts 1504 reaming speeds and feeds 1095
J482a 1504 speeds and feeds 1095
spark plug threads 1840 stock required for given production 1099
steel specification numbers 409 thread rolling 19191922
taper shaft ends 2352 threading cams 1094
V-belts 2420 Screw stock 422
Woodruff keyseat cutters 795 Screw threads and thread systems 1706
SAE steels 1712, 17541781, 17901858
basic numbering system 409412 Acme 17921816
castings 1335 American National form 1706
compositions 409, 411412 angle test by wire method 18721875
heat treatments for 443, 503505 ANSI
numbering system for 409412 Acme 17921816
Safe loads for wire rope 336341 buttress 18181824
Safe speeds grinding wheels 11711174 form or profile 1706
Safety head recesses 1577, 1623
factor 20442045 head types 16201621
factors of 199 ANSI M profile 17551776
flange couplings 2325 allowances 17621764
for wire rope 339340 basic profile 17561757
Salt baths for heat treating 487 coarse pitch 17591760
Salt, common, weight 370 coated threads 17641765
Sample calculations 212, 215 crest and root form 17561762
strength of materials 212215 data 1758
Sand blast cleaning 1338 design profile, M series 1756, 1759
Sand, weight 370 1760
Sanders, spindles for portable 1209 designations 1774, 1776
Sanding wood 378 fine pitch 17611762
formulas for limiting dimensions 1765
2610 INDEX

Screw threads and thread Screw threads and thread (continued)


systems (continued) metric 1525
lengths of engagement 17631766 length of engagement 14891490
limiting 17691780 limits
limits and fits 1757 Class 1A and 1B 17171739
limits of size 1765 Class 2A and 2B 17161739
major diameter tolerances 1768 Class 3A and 3B 17161739
minor diameter tolerances 1764, 1767, Class 5 17861789
1774 lock-nut pipe 1848, 18511852
pitch diameter tolerances 17661769 Lwenherz 1825
profile data 1758 measuring 18591877
symbols 1756 metric series threads
thread series 17611762 ANSI M profile 17551776
tolerance grades 17621765 ANSI MJ profile 17751778
ANSI MJ profile 17751778 British Standard ISO metric 18251834
ANSI M-profile micrometers for measuring pitch
limiting 17811787 diameters 1859
ANSI Unified 17061710, 17121754 microscope 1846
basic dimensions 17401749 milling 1625, 19281930
classes 17521753 classes of work 19291930
definitions 17071712 miniature 17811785
designations 1754 modified square thread, 10-degree 1817
internal and external profile 1713 multiple, designation 1754
standard series, tables of 17161739 National standard form or profile 1706
symbols 17531754 nonstandard small size 0000, 000, and 00
thread form 1706, 17121714 screws 1573
British Standard pipe
buttress threads 1825 ANSI Standard 18461855
ISO metric 18251834 Dryseal 18521855
pipe 18561858 measuring 18721876
UNJ profile 18251826 straight 18481852
Whitworth 18361838 taper 18461850
changing pitch slightly 19291930 pitch, changing slightly 19291930
classes of tolerance 17421753, 1801 pitch, maximum when die cut 19291930
1802, 18211823 profiles 18601861
cutting, change gears 1912 rolled threads 1846
fractional ratios 19131914 rolling 19181922
definitions 17071712 in automatic screw machines 1919
designation of Unified threads 1716 saw-tooth 1817
1754 selection of Unified threads 17521753
diameters of wires for measuring sharp V-type thread 1706
American and Whitworth 1861 spark plugs 1840
Dryseal pipe 18521853 standard series Unified threads 1715
electric socket and lamp base strength of 14891491
threads 1846 stress areas 1482, 14891491, 1794
formulas for three-wire stub Acme screw threads 1793, 1811
measurement 18601861 1816
gages for screw threads 18771884 stub thread, 60-degree 1816
classification 18771878 stub-Acme screw threads 1793
for Unified screw threads 18771878 stud threads ??178017811791
standard tolerances 18821884 studs, tolerances 17881789
grinding 19231927 symbols used for standard 896897
centerless method 19261927 tap drill sizes 18891907
helix angle 17401749 taper, measurement by wire
hose coupling 18441845 method 18721876
inserts 1635 thread forms 1706
instrument makers' 1846 trapezoidal metric threads 1779
interference fit threads 17861791 Unified
International Metric thread system 1825 allowances 17161739, 17501753
ISO metric 18251834 coarse thread series 17151740
lag screw 14971498 coated 17501754
INDEX 2611
Screw threads and thread (continued) Screws (continued)
combination of classes 17521753 formed 1522
crest clearances 17501753 heavy hex 1523
design profile 1713 identification symbols 1532
designation 17531754 ISO 15561560
dimensions 17161739 ISO British Standard 18251834
external and internal thread materials and mechanical
forms 1706, 17121714, 17811783 properties 1534
fine and extra fine series 17151745 reduced body diameter 1524
hole sizes for tapping 1754 socket 16131614
limits 17161739, 17501753 thread series 1532
miniature screw thread 17811785 self-threading 16201644
selection 17521753 set 16061619
thread classes 17421745, 17501753 shoulder 1605
thread form, data and formulas sockets for 1608, 1615
for 17131714 tap drills 18891907
thread forms 17121713 thumb 1697, 17001701
thread minor diameter tolerances, M Unified Standard 14921496, 15951597
series 1764, 1767, 1774 wing 16971699
thread series 1712, 1715 wood 1456
tolerances 17501754 Screws, jig and fixture
UN and UNR 17121713 button head 1617
uniform 4-, 6-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 28-, and heavy hex 1496
32-pitch series 17151749 hex 14931494
US Standard 1706 load to break threaded portion 1490
watch 17811785 1491
wire method of checking 18601877 Sealants 24632464
wire sizes for checking pitch gasket materials 24632465
diameters 18611862 pipe joining 24642466
worm threads 20642066 Sealing bearings 21982200
Screw threads and thread systemsANSI M Seasoning steel, sub zero 514517
profile Secant 83
design profile, M series 1759 Secant modulus (plastics) 572573
designations 1764, 1767, 1774 Section lining, standard for drawings 606,
limits of size 1775 608
Screws Section modulus
and bolts 1492 angles 24952497
British Standard for torsion 229, 258
inch 15511554, 15861598, 1613 formulas for various sections 217227
1619 I-beams 24892493
ISO 18251834 pipe 25072508
metric 15551559, 15861595, 1613 polar 229, 277278
1618 rectangles, table for 228229
Whitworth 15511554, 15951598, round shafts, table for 229234
1619 structural shapes
British Unified 15951597 angles, steel 2497
cap 1496, 15991604 channels, aluminum 2498
cap, metric 1521 I-beams or S-shapes
drive 16201621, 1635 aluminum 2498
grade markings for steel 14881489 steel 2493
heavy hex 1496 wide flange, steel 24892492
hex 14931494 steel 2494
lag 14971498, 1525 Segment
load to break threaded portion of 1490 circular 8081
1491 area 8081
Metric height for given angle and radius 8081
cap 1521 Seizing and cutting wire rope 344
clearance holes 1532 Self-threading screws 16201635
designation 1532 cross recesses 1623
diameters 1523 designations 16201621
flange 15261527 drive type 16201622, 1624
2612 INDEX

Self-threading screws (continued) Shafts (continued)


head types 16201621 hollow vs. solid 283284
hole sizes for 16281635 transmission, design of 280283
self-tapping inserts 1635 Shanks
thread and point types 16221623 brazing carbide tips to 13651366
thread cutting types 1620, 1623, 1625 brazing high-speed steel tips to 1360
thread forming types 16201622, 1624, hexagonal, for portable tools 1210
1626 taper 906917
torsional strength requirements 1635 Shapes
types of 16201621 of grinding wheels 11421150
Self-threading screws, metric 16351644 of mounted wheels and points 1204
designations 16351636 1206
head types 16351636 Shaping wood 378
hole sizes for 16401644 Shaping, speeds and feeds 1044
material 1639 Sharp V-thread 1706
recommended lengths 1638 Sharpening
thread and point types 1636 carbide tools 937
thread cutting types 16351639 drills 936
thread forming types 16351638 Shaving, gear teeth 20112013
Sensivity Factor 2044 Shear
Sequence number, NC 1245 formulas for 204
Series, infinite 3334, 97 modulus 196
Set-screws of various material 384
American National Standard 16061610 of various materials 196
British Standard metric 16131619 of, G
British Standard Whitworth 1619 plastics 573575
fluted socket type 1612 spring materials 326329
headless 1606 modulus of, G
hexagon socket type 16121618 plastics 575
holding power 1619 properties 197
spline socket type 1612 spring design 329
square head type 16091610, 1619 steel for hot-working 456
Sevolute functions 97 stress 195, 206
Shackle and end-link chain 356 combined with tension or
Shaft deflection compression 206207
linear 280 in beams 207210
torsional 277280 Shearing strength
Shafts 275284 cast iron 476
allowances and tolerances for fits 621 rivets 14611462
667 steels 476
British Standard for fits 657666 wrought iron 476
brittle materials, formulas for 283 Shearing strength wood 376
checking for various conditions of 692 Sheaves
694 for V-belt drives 23732420
critical speeds of 283 for wire rope 332, 334
effect of keyways on strength 283 Sheet metal
factor of safety 276, 283 and wire gages 24992503
hollow 283284 bending allowances 13041310
horsepower transmitted by 275277, 280 screws 16201635
linear deflection 280 Sheet sizes for drawings 606
maximum allowable working stress 282 Shell
moment of inertia, polar 229234, 277 blanks, diameters 13041307
278 mills 778
polygon type connections 21602161 molding 13361337
round, section moduli 229234 reamer arbors, driving slots and lugs
steel, diameters of 280 for 823
strength 275277 reamers 822
taper ends, SAE Standard 2352 Shells, plates and cylinders, strength of 268
torsional Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) 1378
deflection 277280 1382
strength 275277 Shielding gases 13641366
INDEX 2613
Shipping measure 2518 Single-point cutting tools (continued)
Shocks, stresses in springs 258 tool holders, indexable inserts 730738
stresses produced by 257258 Sinking funds 27
Shores scleroscope 518521 Sintered carbide tools, ANSI Standard 738,
Shoulder screws 1605 747757
Shrinkage tool materials 979981
allowance, patterns 1345 Sintered metal bearings 22422245
investment casting 1345 Sixty (60)-degree stub threads 1816
Shrinkage allowance, patterns 13391344 Sixty (60)-degree V-belts 2407
Shrinkage fits 623627, 631632, 640 Size factor cover 2044
Shut height, power press 13021304 Sizes of sawn lumber 378
SI Skin effect in castings 1341
binary prefixes 2533 Slate
SI units cutting speed for 1044
in strength of materials calculations 195 specific gravity and weight 370
metric 116 Sleeve bearings 22042219
Side milling cutters 774 Sleeves, Morse taper 915
Sigma (standard deviation) 12171218 Slenderness ratio of columns 261
Significance of accuracy 12161219 Slides, measuring 682683, 690
Signs and abbreviations Slings and fittings for wire rope 345348
mathematical 2 Slings, strength of rope and chain 354355
scientific and engineering 25542555 Slipping clutches, couplings 2332
Signs of trigonometric functions 84 Slitting saws, metal 776
Silicon Slots for T-bolts, ANSI Standard 1645
carbide grinding wheels 937938 Slug 114
in steel (welding) 13621363 SMAW (shielded metal arc welding) 1378
Silver S-N diagrams 197198
bearings 2241 Socket
brazing filler alloys 1356 ANSI hexagon and spline 1608
plating 1450 head, screw type
Simple British Standard metric 16131618
indexing 1947, 19791985 cap 16011604, 1614
proportion 22 drill and counterbore sizes for 858,
stresses 204206 1602
Simpson's rule 5758 keys and bits for 1611
Sine 83 set 16121618
Sine bar constants 675681 shoulder 1605
Sine bar, use of 673682 reamers, Morse taper 824
Sine law of 84 taper shank 906917
Single tooth contact 2000 threads for electric 1846
Single-angle milling cutters 777, 783 wrench clearances 1511
Single-point cutting tools 723746, 859864 Soldering 13521355
angle tolerances 740746 alloys for 1353
carbide tips and inserts for 738746 aluminum 1354
chipbreakers 728730 fluxes 13521354
definitions and terms 723726 magnesium 13521354
end cutting edge angle 728 methods 13521355
indexable inserts 729732 stainless steel 13521354
insert toolholders 730738, 12811284 ultrasonic fluxless 13521355
lead angles 727728 Solders 13521353
nose radius 728, 745 brazing 13541359
numerical control tool silver 13521353
compensation 12811284 Solid figures, volumes and dimensions 66
planing tools 730731 71
rake angles 726728 Solid film lubricants 2318
relief angles 726 Solid ring
relief angles for thread cutting 1910 polar moment of inertia 145
1911 Soluble oils for machining operations 1107
side cutting edge angles 727728 Solution heat treatment 480
tip overhang 740 Sorbite 493
tool contour 723 Sound level specifications 1297
2614 INDEX

Space cutters, roller chain sprockets 2437, Speeds and feeds, machining (continued)
24402441 band 1103, 11051106
Spacing holes on jig borer 953970 circular 1044
Spade drills and drilling 865871 shaping 1044
feed rates for 868869 slit and slot milling 1009, 10121027
geometry of 865867 superalloys 10081009
power consumption and thrust for 870 surface grinding 11901192
Spandrel tables, how to use 991994
area 64 tapping and thread cutting 10301039,
center of gravity 138 10411043, 1095, 18861887
Spark plugs, screw threads 1840 thread rolling 19201922
British Standard 1840 titanium and alloys 1007
taps 876, 891 tool life 982983, 994
Spatter, (welding) 13811387 adjusting 755757, 10041005, 1009,
Specific gravity 370371 1012, 1028
conversion to, from Baums tool steels
hydrometer 371 drilling reaming, and threading 1035
gases 371 milling 10181019
liquids 371 turning 1000
miscellaneous substances 370 turning 991, 9951009
of various metals 370 carbon and alloy steels 996999
of various substances 370 copper alloys 1006
oils 23122313 ferrous cast metals 10021003
plastics 380 hard-to-machine materials 10081009
Specific heat 364 light metals 1007
gasses 365 speeds and feeds 9951009, 1095
of various metals 368369 stainless steels 1001
Speed reducers, motors, built-in 24522453 superalloys 10081009
Speeds titanium 1007
calculating cutting speeds 985990 tool steels 1000
critical, of rotating shafts 283 Sphere
pulleys, rules for calculating 23702371 hollow
rpm for different diameters and cutting center of gravity 141
speeds 985990 radius of gyration 150
Speeds and feeds, machining 9781046 polar moment of inertia 145
abrasive belt grinding 1193 radius of gyration 150
bandsawing 1103, 11051106 volume 69
CBN grinding wheels 1157 Spherical
cutting 597599, 868, 983, 985, 1040, sector
1094, 1103, 11051106 center of gravity 141
cylindrical grinding, high-speed 1178 polar moment of inertia 145
drilling 10121039, 1095 volume 69
diameters and rpm 986 segment
feeds for spade drills 868869 center of gravity 141
end milling 1009 polar moment of inertia 145
face milling 1009 segment volume 69
form-turning 1095, 1111 shells, strength to resist internal
general 978, 1040, 10941095 pressure 271272
grinding wheels wedge volume 70
maximum peripheral speeds 1173 zone volume 70
truing and dressing 11601161 Spherical and rectangular coordinates,
wheel and work speeds 1925 relationship 37
grinding with diamond wheels 1169 Spherical coordinates 37
honing 11951198 Spherical shell, thin 150
milling 991, 10091012 Spherical surface
nonferrous metals 11161119 center of gravity 138
plastics 597599 Spheroid segment of
reaming 10121040, 1095 center of gravity 141
reaming and threading 991 Spheroidal graphite iron 476, 1332
rotary burs and files 14331434 Spheroidize, annealizing 415
sawing Spheroidizing 414, 495497
INDEX 2615
Spikes and nails, standard 1455 Spring (continued)
Spindle stainless spring steels 287288
for portable tools 12071210 steels for 286288
function, NC 1251 stresses 291297
noses 920924, 1251, 1285 produced by shocks 258
Spiral bevel and hypoid gears 2052 tolerances
Spiral bevel gears 1998, 2051 for compression and extension 310
applications 2051 314
tooth contact 2050 for torsion 325326
Splines 2129 torsion
application factors 2141 bars 326
comparison of symbols 2150 design 314325
data and reference dimensions 2140 modulus 326329
fatigue-life factors for 2142 volute 326
formulas for SAE standard 2160 wire
machining tolerances and variations 2153 diameters for 286
SAE standard spline fittings 2160 maximum working temperature 289
SAE standard splined fittings 21572160 tensile strength 385
terms, symbols, and drawing data 2139 Sprockets
variations 2135 chain transmission 24212444
Splines, involute 21262155 idler 2436
milling 799 roller chain 24232442
socket keys and bits 1611 Spur gearing 20022033
straight-sided 21572160 AGMA tolerances for fine pitch
Spray transfer (welding) 13641365 gears 20372041
Spraying process, flame (metal) 1351 American National Standard tooth
Spring 285332 forms 20042008
arbor diameters for 332 angular backlash 2042
Belleville 326 backlash 20362042, 2103
clock 326 basic dimensions 20102012
compression, formulas for 299 blanks for fine pitch gears 20332034
conical compression 326 caliper measurement of tooth 2020
constant force 326 cast 21132117
copper-base spring alloys 288289 center distance
deflections for calculations 20102015
compression 302305 variable 2010, 20122015
extension 302305 checking gear size 20942112
torsion 321324 chordal
design data 296332 addenda and thicknesses for milled full-
elevated temperature stresses 295296 depth teeth 20152017
endurance limit for spring materials 295 addendum 20172018
296 measurement 21082111
extension 307311 thickness 20152017, 2062
extension spring design 309311 circular
failure in 331 pitch system 20022015, 2022
flat 326 thickness for given outside
heat treatment of 326329 diameter 20142024
helical composite
compression spring design 297306 error inspection 2042
helical, shock stresses produced in 258 teeth 20042010
high-carbon spring steels 286 contact
index 296298 diameter 20282032
materials 286290 highest point of single tooth 2033
miscellaneous 326 lowest point of single tooth 20292032
moduli of elasticity 326 ratio 20242027, 2029
motor 326 data on drawings 20332036
music wire arbor diameters 332 diameters for hobbing, preshaving, and
nickel-base spring alloys 288290 shaping 2011
pins 16631664 diametral pitch
shock stresses produced in helical 258 system 2002
spiral 326 diametral pitch shown full size 2002
2616 INDEX

Spur gearing (continued) S-shapes, structural steel 2493


dimensions, formulas for 2004 moment of inertia 2493
drawing data 20332036 radius of gyration 2493
enlarged pinions 20192028, 20772080 section modulus 2493
external 1998 weight per foot 2493
Fellows stub tooth systems 2010 Stabilizing gages 514515
fine-pitch 2008, 20242027, 20332034, Stainless steels 406, 413, 425, 428
20772079 characteristics and applications 425
formulas for basic dimensions 2131 compositions 413
full-depth, teeth 20042010, 20152017 cutting, flame 1428
gear milling cutters, series of 20172021 mechanical properties 439
metric module 2021 soldering 13521354
gear tooth parts 20052010 ultrasonic 13521354
checking 20942112 speeds
German standard tooth form 2090 for drilling, reaming, and
hob tip radius, maximum 20302033 threading 1036
interference, avoiding 20192022 for milling 10191020
internal 1998, 20472048 for turning 1001
involute curve properties 2002 strength 476
measurement of tooth with caliper 2020 Stamping
measurement over pins 20942112 blank diameters 1304
milling cutters for 2021 die clearances 1301
metric module 2021 drawing operations 13021304
module system 20902093 fine blanking 13121314
nonmetallic 601604, 21182122 lubricants for 1302
outside and root diameters 2011, 2022 pressures required 13021304
pin method of checking 20942112 punches, dies and presswork 13011311
pitch diameters, tabulated 2022 steel rule dies 13151317
profile checker settings 20302031 Standard
reduced gear 20192028 deviation 12161218
replacement gear dimensions 21222125 steels 403, 406418, 420428, 430436,
root and outside diameters 2011, 2022 439443
set center distance 20102015 classification 403, 406410
shaving 20112013 hardenability 415416
steels for industrial 21132117 hardness 415416
tooth numbering system 409, 413
dimensions 20052010 wire gage (SWG) 24992500
forms 20042010 Standards, NC 1226
proportions 2008 Static 113
thickness allowance for shaving 2011 balancing 167
2015 equivalent load, bearings 22972301
thickness measurement 20142022, load rating, bearings 22972301
20392040, 21082111 Statistical tolerance 617
true involute form (TIF) diameter 2030 Stayed surfaces, flat 268
2033 Steel
undercut, avoiding 20192028 alloy
undercut, limit for hobbed gears 2030 compositions of SAE 411412
2033 general properties 432436
wire method of checking 20942108, Bessemer 422
21112112 carbon
Square SAE compositions 409, 420422
area 60 steel structure 484
circles of area equal to 79 carbon steel structure 483
distances across corners 82 carburizing grades 504505
of wire diameters 330 carburizing methods 498
prism volume 66 case hardening 497505
recesses, for machine screws 1577 cast 13321335
for self-tapping screws 1623 castings 1332
roots of numbers 17 chromium
Squeeze casting 13371338 compositions 413, 428
Squirrel cage induction motors 24452446 nickel austenitic 413, 425, 428
INDEX 2617
Steel (continued) Steel (continued)
classification 406 heat treatments recommended 443,
cobalt high-speed 856857 503505
cobaltcrom 508 specification numbers 409410
color of heated 495 screw stock 422
columns, pipe 264265 sheet, standard gage 25012502
compositions silicon-manganese, SAE
for tools 464476 compositions 411412
of SAE 409412 stainless 413, 425, 428
corrosion-resisting 425428 strength 473476
deep-drawing 420 and hardness data 432436, 473, 475
Founders Society of America 1333 476
1340 of heat-treated 473, 475476
free-cutting 422 structural shapes 24882497
manganese 447 subzero treatment 514517
stainless 425 taps 452456, 18851886
gages 456 tool 444458, 460, 462, 464471
gear castings 21132117 die 452
gearing, industrial 21132117 of different types 452456
hardenability 415416 tungsten
hardening 479, 485492 compositions 458, 460
hardness 415416 heat treating 508511
and tensile strength relationships 521 high-speed 458460, 462, 508511
of heat-treated 432, 473476 twist drill 856857
heat treatment 414415, 479517 vanadium 447
of high speed steel 508514 wrought 2504
high-speed 451 Stellite alloy 981
high-strength, low-alloy 409410, 440 Step bearings 2219, 22242227
443 Stock, amount required for screw machine
hot-working, for dies, shears 452454 production 1099
hypereutectoid 483 Stoke 22012202, 23122313, 2319
hypoeutectoid 483 Straight
induction hardening 500 line column formula 261
manganese, SAE compositions 409412, pins 16531655
447 pipe threads 18481852
molybdenum Straight bevel gears 1998
compositions 409412, 425, 428 Strain
heat-treating 511512 lateral 196
high-speed 457458, 510511 longitudianl 196
nickel ratio of 196
chromium, SAE compositions 409 Strength
412, 425, 428 hollow vs. solid shafts 283284
nickel, SAE compositions 425 of polygon connections 2161
SAE compositions 411412 of screws and bolts 14901491, 1534,
nitriding 417, 498 15591560
numbering systems for 409412 riveted joints 1459
oil-hardening types 464 tensile 196
pipe wood 376
ANSI standard 2505 ultimate 196
columns, allowable concentric yield
loads 264265 perforated metal 235
properties of heat-treated 452454, 473, Strength of materials 195
476 angles, lengths of bent 2488
quality beams 236, 249
classification 418 shock stresses in 257258
variations 418 channels, elements of 2494, 2498
rivets 1458 columns 261267
rolled, shape designations 2488 AISC formula 267
rule dies 13151317 AREA formula 261
SAE Euler formula for 261262, 266267
compositions 409412 Gordon formula 261, 263
2618 INDEX

Strength of materials (continued) Strength of materials (continued)


Johnson formula for 262 analysis 521
combined stresses 206210 areas of screw threads 14891491
compression 196 concentration factors 200201
critical speeds of shafts 283 filleted shaft in tension 201
curved beams 254257 filleted shaft in torsion 201
cylinders 270274 grooved shaft in bending 203
definitions 195196 grooved shaft in torsion 203
deflection of beams 236, 239, 241242, shaft with shoulder in bending 202
253254 shaft with transverse hole in
Euler formula 261263, 266267 bending 204
factors of safety 199 shaft with transverse hole in
ferrous metals 473, 475476 torsion 202
flat plates 268270 relieving 415
heat-treated steels 432436 working 200
hoop stress 585586 struts or columns 261267
thick-walled tube 584585 taper pins, strength of 215216
thin-walled tube 584585 temperature effects 475478
influence of temperature 475478 tensile
Izod impact 380, 432433 strength 376, 379, 385
J. B. Johnson column formula 262, 266 stress 195
267 torsional strength of shafting 275277
keyways in shafts 283 tubes 272274
linear deflection in shafts 280 working stresses 200
mechanical properties 195196 yield 376, 379, 385
metals, properties of 473, 475478 Youngs modulus 196
miscellaneous materials 478 Strength of wire rope 334341
modulus Stress 117
elasticity 196 alternating 197198
shear 196 area of thread 1482, 14901491, 1794
moment of inertia bending in flywheels 179
built-up sections 217 centrifugal in flywheels 178
table 217227 combined 206210
nonferrous metals 473, 475, 477 concentration factors 200204
perforated metals 235 filleted shaft in
pipe columns 264265 tension 201
plates, shells, and cylinders 268274 torsion 201
polar grooved shaft in
moment of inertia 229, 277278 bending 203
section modulus 229, 277278 torsion 203
rails 259 shaft with
Rankine, column formula 261, 263 shoulder in bending 202
rings, stresses and deflections 215 transverse hole in bending 204
section moduli tables 217234 transverse hole in torsion 202
shafts 275284 contact, in cams 2184
brittle material formula for 283 cyclic 197
critical speeds of 283 hoop in flywheels 178179
effect of keyways on strength of 283 in beams 204210, 236, 241242, 249,
former American Standard design code 251258
for 280283 in bolts when tightening 14771487
horsepower transmitted by 275277, in flywheels 183
280 in involute splines 2142
torsional strength of 275277 in loaded ring 215
shear 195, 197 in rotating disks 183
shells, spherical 271272 in shafting 280283
shocks, stresses produced by 257258 in splines
simple stresses 204206 allowable compressive 2145
springs, shock stresses in 258 allowable contact stress 2045
steels 473, 475476 allowable shear 2144
straight-line column formula 261 allowable tensile stress 2145
stress 117, 195 in springs 258, 291297
INDEX 2619
Stress (continued) Superalloys, speeds for turning, milling and
produced by shocks 257258 drilling 10081009
shear 206 Superhard tool materials (CBN) 754757,
in beams 207210 982, 10081009, 1140, 1157, 1166
simple 204206 Surface
spline teeth finish and hardness of bearings 2199
compressive 2144 grinding 11851192
superposition of 206 advantages 1185
three-dimensional, or triaxial 210212 common faults and possible causes
working, of various materials 200 in 11911192
Stress concentration factors 200201 table of 1191
filleted shaft in principal systems 1186, 1189
tension 201 process data for 1190
torsion 201 selection of grinding wheels for 1139
grooved shaft in 1150, 11851187, 1190
bending 203 hardening
torsion 203 electron beam 503
shaft with laser 503
shoulder in bending 202 of revolution, area 57
transverse hole in roughness
bending 204 measurements 703704
torsion 202 produced by common production
Stress relieving 415 methods 702703
Stress-strain curves 195196 produced by laser cutting 14151416
Structural shapes relationship to tolerances 702704
aluminum 2498 speeds, diameters and rpm
steel 24882497 grinding wheels 1171, 1174
angles, properties of 24952497 pulleys and sheaves 985, 987990,
channels, properties of 2494 19081909
I- or S-shapes, properties of 2493 speeds, diameters and rpm cutting speeds
standard designations 2488 formula 985990, 1908
strength 476 texture 697702
wide flange, properties of 24892492 measurement by light wave interference
Structure of Carbon Steel 483 bands 695696
Struts or columns, strength of 261267 Surface coatings 14441451
Stub Acme screw threads 1793, 18111816 Surface condition factor 2044
alternative 1816 Surface finish
ANSI Standard 18111815 differences between ISO and ANSI
designations 1814 symbology 711
formula for determining diameters 1812 Surface texture 699
limiting dimensions for 18131814 applying symbols 706708
thread data 1815 castings 708
thread form 1793, 1812 comparing measured values to specified
wire sizes for checking 18721874 limits 715
Stub screw machine reamers 819820 control and production 697
Stub threads, 29- and 60-degree 19291934 cutoff for roughness measurements 704
Stub tooth gearing 2005, 2010 drawing practices for symbols 704705
Fellows 2010 error of form 697
former American Standard 2005, 2010 flaws 697
outside and root diameters 2004, 2011 graphical centerline. 699
Stub's iron and steel wire gage 24992500 instruments 704
Stud instruments of measurements 704
British 1551, 1562 lay 697, 708
threads 17861791 lay symbols 709
Studs measurement instrumentation 704
British measurement of 697702
drive 1659, 1662 measurements
Subprogram, NC 1256 area avearaging methods 704
Subroutine, NC 12561258 max rule 715
Subzero treatment of steel 514517 non-contact instruments 704
probe microscope 704
2620 INDEX

Surface texture (continued) Symbols (continued)


skidless instruments 704 drawing practices for surface
16% rule 715 texture 704705
profile 699 fits 631
measured 699 Greek 2554
modified 699 grinding wheel markings 11411142
nominal 699 involute splines 2129, 2139
real 700 mechanics 115
total 700 nondestructive testing 14081409
variation 2129, 2136 parallelism, ANSI 609, 1223
root mean square 702 perpendicularity, ANSI 609, 1224
roughness 697 roundness, ANSI 609, 1222
roughness average (Ra) 701702, 707 runout, ANSI 609, 1224
roughness evaluation length 702 screw thread, for tap marking 896897
roughness parameters 701 surface profile, ANSI 609, 1222
roughness profile 700 surface texture 704708
roughness sampling length 701 tolerances 642644
roughness spacing 700 total runout, ANSI 609, 1224
roughness topography 700 welding 13931409
sampling length 700701 Symbols and abbreviations 2, 25542555
spatial resolution 700 Synchronous belts 24072419
standard roughness sampling lengths 707 System of measurement
symbols 606, 705706 absolute 114
symbols, proportions of 706 gravitational 114
system height resolution 700 System, flexible manufacturing, NC 1234
topography 700 Systeme International dUnites
measured 700 in strength of materials calculations 195
modified 700 Systme International dUnites 25202524
traversing length 701 definition of units 25232524
use of symbols 706 in mechanics calculations 116118
valley 700 use of 113114, 116118
waviness 699
evaluation length 700, 702
height 702, 708
long-wavelength cutoff 700
T
parameters 702 Tangent 83
profile 700 Tangent plane 2001
sampling length 700701 Tangential force 2044
short-wavelength cutoff 700 Tanks
spacing 700 contents at given level 5859
topography 700 cylindrical, capacity in gallons 5859
Surface texture symbols quenching bath 490491
drawing practices for 705 Tantung alloy 981
Surveyor's measure 2517, 2523 Tap drill diameters 18891908
SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds) 2313, Acme 901
2319 British Standard ISO metric 19011902
Swing frame grinding 1192 cold form tapping 19051907
Swiss pattern files 14321433 effect of diameter when tapping 1889
S-word, NC 1251 1890
Symbols machine screw sizes 1900
ANSI Y14.5M Standard geometric pipe taps 19071908
characteristic engineering drawing 609 Taper
datum referencing 614 keys 23422354, 23592364
section lining 606, 608 measurement methods 682686
applying surface texture 706708 per foot and corresponding angles 684
arc and gas welding 13931401 pin reamers 826, 1657
brazing 1361 pins, standard 16551658
concentricity, ANSI 609, 1223 drills for 16551658
diameter, ANSI 609, 1222 strength 215216
diamond wheel marking 11631166 pipe taps 879881, 894
pipe threads 18461850
INDEX 2621
Taper (continued) Taps 872875
reamers Acme 898901
Brown & Sharpe 825 adjustable 901
Morse 824 ANSI Standard 872898
shaft ends, SAE Standard 2352 British Standard ISO metric series 902
Tapered 903
land thrust bearing 22182219, 2227 collapsing 901
2232 cut thread limits 876882, 891
roller bearings 22522254 definitions 872875
roller thrust bearings 22522254 fits, classes obtained 895
Tapers fractional inch sizes 876878, 891
American (ANSI) Standard 906918 ground thread limits 877883, 892
applications of standard 917 H- and L-limits 879880, 896897
British Standard 907908 hand, dimensions of standard 875, 883,
Brown & Sharpe 906, 915916 888892
collets 971973 hand, types of 872
gages for self-holding 914 limit numbers for ground-thread
Jacobs 919 taps 897898
Jarno 906, 917 machine screw 883893
machine tool spindles 917 marks or symbols for identifying threads
measuring with on taps 880, 896898
sine bar 674 metric sizes 876, 883893
V-block and sine bar 682 multiple-thread taps, marking 898
milling machine spindles, arbors and nitriding of 18851886
spindle noses 920924 nut 872, 884, 890891
Morse 906917 pipe 872, 879882, 894
stub taper shanks 907908 power for driving 19071908
rules for figuring 685 tap drills for 19071908
self-holding and self-releasing 906914 taper 879882, 894
steep machine 913, 918 pitch increased to compensate for
Tapping and thread cutting 18851917 shrinkage 19291930
automatic screw machine 1095 pulley 872, 884, 890
British Standard drill sizes 19011903 rake angles of 18861887
cold form 19041907 removing broken 19051908
cutting oils 1110 selection of 18851887
cutting speed for 10301039, 10411043 serial 18851886
high-speed CNC 19081909 sparkplug 876, 891
holes spiral
for tapping miniature screw fluted 883, 886, 892, 18851886
threads 19011902 pointed 885893, 18851886
sizes before tapping, Unified square thread 898901
threads 18891902 steel for 456, 18851886
lubrication 1110 straight fluted 875, 883, 888889, 892
maximum pitches of die cut straight pipe 879882, 894
threads 19291930 surface treatment of 18851886
power required for pipe taps 19071908 terms 872
removing a broken tap 19051908 thread series designations 896897
specific materials 18871890 tolerances 876897
speeds 10301039, 10411043, 1095, types of 872
18861887 Unified thread form 1706
square threads 883, 887890, 903 Tar, specific gravity 371
tap drills Taylor
Acme threads 901 principle in grinding 606
clearance drills for machine tool life equation 992
screws 1900 T-bolts and T-slots, ANSI Standard 1645
diameters 18891890, 19071908 1646
for American form threads 18981900 tebi 2533
for ISO metric threads 1903 Teflon (TFE) bearings 2242, 2245
tap thread H- and L-limits 879880, 896 Temper designations, aluminum alloy 543
897 546
2622 INDEX

Temperature Thermal flash factor 2045


absolute 2514 Thermometer scales 25142516
bearings 22042211 Thicknesses, preferred
boiling points, various substances 364 metal products 2503
changes in length due to 668 uncoated metals and alloys 2501
critical, heat treating of steel 480, 483 Thin flat plate 148
484 Thin spherical shell 150
effect on working stresses, of Thread
springs 295296 Acme 17921816
Fahrenheit and Celsius angle, wire method of testing 1872
(Centigrade) 25142516 change gears for lathe 19121916
ignition 368 for fractional output 19131914
influence on strength of metals 475478 modifying the quick change gearbox
judging by color, steel 495 output 19131916
maximum operating chasing, cutting speeds for 10301043
ceramics 379 checking by three-wire method,
plastics 380 tables 18661868, 1872
melting point metals 368370 cutting 19101916
of carbon dioxide, solid 623 numerically controlled 12621263,
of freezing mixtures 367 19081909
of ignition, various materials 367 square 898901
of lead bath alloys 494 designation symbols for 896897, 1752
of nitrogen, solid 623 1754
required to develop tightening stress in on taps, marks and symbols for
bolt 14801481 identifying 896897
Temperature criterion 2045 dies, maximum pitches 1930
Tempering 414417, 482, 493495 grinding 19231927
double 494 accuracy obtainable 1923
steel 414, 493495 centerless method 19261927
Ten-degree modified square thread 1817 crushing method of forming
Tensile wheels 1926
modulus (plastics) 380, 572573 from the solid 19241927
strength 196197 number of wheel passes 1924
stress 195 truing wheels 1925
Tensile strength wheel and work rotation 1925
aluminum alloys 550555 wheel grain size 19261927
ceramics 379 wheel hardness of grade 19261927
copper alloys 526542 wheel speeds 1925
copper-beryllium alloys 566 wheel types for 19231926, 1928
copper-silicon alloys 565 work speeds 1925
ferrous and non-ferrous metals and metal milling 19281930
alloys 473, 475477 changing pitch of thread slightly 1929
heat-treated steel 432436 classes of work for 19291930
Investment casting alloy 381 multiple cutter method 19281929
iron and steel 473, 475 on numerically controlled
magnesium alloys 560 machines 12621263, 19081909
nickel 562563 planetary method 1929
stainless steel 439 single cutter method 1928
steel 430436, 441 rolling 19181922
relation to hardness 473477, 521524 advantages of process 1918
titanium alloys 564 automatic screw machines 1919
wood 376 blank diameter 19181919
Thermal diameter of threading roll 1919
conductance 366 dies
conductivity 366, 368370 cylindrical 19181919
contraction 623 flat 1918
cracking of cutting tools 1111 steels for 456
energy 2514 dies, flat 1918
expansion coefficients 368370, 379 machines used 1918
380, 579, 668 precision thread rolling 19181919
stresses 585586, 668 production rates 19181919
INDEX 2623
Thread (continued) Tolerance grades, relative to machining
speeds and feeds 19201922 processes 630, 657
steels 19181919 Tolerances
screws 1620, 1623, 1625 ANSI Standard 630
self-forming screws 16201622, 1624, bilateral and unilateral 621622
1628 symbols 609, 642644, 1221
single-point cutting tools for 692694 application 622
stress area 1482, 1490, 1794 ball and roller bearing 22552266
symbols for taps 896897 compression spring 310313
tap drill sizes 18891898 cylindrical fits 621667
tools defined 621
angles of sides for given clearance and designation of limits and fits 642644
helix angles 1910 dimensions on drawings 621622
for square threads 898901 drilled holes 856857
relief angles for single-point 1910 extension spring 310314
1911 gages
Threading cam, screw machine 1094, 1098 direction of tolerances on 622
cutting speeds, threading dies 1094 thread 18821884
Three-dimensional stress 210212 gear, composite tooth to tooth 2042
Three-wire measurement of screw gear, composite total 2042
threads 18601877 hand taps 876879, 891
Throw away carbide inserts 730732 honing 1199
Thrust bearings 22502254 how to apply 622
allowable loads 2220 indicating on drawings 609611, 622
ball 22502254 involute splines, inch 21262134
flat plate type 22182224 involute splines, metric 21482153
plain 22182235 keys and keyways 23452354
rated life 22902296 knurling 1212, 1215
roller 22512252 machine screw taps 878879, 895
static equivalent load 23012302 obtainable by various operations 630
static load rating 23002301 pipe taps 879882, 894
step type 22182219, 22242227 positional 611
tapered land type 22182219, 22272232 preferred series of 630
tilting pad type 22182219, 22322235 projected zone 611
tolerances 22612262 relationship to surface roughness 702
Thumb screws, flat-head type 1697, 1700 704
1701 symbols 609, 1221
Tilting pad thrust bearing 22182219, 2232 taps 872895
2235 torsion springs 325326
Tin twist drill, metric 853
plating 1451 unilateral and bilateral 621622
tin lead, plating 1446 Tolerancing and geometric
Tin-base alloys, die casting 1343 dimensioning 606, 610611
Tin-bronze bearings 22382242 Ton
Tin-lead alloys for soldering 1353 long and short 2518
Tip relief 2001 metric 2523, 2546
Titanium and titanium alloys Tool
cutting speeds for turning, milling, and and cam design, pointers 10981099
drilling 1007 compensation, NC 12811284
properties 561, 564 contour, cutting tools 723
Titanium carbides as cutting tool data table 1251
materials 747752, 980 forming 758770
Titanium Metals Corp. 564 function, NC 12511253
T-nuts, ANSI Standard 1647 grinding, angles 723731
Toggle joint 133 holders 732738
Tolerance indexable inserts 729738, 753, 1281
bilateral 613 1284
geometric 613 knurling 12111215
unilateral 613 length offset, NC 1253
zone symmetry 613 life 982983, 992994
2624 INDEX

Tool (continued) Torque (continued)


adjusting 755757, 10041005, 1009, electric motor 24452448
1012, 1028 pull-up 2446
materials 747757, 978982 relationship to angular acceleration 156
NC machines ??1286 starting, small bearings 22802281
nose radius compensation, NC 1253, tightening, for bolts 1475, 14861487
12811284 torsion springs 315
offset, NC 1252 Torsion
shanks, ANSI Standard for milling and bending of shafts, combined
machines 922 formulas 204, 210, 280283
sharpening deflection of shafts, formula 277280
carbide tools 937 formulas for shafts 275277
grinding wheels for 937940 modulus 204, 326329
twist drills 934937 springs, design 325
single-point 723746, 859864 strength of shafts 275277
steels 444458, 460, 462, 464471 metric calculations 276277
air hardening 464466 Torus
alloying elements, effects of 447, 451 polar moment of inertia 145
carbon 452454 volume 71
chromium types 458, 460, 462 Total face width 2001
classification of 451454 Total indicator reading, NC 1238
cold work 464 Translating, screws 19101943
cutting speed for 1000, 10181019, Transmission chains 2421
1035 cast roller chains 2421
decarburization limits 471 detachable chains 2421
dimensional tolerances 471 pintle chains 2421
faults and failures, common 447450 roller chains 24212444
grindability of 446, 11511152 attachments 2425
high-carbon, high-chromium 464 center distances and chain links 2436
high-speed 457 cutters for sprockets 24392441
hot work 458, 462, 464 cutting sprocket tooth forms 2437
machining allowances 471 design procedure 2444
mill production forms 470471 dimensions 2423
mold 466, 468469 hob design 2439
molybdenum types 457458, 464 horsepower ratings 24312435, 2442
numbering system 403, 405 idler sprockets 2436
oil hardening 464 installation and alignment 2443
properties of 444447 keys, keyways and set-screws 2426
selection of 452456 length of driving chain 2436
shock resisting 466, 468469 lubrication 2443
special purpose 466469 manufacture 2437
speeds drilling, reaming, and materials 2437
threading 1035 nomenclature 24222424
speeds, milling 10181019 nonstandard 2421
speeds, turning 1000 numbers for 2424
tolerances on dimensions 471 parts 2422
tungsten types 458, 460 selection 2431, 2436
water hardening 469471 sprockets 24232442
wear 933935 tooth form 2438
Tool trouble-shooting checklist 983 types 2421
Tooling, carbide 747, 754757 Transmission shafting design 280283
Tooth face 2001 Transposition of terms in formulas 2021
Tooth rest position Transverse plane 2001
milling cutter grinding 806 Trap rock, strength 478
reamer grinding 811 Trapezium area 62
Tooth surface 2001 Trapezoid
Torches, metal cutting 14281429 area 61
Torque 113 center of gravity 137
calculating, for tightening bolts 135, Trapezoidal metric threads 1779
14751491 Trepanning 871
Tresca shear theory (plastics) 584585
INDEX 2625
Triangle Turning
acute 83 cutting speeds for
area 61 copper alloys 1006
center of gravity 136 ferrous cast metals 10021003
equilateral 83 hard-to-machine materials 10081009
geometry of 4648 light metals 10071008
isosceles 83 plain carbon and alloy steels 996999
obtuse 83 stainless steels 1001
right-angle 83 superalloys 10081009
solution 8389 titanium and titanium alloys 1007
oblique-angle 8889 tool steels 1000
right angle 86 cutting time for 1044
right-angle 87 cycles, NC 1262
Triaxial stress 210212 grinding tools for 726731
Trigonometric speeds and feeds 9951009, 1095
formulas 8485 wood 378
functions Turning, cutting speeds for copper
of angles 83101 alloys 1006
signs of 84 Twist drill 831858
using calculator to find 97 equivalent of gage or letter size 829833,
identities 8485 24992500
tables 9396 grinding (sharpening) 934936
Trimming dies, steels for 456 tolerances, metric 853
Trochoid 2001 types 827
Troostite 493 T-word, NC 12511253
Trouble-shooting
broaching 932
drilling 1034
reaming 812
U
tools 448450 U.S.
Troy weight for gold and silver 2518 Board of Supervising Inspectors 268
True involute form diameter 2001 Dept. of Commerce, formula for pressure
Truing and dressing grinding wheels 1158 in tubes 272273
1162 gallons into liters 2545
T-slot cutters, standard 775 standard screw threads 1706
T-slots and T-bolts, ANSI Standard 1645 Standard sheet metal gage 2502
1646 standard sheet metal gage 25012502
TT-C-490D 1449 UK gallons to liters 2544
Tube 2504 Ultimate strength
collapsing pressure 272274 common materials 478
gages 2499 compressive 196
maximum allowable pressures 274 iron and steel 476
strength of 272274 nonferrous alloys 477
subjected to external pressure plastics 583
factor of safety 274 shear 197
thickness and working pressure 273274 Ultrasonic fluxless soldering 13521355
wall thickness gages 2488, 2499 Uncoated metals and alloys, preferred
Tungsten thicknesses, metric 2501
carbide tools Undercut, in spur gearing 20192028
materials 979 Unified 1785
electrodes, welding 13821388 bolts, screws, and nuts 1492
Tungsten steels 458, 460, 516 miniature screw thread, standard 1781
compositions 452454, 460 1785
high-speed, heat-treatment of 508511 numbering system (UNS) for metals and
tool steels 458, 460 alloys 403
Tungsten-carbide tools copper alloys 525
grinding 937939 plain carbon, alloy and tool steel 403,
single-point 738, 859864 405, 409, 411412
Turner's sclerometer 521, 524 stainless steel 409, 413
screw thread standard
ANSI 17061710, 17121754
2626 INDEX

Unified (continued) Vickers hardness 520521


British UNJ 18251826 Viscosity 22012203, 23112313
Uniform motion 151 conversion table for lubricating
Unit oils 22012202
conversions 25202524 Viscosity-pressure relationship 2324
horsepower for machining 870, 1046 Viscosity-temperature chart for SAE
1047, 1051 oils 22022203
systems 25202524 Vitrified bonded wheels 937938, 1140
Unit systems 25202524 coolants for 11081109
116 thread grinding 1923
cgs 114 Volume
MKS 114 air at different temperatures 393
Universal joints 2327 barrel 71
UNS cone 68
no. 406408 frustum of 68
series of different metal 404 cube 66
Upsetting, steel for cold 420 cylinder
hollow 68
portion of 6768
V ellipsoid 69
geometrical figures 6671
Van Keuren gear measuring tables 2094 nozzles 390
2106 of flow in pipes and tubes 388389, 392,
Variable speed belts 24012407 2509
Varnish, pattern 13391340 of solids 6671
V-belts paraboloid 70
arc of contact 23792407 paraboloidal segment 71
belt lengths and center distances 2379 prism 66
classical 23792386 prismoidal formula 56
cross-sections 2397, 2413 pyramid 66
degree 2407 frustum of 67
double 23862394 ratio of 71
horsepower ratings 2372, 2407 solid of revolution 56
light duty 23902397 sphere 69
narrow 23732379 hollow 70
SAE Standard V-belts 2420 spherical
service factors 24182419 sector 69
sheave dimensions 23732377, 2381 segment 69
2382, 23982416 wedge 70
sheaves 23722420 zone 70
storage and handling 24172418 square prism 66
synchronous 24072417, 2419 torus 71
variable speed 24012407 water at different temperature 387
V-ribbed 23972401 wedge 67
Vector and scalar quantities 118 Volumes
Velocity 113, 151, 154 of fuel 372
angular 151153, 187 V-process, casting 13361338
rpm to radian per second V-projections, fine-blanking tools 1314
conversion 187 V-ribbed belts 23972401
constant 151 V-shaped groove, checking by pins 690
converting to rpm 985990 V-thread 1706
linear 151152 Vulcanized fiber, strength 478
of points on rotating bodies 187
Vernier scale
dual metric-inch 670671
reading 669
W
reading a metric 670 Wahl spring curvature correction factor 295
reading on a protractor 669 Warding files 14311432
Versed sine and versed cosine 97 Washburn & Moen wire gage 24992500
V-flange tool shanks and retention Washers
knobs 12841286 ANSI, plain 15121517, 1547, 1549
INDEX 2627
Washers (continued) Welding 13621409, 14181421
Belleville 326 aluminum 1365, 13851390
British Standard metric 15651566 ANSI welding symbols 13931409
metric spring 15631565 application of 13971401
metric 1547, 1549 nondestructive testing 14081409
preferred sizes 15121513 application of symbols 13971401
spring lock type 1516 arc cutting of metals 14281429
tooth lock type 15151519 codes, rules, regulations,
Washers specifications 13941395
spring lock type 1519 complete fusion 1405
Watch screw threads 17811785 cutting metals, with electric arc 1428
Water 1429
boiling point 386 with oxidizing flame 1428
composition 386 cutting with lasers 14141419
flow in pipes 388391, 2509 definitions and symbols 13931401
flow through nozzles 390 designations 1396
horsepower, equivalent to given head 389 dies 1408
inches of, and equivalent pressure 388 electrodes 1363, 1367, 13851387
pressure 386 electron beam 1392
pressure, head or depth known 386 FCAW (flux-cored arc) 13711378
pressures, methods of measuring 388 contact tip recess 13731374
velocity due to head 391 deposition rates 13761378
volume at different temperatures 388 electrodes 13711373
volume of flow in pipes and tubes 392, porosity and worm tracks 1374
2509 settings 13741376
weight at different temperatures 389 shielding gases 1378
Watt equivalent 2551 fill and cover pass procedures for 5G
Waviness 697 welds 14061407
height values 702 fill passes 1403
Wear and wear resistance cutting tool 933 GMAW (gas metal arc) 13631371
934 electrode diameters 1363
Wedge 130 shielding gases 13641366
center of gravity 140 spray transfer 13671371
mechanical principle of 130 welding sheet steel 1364
volume 67 GTAW (gas tungsten arc) 13821387
Weight 116 filler metals 1387
air 393394 selecting tungsten electrode 13851387
at different pressures 394 shielding gases 1387
at different temperatures 394 welding current 13921394
per cubic foot 393394 hard-facing 14231427
angles, structural steel 24952497 horizontal pipe welding 1403
avoirdupois or commercial 2518 laser
castings, from pattern weight 1340 cutting 14141418
channels, structural 2494, 2498 welding 14181421
charcoal, coal and coke 371 letter designations for processes 1396
fuels 371 materials used in welding 1393
hollow shafts 283284 nondestructive testing 14081409
I-beams 24892493 PAW (plasma arc) 13871391
metals 368370 applications 13891390
metric 2523, 2546 cutting 1391
nails and spikes 1455 gases for 13881389
of natural piles 373 of aluminum 13891390
per feet of wood 372 surface coating 13901391
pipe, per foot 25052508 pipe 1402
specific gravity known 370 positioning of joint components in pipe
steel S-sections 2493 welding 1402
troy, for gold and silver 2518 process letter designation 1396
water 386, 388 root passes 1403
wide flange, steel 24892492 root welding procedure for 5G
wood 371372, 376377 welds 1407
Weights and measures 25172519
2628 INDEX

Welding (continued) Wire (continued)


root welding procedures for fcaw 5G pipe formulas for large lead angles 1863
welds 1406 1874
SMAW (shielded metal arc) 13781382 limits for diameters 18611863, 1870
characteristic of electrodes 13791382 specifications 18621863
specifications 13941395 taper screws 1872, 1875
symbols 1394 circular mill measurement 2517
tack welding procedures for FCAW 5G copper, strength of 477
pipe welds 1406 diameters, squares, cubes, fourth powers
thick-walled carbon-steel pipes 1405 of 330
1406 EDM 1318, 13281329
thin-wall pipe 1404 music 330, 385, 24992500
thin-walled carbon-steel pipes 1407 plow steel, strength of 336341
use of flux-cored electrodes 1404 preferred thicknesses 2501
vertical-down welding 1403 rod gages 2499
vertical-up welding 1403 rope 333350
wire extension 1406 sheet metal gages 24992503
Welding and hard-facing 14231427 spring, tensile strength of 385
Welding factor 2045 tensile strength 385
Weldon shanks, dimensions of 779789 tubing, wall thickness gages 2499
Wheels wire gages 24992500
abrasive cutting 1204 Wire nails and spikes, standard 1455
buffing 1440 Wire rope 333350
diamond 937939, 11631169 bending stresses 344
dressing 11581161 breaking strengths 334
grinding 11391174 classes 335338
mechanical principles of 134 construction 333
polishing 1439 cutting and seizing 344
polishing, speed of 1440 definitions of terms 333334
silicon carbide 937938 drum or reel capacity 342343
Wheels and pulleys in mechanics 134135 drum score for winding 360
White cast iron 1330 factors of safety 339340
White metal bearing alloys 22372238 installation 340346
Whitworth life 344345
standard bolts, screws, nuts, washers, and lubrication 345
studs 15511554, 15951598, 1619 maintenance 344345
wire size for measuring threads 1861 properties 334335
1862 rated capacities of 349350
Whole depth 2001 replacement 345
Wide-flange shapes, steel 24892492 rope loads due to bending 344
moment of inertia 24892492 safe loads for 339340
radius of gyration 24892492 sheave and drum dimensions 342
section modulus 24892492 simplified practice recommendations 338
weight per foot 24892492 sizes 336341
Winding drums, wire rope and chain 342 slings and fittings 345350
343, 360 specification 334
Windlass 134 strength 336341
Wing nuts, standard 16931696 weight 336341
Wing screws 16931701 Wood
Wire bearings 2242, 2245
brass, phosphor bronze, strength of 477 bonding 24602463
checking gear sizes 20942108, 2111 compression perpendicular to grain 375
2112 crushing strength 375
backlash allowances 2103 density 376
diameters 2094, 2103 dimensions of sawn lumber 378
helical gears 21032109 hardmetal tooling for 757
checking screw threads 18601877 ignition temperatures 367
Acme threads 18661874 machinability 377378
buttress threads 18751877 maximum crushing strength 375
contact pressure 18621863 mechanical properties of 375376
effect of pressure treatment 376
INDEX 2629
Wood (continued) Worm gearing (continued)
mechanical property 375 tooth form 2066
modulus of rupture 375 tooth form of worm and wormgear 2066
patterns 13391340 Worm gearing, hobs 2064
screws 1456 Wrapped spring clutches 23322333
shear strength parallel to grain 376 Wrench clearances
tensile strength perpendicular to for box wrenches 1510
grain 376 for open end wrenches 1511
tooling for wood and nonmetals 757 for socket wrenches 1511
weight of 371 for spacing of bolts 15101511
Wood screws, pilot hole for 1456 Wrench openings, ANSI Standard 1510
Woodruff keys 2365 Wrought
Woodruff keyseat cutters 795 copper 566
Word address format, NC 12431245 iron
Word, NC 12431245 strength 476
Work 113, 158159 temperature effect on 478
formulas 158159 thickness gage for sheet 2502
general formulas 162 steel pipe 25042505
relation to energy 158159 Wurtzite 755757
Work and Energy 158
Work hardening factor 20442045
work to maximum load in bending
wood 375
Y
Working depth 2001 Yield
Working strength of bolts 14891491, 1559 strength
1561 perforated metal 235
stresses 200 Yield point 196
for springs 291297 for various materials 196
Working stress heat-treated steels 432436
shafts, maximum allowable 282 iron and steel 473, 475476
Worm gear nonferrous metals 477
effect of cutting diameter on profile and plastics 583
pressure angle 2066 Yield strength 196, 376, 379, 385
effect of production method on profile and aluminum alloys 550555
pressure angle 2066 compressive 196
Worm gearing 20642066 copper alloys 526542
addendum 2065 copper-beryllium alloys 566
ANSI Standard, fine-pitch 20642066 copper-silicon alloys 565
center distance 2065 Investment casting alloy 381
effect of cutting method on profile 2066 magnesium alloys 560
fine-pitch 20642066 nickel alloys 562563
formulas for dimensions 2065 perforated metal 235
hobs for 2064 plastics 573574
lead angles 20642065 shear 197
material for 2067 stainless steel 439
materials for 2066 steel 430436, 441
multithread 2066 titanium alloys 564
multi-thread worms 2067 Youngs modulus 196
number of threads or starts 2067 spring materials 326329
outside diameter 2065
pitch diameter range 2066
pitches 2064 Z
pitches, standard 2064
pressure angle 2066 Zero suppression, NC 1245
pressure angles 2064 Zero, absolute 2514
proportions 2065 Zerol bevel gears 1998, 20502051
ratios 2066 Zinc
single-thread 2066 plating 1451
single-thread worms 2067 specific gravity 370
Zinc-base alloys, die casting 1342
Zone factor 20442045