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PT.

PLN (PERSERO)

Contract No.: 432.PJ/041/DIR/2008

FOR

INDONESIA TANJUNG AWAR-AWAR


2x350MW POWER PLANT PROJECT

ELECTRIC SYSTEM

ELECTRIC OPERATION

TRAINING DOCUMENT

No 200701006-011-03

Submitted by: CNEECT

Made by: CHINA NATIONAL ELECTRIC ENGINEERING


TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.

June, 2011
Content
CHAPTER ELECTRIC SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM...........................................................1
SECTION CONCEPT OF ELECTRIC SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM..................................1
SECTION SWITCHING OPERATION FOR 3 2 CIRCUIT BREAKER WIRE
CONNECTION MODE........................................................................................................2
SECTION BASIC PRINCIPLE OF SWITCHING OPERATION....................................6
CHAPTER : OPERATION OF GENERATOR..................................................................7
SECTION MAIN TASK OF ELECTRIC OPERATION.....................................................7
SECTION MAIN DATA SUMMARIZATION TABLE OF GENERATOR..........................8
SECTION BASIC WORKING PRINCIPLES OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR....20
SECTION SELF-SHUNT STATIC EXCITER AND EXCITATION SYSTEM.................24
SECTION GENERATOR PROTECTION......................................................................32
SECTION COOLING OF GENERATOR......................................................................38
SECTION TESTING PRIOR TO GENERATOR STARTUP.........................................39
SECTION INSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF ELECTRIC SYSTEM PRIOR
TO GENERATOR STARTUP............................................................................................40
SECTION CONDITIONS FOR GENERATOR SYNCHRONIZATION..........................44
SECTION GENERATOR STARTUP............................................................................47
SECTION MONITOR AND ADJUSTMENT DURING GENERATOR NORMAL
OPERATION.....................................................................................................................48
SECTION EXCITATION SYSTEM OPERATIONS.......................................................57
SECTION TROUBLES REMOVAL OF GENERATOR............................................77
CHARPTER TRANSFORMER OPERATION...............................................................92
SECTION THE WORKING PRINCIPLE AND GENERAL OPERATION
REQUIREMENT................................................................................................................92
SECTION TRANSFORMER OPERATION IN PARALLEL..........................................94
SECTION TRANSFORMER PERMISSIVE OVERLOAD............................................95
SECTION COOLING APPARATUS OF TRANSFORMER..........................................97
SECTION NORMAL OPERATION AND INSPECTION OF TRANSFORMER...........99
SECTION ABNORMAL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMER AND ACCIDENT
HANDLING.....................................................................................................................103
CHARPTER MOTOR OPERATION............................................................................108
SECTION WORKING PRINCIPLE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF THREE
PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR..............................................................................108
SECTION OPERATION MODE OF MOTOR..............................................................109
SECTION INSPECTION PRIOR TO NORMAL OPERATION AND STARTUP.........111
SECTION MOTOR INSPECTIONS DURING OPERATION......................................113
SECTION MOTOR FAULTS AND TROUBLE REMOVAL.........................................114
SECTION TROUBLES REMOVAL OF MOTOR........................................................116
SECTION OPERATION REGULATION OF SPECIAL MOTOR................................117
CHARPTER AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEM AND POWER DISTRIBUTION DEVICE
.........................................................................................................................................118
SECTION GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEM AND
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.................................................................................118
SECTION THE OPERATION MODE OF AUXILIARY POWER SYSTE....................119
SECTION OPERATIONS AND TROUBLE REMOVAL OF AUXILIARY POWER
I
SYSTEM..........................................................................................................................120
SECTION GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPS.........................................................125
SECTION POWER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT....................................................130
SECTION DC SYSTEMS...........................................................................................146

II
CHAPTER ELECTRIC SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION CONCEPT OF ELECTRIC SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

I Concept of electric single line diagram:


Circuit used to accept and distribute electric power connected by primary
equipments in accordance with expectant production flow is called electric single line
diagram, or primary wiring connection.
1. Basic requirements of electric single line diagram: reliability, flexibility and
economical efficiency.
2. Electric single line diagram:
Connection mode for electric single line diagram with busbar rod:
Advantages: distribution of wire connection is clear, operation is convenient, and
it is beneficial to install and extend.
Disadvantages: power at all circuits connected on the busbar will be off once
there is fault on busbar, some equipment are additionally added, and the floor
area is larger.
Basic mode of electric single line diagram: signal busbar connection/ double
busbars connection/ /3/2 circuit breaker connection/ 4/3 circuit breaker
connection/ transformer busbar connection.
Connection mode for electric wiring diagram without busbar rod: unit wire
connection, bridge connection and angular connection.
Characteristics: fewer of electric equipments are used, and the floor area for
power distribution devices is less.
3. Characteristics for the unit wire connection of generator-transformer:
Wire connection is simple, minimal electric equipment is used and operation is
convenient.
Power distribution devices are simple, investment and floor areas are less;
Current at the outlet of generator is small;
Relay protection is simple. Application: apply for large and middle scale power
plant without near by load unit.

Page 1 of 184
SECTION SWITCHING OPERATION FOR 32 CIRCUIT
BREAKER WIRE CONNECTION MODE

I Characteristics of 3/2 wire connection


Electric power substation in high voltage system generally undertakes multiple
tasks of collecting electric power, redistributing load and transmitting power and so
on, so, the important position of which in high voltage transmission system is very
crucial. Double busbar four-subsection with bypass and 3 2 circuit breaker wire
connection mode are generally adopted for electric single line connection in 500KV
electric power substation presently.

Diagram 1-1 3/2 Circuit breaker wire connection

1. Main operation mode


1) Normal operation mode: all circuit breakers and isolating switches will be
closed when two groups busbars are simultaneously running.
2) Operation mode of line outage and closed loop of circuit breaker: generally
switch on the circuit breaker on maintenance lines and disconnect the
isolating switch when considering the reliability of power supply during
power on lines is off.
3) Operation mode during the maintenance of circuit breaker: disconnect the
switches at two sides when any one set circuit breaker is under
maintenance.
4) Operation mode during the maintenance of busbar: disconnect busbar circuit
breaker and the isolating switches at two sides. This mode is equivalent to
single line running, the running reliability of which is low, so, the running time
with signal line running should be shortened as much as possible.
2. Advantages and disadvantages of the main wire connection of 3/2 circuit
breaker:
1) Advantages:
(1) Reliability of power supply is high. There are two sets of circuit breakers
to supply power on each circuit, and the outage on outgoing line will not

Page 2 of 184
be led to when there is fault on busbar or circuit breaker.
(2) Operational dispatch is flexible: two group busbars and all circuit
breakers are all on service when normal running, thus, the power supply
mode with multiple loop circuits will be formed.
(3) Switching operation is convenient: isolating switch is generally used for
maintenance, which can be directly operated when maintaining circuit
breaker.
2) Disadvantages: secondary wire connection is complex, especially; the
distribution of CT is comparatively more. Fault in overlapping region, and the
action of protection is complex. Besides, compared with double busbars,
operational experience is still not abundant.
As mentioned above, 3 2 circuit breaker wire connection mode has more
advantages than disadvantages. Aim at the malpractice of this kind of wire
connection, an effort on the selection of relay protection can be made to
improve the accuracy of the action of relay protection, simply the distribution
of scope, realize signal protection to avoid repeatability based on the
satisfaction of selectivity, rapidity, sensitivity and reliability.
3. Analysis of the sequence of switching operation
The reasons why we want to discuss the questions of the sequence of
switching operation is that the accidents of switch closing and opening with load due
to the operational sequence of switch is one common serious maloperation in the
operation of electric power system. So, the regulations stipulated by departments
must be carried out to guarantee the correctness of switching operation. Limit the
influence of accident to the lowest scope even the accident happens during
operation.
1) Harm and preventing maloperation measures of switch on and off with load.
The functions of isolating switch is only to make the maintained equipment
have enough visible safety distance to establish reliable insulated clearance
to guarantee the safety of maintained personnel and equipments, so it does
not possess the ability of cutting load current and short circuit current. Inter-
phase short circuit caused by the electric conduction channels formed by arc
discharge during switch on and off with load will directly endanger the life of
operating personnel and damage equipments, and seriously threaten the
safety running of electric grid. The detailed regulations of receiving operating
order, filling in work permit, simulating operation, operating monitoring and
the sequence of switch on and off during operation is stipulated by Electric
Safety Work Regulation to avoid the occurrence of above-mentioned
accidents. The locking device (mechanical locking device can be equipped
under a few and special situations after approved by superior department)
should be equipped on high voltage electric equipments to prevent
maloperation. Deblocking instruments (including keys) of blocking devices
should be safely kept and used according to regulations, and private
deblocking is not allowed. Different locks should be open by different keys
for mechanical locks. Keys should be marked and safely kept for convenient
use. The implementation of these measures reduces the occurrence of
Page 3 of 184
switching operation with load on a certain extent, but to stop the occurrence
of this kind of situation, the ideological education for personnel should be
strengthened and the gold content of technology should be mastered.
2) Sequence of switching operation for 32 circuit breaker
Sequence of switch on and off of electric outage must be operated as circuit
breaker (switch)----isolating switch at load side (breaker)----isolating switch
at busbar side ( breaker), and the operating sequence of power supply
should be opposite to above mentioned . it has significant meaning for the
wire connection on 3/2 circuit breaker in accordance with this principle. The
sequence of switch opening can be confirmed as per the different influence
of switch opening accidents of isolating switches at two sides of circuit
breaker to system.
3) Sequence of switching operation of circuit breaker (such as 5011 circuit
breaker or 5013 circuit breaker) at busbar side
(1) Operation during outage of line or main transformer: if the accident of
switch opening with load happens at line or main transformer side,
circuit breakers at two sides will trip, cut off fault point to guarantee
others lines, main transformer and busbar will normally run; if the
accidents of switch opening with load happens at busbar side, all circuit
breakers on busbar will trip, which results in no-voltage on busbar and
threaten the safety running of system. So, the sequence of circuit
breaker (switch)----isolating switches at line or busbar side (breaker)----
isolating switch at busbar side should be orderly operated. Operational
sequence of power supply should be opposite to above-mentioned
sequence.
(2) The operation when lines or main transformer are running and busbar is
outage. If the accidents of switch opening with load happens at busbar
side, all circuit breakers at busbar side will trip to cut off fault point and
guarantee the normal running of lines and main transformer; if the
accidents of switch opening with load happens at lines or main
transformer side, circuit breaker at two sides will trip to result in the
outage accident on lines or main transformer and threaten the safety
running of electric grid. So, the sequence of circuit breaker ( switch)----
isolating switch at busbar side----isolating switches at line or busbar side
(breaker) should be orderly operated. Operational sequence of power
supply should be opposite to above-mentioned sequence.
(3) The operation when lines or main transformer are running and circuit
breaker at busbar side are changed into maintenance state: If the
accident of switch opening with load happens at lines or main
transformer side, circuit breakers at two sides will trip, which will result in
the outage on lines and influence the safety running of system. If the
accident of switch opening with load happens at busbar side, all circuit
breakers on busbar will trip and fault points will be cut off, which does
not influence the normal running of lines and main transformer. So, the
Page 4 of 184
sequence of circuit breaker (switch) ----isolating switch at busbar side----
isolating switches at line or busbar side (breaker) should be orderly
operated. Operational sequence of power supply should be opposite to
above-mentioned sequence.
The operation when power on lines or main transformer is off, and circuit
breaker is in closed loop running: if the accident of switch closing with load
happens at short lead wire side, circuit breakers at two sides will trip and cut
off fault, which does not influence the safety running of system. If the
accident of switch closing with load happens at busbar side, which will result
in the no-voltage on busbar, signal busbar running mode is changed into at
this moment, and the reliability of running is reduced. So, the sequence of
isolating switch (breaker) at busbar side----isolating switch at short lead wire
side (breaker) ----circuit breaker (switch) should be operated. Operational
sequence of opening loop should be opposite to above mentioned
sequence.
4) Sequence of switching operation for intermediate circuit breaker
(1) Operation that one side line of intermediate circuit breaker or main
transformer is running, power on other side line or main transformer is
required to stop: if the accident of switch opening with load happens at
line or main transformer side, the running line or circuit breaker at main
transformer side will trip. If the accident of switch opening with load
happens at the side required to cut off power, circuit breakers at two
sides of line will trip and cut off fault, which does not influence the safety
running of electric grid. So, the sequence of circuit breaker (switch)----
isolating switch at power off side (breaker)----isolating switch at running
side (breaker) should be orderly operated, and the sequence of power
failure operation should be opposite to above mentioned sequence.
(2) Operation that two side lines of intermediate circuit breaker or main
transformer are both running and intermediate circuit breaker is
changed into maintenance and power failure state: the operational
sequence should be considered according to the effect of the accident
of switch opening with load occurred at two sides of circuit breaker. The
sequence of circuit breaker (switch) ----isolating switch at one side of
less influenced to electric grid(breaker)----isolating switch at one side of
major influenced to electric grid(breaker) should be orderly operated.
Operational sequence of power supply should be opposite to above
mentioned sequence.

Page 5 of 184
SECTION BASIC PRINCIPLE OF SWITCHING OPERATION

I The circuit breaker must be used to connect or disconnect load


current and short circuit current when switching operation is being
done, it is absolutely forbid using isolating switch to cut off load
current. Switching operation at power side should be operated
when switch is being closed.
II Switching operation should be done at load side firstly when switch
is being open, check that circuit breaker is indeed in open position,
and then open the circuit breaker at load side, and open circuit
breaker at power side at last.
III During the switching operation of busbar, the steps of opening and
closing of isolating switch are: one by one close the isolating switch
required to be transferred to one group busbar firstly, and then
open the running isolating switch on the other group busbar one by
one, which can avoid maloperation accident resulted in closing one
insolating switch and opening another one.
IV The isolating switch can be allowed to do the following operations
when there is on circuit breaker equipped in circuit:
1. Open and close normal PT and lighting arrester;
2. Open and close normal busbar and the capacitance current of the equipments
directly connected on busbar;
3. Open and close the generator neutral point grounding switch, which can be
operated only under the conditions that there is no grounding fault for system
for the arc suppression coil connected on transformer neutral point;
4. Open and close the no-load transformer which excitation current is less than 2A
and no-load lines (below 10.5KV) which capacitance current is less than 5A;
5. Open and close the loop circuit current which voltage is under 10KV and current
is under 70A;
6. Open and close the parallel branch lines without impedance by using
equipotential principles (this can be operated under the conditions that circuit
breaker must be in closed position, and DC operational voltage fuse of circuit
breaker should be dismantled, otherwise, the mal-trip of circuit breaker during
operation will result in the unequal of the voltage at two sides of isolating switch,
and cause the accident of switch on and off with load).

Page 6 of 184
CHAPTER OPERATION OF GENERATOR

SECTION MAIN TASK OF ELECTRIC OPERATION

I. The main task of electric operation is to execute and guarantee the


safety and economic running of electric system and its auxiliaries.
Guarantee safety running
Electric system is composed by power plant, every level of transmission lines and
power distribution lines, the characteristic of which is to continuously and
simultaneously carry out the electric energy of production, transmission, distribution
and consumption. So, there is close relation and dependence among electric
equipments in electric power system, any faults of electric equipment will influence
the normal running of entire system, and the production of every department and the
peoples normal living. So, the safety running must be guaranteed for electric
generation.
Guarantee economic running
To do everything possible to improve the economic performance of power plant under
ensuring the safety power transmission and distribution is quiet significant, which is
mainly realized by decreasing the fuel consumption and auxiliary power consumption
to generate electric power as much as possible and consume as little as possible.
To ensure the safe and economic power generation, in addition to processing the
skillful technology, the personnel on duty must work with a high sense of
responsibility, and should scrupulously abide every rules and system in order to
ensure the maximum safety and economic operation of electric power system.
Therefore, the following works should be done well by electric operator on shift:
1. Monitor and regulate every parameter of electric equipments to make them vary
within the stipulated running scope.
2. Inspect and maintain the running electric equipments, and ensure them in normal
working state.
3. Guarantee the rationalization of running mode, and make the maximum safety
running for the electric equipment and system within span of control.
1) Execute the work start and end procedure for electric equipments.
2) Execute work start and end procedure of work permit.
3) Eliminate the defects of electric equipments.
4) Rapidly conduct the accident disposal or abnormal conditions t elimination of
electrical system.
5) Fill in running log and calculate every parameter.
6) Do well the management work of spare parts (such as fuse, carbon brush
and etc ), safety instruments, drawings, keys, documents and measuring
instruments.
7) Do the work of shift changes and sanitation on site well.

Page 7 of 184
SECTION MAIN DATA SUMMARIZATION TABLE OF
GENERATOR
Table 2-1 Main data summarization
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue

1 Specification and type

Type of generator QFSN-350-2

Rated capacity Sn MVA 412 412

Rated power Pn MW 350 350


Maximum continuous output
MW 385 385
power Pmax
Rated power factor Cosn 0.85

Stator rated voltage Un kV 20

Stator rated current In A 11887

Rated frequency fn Hz 50 50

Rated speed Nn r/min 3000 3000

Rated excitation voltage Ufn V 368 365

Rated current Ifn A 2897 2820


Wire connection mode of stator
YY
winding
Water-
hydroge
Cooling mode n
-hydrog
en
Self-shunt static
Execitation mode
excitation
2 Performance and parameter
resistance of each phase of stator
0.00228 0.00233
winding75
DC resistance of rotor winding
0.125 0.123
75
Earth capacitance of each phase
Pf
of stator
A phase 0.232 0.220

Page 8 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue

B phase 0.232 0.220

C phase 0.232 0.220

rotor winding self-induction L L 0.87 0.87


Straight shaft synchronous
% 217.138 214
reactance Xd
Horizontal shaft synchronous
% 211.584
reactance Xq
Straight shaft transient
% 26.53 27.5
(unsaturated value)Xdu
Straight shaft transient reactance
% 23.35 30
(saturated value)Xd
Horizontal shaft transient
% 42.06
reactance(unsaturated value) Xqu
Horizontal shaft transient
% 37.02
reactance (saturated value)Xq
Straight shaft over-transient
% 19.59 21.66
reactance (unsaturated value )Xdu
Straight shaft over-transient
% 18.02
reactance (saturated value)Xd
Horizontal shaft over-transient
% 19.32 22
reactance (unsaturated value)Xqu
Horizontal shaft transient
% 17.78
reactance (saturated value) Xq
Negative sequence reactance
% 19.46 18.3
(unsaturated value)X2u
Negative sequence reactance
% 17.90
(saturated value) X2
Zero sequence reactance
% 8.99 8.12
(unsaturated value)X0u
Zero sequence reactance
% 8.55
(saturated value)X0
Straight shaft open circuit
S 8.47 9.4
transient time constant Tdo
Horizontal shaft transient time
S 0.941 0.94
constant Tqo
Straight shaft short circuit
S 0.911 1.024
transient time constant Td
Horizontal shaft short circuit
S 0.17
transient time constant Tq
Straight shaft open circuit
S 0.045
transient time constant Tdo
Horizontal shaft open circuit
S 0.075
transient time constant Tqo

Page 9 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue
Straight shaft short circuit over-
S 0.035
transient time constant Td
Horizontal shaft short circuit over-
S 0.035
transient time constant Tq
Field deexitation time constant Tdm S 0.7

Moment of inertia GD2 tm2 30

Short circuit ratio SCR 0.529 0.51


Long time negative sequence
10
current I2
Short time negative current
S 10
capacity I2 2t
Allowable frequency deviation 2 -3~+2%

Allowable stator voltage deviation 5


Loss of excitation and MW 175
asynchronous running ability min 15
Leading runnig ability MW 350
Long
Leading runnig time h
term
Telephone harmonic wave factor
<1.5 0.09 <1
THF
Sine aberration rate of voltage
<5 0.17 <3
wave Ku
Three phases short circuit steady-
174
state current
Transient short circuit current
effective value (AC component )
Phase- netural point 603

Phase-phase 423

Three phases 440


Subtranient short circuit current
effective value (AC component )
Phase-netural point 1124

Phase-phase 802

Three phases 902


Maximum current value of three
phases short circuit ( peak value 2150
of DC component )

Page 10 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue
Maximum electric magnetic torch
tm 1046
of Phase-phase short circuit.
3 Vibration value

Critical speed ( first stage ) r/min 1290 1295

Critical speed ( second stage ) r/min 3453 3486 3450


Bearing vibration value at critical
mm 0.026 0.08
speed
Shaft vibration value at critical
mm 0.019 0.2
speed
Bearing vibration value when
mm 0.06 0.12
overspeed
Bearing seat vibration value of
rated speed
Vertical mm 0.025 0.012 <0.025

Horizontal mm 0.025 0.013 <0.025

Axial mm 0.025 0.013 <0.025

The vibration value of rated speed

Vertical mm 0.028 <0.076

Horizontal mm 0.028 <0.076

Axial mm 0.028 <0.076


vibration frequency at end of
Hz 86 <90
stator windingn fV
The vibration amplitude value of
mm 0.115 <0.25
staton winding end
Torsional oscillation Hz 140.2
Loss and efficiency (under rating
4 KW
conditions )
copper loss of stator winding Qcu1 KW 970 985

Stator iron loss QFe KW 528 485

Execitation loss Qcu2 KW 1128 1072

Short circuit additional loss Qkd KW 620 589

Mechnical loss Qm KW 662 625

Total loss Q KW 3906 3756

Full load effiency 98.9 98.94 98.9

Page 11 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue

5 Insulation level and temeperature

Insulation level of stator winding F

Insulation level of rotor winding F

Insulation level of stator core F


Water discharge T of stator
85 85
winding under rating conditions
T of rotor winding under rating
110 110
conditions
T of stator winding under rating
120 120
conditions
Permissive T at end of stator 120 120

T of generator collecting ring 120

Air T at inlet of generator 4046

Air T at outlet of generator <65


Pressure, flow and temperature of
6
cooling medium
Flow quantity of stator cooling
t/h 30
water
Water entering T of stator cooling
45
water
Water discharge T of stator
65
winding
Conductivity of stator cooling
s/cm 0.51.5
water
Water entering P of stator cooler MPa(g) 0.20.3

Quantity of hydrogen cooler Group 2


Water entering T of hydrogen
2538
cooler
Water discharge T of hydrogen
43
cooler
Water entering P of hydrogen
MPa(g) 0.04
cooler
Cooling water flow quantity
t/h 400
through air cooler
Rated hydrogen P MPa(g) 0.35

Maximum permissive hydrogent P MPa(g) 0.37

Generator volume m3 73

Page 12 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue
Hydrogen leakage quantity in
m3/24h 8
generator
Lube oil entering T of bearing 4045

Lube oil discharge T of bearing 65 65

Bearing lube oil flow quantity l/min 680

Oil entering T of sealing bearing 52


Hydrogen side 6 5
Oil discharge T of sealing bearing
Air side 56
Oil quantity at sealing bearing l/min

Hydrogen side 257

Air side 2110

Sealing bearing temperatuer 90


Main size and electric magnetic
7
load
Outside diameter of stator core Do mm 2540

Inside diameter of stator core Da mm 1250

Length of stator corer L1 mm 5200

Air ga (single side ) mm 75

Number of stator slots Z1 54


Number of parallel branches of
2
stator winding a1
Size of stator winding

Hollow mh----wall thickness mm 4.79.9----1.35

Solid mh mm 2.59.2

Number of strands in each slot 60

Hollow n 12

Solid n 48
Density of stator current J1
A/mm2 7.92
upper / lower layer
Stator line load As1 A/cm 1634
Single side thickness of main
mm 5.4
insulation of stator slot

Page 13 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue

Gross weight of stator T 193

Total weight of stator transport T 195


LWH
m 37.5158.7
Size of stator transport LWH
Rotor outside diameter D2 mm 1100

Effective length of rotor body mm 5150

Transport length of rotor L2 mm 13500

Total transport weight of rotor T 54

Number of rotor slots 32

Size of rotor slots mh mm 37.5158.7


Number of turns of each slot of
9/7
rotor
Size of each turn copper line mh mm 11.834.2

Density of rotor current J2 A/mm2 8.75


Insulation single side thickness of
mm 1.4
rotor slot
Intensity of magnetic flux of air
Gs 9588
gap Bs
Insulation thickness of inter-turn
mm 0.5
of rotor
Diameter of shroud ring Dk mm 660

Length of shroud ring Lk mm 1180

8 Main material and stress


50W31
Type of stator silicon steel sheet
0
Thickness of silicon steel sheet mm 0.5

Type of copper line SBEQB----155

Type of rotor material 26Cr2Ni4MoV


FATT Brittle transition temperature
23
of rotor material
Yield limit value of rotor 0.2 N/mm2 650

Safety factor of rotor X 1.8


contain silver-
Type of rotor copper line
copper line

Page 14 of 184
Guara
Design Test valu
No. Name Unit n-teed v Remark
value e
alue
Yield limit value of rotor copper
N/mm2 180
line s
Mn18Cr
Material and type of shroud ring
18
Yield limit value of shroud ring 0.2 N/mm2 1070

Safety factor of shroud ring K 1.6


LX12----CZgroove
Material and type of rotor groove
beryllium copper (end )

Table 2-2 Technical data table of excitation system


Design Guarantee
SN. Name Unit Test value Remark
value d value
Excitation
1
cabinet
Three
phase full
Type
control
bridge
Power Controlled
amplifier silicon
Three
Mode of
phase full
rectification
bridge
2000/
Rated current A
bridge
20s
Time
Forced
response
excitation
Number/
group of 6
power Pieces
amplifier
Number of
parallel 3
branches
2 Field breaker Type HPB45-82S

Rated voltage V 2000

Rated current A 4500

Open current kA 75
Control
V 110/220
voltage(DC)
Page 15 of 184
Design Guarantee
SN. Name Unit Test value Remark
value d value
Trip coil( no
2
less than 2 )
AVR
3
performance
Voltage
adjustment % 70-110
range
Manual
adjustment % 20-110
range
Deviation
adjustment % <=0.5
(accuracy )
Number of
Configured
manual 2
channel of
AVR
Number of
Configured
automatic 2
channel of
AVR
Peak voltage
times/ forced
2/20s 0.8Ue
excitation
time
Peak current
2
times
Response
s 0.08
time
Excitation
4
transformer
Type Dry type

Model ZLSC9

Capacity kVA 3800


Primary
kV 20
voltage
Secondary
kV 08
voltage
Frequency Hz 50

Phases 3
Connection Enclosed
mode busbar
Page 16 of 184
Design Guarantee
SN. Name Unit Test value Remark
value d value
Connection
Y/d-11
symbol
End lead and
Ungrounde
grounding
d
mode
Insulation
F
level
Insulation
withstand kV
voltage
Impulse
voltage
High tension kV 125

Low tension kV
Power
frequency
withstand
voltage (one
minute )
High tension kV 55

Low tension kV 5
Protection
IP21
level
Cooling mode AN+Air fan

Loss

Copper loss kW 16

Iron loss kW 5.4


Additional
kW 3.5
loss
Gross loss kW 25

Efficiency % 99
Voltage
% 0
regulation
Voltage
% 6-8
impedance
Positive
sequence % 6-8
impedance
Zero
sequence %
impedance
Page 17 of 184
Design Guarantee
SN. Name Unit Test value Remark
value d value
High voltage
winding 0.39
resistance
Excitation
A
current
Noise level dB(A) 65
1.1 times
of overload
Overload
kVA for long
capacity
term
running
section
over
temperatur
Protection
e alarm
signals of
section
transformer
Over
temperatur
e trip
Outside size
length width mm Later
height
Delivery size
length width mm Later
height
Approxima
Weight ton
te 10

Page 18 of 184
SECTION BASIC WORKING PRINCIPLES OF SYNCHRONOUS
GENERATOR

I. Basic composition
1. Statorstator core, stator winding (armature winding---AC)

Diagram 2-1 Generator structure

Diagram 2-2 Stator core

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Diagram 2-3 Stator winding

2. Rotor-rotor core, rotor winding (excitation winding DC)

Diagram 2-4 Relative position of rotor and stator

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Diagram 2-5 Rotor structure drawing

Diagram 2-6 Rotor installed with windings and fans

3. Working principle
(1) Prime motor drives rotor for rotation.
(2) Rotor is inserted into DC magnetic field----constant magnetic field is
generated, and the mechanical rotating magnetic field will be formed along
with the rotation of rotor.
(3) Armature winding cuts rotating magnetic field of rotor to induce induced
electromotive force.
1 Phase sequence of induced electromotive force: the phase sequence of
induced electromotive force is relative to the space distribution of
winding along with the inner circle of stator and the direction of rotating

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magnetic field.
Positive sequence potential is required to be induced, that is AB
C.
Frequency of induced electromotive force: the frequency of induced
electromotive force is constantly relative to the numbers of pole-pairs of
magnetic field P and speed n

----
(3) Value of induced electromotive force and wave ---- induced
electromotive force of AC winding

Diagram 2-7 Synchronous generator working principle

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SECTION SELF-SHUNT STATIC EXCITER AND EXCITATION SYSTEM

The static exciter is a kind of exciter which supplies DC excitation source to


generator by using static current rectifier after getting the power from one or more
static power sources. The excitation system which uses static exciter to supply
excitation to synchronous generator is called static exciter excitation system 2-8.

Diagram 2-8 Static exciter excitation system

Static exciter excitation system is divided into potential source static exciter
excitation system and compound source static exciter excitation system.
Potential source static exciter excitation system is also known as self-shunt
static excitation system, sometimes referred to as generator end variable
excitation system or static excitation system. Excitation power of synchronous
motor is from the end of synchronous motor itself, which is composed by
excitation transformer, AVR, controlled rectifier devices and excitation
establishment device (diagram 2-4). Excitation transformer obtains power from
the end of generator and reduces the voltage to the required value; controlled
silicon rectifier device transfers the secondary AC voltage of excitation
transformer into DC voltage; automatic voltage regulation device regulates the
conduction angle of controlled silicon rectifier according to the operation
conditions of generator to regulate the output voltage of controlled silicon rectifier
to regulate the excitation of generator thus to satisfy the requirement of safety,
stability and economic operation of electric power system; excitation
establishment device provides generator with a certain numbers( usually 10
30% of rated excitation current of synchronous generator with no load ) of the
initial excitation to establish the lowest generator end voltage required for normal
working of entire system, and the excitation establishment device will be
automatically out of service once the initial excitation is established.
The excitation system with controlled silicon rectifier obtained the excitation
power from auxiliary power system can be regarded as separate excitation
controlled silicon excitation system when its voltage is basically stable and
irrelative to the generator end voltage level; however, it can be regarded as static
excitation system when there is close relation between the voltage of auxiliary
power system and generator end voltage.

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The main advantages of self-shunt static excitation system are:
There is no rotary part, structure is simple, shafting is short and the stability is
good;
The secondary voltage and capacity of excitation transformer can be
separately designed according to the requirements of the stability of electric
power system.
Response is fast, regulating performance is good, and be favorable to improve
the static stability and transient stability of electric power system.
The main disadvantages of self-shunt static excitation system
Its voltage regulating channel easily generates negative damping function, which
leads to the occurrences of low frequency oscillation of electric power system
and the decrease of dynamic stability of electric power system. But, this
disadvantage can completely be overcome by introducing additional excitation
control (that is to adopt electric power system stabilizer- PSS). The positive
damping functions of electric power system stabilizer can completely exceed the
functions of negative damping of voltage regulating channel and improve the
dynamic stability.
1. Excitation transformer
Excitation transformer is dry type three-phase AC transformer (with shell),
adopts Y/d-11 wire connection, there should be electrostatic shield between the
high and low voltage winding of excitation transformer, and the electrostatic
shield should be led to and grounded, and the leading terminals at high and low
voltage side should be inter-phase closed insulation. Insulation level of excitation
transformer is F, temperature rise is considered as B level. Excitation
transformer should be natural cooling matched with external fan, and its capacity
is considered as per natural cooling.
The heat generated by high ultra-harmonics in rectifier load current should be
fully considered during the design of transformer. The excitation current of
generator from its 30% rated load to 110% should be calculated as per generator
curve V by supplier, and the temperature rise data of temperature rise under
different output should be supplied. The effect of harmonic on the capacity of
excitation transformer should be considered by excitation transformer
manufacturer, 50 ambient temperatures and adopting power frequency
equivalent current should be considered when during test before Ex-factory and
the test report should be provided.
Excitation transformer meets the requirement of 110% rated current during short
circuit test of turbine generator and 130% voltage during no-load test when its
power source is supplied from 6KV auxiliary power.
High voltage side of excitation transformer is connected to generator end during
normal conditions.
Capacity of excitation transformer should satisfy the requirements of forced
excitation and various working conditions of generator, and ensure the
continuously running without over-temperature under -5~+45 of ambient
temperature.
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Insulation level of excitation transformer should be designed as the voltage class
not less than 35kV.
Type of excitation transformerZLSC9
Capacity 3800kVA
Voltage of excitation transformer
High voltage side 20kV
Low voltage side 0.8kV
2. AVR
(1) Configuration on main channel2AVR2FCR: the design of AVR adopts
double channels digital type, the characteristics of this system is that there
are two completely independent regulating and controlling channels
(channel 1 and channel Two channels are completely same, so, channel 1
and channel 2 can be randomly chosen as operation channel, standby
channel always follows operation channel automatically.
(2) Regulation mode: each channel consists of one AVR and one FCR, which
are auto and manual two kinds of regulating modes.
Generator voltage is automatically regulated by AVR under Auto mode
to maximally maintain the stabilization of generator end voltage. This
kind of mode is also called generator end constant voltage regulation
mode.
2 Excitation control system automatically maintains the constant excitation
of generator under Manual mode; therefore, excitation (excitation
current is fixed )of generator must be manually regulated according to
the change of generator load and the requirements of dispatch under
Manual mode running in order to maintain the constant voltage of
generator. This mode is also called constant excitation current
regulating mode.
3 Standby regulating mode (non-running regulating mode) always follows
the running mode no matter what the Auto or Manual mode is
adopted as regulating mode.
(3) Emergency standby channel2BFCR: In addition to two main channels,
two independent emergency standby channels EGC are equipped for
excitation control system, thereby, the redundancy type of 2AVR2FCR
2BFCR will be formed into.
1 Regulating mode of emergency standby channel: it similar to the
Manual mode of main channel in that they have similar excitation
current regulator, that is to say, generator voltage can be regulated by
emergency standby channel by manually regulating excitation current.
2 There is overvoltage protection (as the redundancy of the overvoltage
protection of main channel) on emergency standby channel and trigger
impulse formation function independent with main channel.
(4) Cooling mode and grounding: forced air ventilation is adopted for AVR,
which can ensure the normal running of AVR when the fan is failure. ER
(AVR cabinet) cabinet is closed, and there is air filter in air inlet, protective

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grounding and working grounding of cabinet body are separate.
(5) Functions of voltage regulating, monitoring, limiting and protecting
Functions of generator voltage regulation:
A. Setting for fixed value;
B. Active power compensation and reactive power compensation;
C. Auto follow
D. Soft excitation establishing
E. PID control (Auto mode)
F. PID control (Manual mode)
1 Monitoring functions
A. TV fault detection
B. Measure of rotor T
C. Temperature measure and alarm for excitation transformer
D. Self diagnosis function of excitation transformer
E. Display for analog quantity measure of generator voltage, current,
active power, reactive power and excitation current and so on
F. Monitoring for fan and cooling system;
G. Fault check for AC/ DC power source;
H. Fault of temperature controller of excitation transformer;
I. Monitoring for channel fault;
J. Manual/ Auto mode switching
2 Limiting and protecting functions
A. V/Hz (over excitation) limiter;
B. V/Hz (over excitation) protection;
C. Low excitation limiter;
D. Out of excitation protectionP/Q protection
E. Inverse time lag over current protection and transient over current
protection;
F. Overvoltage protection at AC side;
G. Overvoltage protection at DC side;
H. Rotor grounding protection;
I. System fault and start up forced excitation;
J. Automatically back of forced excitation
3 AVR alarm signal
A. Fault at channel 1 of excitation system;
B. Fault at channel 2 of excitation system;
C. Alarm for over-excitation limit;
D. Alarm for low excitation limit
E. Alarm for excitation over current inverse time limit protection;
F. Alarm for active power/ reactive power (P/Q) limit;
G. Alarm for excitation current limit;
H. TV wire break alarm
I. Forced excitation action signal;
J. Excitation system AC/DC power disappeared signal;
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K. Display of Auto operation mode;
L. Display of Manual operation mode;
M. Display of PSS input/output;
N. Fused signal of controlled silicon fuse;
O. Fault signal of temperature controller of excitation transformer
P. Alarm of high temperature of excitation transformer;
Q. Excitation establishing fault alarm;
R. Fan fault alarm;
S. General alarm of excitation system;
T. Display of emergency standby manual operation mode;
U. Alarm of rotor grounding;
3. Controlled silicon rectifier
(1) Mode of rectifying is three-phase fully controlled bridge, which has the
inversion ability.
(2) There are totally three rectifying cabinets for paralleling running, current
stabilizing factor of them is more than 90 . The requirement of satisfying
generator forced excitation and 1.1 times of rated current running can be
realized when one cabinet is out of service.
(3) Fast-acting fuse is used to protect each controlled silicon element, which
can timely cut off short circuit fault current.
(4) Surge absorbed measure is adopted for AC side of every cabinet to restrain
peak overvoltage, DC overvoltage protection adopts voltage wave filter.
(5) Cooling mode adopts forced air cooling, which processes 100% standby
capacity; standby fan can be automatically input when the air pressure and
quantity are not sufficient; there are two sources of cooling fan power and
both of them can be automatically switched.
(6) Monitoring functions of controlled silicon rectifier:
Fuse with fused alarm contact;
2 Connection and monitoring;
3 Cooling for flow and monitoring for fan;
4 Monitoring for the temperature of Rectifier Bridge;
5 Monitoring for the locked of the door of Rectifier Bridge;
6 Fuse with fused contact for AC overvoltage protection;
7 Fuse with fused alarm contact at DC side;
(7) Alarm signal of controlled silicon rectifier:
Alarm for the quit of any rectifier cabinet;
2 Alarm for controlled silicon fuse;
3 Alarm for the high air temperature;
4 Alarm for the fault of cooling fan;
5 Alarm for the low of cooling flow;
(8) De-excitation and overvoltage protective device
1 The function of de-excitation is realized by field breaker,
jumper CROWBAR and de-excitation resistance( silicon carbide
nonlinear resistance ).
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2 Overvoltage protective device is equipped on de-excitation device, and
used as rotor winding overvoltage protection simultaneously.
3 Process of field suppression is that the command of excitation
suppression from the internal of device or generator-transformer
protection initiates and acts to open field suppression breaker, inverter
and trigger jumper to lead rotor current in field suppression resistance.
4 Any load of generator can reliably suppress excitation, overvoltage
value of generator winding should not be more than 4 6 rated
excitation voltage value when excitation is suppressed under forced
excitation conditions.
4. Excitation establishing device
(1) External excitation power source of generator is from its own 380V power
source, and converted into DC through transformer and rectifier to supply
rotor winding for excitation.
(2) Working mode of excitation establishing: generally, residual voltage start up
of generator can be realized on system. Input voltage of rectifier bridge
required for the normal working of control circuit is 5 V. if the voltage is more
than or equal to this value, residual voltage is to be used to start firstly and
increase voltage up to rated value by continuously triggering controlled
silicon bridge. If the input voltage of Rectifier Bridge is less than 5V, external
excitation establishing circuit will be automatically closed to supply input
voltage to Rectifier Bridge, and soft excitation establishing process will begin
to increase generator voltage up to rated value. Control and monitoring
during the whole excitation establishing process are all realized by AVR soft.
5. AVR
(1) AVR adopts imported parts from Switzerland ABB and completely
assembled in Shanghai. AVR device should be able to operate continuously
under the environmental condition of ----5 45 as well as under the
environmental condition that the monthly maximum average relative
humidity is 90% while the monthly average lowest temperatures is less than
25 in the highest humidity months. The capacity of excitation system
should meet the requirements of maximum continuously output of generator
and forced excitation.
(2) Excitation mode: static self-shunt excitation system is adopted. Mature and
reliable equipments are adopted for excitation system, characteristics and
parameters of excitation system should meet various running modes of
electric power system and the requirements of all running conditions of
generator.
(3) For the high initial response excitation system, excitation system requires
that the increased value of excitation voltage reaches to peak voltage and
the 95% of rated voltage difference value within 0.08 seconds.
Excitation system should be ensured for continuously running when the
excitation voltage and current of generator are not more than1.1 times of its

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rated excitation voltage and current.
(4) Short time overload ability of excitation system should be more than the
ability of generator excitation winding, forced excitation times should not be
less than 2(corresponding 0.8 Ue of generator end voltage), and permissive
forced excitation time should not be less than 20 seconds.
(5) Stable state gain of excitation system should ensure that the static voltage
error ratio should not be more than 1.0%; dynamic state gain of excitation
system should ensure that controlled bridge can open to permissive
maximum value when generator voltage suddenly reduces to 15%20%.
(6) Stop response
Under no-load rated voltage, when step amount is 5% of generator rated
voltage, overshoot should not be more than 30% of step amount, oscillation
times should not be more than 3 times, rise time should not be more than
0.6 seconds and regulating time should not be more than 5 seconds. Step
amount is 2-4% of rated voltage when generator is in rated load, fluctuation
times of active power should not more than 5 times, damping ratio is more
than 0.1 and the regulating time is more than 10 seconds.
AVR should ensure that the maximum value of generator stator voltage is
not more than 110% of rated value, oscillation time is not more than 3 times
and regulating time is not more than 10 seconds when generator voltage
initially increases.
(7) Voltage regulating scope of automatic voltage regulator
Voltage can be steadily and smoothly regulated and set within 70% 110%
of rated voltage during the no-load of generator, resolution ration of voltage
should not be more than 0.2% of rated voltage.
Manual regulating control unit should ensure that the excitation voltage of
generator can be steadily and smoothly regulated from 20% of no load rated
excitation voltage to 110% of excitation voltage.
(8) Voltage frequency characteristics
When frequency changes 1% of rated value, the changes of generator
voltage should not be more than 0.25% of rated value.
Voltage regulating speed of AVR should not be more than 1% of rated
voltage per second and less than 0.3% of rated voltage per second under
no-load running conditions of generator.
(9) Voltage response ratio of excitation system: this ratio should not be less than
3.5 times per second.
(10) AVR adopts double channels digital microcomputer type; its performance is
reliable, and it has the characteristics of fine adjustment and improving the
transient stability of generator. AVR consists of two channels, each includes
auto and manual channel and each channel are independent, any
channel can be stopped for maintenance. Each standby channel can
automatically follow to guarantee the undisturbed switching. Besides, each
channel still have respective manual channel. Two groups of PT and CT are
required to be used for AVR, and one group with PT and CT is used for each
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channel. The interface to be connected with DCS should be left to realize
the remote control of AVR in control room.
AVR cabinet can adopt natural ventilation or forced ventilation, which can
ensure the normal operation of AVR when fan faults. AVR cabinet is
enclosed type, air filter should be equipped at its air inlet, and protective
grounding and working grounding of cabinet body should be separate.
Following additional units should at least but not limited to be equipped:
1 Remote/ local setting device;
2 Over-excitation limit;
3 Over-excitation protection;
4 Low excitation limit;
5 Power system stabilizer;
6 V/Hz limit and protection;
7 Power factor controller;
8 PT wire break protection;
There should be additional over-current protection for high initial excitation
system to guarantee the reliability of over-current protection.
Others additional units
Serial communication interface is equipped for AVR to facilitate the
communication with upper computer. Communication rules should comply
with the requirements of tender and be confirmed on communicating
meeting.
AVR should comply with EMC specifications, and meet the requirements of
electric magnetic compatibility, and have static shield and anti-jamming
technology.

Page 30 of 157
SECTION GENERATOR PROTECTION

I. Summarization
Generator is quite important and valuable electric equipment in electric
power system, its safety and stable operation play extremely important functions
on the normal working of electric power system, uninterrupted power supply for
users and guaranteeing electric power quality and so on.
As for generator is an equipment used for long term continuously running, and
bears mechanical motion and the impact of current and voltage, which frequently
leads to the damage of insulation of stator winding and rotor winding . Stator
winding, rotor winding and excitation circuit are all likely to generate fault and
unsafe conditions during the generation operation, so the relay protections which
reflects various faults should be equipped on generator, besides, in order to
prevent the damage of blades at turbine end due to overheat caused by the loss
of air blast in turbine after generator is changed into motor for running on
account of absorbing power after the closed of turbine main stop valve caused
by the action of turbine protection due to the fault of the systems of boiler and
turbine, the reverse power protection is equipped on generator to prevent the
reverse power operation of generator. Generally speaking, the fault at inside of
generator is mainly caused by the damage of insulation of stator winding and
rotor winding.
2. Common faults are as followings:
(1) Phase-to-phase short circuit of stator winding;
(2) Single phase turn-to-turn short circuit of stator winding;
(3) Single phase grounding short circuit of stator winding;
(4) One or two points grounding of rotor and excitation winding;
3. Main abnormal running for generator are:
(1) Over-current of generator stator winding due to external short circuit or
system oscillation;
(2) Over load of stator winding;
(3) Fault of excitation system;
(4) Overvoltage of stator winding;
(5) Generator operation under reverse power;
(6) Open-phase operation or unsymmetrical operation;
4. Corresponding protecting device should be equipped on generator with voltage
above 3KV and capacity below 600MW under the following faults and abnormal
running modes:
(1) Protection of phase-to-phase short circuit of stator winding;
(2) Stator winding grounding protection;
(3) Protection of turn-to-turn short circuit of stator winding;
(4) Protection of external phase-to-phase short circuit of generator;
(5) Stator winding overvoltage protection;
(6) Stator winding overload protection;
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(7) Negative over-current protection;
(8) Overload protection of excitation winding;
(9) Grounding protection of excitation circuit;
(10) Protection of abnormal decrease or disappearing of excitation current;
(11) Over-excitation protection of stator core;
(12) Reverse power protection of generator;
(13) Low frequency protection;
(14) Out of step protection;
(15) Other faults and abnormal running protection;
5. The following items can be acted by the above-mentioned each protection as per
the characteristics of fault and abnormal running mode:
(1) To shut-down; that is to cut off generator circuit breaker, suppress excitation
and close turbine main stop valve;
(2) To disconnect generator and suppress excitation;
(3) To disconnect generator and idly run prime motor;
(4) To decrease capacity;
(5) To reduce influenced scope;
(6) To send out acousto-optic signal;
(7) To initiate programmable trip protection, close main stop valve firstly due to
the action of reverse power, and suppress excitation.
6. Differential protection of generator
(1) Principles of differential protection
Setting the differential protection which is the main protection of generator
phase-to-phase short circuit for generator is not only to correctly distinguish
the faults at internal and external of generator, but also to reach the
requirement of cutting off the internal faults without any delay. One group of
CT is separately equipped at the side of generator neutral point and the
outlet of generator, and the protection scope of which is generator stator
winding and its outgoing line between two current transformers. Two groups
of current transformers are same voltage level, same transformation ratio,
and can be same type or with the characteristics as closely as possible, and
the unbalance current of them is smaller. The relay with intermediate rapidly
saturate current transformer can be chosen for differential relay in order to
prevent the influence of external short circuit transient unbalanced current.
The unbalanced current generated due to the inconformity of two current
transformers is only considered for the calculation of unbalanced current.
(2) Evaluation for the differential protection of generator
1 Differential protection of generator can not reflect the turn-to-turn short
circuit of stator winding.
2 The value of short circuit current is different due to the different short
circuit resistance and different multi-points induced electromotive force
of stator winding when there are short circuit happened in different
places of generator. The differential protection is not sensitive when
there is short circuit or grounding nearby neutral point.
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(3) Turn-to-turn short circuit protection of generator
Differential protection of generator can not protect the faults of turn-in-
turn short circuit of stator winding, if the turn-to-turn short circuit can not be
timely handled after happens, the phase-to-phase short circuit may be
developed into, which results in the serious damage of generator, so the turn-
to-turn short circuit protection of generator stator is equipped on the large-
scale units, and it also can protect the faults of wire break of stator winding.
(4) Working principles and formation of the protection of stator winding:
1 Transverse differential protection of double starts wire connection;
2 Zero sequence voltage principle of stator winding;
3 Negative sequence power direction blocking the protection of secondary
harmonic current turn-in-turn short circuit of rotor;
7. Single phase grounding protection of generator stator
The fault current is big for the generator non-grounding or grounding through
high resistance of generator neutral point, but there should be strictly
requirements on the value of stator grounding current and its protective
performance for the large scale generator with important position in system,
expensive cost of construction, complex structure and difficult maintenance. The
differential protection refuses to act when the single phase grounding of stator
happens, the stator grounding protection is specially equipped, and the
followings are generally adopted:
Use the stator winding single phase grounding protection of fundamental
wave zero sequence current and equip zero sequence current transformer at
turbine side when the single phase grounding happens, the protection is initiated
to cut off fault when 3i0 is equal to je current.
Stator grounding protection reflecting fundamental wave zero sequence
voltage
Single phase grounding protection of generator in generator-transformer
system
Use the output zero sequence voltage from the open triangle of PT at the
outlet of generator as action quantity and adopt the output zero sequence voltage
from the open triangle of PT at high voltage side of main transformer as braking
quantity to prevent the zero sequence voltage from high voltage side through the
capacitance coupling among low voltage windings from the maloperation of
protection.
Besides, the stator grounding protection of 100% protective areas should be
equipped. Use the grounding protection of triple frequency harmonic voltage
comparer composed by the triple frequency harmonic voltage UN3 at generator
end to reflect the grounding protection nearby neutral point, and jointly compose
the stator grounding protection of 100% protective areas with the stator
grounding protection of fundamental zero sequence voltage, which is called two-
step stator grounding protection.
8. Loss of excitation protection of generator
There are many reasons for the loss of excitation of synchronous generator,
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the followings are summed up:
Excitation circuit is open, wire of excitation winding is broken, field breaker is
mis-operated, the auto switch of AVR device is mis-operated or working source
is lost and partial element of controlled silicon device is damaged.
There is short circuit caused by the long term heating or aged insulation of
excitation winding.
There is mis-regulated by operator.
After the loss of excitation of generator, its various electric quantity and
mechanical quantity have changed and will endanger the safety of generator and
system.
Formation of generator loss of excitation protection:
Loss of excitation resistance relay should be equipped at generator end.
Main criteria of loss of field protection:
Reactive power changes the direction.
Turbine end measuring resistance beyond the boundary of resistance circle
of static stable boundary
Turbine end measuring resistance entering into the resistance circle at
asynchronous boundary
Auxiliary criteria of loss of field protection:
Excitation voltage is reduced.
No negative component appeared.
Keeping away from oscillation by delay
9. Back up protection of generator
(1) The back up protection of generator should send out signal and disconnect
generator after delay under the following conditions:
(2) When the internal of generator is fault but the longitudinal differential
protection or other main protections refuse to act.
(3) When the elements connected with generator such as transformer, line and
330KV busbar are fault, but the corresponding protects refuse to act.
1 Over-current/ low voltage protection
Over-current/ low voltage protection is composed by three phase
current relays and three line voltage relays. Current transformer used
for over-current relay is equipped on the neutral point side of stator
winding to guarantee the reliable action when there is internal fault in
generator before connected into grid or after disconnected from grid.
Protective device can start time element to delay trip and send signal
only when the current element and voltage element simultaneously act.
2 Low resistance protection of generator
The CT used for the low resistance protection of generator is the CT at
neutral point side and the PT is the PT at the outlet of generator, thus
the low resistance protection equipped on the winding at neutral point
side of generator is formed. Low resistance protection can be used as
near back up protection and the far back up protection of main
transformer, high voltage auxiliary transformer and lines.
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3 Overload protection
For the large scale generator, as for the high availability of the materials
of stator and rotor, so the heat capacity and copper loss are less. The
overload protection for stator winding and rotor winding should be
equipped to prevent generator from the damage of overload.
10. Generator reverse power protection
Reverse power protection is used to protect generator. When turbine main
stop valve is mis-closed or closed due to the action of turbine and boiler
protection, generator will become motor for running and absorb active power and
reactive power from grid at this time, although above mentioned working
condition has no influence on generator, there may be overheat on the blades at
end of turbine due to the air blast loss, which will damage turbine end blades and
results in turbine accidents. So, for the large scale unit is not allowed long term
running under such working conditions, only several minutes is allowed at most.
The core element for reverse power protection is reverse power relay. Reverse
power relay is similar with power directional relay, which acts only when the
direction of power is opposite and timely sends out signal or delays to stop
turbine.
11. Grounding protection of generator rotor
It is generally believed in China that the fault current passage will not be
formed and not directly affect generator when rotor short circuit occurs the one
point grounding during generator running period. The short circuit current will be
formed to burn the excitation winding and rotor core down and may result in the
violent vibration of unit once the two points grounding happens after one point
grounding happens. So the traditional method in China is that let one point
grounding protection send out signal and two points grounding protection initiate
to stop turbine.
12. Generator power frequency overvoltage protection
Setting the protection of generator power frequency overvoltage is to
prevent generator stator winding from overvoltage and endangering the
insulation of stator winding. Generator generates active power outward during
normal running; the reaction of armature is the horizontal shaft demagnetizing
effect during power conversion process, the demagnetizing function will suddenly
disappear when generator suddenly rejects load, the main field of generator rotor
will fully act on generator to establish stator winding voltage, and generator
voltage will increase within short time. Besides, the overvoltage of generation
stator may be caused due to the fault of automatic excitation device or the
improper voltage increase by operator. So the generator stator overvoltage
protection is set to protection the insulation of generator stator.
13. Low frequency protection of generator
There is the following relationship between speed and frequency after the
synchronization of generator: n=60pf. Speed of turbine-generator will decrease
when grid frequency decreases, and the resonance will generate on the blades
at turbine end when speed reduces to one certain value, which results in the
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vibration of unit and damage of turbine end blades when serious. Besides, the
low of system frequency will cause the low of auxiliary power ratio and directly
affect the normal operation of auxiliary motors. So, the low frequency protection
is specially set.
Generally, generator is equipped with two
Low frequency 1 48HZ 2 seconds delay
Low frequency 2 47.5HZ 1 seconds delay
14. Generator protection of power plant adopts double configurations, each set of
protection includes the following protections:
(1) Generator differential protection
(2) Generator asymmetric overload protection
(3) Generator symmetric overload protection
(4) Generator stator grounding protection
(5) Generator one point grounding protection
(6) Generator loss of field protection
(7) Generator over excitation protection
(8) Generator overvoltage protection
(9) Resistance protection
(10) Generator reverse power protection
(11) Generator low frequency protection
(12) Generator out of step protection
(13) Over-current protection of excitation transformer
(14) Overload protection of excitation winding
(15) Fault of excitation system
(16) Voltage balanced protection
(17) Sudden voltage increase protection of generator
(18) The I&C protection of water interruption protection of generator and so on (single
configuration)

Page 36 of 157
SECTION COOLING OF GENERATOR

I Cooling mode of generator is water-hydrogen -hydrogen, that is to


say, stator winding of generator is cooled by water, and generator
rotor and core are cooled by hydrogen.
II Requirement of generator water system
1. Temperature of cold hydrogen should not be more than 40 46 generally,
water inlet temperature of hydrogen cooler is designed as 38, tube material of
hydrogen cooler is B10.
2. Generator can generates the rated power under hydrogen purity is not less than
95. And hydrogen purity is 98 during calculating and measuring efficiency.
3. Generator casing and end closure can bear the pressure of 0.8MPa water
hydraulic test lasted 15 minutes to ensure that the inside hydrogen explosion can
not endanger personal safety during operation.
4. When working water pressure of hydrogen cooler is more than 0.35MPa, testing
water pressure should not less than 2 times of working water pressure lasted 15
minutes.
5. Cooler should be designed as 0.8MPa of single side bearing pressure.
6. Hydrogen dew point inside of generator should not be more than----5 and
while not be less than ----25.
III Requirements of generator water system
1. Water is directly adopted to cool stator winding, and the temperature scope of
water entering of cooling water is 40~50, there is automatic regulation device
for water entering temperature. Water outlet temperature should not be more
than 85.
2. Water quality should be transparent and purity and no mechanical mishmash,
and electric conductivity should be 0.5 1.5s/cm ( stator winding adopts
independent seal circulating water system) when water temperature is 20.
PH value 7~9
Hardness 2 gE /L
3. Water interrupted time of the cooling water inside of stator winding should not be
less than 30 seconds under full load conditions.

Page 37 of 157
SECTION TESTING PRIOR TO GENERATOR STARTUP

1. Main CB Open/Close testing: check to see whether the main CB can be


opened/closed normally.
2. FCB interlocking testing: The FCB could trip main CB and CB of auxiliary power.
3. Generator water interruption protection testing: check the protection setting
values of generator water interruption and make sure the protection activates
correctly.
4. Generator air leakage testing: check the tightness of generator.
Charge compressed air to generator till required pressure and check the
decrease of pressure and make records for that. Contact maintenance personnel
to determine leakage points together.
Requirement of generator leakage condition:
Normal operation
Generator hydrogen leakage amount should be less than 10m3 per day.
Calculation formula for generator air pressure testing
L=0.0588VP/T
L generator air leakage amount (m3/d)
V Generator capacity (m3)
P Pressure variation during pressure maintaining period(mm Hg)
T Pressure maintaining period (h)
Note: this formula is simplified when ambient temperature is at 20. Keep the
pressure for at least 4h. Try to keep the temperature variation at 1. Record the
temperature after charging generator for 1h.
Generator and pipeline tightness standard:
Pump pressure is 0.4Mpa. The permissive leakage amount should be less than
10m3 per day. (When carrying out air pressure testing, the air leakage amount is
calculated. The actual hydrogen leakage amount is 3.8 times the air leakage.

Page 38 of 157
SECTION INSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF ELECTRIC SYSTEM
PRIOR TO GENERATOR STARTUP

1. Check to make sure all the maintenance work has been finished. Relevant
testing has been done. The work permits have been finished. The area around
equipment and system is clean, without sundries. The temporary short-circuit
wires and earthing wires have been removed. The safety measures used for
operation have been taken.
2. The formal report for operating the maintained equipment is available. If the
circuit has been changed, the relevant technical documents should be provided.
3. After carrying out generator major overhaul and repairing or if the generator is
shutdown for long time, check to make sure following electric testing and
inspection meet relevant requirements. Fill in the electrical data in formal report;
make sure the startup conditions are satisfied.
(1) Before installing generator end cover, check the water guiding pipes of stator
winding and the binding condition of winding. Make sure all the water
guiding pipes are in good condition, without bending parts. The binding wires
should be complete. The block is fixed firmly. There are no sundries.
(2) Check to make sure the entire signal of generator system is normal.
(3) Check to make sure GCB, FCB pass the open and closing testing; the FCB
interlocking testing is normal.
(4) Check to make sure stator cooling water system flushing is normal; water
pressure testing is normal; stator cooling water pump interlocking testing
and water interruption protection testing are successful. Check to make sure
the system is ready for startup.
(5) If the generator is disassembled for maintenance, carry out air leakage
testing. Make sure the generator passes the leakage testing successfully.
The sealing oil pump interlocking testing should be normal.
(6) Check to make sure the indicated temperatures of different parts of
generator are normal.
(7) Check the generator hydrogen purity monitor, leakage detector, hygrometer,
radio frequency detector, insulation overheating detector to make sure they
are in good condition.
(8) Check the earthing carbon brush of generator big shaft is in good condition
and contacting condition is good.
(9) If the secondary circuit of G-T or if the CB circuit is repaired, check to make
sure G-T protection system, measuring system, synchronous system,
operating system, controlling system and signal system are normal and
ready for operation.
(10) Carry out whole unit tripping testing before generator startup. The G-T
protective drive testing is good. Each interlocking testing is normal.
4. If the generator is maintained or if it is shutdown for long time, arrange the
maintenance personnel to measure the insulation of generator stator circuit,
excitation circuit, generator bearing. The operators check and make sure
Page 39 of 157
following insulation values meet relevant requirements.
(1)When measuring stator winding insulation, make the testing voltage as
2500V. When it is at 25, the stator winding insulation resistance should be
R60 / R15 1.6. The
more than 500 M (1min). The absorption ration is
R R
polarization index 600 / 60 is 2. The variance time of insulation resistance
between each phase should be less than 2. Comparing the new data with
the previous one, if it is less than 1/5 to 1/3 the previous value, find out the
reasons and eliminate it( take ambient temperature and humidity into
consideration).
Formula for converting insulation resistance at normal temperature into
insulation resistance at 25.
Rt
R25 25t
( M )
0.025 10

R
Here, t is the insulation resistance value at t while t is the measuring
temperature.
(2) When measuring insulation resistance of generator excitation circuit, make
the testing voltage as 500V. When it is at 25, the stator winding insulation
resistance should be more than 500 M (1min).
(3) When measuring the insulation resistance between generator bearing and
sealing to ground, make the testing voltage as 500V. Before connecting it
with turbine, the insulation resistance should be 10M. After filling it with
oil, the insulation resistance should be 1M. The insulation resistance
between rotation shaft and frame (before connecting it with turbine) should
be 10M. After filling it with oil, the insulation resistance should be 1M;
after rotation shaft connecting with turbine, measure the insulation
resistance between terminal to ground (before and after charging oil). Make
sure the insulation resistance is 1M.
(4) When the insulation resistance of collective ring measure, make sure the
testing voltage is 500V. The insulation resistance should be 10M.
(5) When measure the insulation resistance of temperature measuring
elements, make sure the testing voltage is 250V. The insulation resistance
should be 5M.
(6) Use 500V voltage to measure the insulation resistance between iron core at
the end and thermal coupler of bearing shoe. The insulation resistance
should be 100M.f
(7) Use 1000V voltage to measure the insulation resistance of stator through-
core bolt. The insulation resistance should be 100M.
5. Before starting generator (after filling water and replacing air), operators should
contact maintenance personnel to measure the insulation resistance of
generator and excitation circuit. Compare the new insulation resistance with the
previous one to see whether the generator is affected with damp.

Page 40 of 157
6. Confirm that the UPS operates normally.
7. If the major overhaul and repairing is carried out for maintenance system or if the
excitation system is in standby status for long time, carry out electric testing and
inspection. Make sure the testing and inspection are good. Fill in the testing
results in formal report. Make sure the testing results satisfy the conditions for
startup. Change the excitation system from cold standby status into hot standby
status.
8. Check to make sure the generator neutral earthing transformer is complete. The
earthing device is in good condition and meets the condition for operation.
9. Check to make sure the generator outlet TV is normal and is in operation
condition. The HV fuse is inserted. The branch air switch at LV side is closed.
10. If the major overhaul and repairing are carried out to enclosed bus bar or if it is in
standby status for long time, carry out relevant testing before unit startup. Make
sure the operation conditions are satisfied.
11. Before unit startup, check main transformer, HV auxiliary transformers, HV
standby transformers, excitation transformer, and LV auxiliary transformer
thoroughly. Make sure they are ready for operation.
12. Check to make sure relay protective devices, automatic devices and the electric
instruments are good. The links of protective devices and automatic devices are
activated correctly. The status of each equipment, CB, disconnector displayed in
DCS display is the same as the actual status.
13. Supply power to power side of the primary control element of cooling devices of
main transformer, HV auxiliary transformer fans, fans of rectifier cabinet, AC
power source of 500KV CB and the main power of disconnector mechanism
14. Inspection of auxiliary power system
(1) Check to make sure the insulation of bus bar is normal.
(2) Check to make sure the protective devices and automatic devices of
auxiliary power system are activated normally as required.
(3) Test the emergency power source to make sure it could be put into operation
automatically and normally.
(4) Inspect the diesel generator system and make sure it works normally. Test
the diesel generator and make sure it could be put into operation
automatically and normally.
(5) Get the auxiliary power systems (6KV auxiliary power system is excluded)
into normal operation mode.
(6) Recover the dynamic power source, control power source, protective power
source, measuring power source and signal power source for equipment
and system whose unit is ready for energization.
15. Inspection of DC system
Check the earthing condition of each DC panel; make sure they are good.
16. Checks to make sure the rated current of fuses of DC system are the same as
setting values. The fuses are in good conditions.
17. The insulation monitoring system of DC system is activated normally. The
insulation of DC system is normal.
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18. The CB of DC feeders are activated normally as required.
19. The charging devices of batteries and high frequency CB are activated normally.
20. Check to make sure generator water cooling system operates normally. After air
replacement, the hydrogen cooling system operates normally.

Page 42 of 157
SECTION CONDITIONS FOR GENERATOR SYNCHRONIZATION

I Conditions for generator synchronization


1. Ensure the turbine rotation speed is steady at 3000r/min. the DEH system
operates normally.
2. When turbine operates without load, each controlling index should not
change abnormally. Auxiliary unit operates normally.
3. The testing which should be done when rotation speed is 3000r/min has
been finished.
4. The boiler combustion and the parameters are stable. The boiler startup
bypass system is normal.
5. Generator sound is normal. The vibration should be less than 0.127mm.
6. The generator cooling system operates normally. There is no oil leakage,
hydrogen leakage or water leakage.
7. Adjust the cooling water flow of hydrogen coolers. Activate the hydrogen
temperature automatic controlling mode. The temperature is set as 45.
8. Adjust the outlet water temperature of generator stator coolers. Activate the
cooling water temperature automatic controlling mode. The temperature is set as
46
9. Check to make sure the outlet oil temperature of sealing oil coolers at
hydrogen side and air side are between 40 to 49.
10. Check to make sure generator internal hydrogen pressure is about 0.4Mpa.
The hydrogen purity is more than 95. The oxygen content is less than 1.2.
11. Check to make sure the energy storage indication of operation mechanism
of G-T outlet CB and the pressure of SF6 are normal. The operating power
source is energized. The control mode is put at Remote.
12. All the protections of G-T are activated as stipulated.
13. All the PT of G-T protective devices, measuring devices and synchronizing
devices have been put at operating status. The capacitors at HV and LV side
have been installed. The power sources of main transformer, FCB, controlling
and signal have been energized.
14. The excitation rectifier cabinet has been put at operating status.
15. Any one G-T outlet disconnector has been closed.
16. The inspection prior to excitation synchronization has been done and it is
ready for synchronizing.
II Regulation of generator voltage increase and the precautions
1. The generator synchronization should be done with command from shift leader.
Check and make sure turbine, generator and relevant equipment could meet the
conditions for synchronization.
2. Check the DCS electric display to make sure the statuses of disconnectors and
CB of primary circuit of G-T are correct. Check the operating panels thoroughly to
make sure relevant signal lamp indications are correct. The positions of operating
Page 43 of 157
CB, switching CB and synchronizing CB are correct.
3. When generator increasing rotation speeds, do not close FCB. Only when the
rotation speed is rated speed and the conditions for synchronizing are met can
the field be applied. The generator voltage and excitation current should be less
than rated value in no-load condition. If not, reduce the voltage, find out reasons
and eliminate that. Then, increase the voltage again. Do not apply filed to
generator before generator get the cooling water and hydrogen.
4. Increase the generator voltage slowly. During the voltage increasing, make sure
the voltages of three phases are balance. The currents of three phases should be
less than 70A.
5. The generator voltage increasing could be done in AVR automatic mode or
manual mode. Generally, the AVR automatic voltage increasing mode is used.
6. If the generator is maintained, do not use AVR mode to increase the voltage for
the first time. Usually, use manual mode to increase the voltage till rated value
slowly.
7. If automatic synchronizing mode is used, use AVR automatic mode to increase
the voltage. Or, use AVR manual mode to increase the voltage till rated value and
then, switch the AVR manual mode into automatic mode.
8. When switching AVR mode, check the generator voltage and reactive power
carefully to prevent disturbance.
III Precautions during synchronization
1. Normally, use remote automatic mode to carry out automatic full synchroning.
2. Do not release synchronous interlocking circuit in any condition.
3. Check to make sure the synchronizing device activates correctly in any condition.
Adjust the generator rotation speed to make sure the pointer of synchrometer
rotates slowly in clockwise direction (4 to 6 turns/ minute. If the synchrometer
rotates unevenly or if it stops rotating or it shakes, it not allowed to connect
generator with grid.
4. When connecting generator with grid in automatic full synchronizing mode, stop
the synchronizing if the automatic full synchronizing device work abnormally.
IV Conditions for activating excitation system
1. AVR is normal.
2. G-T protective device does not activate.
3. The generator rotation speed is rated speed.
4. AVR is operating.
V Conditions for closing main CB (condition for activating
synchronizing device)
1. The G-T protection device does not activate and the protective device works
normally.
2. The 150KV circuit breakers at phase A/B/C are closed. The circuit breakers are
normal.
3. The synchronizing device works normally.
4. The excitation system is put at automatic mode and it works normally
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5. The earthing disconnector at 150KV circuit breaker side is opened.
6. The FCB is closed.
7. The turbine rotation speed is within synchronizing range.
8. Turbine DEH sends out signal for synchronization.
9. The disconnector of bus bar / of 150KV circuit breaker is closed. The
disconnector of bus bar / is open. Or, the disconnector of bus bar / is
closed while the disconnector of bus bar / is open.

Page 45 of 157
SECTION GENERATOR STARTUP

I. G-T circuit voltage increasing modes


1. Manual AVR voltage increasing mode
2. Automatic AVR manual (constant field) voltage increasing mode. It is self
excitation mode. The AVR is adjusted by specialist from manufacturer. Usually, it
is used during generator voltage increase testing (from zero). The normal
startup does not use this kind of mode.
3. Automatic AVR automatic voltage increasing mode (constant voltage)After
applying field to generator, increase the voltage to rated value automatically.
II. Generator synchronizing modes
1. Automatic AVR automatic synchronizing
2. Automatic AVR manual synchronizing
3. Manual AVR manual synchronizing
III. Three conditions should be met for synchronization
1. The generator voltage is the same as the system voltage (maximum error is less
than 10%).
2. Same voltage phase
3. Same frequency
4. Additionally, check the phase sequence of primary circuit and secondary
circuit after construction and major overhaul.
IV. Precautions during generator synchronization
1. Put the automatic synchronizing device at Testing Mode before connecting
generator with grid to prevent random paralleling. Check the correctness of
synchronizing device and the reliability of synchronizing closing interlocking
relay. That is to say, the closing indication lamp is on, the indication of
synchrometer and activation of the synchronizing closing interlocking relay are
the same.
2. Check the generator no-load rotor voltage and the current. They should be
normal. There is no generator rotor earthing alarm and signal.
3. After generator synchronization, get the automatic synchronizing device out of
service.
4. After generator synchronization, monitor the parameters of main equipment
closely and carefully. During increasing generator stator current, monitor the
temperature of each part to analyze whether the water loops or hydrogen loops
are blocked or not. Check to see whether the currents of three phases are
balance.

Page 46 of 157
SECTION MONITOR AND ADJUSTMENT DURING GENERATOR
NORMAL OPERATION

I Generator rated operating mode is generator operates with the


parameters on manufacturer nameplates. The generator could
operate continuously in this mode.
1. Generator output is rated value in following conditions.
(1) Cooling hydrogen temperature is less than 46.
(2) Inlet water temperatures of cooling water of hydrogen coolers are less than
35.
(3) Inlet water temperatures of stator winding are less than 50.
(4) The hydrogen pressure should be more than rated value and the hydrogen
purity should be more than 95%.
2. With above conditions, generator could operate continuously with rated load and
within output curve range (power factor is 0.95).
3. The generator active power is controlled by loading curve, turbine and boiler
working conditions. Additionally, make sure the operating parameters are within
the rated range of P-Q curve.
4. With rated generator power factor, if voltage variation is 5 and the frequency
changes within 500.5Hz, the generator could output rated power continuously.
5. Generator temperature monitor and operation requirement
(1) The generator hydrogen inlet temperature should be controlled within 40
to 48. Its temperature should be less than relevant inlet water
temperature. If not, the generator internal humidity will increase and may
cause dew. When the hydrogen inlet temperature is less than 40 or is
more than 50, it will alarm. The hydrogen coolers outlet hydrogen
temperature difference should be less than 2K. During normal operation, the
inlet temperature of hydrogen coolers should be controlled between 45
and 80.
(2) During normal operation, the inlet temperature of stator cooling water should
be kept between 45 to 50. The water temperature should not be too
low. If not, the temperature difference between stator winding and iron core
may increase and the distance between stator winding and iron core may
increase too. Or, the back water head may get dew. If the inlet water
temperature of cooling water is more than 53 or is less than 42, it will
alarm.
(3) During normal operation, keep inlet oil temperatures of generator sealing oil
between 40 to 49. The oil temperature difference between air side and
hydrogen side should be less than 2.2K. If the vibration is serious, the oil
temperature difference should be less than 1.1K.
(4) When generator operates with rated hydrogen pressure, if 1/4 of the
hydrogen coolers are out of service, reduce the generator load to 80% the
rated load and then keep it running continuously. At this moment, the
Page 47 of 157
maximum permissive cooling hydrogen temperature should be 48.
(5) During normal operation, both outlet water temperature of stator winding bar
and the outlet water temperature of main outlet pipe of cooling water should
be less than 80. If the temperature is more than 85, it will alarm. If the
temperature difference between main water pipe outlet water and inlet water
is more than 31K, it will alarm. For the water loop of same layer, the
temperature difference between maximum winding bar
temperature/minimum winding bar temperature and average outlet
temperature should be less than 5K. For the water loop of the same layer, if
the temperature difference between maximum outlet temperature and
minimum temperature is more than 8K, it will alarm.
(6) During normal operation, the inlet water temperature of hydrogen coolers
should be less than 35. If the temperature is more than , it will alarm.
(7) During normal operation, the generator stator winding temperature should
be less than 90. If not, it will alarm. If the temperature difference between
maximum winding bar temperature and minimum winding bar temperature is
more than 10K, it will alarm.
(8) If the any two upper/lower layer winding bar (in generator stator winding slot)
outlet water temperature is 12K or the winding bar inter-layer temperature
difference is 14K, or if the outlet water temperature is 90, it is not allowed
to operate generator with high temperature. Reduce the load to decrease
temperature difference immediately or check the reliability of the readings. If
the internal parts of winding have problems, disconnect the generator with
the grid to find out the reasons.
(9) The generator stator iron core temperature and magnetic shielding
temperature should be less than 120.
(10) The generator rotor winding temperature should not be more than 110
(resistance method). When using resistance method to measure the rotor
winding temperature, use voltmeter and ammeter whose class is 0.2 to
measure. Calculate it with following formula.
1 T2[234.5T1R2]/R1-234.5
2 Here, T2 is the rotor winding temperature in hot status.
3 T1 is the rotor winding temperature in cold status.
4 R1 is the DC resistance value when rotor winding is in cold status.
5 R2 is the DC resistance value when rotor winding is in hot status.
6. Generator over-loading capacity and operation requirement
7. When generator operates normally, the stator three phase currents should be
balance. The inter-phase current difference should be less than 10%. At the same
time, the maximum current should not be more than rated current. For this
generator, if it operates stably and continuously for long time, its negative current
should be less than 10% the rated value. The generator permissive transient
I 2t
negative capacity 2 should be less than 10s.
8. Operating regulation for generator stator voltage changing
Page 48 of 157
(1) Generator stator voltage is allowed to change within 5 the rated value. If
the power factor and frequency are rated values, it is allowed to operate
generator with rated capacity. That is to say, when generator stator voltage
is more than or is less than rated value by 5%, its stator current is allowed to
change within 5 the rated value. However, the temperature of each part
of generator should be monitored and controlled.
(2) If the generator voltage decreases and becomes less than 95% the rated
value, the stator current should not be more than 105% the rated value for
long time. If the stator voltage is less than 19KV, its stator current should not
be more than rated current by 5%.
(3) Generator maximum operating voltage is 110% the rated value/22KV. The
minimum operating voltage is 90% the rated value/18KV. Additionally, they
should meet the requirements for auxiliary bus bar voltage.
(4) When generator operates continuously, the V/F (per unit) should be less
than 1.05.
9. Generator leading phase operation
(1) Generator rated power factor is 0.85 (lagging phase). Normally, generator is
operating in lagging phase mode. The generator of this type has the ability
for operating in leading phase mode. When AVR is activated and is in
automatic mode, the generator is allowed to operate continuously with rated
active power for long time (leading phase power factor is 0.95). Additionally,
following conditions should be met.
(2) The generator is allowed to operate in leading phase mode according to
dispatchers requirement if the system needs. The rated hydrogen pressure
should not be less than manufacturers requirement (the final data should be
carried out leading phase to ensure leading deep limit value).
(3) When generator operates in leading phase mode, keep AVR in double
channel automatic status. Do not use manual mode. If the AVR has to be
made out of service, increase generator reactive power immediately and
recover generator lagging phase operation mode.
(4) When generator operates in leading phase mode, make sure generator loss
of field protection have been put into operation and put at tripping position.
(5) When generator operates in leading phase mode, do not stop the low
excitation limiter of AVR or reduce the setting values. The generator terminal
voltage should not be less than 5% the rated value. Otherwise, increase the
reactive power and recover generator lagging phase operation mode.
(6) When generator operates in leading phase mode, if the AVR low excitation
limiter activates, stop operating and increase AVR output slightly till the
alarm disappear.
(7) When generator operates in leading phase mode, if the system has
oscillation or if the AVR output has oscillation, increase the reactive power
and recover generator lagging phase operation mode.
(8) When generator operates in leading phase mode, enhance the monitor of
generator temperature changing, especially the stator terminal part. If the
Page 49 of 157
temperature is more than the required value, report it to shift leader and
recover the lagging phase operation.
(9) When generator operates in leading phase mode, monitor the auxiliary bus
bar voltage and make sure it is within the permissive range. If the auxiliary
bus voltage is less than rated value by 5%, increase the reactive power
immediately and then recover the lagging phase operation mode.
10. The operation mode of excitation system
(1) Composition of excitation system:
(2) The excitation system is mainly made up of terminal excitation transformer,
SCR, AVR, de-excitation and over-voltage protective devices, initial
excitation device, and some necessary monitoring devices, protective
devices and alarming devices.
(3) The generator excitation current supply mode The excitation transformer
gets AC power from the generator terminal. The AC power is transformed
and then sent to SCR, which is regulated by AVR. The SCR converts AC into
DC power source and then sends the DC to generator rotor winding via
collective ring and carbon brush.
(4) The SCR has 3 branches and the redundancy number is N-1. That is to say,
if one branch is out of operation, it will satisfy the requirements of generator
forced excitation and operation with 1.1 times the rated excitation current. If
two branches are out of operation, it will meet the requirements of unit
operation with 1.1 times the rated forced excitation current. Check the
following table for detailed information .

Table 2-3 Branch of SCR


2 to 3 branches operate in parallel One branch operates
1. Normal operation mode 1.Abnormal operation mode
2. Generator operates with rated load. 2. Generator operates with rated load.
3. Forced excitation 3.Non-forced excitation

(5) When it operates normally, AVR uses automatic double channel operation
mode. The PSS will be put into operation as required.
(6) Excitation system control mode:
When unit operates normally, operates will send out command from DCS to
control operation remotely. The LCP which is installed at the front panel of
excitation system can only be used during commissioning, testing and in
emergency.
(7) If the generator terminal voltage is less than 90% the rated value, the
excitation system will carry out forced excitation with 1.8 times the rated
excitation voltage. The forced excitation time will last for 10s to 20s.
11. The monitor and operation regulation of generator hydrogen system
(1) During normal operation, the generator hydrogen purity should not be less
than 95%. If the purity is less than 95% or if the oxygen content is more than

Page 50 of 157
1.2%, carry out blow down and recharge the hydrogen immediately.
(2) During normal operation, the hydrogen humidity is controlled at 2g/m3 to 4g/
m3 with normal hydrogen pressure. If the hydrogen humidity is more than
10g/ m3, it will alarm. If the humidity inside of the generator is converted and
calculated by atmospheric pressure, the dew point temperature is controlled
between -5 and -25.
(3) During generator normal operation, put the hydrogen drier into operation.
(4) The generator rated hydrogen pressure is 0.4 Mpa while the minimum
operating hydrogen pressure is 0.3 Mpa. The maximum operating hydrogen
pressure is 0.54Mpa. When it operates with rated power, it will alarm if the
hydrogen pressure is less than 0.38 Mpa or is more than 0.44 Mpa.
(5) Sufficient CO2 should be prepared at site for discharging hydrogen in
emergent situation.
(6) If the generator internal hydrogen pressure drops rapidly, check and
determine system leakage point immediately. Start the fans at the roof to
exhaust hydrogen. If the hydrogen is found in cooling water system, shut
down the unit and find out the leakage point of cooling water system.
12. Generator stator cooling water quality
(1) Cooling water quality: pure, transparent, without metal chips.
(2) If the conductivity is 5scm, it is high alarm.
(3) If the conductivity is 9.5scm, it is high high alarm.
(4) Hardness(25): 2mol/L
(5) PH value(25): 6.08.0
(6) NH3: micro
13. During normal operation, the generator stator cooling water flow is 30 m 3. The
water pressure drop at the terminals of stator winding should be kept between
0.15Mpa and 0.20Mpa. It will alarm if the pressure drops to the pressure relative
to 80% the rated flow. It will trip with 30s time delay if the pressure drops to the
pressure relative to 70% rated flow.
14. During normal operation, the generator shaft vibration should be less than
0.08mm. If the shaft vibration is equal to or is more than 0.127mm, it will alarm. If
the shaft vibration is equal to or is more than 0.254mm, it will trip.
15. Insulation monitor
(1) Measure the insulation resistance of stator and rotor circuits and record the
results before unit startup and after unit shutdown. If the shutdown period is
less than 24h, it is unnecessary to measure the insulation resistance.
Compare the new results with the previous one, if the value decrease
seriously, find out the problems and eliminate that.
(2) Use a 2500V megger to measure the insulation resistance of generator
stator winding. With 25 ambient temperature, the insulation resistance
should be more than 500 M (1min). The absorption ratio is 1.3
(1min/15s). The polarization index is 2.0 (10min/1min). It is the
maintenance personnels responsibility to measure the polarization index

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and the operators should re-check it and collect the data. The insulation
resistance difference time between each phase should be less than 2.
Compare the new insulation resistance with the previous one; it should not
be less than 1/5 to 1/3 the previous result. Otherwise, find out the reasons
and eliminate the faults. If the insulation polarization index is less than 2 and
the absorption index is less than 1.6, which means the stator insulation is
affected with damp. Check it, find out the reasons and eliminate the faults
immediately.
(3) After the generator stator winding is filled with water, check the insulation
resistance and make sure it is more than 1 M.
(4) Use the 500V megger to measure the generator rotor winding insulation
resistance. With 25 ambient temperature, the insulation resistance should
be more than 10 M (1min). If not, check it, find out the reasons and
eliminate that. Before measuring the rotor winding insulation, check to make
sure the FCB is disconnected to make sure the safety of SCR.
(5) The maintenance personnel should measure the insulation resistance while
the operators check and collect the results.
1 Use 500V to measure the insulation of generator bearing, the insulation
of sealing frame and intermediate ring. The insulation resistance should
be more than 10M before connecting rotation shaft and turbine. The
insulation resistance should be more than 1M after filling with oil. After
rotation shaft connecting with turbine, the insulation resistance should
be more than 1M.
2 Use 500V voltage to measure the insulation resistance of collective ring.
The insulation resistance should be 10M.
3 Use 250V voltage to measure the insulation resistance of temperature
measuring elements. The insulation resistance should be 5M.
4 Use 500V voltage to test the insulation resistance of terminal iron core
and the insulation resistance of bearing pad. The insulation resistance
should be 100M.
5 Use 1000V voltage to test the insulation resistance of stator through-
core bolt. The insulation resistance should be 100M.
(6) Monitor of bearing insulation at excitation side during unit operation
1 The excitation bearing of generator of this type has double insulation
layer. The insulation resistance could be measured after connecting
unit rotation shaft or during operation.
2 During unit operation, the maintenance personnel will use 1000V testing
voltage to measure the bearing to ground insulation resistance
periodically. It should be measured and recorded monthly.
3 The operators of second shift will check and collect the results once
every Tuesday on the first week of a month.
4 The expected insulation resistance value should be 1M. If it is less
than 0.5M, the shaft current will get through it and damage the
bearing. If the accident happens, report it to shift leader and shut down
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the unit for maintenance.
16. Inspection during generator operation
(1) During generator normal operation, inspect the automatic and protective
devices. Monitor and adjust the parameters of generator and make sure they
are within normal range.
(2) During generator normal operation, check and record the important electric
parameters hourly. Check the parameters like temperature of generator
stator winding, the temperature of outlet water, the stator iron core
temperature, the generator hydrogen inlet/outlet temperature, the inlet/outlet
temperature of hydrogen coolers, generator hydrogen humidity and purity
and record the parameters hourly. Compare and analyze the parameters
with operating conditions. If the abnormal condition is found, find out
reasons and solve the problems.
(3) During generator normal operation, check the primary and secondary circuit
according to relevant inspection regulation. Pay special attention to following
items.
1 Check the generator and the area around it. Make sure it is clean,
without sundries, water leakage, oil leakage, oil leakage and hydrogen
leakage.
2 Check the generator proper. Make sure there is no abnormal sound and
vibration. The vibration value is less than 0.08mm.
3 The big shaft of generator is well grounded. The carbon brush contacts
well. There is no spark. The carbon brush should not be short than
limited line.
4 The temperature of each part of generator should be normal, without
partial overheated part. The inlet and outlet water temperature and
hydrogen temperature are normal, without abnormal odor.
5 The hydrogen on-line monitor should operate normally. Each indication
values are within required range. The pressure of hydrogen inside of
generator, the purity, temperature and humidity of hydrogen should meet
the requirement.
6 The hydrogen leakage detector should work normally. There is hydrogen
leakage signal.
7 The micro-pressure device of the generator outlet enclosed bus-bar
work normally. The enclosed bus-bar should be free of vibration,
discharging and partial overheating.
8 The generator outlet PT, neutral earthing device should be complete.
The front and back gate should be closed well, without vibration,
discharging, abnormal sound, etc.
9 The G-T protective devices work normally, without abnormal alarm
signal.
10 The SF6 pressure of main CB and the energy storage indication should
be normal.
11 The generator insulation overheating device should operate normally.
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The current indication should be controlled between 100% to 110%.
12 The generator radio frequency monitors work normally. There is no
abnormal alarm.
13 The excitation system operates normally, without abnormal alarm and
signal. The insulation of excitation system should meet the requirement.
There is no grounding.
14 Inspection of carbon brush and slip ring
A. The slip ring contacts carbon brush well. The contacting surface
does not have sparks. The carbon brush work freely, without broken
parts.
B. The carbon brush pressure equalizing spring is installed firmly. The
pressure is proper. The spring should be complete, without
breakage and cracks. It is free of overheated parts, sparks,
blocking.
C. The carbon brush should not be less than the limited line. The color
of carbon brush and brush tail should not change. The brush tail
should be complete. The root of brush tail should not be loose. The
carbon brush should be of the same type. If the top part of carbon
brush is worn and is just higher than the top of brush by 3mm, ask
maintenance personnel to replace it.
D. The brush holder should be complete and clean, without cracks.
The distance between brush holder and slip ring should be
controlled within 1mm to 2mm.
E. The slip ring is clean and complete. There are no
overheated parts.
15 The excitation transformer operates normally, without vibration,
abnormal sound, overheating parts. The temperature controller and fans
work normally.
17. Check following section for the inspection and precautions of excitation during
operation
18. Maintenance and precautions of excitation circuit and slip ring
(1) If the carbon brush has to been replaced, contact with the operators on duty.
It is better to replace it when the unit load is low.
(2) The operators should work carefully. Button the sleeve opening tightly. The
pigtail of the female operators should be put inside of helmet.
(3) Wear the insulation boot when working on the slip ring. Use insulation pad
and tools of high quality. Arrange two operators to work. One operator works
as the supervisor. The operators should stand on insulation pad. He should
not touch two polarities at the same time or one polarity and the earthing
part at the same time. Do not get two person work at the same time to avoid
short circuit.
(4) The new carbon brush and the old one should be the same type. Polish it if
needed. Make sure the contacting surface is more than 50%. The distance
between carbon brush and brush holder should not be too big or too small.
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The carbon brush could work freely in brush holder, without blocking or
shaking.
(5) Arrange personnel to supervise the carbon brush maintenance work.
Measure and judge the current distribution of carbon brush before lifting
brush in case the field loses. When putting carbon brush in brush holder and
checking the contacting surface, hold the entire tail in the hand or put the tail
away from another polarity to avoid short circuit.
(6) Only after replacing one carbon brush can replace the second one. Do not
replace more than four carbon brushes of the same polarity at the same
time.

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SECTION EXCITATION SYSTEM OPERATIONS

I General description
Composition of system
It uses terminal self-shunt-excitation static excitation system. This system is
made up of five parts, terminal excitation transformer, SCR, AVR, de-excitation
and over-voltage protective device. Additionally, it still has other measuring,
controlling, protective and signal auxiliary device. The excitation transformer is
connected with the generator terminal via enclosed bus bar. 20KV voltage is
converted into 800V and then sent into SCR. The power is rectified and output to
generator rotor winding via FCB, slip ring, carbon brush.
II Integrated device of static excitation controlling system
1. Integrated device is the static excitation device made by Shanghai Power
Equipment Research Institute.
2. This system is made up of SCR, AVR, de-excitation and over-voltage protective
device. Additionally, it still has other measuring, controlling, protective and signal
auxiliary devices.
3. The set includes:
(1) ER panel: it includes AVR, small switches of AC/DC power source.
(2) ES panel: it consists of de-excitation and over-voltage protective devices.
(3) EE panel: outgoing panel of DC bus bar.
(4) EG1 to EG3 panel: SCR cabinet (it is also called power cabinet).
(5) This integrated device contains following panels EA panel: incoming panel of
AC bus-bar.
4. AVR
(1) The configuration of main channel (2AVR+2FCR)The AVR is designed as
double-channel and digital type. The characteristic of this system is that it
has two separate regulating and controlling channels. These two channels
are the same. Therefore, one of the channels can be treated as the
operating channel. The standby channel will trace the operating channel
automatically.
(2) Regulating mode: each channel includes one automatic AVR and one
manual FCR. That is to say, it has two kinds of ways, AUTO and MANUAL to
regulate.
1 With AUTO mode, the AVR will regulate the generator voltage
automatically. It will try its best to maintain the stable of generator
terminal voltage. Therefore, this kind of mode is also called terminal
constant voltage regulating mode.
2 With MANUAL mode, the AVR will keep generator excitation stable
automatically. That means the excitation current will be stable.
Therefore, the generator excitation will be adjusted manually according
to generator load and command of dispatcher to keep generator voltage
stable. This kind of mode is also called constant excitation current

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regulating mode.
3 No matter select which kind of mode as operation regulating mode, the
standby regulating mode will trace the operating regulating mode.
4 Emergency backup channel (2BFCR): In addition to two main channels,
the excitation control system is also equipped with two individual
emergent backup channels (EGC). Therefore, the 2AVR+2FCR+2BFCR
mode is formed.
A. Emergent backup channel regulating mode: This kind of regulating
mode is similar to the manual mode of main channel. It is also
equipped with excitation current regulator. That means, the
emergent backup channel regulating mode can only regulate the
excitation current manually to adjust generator voltage.
B. The emergent backup channel is equipped with over-voltage
protection and trigger impulse.
5 Cooling method and earthing: The AVR uses forced ventilation method.
If the fans are in trouble, it will make sure the normal operation of AVR.
The ER panel/AVR panel is close type. The air filter is installed at the air
intake. The protective earthing of panel is isolated from working
earthing.
6 Voltage regulating, monitoring, limiting and protective functions
A. Generator voltage regulating function
a. setting value adjustment
b. active power compensation and reactive power compensation
c. trace automatically
d. soft excitation
e. PID control(AUTO)
f. PI control(MANUAL)
B. Monitoring function:
a. PT faults monitoring
b. Rotor temperature measurement
c. Excitation transformer temperature measurement and alarm
d. Electric control panel self-diagnosis function
e. Fans and cooling flow monitoring
f. AC/DC power source faults monitor
g. Excitation transformer temperature controller fault monitor
h. Channel fault monitor
i. Manual/Auto switching monitor
C. Limitation and protection function
a. V/Hz over-excitation limiter
b. V/Hz over-excitation protection
c. low excitation limiter
d. loss of field protection (P/Q protection)
e. Inverse-time over-current protection and transient over-current
protection
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f. AC side over-voltage protection
g. DC side over-voltage protection
h. Rotor earthing protection
i. Forced excitation is activated due to system faults
j. Forced excitation recovers automatically
7 AVR alarm signal:
A. Excitation system channel 1 fault
B. Excitation system channel 2 fault
C. Over-excitation limiter activates and alarms
D. Low-excitation limiter activates and alarms
E. Excitation over-current inverse time protection activates and alarms
F. Active power and reactive power limiter alarm
G. Excitation current limiter alarms
H. TV line blockage alarm
I. Forced excitation activation signal
J. Excitation system AC/DC power source interruption signal
K. Automatic operation mode indication
L. Manual operation mode indication
M. PSS activate/deactivate indication
N. SCR fuse melt signal
O. Excitation transformer controller fault signal
P. Excitation transformer temperature high alarm
Q. Initial excitation fault alarm
R. Fans fault alarm
S. Excitation system total alarm
T. Emergent backup manual operation mode indication
U. Rotor earthing alarm
5. SCR
(1) The rectify mode is three phase total controlled bridge. It has the ability to
invert.
(2) There are five rectifier cabinets totally. They operate in parallel. The current
equalizing factor is more than 90%. If one cabinet is out of operation, it will
satisfy the requirements of generator forced excitation and operation with
1.1 times the rated excitation current. If two cabinets are out of operation, it
will meet the requirements of unit operation with 1.1 times the rated forced
excitation current.
(3) Each SCR element is equipped with the quick melt fuse to disconnect short-
circuit current quickly.
(4) The AC side of panel is equipped with the surge absorption devices to
restrict the peak over-voltage. The DC over-voltage protection uses the
voltage filter.
(5) The cooling mode is forced air cooling. It has 100% backup device. If the air
pressure or air flow is not enough, the standby fan will be activated
automatically. The power source circuits of cooling fans are two circuits.
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These two circuits will switch automatically.
(6) SCR Monitor function of SCR
1 The electric and electronic elements have fuses which are equipped
with melting alarm contacts.
2 Breakdown monitor
3 Cooling flow and fans monitor
4 Rectifier bridge temperature monitor
5 Rectifier bridge cabinet gate locking monitor
6 The AC side overvoltage protection is equipped with fuses which has
melting alarm contacts.
7 DC side has fuses which are equipped with melting alarm contacts.
(7)SCR alarm signal
1 If anyone rectifier cabinet is out of service, it will alarm.
2 SCR fuses melting alarm.
3 Air temperature high alarm.
4 Cooling fans fault alarm.
5 Cooling flow low alarm.
(8) Overvoltage protective devices at de-excitation side and DC side
1 If the generator uses static excitation system, the de-excitation is carried
out by inverter tripping FCB (with certain time delay) or by FCB
activation. The FCB could disconnect the DC short-circuit current and
leave certain margin. The FCB should have two separate tripping
winding. The over-voltage protection and higher harmonic filter should
be installed at the rotor side.
2 The generator de-excitation device uses SIC non-linear resistance.
(9) Initial excitation device
1 The generator external initial power comes from the unit 380V system.
The power is converted into DC via transformer and rectify device and
then sent to rotor winding for excitation.
2 Work mode Usually, the system could execute generator residual
voltage excitation. The normal input voltage which could support control
circuit normal work is 5V. If the voltage is equal to or is more than 5V,
use the residual voltage to excite firstly. It will trigger the rectifier bridge
of SCB continuously to improve the voltage to rated value. If the input
voltage is less than 5V, the external initial excitation circuit will close
automatically and supply power for rectifier bridge. When the terminal
voltage reaches to 10% the rated generator voltage, the rectifier bridge
will work normally and the external initial excitation circuit will out of
operation automatically. The soft initial excitation program will start up
and increase the generator voltage to rated value. The entire initial
excitation process is monitored and controlled by AVR software.
(10) General regulation of excitation system operation
(11) Normal operation mode of excitation system
1 AVR remote control.
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2 Three rectifier panels are in service.
3 AVR main channel 1/2 operates while FCR traces AVR operation.
4 AVR main channel 2/1 traces main channel 1/2; the FCR traces AVR.
5 The emergent standby channel1/2 traces main channel 1/2.
6 Rotor earthing protection, loss of field protection, over-excitation
protection and excitation over-current protection are activated.
7 All the limiters are activated.
8 Superimposed control, PSS and AVC are activated according to
dispatchers command.
(12) Abnormal operation mode of excitation system
1 The rectifier panels operate when one/two panels are disconnected.
2 AVR operates in FCR mode.
3 AVR main channel 1/2 is in trouble.
4 Emergent standby channel failure
(13) Excitation system regulating modes
1 Basic regulating mode The basic regulating modes include auto
regulating mode and manual regulating mode.
2 Superimposed regulating mode: The superimposed regulating mode
consists of constant reactive power regulating mode and constant
power factor regulating mode. Superposed regulation is controlled by
the upper controller of AVR. After generator is connected with the grid
and when the excitation system operates in automatic mode, it could be
switched into constant reactive power regulation and constant power
factor regulation.
(14) Regulations of excitation system operation
1 Trace and switching logic of channel and mode
A. Normally, if any one main channel of excitation system operates in
auto mode (AVR), the manual mode (FCR) will trace the auto mode.
Another main channel (the standby channel) AVR will trace the
operating channel. The FCR will trace this channel. The emergent
standby channel (emergent standby manual mode, BFCR) will trace
the relevant main channel FCR.
B. If the AVR of operating channel is in trouble, the excitation system
will get AVR of standby channel in to operation. If the AVR of two
main channels are in trouble, it will switch into FCR of operating
channel automatically.
C. If the AVR of two main channels fail to work and the FCR of the
operating channel is in trouble too, the excitation will get the FCR of
standby channel operate automatically.
D. When AVR and FCR of two main channels are in trouble, the
excitation system will change into emergent standby channel
automatically.
(15) The switching logic (when generator PT is in trouble)
1 If two main channels operate normally but the PT of operating channel
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has problem, the excitation system will switch into AVR of standby
channel automatically.
2 If the standby channel fails to work, the PT of operating channel is
normal but the operating channel has problem, the excitation system will
switch into FCR of operating channel automatically.
3 If PT of two groups of generator has problems, the excitation system will
change into FCR of operating channel automatically.
(16) The switching and interlocking between main channels and precautions
1 If the operating channel or if the relevant generator PT has problem, the
system will change into standby channel to operate. After trouble
removal, it will switch into the previous channel.
2 If the standby channel is in trouble, the manual switchover from
operating channel to standby channel will be blocked.
3 If the operating channel fails to work, the generator voltage may disturb.
At this moment, the standby channel which will activate will trace it with
time delay. In this way, it will not trace the disturbance. However, the
trace speed will slow down. This is the normal phenomenon.
4 If the operating channel is switched into standby channel manually, the
generator voltage will disturb transiently. The operators will consider this
trace delay and wait for trace balance.
(17) The switching and interlocking between main channel regulating modes and
precautions
1 If the auto mode detects faults and the system will switch into manual
mode, before trouble removal, switch interlocking into auto mode.
2 If the manual mode has problem, switch interlocking from auto mode
into manual mode.
3 The generator may operate within permissive range with auto mode;
however, the working condition may beyond the permissive range of
manual mode. At this moment, the FCR will not trace AVR. The
excitation system will switch interlocking into manual mode.
4 If there is fault, when switching auto mode into manual mode, the
generator excitation current will disturb transiently before switching. At
this moment, the FCR will trace excitation current change with time
delay and the it will slow down the trace speed. This is normal condition.
5 When switching auto mode into manual mode, the generator excitation
current will disturb before switchover, the operator should consider the
trace time delay and wait for trace balance.
(18) Switching and interlocking of emergent standby channel and precautions
1 When main channel is in trouble, the excitation system will switch into
emergent standby channel. Before the trouble removal, switch the
interlocking into main channel.
2 Normally, if the main channel has problem, excitation system will carry
out non-disturb lance switchover automatically.
3 The manual switchover between main channels into emergent standby
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channel should be done by replay protection personnel with hand panel
or PC.
(19) Precautions (if one main channel of excitation system has problem or if the
excitation system operates in manual mode)
1 Arrange operators to monitor and adjust the DCS excitation display.
Meanwhile, ask maintenance personnel to eliminate faults and recover
the normal operation mode.
2 If the excitation system operates in manual mode, the superimposed
regulating mode of excitation system should be made out of operation.
Otherwise, reactivate the superimposed regulation mode manually.
3 If two groups of rectifier cabinets are deactivated, the excitation system
will switch into manual operate. If not, switch the excitation system into
manual operation mode manually and strengthen the monitor.
4 When excitation system operates in manual mode, operators should
monitor the generator excitation carefully and continuously. Additionally,
regulate it according to generator V shape curve and generator output
curve (appendix 2 and appendix 3) carefully to make sure the generator
parameters are within operation range.
(20) Precautions (when excitation system forced activates)
1 If the generator of this system is in trouble or if other generator which
operates in parallel with this one has problem, the voltage will decrease.
If the generator outlet voltage is less than 90% the rated voltage (18KV),
the excitation system will execute forced excitation with 1.8 times the
rated excitation voltage. The forced excitation lasts for 10s. The forced
excitation current is 7461A.
2 When forced excitation activates, operators should be interrupt it within
10s.
3 The forced excitation activation will end 10s later. The AVR will control
excitation current automatically and get it less than 1.05 times the rated
value.
4 If the excitation current is not less than 1.05 times the rated value,
switch the AVR into Manual mode manually. The excitation current will
be controlled to be less than 1.05 times the rated value. Additionally,
strengthen the monitor.
5 If the forced excitation activation does not finish 10s later, switch the
AVR into Manual mode manually and control the excitation current to
make sure it is less than 1.05 time the rated value. Strengthen the
monitor.
(21) Operation regulation of excitation system superimposed regulating mode
1 If the generator is connected with the grid and the excitation system
operates in auto mode, switch into superimposed regulation mode of
constant reactive power regulation mode or constant power factor
regulation.
2 Before activating superimposed regulation mode, adjust the generator
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reactive power to make sure generator operate with rated voltage.
3 After operation, adjust the setting values of constant reactive power or
constant power factor according to generator voltage immediately.
4 If the generator disturbs strongly during operation, such as terminal
voltage, reactive power, reactive generator superimposed regulation
mode should be deactivated immediately.
5 If the excitation system is switched into manual operation mode, the
excitation system superimposed regulation mode should be deactivated
automatically. Otherwise, get the superimposed regulation mode out of
operation manually.
6 If the grid has problems, such as system surge, voltage drop rapidly, for
short, the excitation system will still use the basic regulation mode,
instead of superimposed regulation mode. At this moment, the functions
of limiter in auto mode will not change.
7 After deactivating superimposed regulation mode, the setting values of
constant reactive power regulation/ constant power factor regulation will
trace previous measurement values of reactive power/ power factor.
That is to say, at the moment when switching basic regulation mode into
superimposed regulation mode, the generator operation point will not
change. Just use / to adjust the setting values of superimposed
regulator to change reactive power/ power factor.
(22) Inspection items of excitation system during normal operation
Inspection items during operation
1 The limiters do not send out activation alarm signal during operation.
2 The setting value of operating channel does not reach the limitation
setting value.
3 The excitation current, generator voltage and reactive power are stable.
4 The trace between channels is balance and the channel switchover is
ready.
5 The trace between manual mode and auto mode is balance while the
manual/auto switchover is ready.
6 The trace between emergent standby channels is balance.
7 Excitation current, generator power and reactive power are within
required range. The adjustment is stable.
8 DCS does not have excitation system alarm signal.
9 The air conditions in excitation room operate normally. The room
temperature is kept about 25. The room should be clean and dry. The
light is good.
10 The devices do not have alarm signal.
11 The devices should not have abnormal sound, overheating parts,
vibration, and burnt smell.
12 All the operation indication lamps are on. The monitoring lamps for
indicating damaged silicon elements and quick melting fuse are off.
13 The indication values on device panels should be normal. The output
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current of each rectifier cabinet should be the same.
14 All the fans operate normally. The air inlet and outlet should not be
blocked. If the air strainer is dirty, ask maintenance personnel to clean
that.
15 The counter of over-voltage protective device should not have activation
indication.
16 The front and back gates of cabinet should be locked
(23) Precautions during excitation system operation
1 Usually, the excitation system is controlled remotely. The operators are
not allowed to control the local control panel.
2 Do not open the gates of cabinets of excitation system during operation.
If the gates are opened, the power cabinet will deactivate. If the
maintenance really has to open the gates, report it to the shift leader
and take relevant safety measures.
3 Normally, excitation system operates in auto mode. The superimposed
regulation mode and the activation and deactivation of PSS and AVC
should be determined by the requirement of dispatcher or according to
operation mode.
4 Do not use wireless communication devices, such as mobile phone and
walkie talkie in excitation room.
5 If the 150KV circuit breaker is closed, the excitation system can not be
disconnected by DCS remote control. If it has to be disconnected via
remote control, open 150KV circuit breaker firstly.
(24) Before starting excitation, check to make sure following conditions are met.
The excitation system has to been switched into hot standby status from
cold standby status.
1 Check to make sure maintenance work to primary and secondary
systems of generator excitation system have been finished. The primary
and secondary systems are normal. All the equipments are complete
and clean. They are ready for operation. All the work listed on work
permits has been finished. Check to make sure there are no tools left at
site. All the temporary safety measures have been removed and the
permanent safety measures have been recovered.
2 Check the excitation transformer and make sure it meets the conditions
for activating dry type transformer.
3 Check to make sure generator rotor earthing protection is activated
normally. There is no alarm signal.
4 Check the carbon brush of generator slip ring. It should contact well.
The pressure is even. The length is proper. It could work freely. When
turning the gear, it should not shake. The air ducts of slip ring are
smooth. The manhole of excitation non-separated bus bar has been
closed.
5 Check to make sure excitation control system is normal. The devices
could pass the testing. They are ready for startup. Check the relevant
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parameters of AVR and make sure they are set correctly.
6 Check to make sure the excitation system could pass excitation
transformer protection drive testing, excitation cabinet fans interlocking
testing, FCB and main CB interlocking testing, FCB open and close
testing.
7 Measure the insulation resistance of following parts.
A. Excitation transformer insulation.
B. Power circuit insulation (generator rotor circuit insulation)
C. Insulation of cables at the load side of heating power source and
lightning power source.
D. Insulation of cable at the load side of fan power source switch.
8 Check to make sure the power source sides of the first control element
of initial excitation power source, AC auxiliary power source and DC
power source have the power. The power source indication is normal.
9 Check to make sure the cooling fans of cabinets are in hot standby
status. The air inlet and outlet are not blocked.
10 Close the small air switches of AC auxiliary power source and DC power
source of cabinet. Make sure the fuses are activated. The fuses are
complete. The gates of cabinets are locked.
11 Check the excitation transformer protection, excitation system fault
protection, FCB inter-trip protection meets the conditions for activation.
The links are put at the correct positions.
12 Check to make sure the excitation system local display and DCS display
do not have alarm and limiter activation signal.
13 Check to make sure the voltage setting value of AVR auto/manual mode
is minimum.
14 Check to make sure FCB Q02, initial excitation contactor A03 is open.
The output of excitation system is zero.
15 Switch the excitation system at Remote and Auto position.
(25) Startup of excitation system
Check to make sure generator excitation system (excitation
transformer, UN5000, AC and DC bus-bar, slip ring and carbon brush, etc)
are ready for operation.
Check to make sure the links of excitation transformer in G-T protective
panel A, panel B and the links of FCB intertripping protection have been
activated. Relevant outlet links have been activated.
Check to make sure links of excitation system fault protection in
protective panel C as well as relevant outlet links are activated.
Check to make sure CB between DC distribution panel and excitation
system DC power source are closed.
Check to make sure the CB between UPS feeder panel and excitation
system AC power source are closed.
Check to make sure power source between turbine MCC A1 to
generator excitation cabinet has been energized.
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Check to make sure initial excitation CB Q03 in ER panel of excitation
system has been closed.
Check to make sure the power source CB Q91 of 220V fans in ER
cabinet of excitation system and the power source CB Q90 of AC 380V
lightning/heating device are closed.
Check to make sure 170V power source CB Q05 at the LV side of AC
auxiliary transformer T05 in ER panel as well as the 220V CB Q96 at the LV
side of fan AC power auxiliary transformer T90 should be closed.
Check to make sure DC 24V power source CB Q51 in ER panel is
closed.
Check to make sure the DC 110V power source CB Q15 and Q25 in
ER are closed.
Check to make sure fuses F04, F15 in panel ER are complete. The
fuse has been inserted. There is no melting part.
Check the elements in panel ER. There should no abnormal alarm
signal. The front and back gates should be locked.
Check the panel indication of excitation system. There is no abnormal
alarm signal.
Check to make sure the FCB Q02 in ES panel is in operation position
and hot standby status. The TCB should be open.
Check to make sure elements in ES panel are normal. There is no
abnormal alarm signal. The front and back gates have been locked.
Check to make sure elements in EE panel are normal. There is no
abnormal alarm signal. The front and back gates have been locked.
Check to make sure the power sources CBs Q11, Q12 of fans in panels
EG1, EG2, and EG3 are closed.
Check to make sure the fuse F02 of over-voltage protection in cabinet
EG1, EG2, EG3 is complete. The fuse has been inserted. There is no
melting mark.
Check to make sure the fuses F1 to F6 of SCR protection in panel
EG.1, EG.2 and EG.3 are complete. The fuse has been inserted. There is
no melting mark.
Check to make sure elements in panels EG.1, EG.2 and EG.3 are
normal. There is no abnormal alarm signal. The front and back gates have
been locked.
Check the panel indication (EG.1 to EG.3). They should be normal.
There is no abnormal alarm signal.
Check to make sure elements in panel EA are normal. The front and
back gates have been locked.
In panel ER, switch the UN5000 excitation system into REMOTE and
AUTO.
Check the excitation display of DCS. There is no abnormal alarm signal
and limiter activation signal. The excitation system operates in Auto mode.
Check to make sure generator rotation speed reaches to rated value.
Page 66 of 157
Report it to shift leader. Arrange the operators in CCR and NCR to
prepare for increasing the generator voltage.
Select Activate Excitation System in excitation display of DCS.
Check to make sure the FCB Q02 and initial excitation contactor A03
are closed. The initial excitation process should be normal. The voltage
increase stably.
When generator voltage reaches to 2KV, check the FCB Q02 and make
sure it is in closed position normally. The generator continues to increase
the voltage.
When generator voltage reaches to 20KV, check the DCS display and
the local excitation system. They should work normally. Switch and check to
see whether the voltages of three phases are balance. The stator current is
less than 70A and the currents of three phases are balance.
Report it to shift leader. Inform the operators of CCR and NCR that the
voltage increasing process is normal. Wait for synchronization or testing.
(26) Shutdown of excitation system
1 The excitation system should be stopped along with disconnecting the
unit with grid, or it should be stopped after unit protection activation and
a-synchronization.
2 Check to make sure that the unit has been disconnected with grid. The
currents of three phase of generator stator are zero.
3 Check the excitation system display on DCS and make sure the
excitation system is deactivated. The FCB Q02 is disconnected. The
excitation voltage and current indication are zero.
4 Check the FCB Q02 at site and make sure it is disconnected.
5 Open the power source CB Q11 and Q12 of fans in panel EG.1, EG.2
and EG.3. Check to make sure the fans are stopped.
6 Open the AC power source CB Q91 of 220V fans in panel ER.
7 Disconnect the 220V CB Q96 at the LV side of fan AC power auxiliary
transformer T90 in panel ER. Check to make sure fans are stopped.
8 Open CB Q51 of DC 24V power source in panel ER.
9 Open the DC 110V power source CB Q15 and Q25 in panel ER.
10 Open the CB Q05 of 170V power at the LV side of AC auxiliary
transformer T05 in panel ER.
11 Disconnect CB Q03 of initial excitation power source in panel ER.
12 Open the CB of power source between 380V to generator excitation
panel.
13 Open the CB of AC power source and between UPS feeder panel and
excitation system.
14 Open the CB of DC power source and between DC power distribution
panel to excitation system.
Note: if the unit is shut down for short time and there is no maintenance
work, it is unnecessary to open the small CB Q11, Q12, Q91, Q96, Q90,
Q05, Q51, Q15, and Q25.
Page 67 of 157
(27) Abnormal alarm and trouble removal of excitation system .

Table 2-4 Abnormal alarm and trouble removal of excitation system


Alarm
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
Check whether the temperature of
transformer is high for long time.
Check the cooling condition of
transformer and the ambient
Excitation
temperature. The inside part of
transformer
The temperature of ET is transformer may have problems.
103 high
more than the alarm value. Monitor the temperature of
temperatur
transformer continuously.
e alarm
Ask the maintenance personnel to
solve the problems.
Reduce the excitation current to
avoid high temperature tripping.
The rotor temperature is
determined by field Check to see whether the rotor is
resistance which is over-loaded for long time.
Rotor high
calculated by field current Check to see whether the cooling
104 temperatur
and field voltage. If the system of rotor works normally.
e alarm
temperature is more than Ask the maintenance personnel to
setting value, the system repair it.
will send out alarm signal.
Reduce the excitation current to
prevent over-temperature tripping.
Check whether the air flow is
blocked by foreign matters.
The temperature of
Check whether the fans work
Rectifier radiator, which is measured
normally.
high by UNITROL 5000, is less
105 Check whether the radiator is clean.
temperatur than setting value. The
Check whether the filter is dirty or
e alarm system will send out alarm
clean.
signal.
Check to make sure the ambient
temperature is less than 40.
Arrange maintenance personnel to
repair it.
OC1( excit
Within required time delay,
ation over- Switch it into standby channel or
the excitation current limiter
current manual mode.
106 will not restrict the
section I) Ask maintenance personnel to
excitation current to setting
inverse repair it.
value.
time alarm
113 Standby The serial communication Ask the maintenance personnel to
channel between two channels is repair it.

Page 68 of 157
Alarm
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
Check the serial communication
connection between channels.
ARC net
Check communication interruption
fault interrupted.
due to other faults and alarm;
whether the power source of one
channel disappears.
Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it.
The generator voltage
Check the voltage from terminal PT
measurement value is less
to software signal. If it is correct, the
than the rectifier power
setting value of dynamic PT fault
Terminal source voltage minus the
120 monitor may not sensitive.
PT fault set margin. That means the
Check to make sure the terminal
generator voltage
voltage is 100% the rated value.
measurement parts have
Check its measuring elements and
problems.
I/O interface. If the alarm still exists,
replace this board one by one.
Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair that.
If the FCB is not closed, check the
wire connection of FCB control
Closing command is sent
circuit.
127 FCB fault out for 1s, there is no FCB
Check to see whether the winding of
closing feedback signal.
FCB Q2 is damaged or not.
If the FCB is closed, check the wire
connection of feedback circuit of
FCB.
Check the current monitor of
jumper.
Field discharges but there Check whether the jumper
Jumper
135 is no jumper current discharges for short time when FCB
fault
feedback signal. tripping command is sent out.
Ask maintenance personnel to
repair it.
The standby channel
Standby produces certain tripping Ask the maintenance personnel to
137
tripping signal for two channel repair it.
system
141 Auxiliary The input voltage to power Ask the maintenance personnel to
AC power source elements may have repair it.
fault problems. The system Check the AC power source CB
could continue to operate; inside and outside the cabinet.
however, these problems Check the AC input voltage of
have to be solved to ensure power source unit.
the redundant work. Check the internal fuse of power
Page 69 of 157
Alarm
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
source unit.
Check the wires of the whole AC
power source circuit.
Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it.

The 24V power output from Inform to repair


power unit has problem. Measure the 24V power supply
The system could keep source of ther unit.
running, however, the If there is no 24V power supply,
problems have to been check the entire 24V wiring and
The FCB is solved as soon as possible, replace the power supply unit.
disconnect since the system cannot If there is 24V power supply,
143
from response the remote check whether the display function
outside. command. Only when the at the field suppression switch state.
FCB is opened can the Replace power supply unit.
system send out tripping note: This alarm will appear only
command. The trigger when the excitation system is
impulse of SCR cannot be activated and excitation power
interlocked or inverted. source appears.
Ask the maintenance personnel for
The DC input voltage of
maintenance.
power source unit has
Check the DC power source CB.
problem. The system could
Check the DC input voltage of
Auxiliary continue to operate,
power source.
DC power however, these problems
144 Check the internal fuse of power
source have to be solved
source.
fault immediately since the FCB
Check the wires of whole DC power
cannot activate and the
source circuit.
initial excitation cannot
Check the power source unit and
activate.
signal process element.
Check to see whether CB and fuse
Internal
The CB has been are normal.
initial
146 disconnected or the fuse Check the wires of alarm circuit.
excitation
melts. Ask the maintenance personnel to
interlocking
repair it.
The separated Rotor
Earthing Fault Relay 1
Rotor response. The system
Ask the maintenance personnel to
152 earthing could keep operating
repair it.
alarm continuously; however, the
problems have to been
solved immediately.
161 1EG.1 Rectifier 1 fault indication Check the ammeter indication on
gate of panel EG. 1.
Page 70 of 157
Alarm
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
Ask the maintenance personnel to
Rectifier 1
repair it.
Check the ammeter indication on
(EG.2)Rect gate of panel EG. 2.
162 Rectifier 2 fault indication
ifier 2 Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it.
Check the ammeter indication on
EG.3 gate of panel EG. 3.
163 Rectifier 3 fault indication
Rectifier 3 Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it.
Current
The auto current equalizing Ask the maintenance personnel to
179 equalizing
function is interrupted. repair it
fault
Ask the maintenance personnel to
The fuse of at least one rectifier branch repair it
180
SCR fault fuse melts. Check the current indication on the
gate of rectifier cabinet.
Check the cooling system
The measured temperature Check the temperature measuring
of rectifier reaches to the elements.
Rectifier
maximum rectifier If the ambient temperature is more
187 overheatin
temperature; the rectifier than the required maximum value,
g alarm
could keep operating reduce the excitation current.
continuously. Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it
check whether the fans are
overheated due to flow limitation.
Check whether bearings of fans are
Other cooling redundant
Rectifier normal.
margin has been lost; The
189 cooling Check whether the switch of motor
standby cooling fans have
alarm of fans are open due to overload or
been started.
mis-operation.
Ask the maintenance personnel to
repair it

(28) Typical faults and trouble of excitation system

Table 2-5 Typical faults and trouble of excitation system


Fault
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
2 Over current It is kind of quick short circuit Treat it as unit tripping.
activates protection. It can prevent internal Ask the maintenance
transiently short-circuit and power cabinet personnel to repair it.
Page 71 of 157
Fault
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
output short-circuit as well as
synchronous motor transient
activation.
OC2(excitati
This fault is caused by 0C1 alarm
on over Treat it as unit tripping.
and 106 switches into standby
current Ask the maintenance
3 channel and manual mode. The
section II personnel to find out the
switchover does not happen within
inverse reasons for activation.
3s.
tripping
The measured temperature is
higher than the set maximum Check the alarm 105.
Rectifier
temperature. Before that fault, the Check the temperature
temperature
4 alarm 105 has response. If the sensor.
exceeds
system has two channels, check Ask maintenance
limitation.
the channel switchover first if the personnel to repair it.
faults happen.
Since the channel faults 14 will
appear in advance, however, if it Treat it as unit tripping.
5 Loss-of-field does not switch into the second Ask the maintenance
tripping channel or standby controller EGC, personnel to repair it.
the excitation system will trip.
Before the faults, if the 103
alarm information does not
appear, that means the
faults may be caused by
Excitation The temperature of excitation
poor contact of
6 overheating transformer is higher than the
temperature sensor.
tripping maximum permissive value.
If both alarms activate, take
alarm 103 for reference.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair it.
If the fault and alarm
information do not trigger at
Rotor high the same time, find the
7 temperature faults and take alarm 104
alarm for reference.
Ask the maintenance
personnel for maintenance.
14 Channel lose The low excitation limiter cannot get Check the power source of
of field the excitation work in the set rectifier. If the power
limitation. The channel will switch source is normal, check to
into the standby channel or the see whether the rectifier is
standby control EGC. normal.
If the faults is caused by
external faults which get
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Fault
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
the generator terminal
voltage drop sharply, but
the excitation system does
not have faults, switch the
channel into the first
channel or restart the
system after tripping.
The excitation limiter may
activate too slowly or the
gain and its range are set
too low.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.

Check the power source


The voltage of power source of system of rectifier.
Rectifier loss
rectifier drops and it is less than the Check to see whether the
23 of power
voltage of voltage of synchronous LV side of excitation
source
generator for short time. transformer is short circuit.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.
Check to see whether it
has initial power source.
Within the maximum permissive
Check to see whether the
excitation period, the excitation
voltage of initial power
Initial system cannot get the voltage of
source meet the
28 excitation generator rise to required value.
requirement.
failure The record about this information of
Check to see whether the
channels is only for operating
FCB is closed; whether the
channel.
command of excitation is
effective.
Check the initial circuit and
initial contactor.
30 Excitation The voltage of power source of Check the input side of
over-voltage rectifier is more than 130% the rectifier to see whether its
limited values continuously for 10s. voltage is really more than
required value.
Check the indicated
measurement value to see
whether it is the same as
the input voltage of rectifier.
If not, check the setting

Page 73 of 157
Fault
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
values of parameters.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.
Check to see whether the
phase sequence of input
power source is the same
as the actual phase
sequence.
Excitation One branch of SCR bridge is Check the fuse of each
34
failure interrupted. branch.

Check to see whether the


CT, power source signal
interface, control panel are
normal.
The redundant rectifier is out of Find out the faults based
service totally and the excitation on the indicated faults and
Rectifier
43 system trips. The fault information alarm signal.
faults
appears earlier than rectifier alarm Ask the maintenance
information. personnel to repair.
If other setting is corrected,
it is may caused due to
V/Hz limiter cannot restrict the
narrow safety range or time
terminal voltage to set V/Hz limiting
delay range.
characteristic.
46 V/Hz faults PT faults.
Note: with manual mode, the V/Hz
Switch the system into
limiter is interlocked when
standby channel.
connecting the generator with grid.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.
Check to see whether it is
over-loaded protective
Excitation elements faults or short-
47 The rectifier circuit is broken.
channel faults circuit.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.
The main CB of generator trips,
Jumper
50 rectifier still provides the current to Replace the faulty SCR.
faults
faulty jumper.
52 Rotor The separated Rotor Earthing Fault Ask the maintenance
earthing Relay level device 2 responses, the personnel to repair it.
tripping measurement fails to work after Check the rotor earthing
Rotor Earthing Fault appears. fault relay.
Check the insulation
resistance of the secondary
side of excitation
Page 74 of 157
Fault
Indication Operator information Trouble removal
code
transformer and rotor.
The action aimed to rectifier
Check the cooling system.
overheating alarm 187 fails to work.
Rectifier Check the temperature
The temperature rises by at least
188 overheated measuring devices.
10K and the temperature is more
tripping Ask the maintenance
than the maximum temperature.
personnel to repair.
The rectifier is made out of service.
check to see whether the
overload is caused by flow
limitation.
Check to see whether the
bearing of fans have
The rectifier The cooling devices of rectifier fail
problems.
190 cooling to work.
Check to see whether the
tripping The rectifier is made out of service.
motor bearing is
overloaded or the motor is
activated wrongly.
Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair.

Page 75 of 157
SECTION TROUBLES REMOVAL OF GENERATOR

I. If the unit fails to work, the operators should eliminate the faults in
following procedures.
Check and determine the characteristic of faults; whether it is unit fault,
system fault or other equipment faults according to instrument indication, the
CRT and alarm window and the faults phenomenon. If it is the unit faults, carry
out trouble-removal as follows.
1. Eliminate the trouble which is a danger to operators and equipment as soon as
possible. Disconnect the generator with grid or stop the faulty equipment if
needed.
2. Determine the character, the location and range of fault. Report it to shift leader
and then eliminate it.
3. Ensure the normal operation of non-faulty unit and equipment.
4. Try to report the process of trouble-removal to shift leader and main operators.
Take measures to solve the problems immediately and correctly.
II. Over-loaded operation
(1) In the rated working condition, the winding of generator stator could works from a
stable temperature and operate for at least 1h, with 120% the rated current. The
stator winding could withstand following short-time over-current, without harmful
deformation .
Table 2-6 over current
Over-current period(s) 10 30 60 120

Rated stator current (%) 220 154 130 116

(2) In the rated working condition, the winding of generator stator could works from a
stable temperature and operate for at least 1h, with 120% the rated voltage. The
excitation winding could withstand following voltage transiently.

Table 2-7 over voltage


Over-voltage period (s) 10 30 60 120

Rated excitation voltage (%) 208 146 125 112

(3) Description of generator over load


1 Stator current is more than rated value.
2 DCS alarm window sends out Generator Overload alarm signal.
3 Temperature of each part of generator is high.
4 The definite time part of generator overload protection activates and reduces
the load while the inverse time part activates and trips
5 Trouble-removal
A. If the generator stator current is more than the normal permissive value,

Page 76 of 157
the operator on duty should check the generator power factor and
voltage. Meanwhile, monitor the overloading period and value. Write
down the relevant data carefully.
B. Within the permissive duration, if the system voltage is normal, reduce
the excitation current to reduce reactive power and to make sure the
current is within the normal range. However, the power factor should not
be more than 0.98(lagging) while the stator voltage should not be less
than 18KV.
C. If the generator voltage is less than 19KV, do not reduce reactive power.
Report it to shift leader to reduce generator active power.
D. Monitor the temperature change conditions of each part of generator. If
the stator/rotor winding temperature is a little higher than limit, restrict
the short time overloading times and duration properly.
E. If it is the generator forced excitation activates and causes the overload,
the operators should not disturb that within 10s. After 10s, switch the
regulator into manual and reduce the generator stator current.
F. If the generator symmetric overloading protection activates tripping, shut
down the unit.
III. G-T over-excitation
1. Description of G-T over-excitation
The DCS alarm display sends out G-T Over-excitation alarm signal.
When U/f 106, U/f definite time section activates and alarms.
When U/f108, if the time is more than 180s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f109, if the time is more than 90s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f110, if the time is more than 55s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f112, if the time is more than 30s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f115, if the time is more than 18s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f118, if the time is more than 10s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f120, if the time is more than 6s, the protection will activates and
trips.
When U/f125, if the time is more than 2s, the protection will activates and
trips.
2. Causes of G-T over-excitation
(1) Load is reduced suddenly.
(2) 100% load rejection and low frequency operation.
(3) During turbine rolling up, if the rotation speed is less than 2950rpm, carry out
generator excitation.
Page 77 of 157
3. Trouble removal
(1) Determine the alarm. Report it to shift leader and contact the maintenance
personnel.
(2) If it causes U/f out of range and when unit reduces load suddenly or when
unit 100% drops the load or unit operates with low frequency, regulate the
voltage to make sure that U/f is within the permissive range.
(3) After U/f protection activates and trips check the main transformer, generator
and HV auxiliary and excitation system. Make sure they work normally.
Raise the voltage from the zero and then connect the generator with the grid
after getting the permission from leader if needed.
(4) During turbine rolling up, if the rotation speed is less than 2950rpm, do not
close the FCB.
4 Generator three phase current unbalance
(1) Generator stator three phase current unbalance
If the three-phase load is dissymmetric, take the margin into consideration. If

I2
the I 2
*
is less than 10 %( I 2 is the negative sequence current
IN
component ,IN is the rated current.) And the current of each phase of
stator is less than the rated value, keep the operation continuously. If
*2
three phase currents are unbalance, make sure the I 2 t is less than
10s.
(2) Description of generator stator three phase current unbalance
1 When generator negative sequence current reaches to 10% the rated
current value, DCS alarm display will alarm.
2 Generator rotor temperature rises.
3 Unit vibration becomes more serious.
(3) Causes
1 Unit internal faults.
2 Auxiliary power system open phase operation
3 Excitation system AC side open phase operation
4 System fault
5 Generator outlet CT fault and measuring circuit fault.
(4) Trouble removal
1 Confirm the alarm, report it to shift leader and contact maintenance
personnel.
2 Check the G-T set thoroughly.
3 If the negative current is 10 the rated current and the stator
maximum current is less than the required value, continue to operate
the unit.
4 If the negative current is 10 the rated current value, report it to
dispatcher and reduce the generator reactive power load or active load
to reduce the negative current.
Page 78 of 157
5 When the negative sequence current reaches to 11.5% the rated
current, the inverse time section of negative current protection will
activate with certain time delay. The protection will disconnect the unit
with system and treat it as emergency shutdown.
6 If it is caused by unit internal faults, shut the unit down and de-excitate.
7 If it is caused by auxiliary power system open phase operation or
excitation system open phase operation, report it to dispatcher and take
relevant measures.
8 If it is because of system faults, report it to dispatcher and eliminate the
faults. Open the CB of open phase line to ensure the safe operation of
generator during the generator unbalance load operation permissive
operation moment.
9 When generator operates with unbalanced current, strength the monitor
and inspection of generator rotor temperature and unit vibration.
IV. Generator stator circuit single phase earthing fault
For generator whose rated stator voltage is 20KV, the permissive stator
earthing current is 1A. The setting values of the protection should be set
following this requirement. When the stator earthing protection alarms, transfer
the load immediately and arrange to shut down the unit.
1. Phenomenon
(1) DCS alarm display sends out Generator Stator Earthing signal and alarms.
(2) Check the generator stator voltage. The voltage of earthing phase will
decrease or drops to zero, the voltages of other two phases will increase. If
the voltage of earthing phase is zero, the voltages of other two phases will
increase to line voltage.
(3) The stator line voltage will not change.
2. Trouble removal
(1) Report it to shift leader and prepare to shut down the unit. Meanwhile,
contact maintenance personnel.
(2) If the protection activates and trips the generator, treat it as generator
emergency tripping.
(3) If the generator protection does not trip, check the parameters thoroughly. If
the indication values of neutral point current and phase voltage changes,
that means the generator stator is grounded. Disconnect the generator with
grid and shut down the unit immediately.
(4) If the protection does not trip the generator, however, generator leaks water,
oil or the generator leakage detector sends out alarm signal, disconnect the
generator with grid and shut it down.
(5) If it is the external part has earthing fault, arrange maintenance personnel to
eliminate the faults as soon as possible.
V. Breaking of Generator Voltage Circuit
1. Phenomenon
(1) TV Breaking signal may be sent at DCS alarm window, and Stator

Page 79 of 157
Grounding signal may appear (protection applied TV circuit).
(2) The index of stator voltage, active power and reactive power on DCS display
may be lowered down or return to zero (measurement applied TV circuit).
(3) Grounding signal may appear in case of blowing of TV high-voltage or low-
voltage fuse, or tripping of air switch at low-voltage side.
(4) Abnormal indications may appear for excitation regulator (AVR), and
corresponding AVR channels will automatically exit operation or exit standby.
(5) Excitation system may send signal of Generator TV Breaking.
(6) For phase voltage value indicated by stator voltage on DCS display, only
decreasing phase is shown, while no obvious increasing phase is found.
(7) Unbalanced stator line voltage (there is no obvious change for current at
neutral point, compared with normal value).
2. Handling
(1) Report to the monitor, and contact maintenance personnel.
(2) Strengthen the supervision of stator current, rotor current, rotor current and
rotor voltage of generator.
(3) Stable load shall be maintained as far as possible for turbine-boiler. CCS
may be relieved when necessary, and master of turbine-boiler may be
switched to manual status, oil fuel may be added, master command of
turbine-boiler may be manually adjusted to status before abnormal, and
supervision may be strengthened for steam temperature, steam pressure,
water feed flow and steam flow.
(4) Stop the function of breaking TV-related automatic devices and protection
(relieve combined-voltage block over-current, stator grounding, inverse
power, loss of field, and breaking protection clamper).
(5) Whatever blowing of fuse for transformer circuit (or tripping of air switch), its
time shall be recorded accurately, and readings of blowing of fuse (or
striping of air switch) or recovery shall be recorded immediately as far as
possible, which will be taken as basis for calculating energy losses.
(6) For the primary and secondary circuit breaking of regulator applied
transformer TV1 and TV2, the regulator will automatically be switched from
working channel to standby channel, and normal reactive output of
generator shall be supervised.
(7) Check whether there is blowing of TV secondary fuse, tripping of secondary
side air switch and breaking of secondary circuit.
(8) Take away fuse at TV low-voltage side (or trip the secondary side air switch),
take out TV, and check whether there is blowing of high-voltage fuse.
(9) If blowing happens for the secondary fuse, it should be replaced.
(10) In case of tripping of secondary side air switch, trial sending shall be
implemented. However, if tripping happens again, sending power is
forbidden, and air switch may be connected after inspection and elimination
of effects by maintenance personnel.
(11) In case of blowing out of primary fuse, inspection shall be made for TV, and
fuse may be replaced after inspection.
Page 80 of 157
(12) For connection and disconnection of TV, insulation tools shall be applied.
The operators shall wear insulation shoes and insulation gloves, and keep
safety distance.
(13) After all problems are solved, TV operation shall be re-implemented, the
abovementioned protection clamper shall be measured and used, and the
automatic devices stopped shall be re-used; after the recovery of stator
voltage, active power and reactive power for the unit, AGC operation is
implemented again, and fuel supply may be stopped according to detailed
condition. In case recovery is not realized, report shall be sent to the monitor
so as to shut down.
(14) After recovery, excitation mode shall be restored to normal operation mode
(the original operation of working channel, and tracing of standby channel),
and alarm signal shall be reset.
VI. Generator Rotor One-point Grounding
1. Phenomenon
(1) DCS alarm display will send alarm signal of Generator Rotor One-point
Grounding, and field control panel of excitation system will send rotor
grounding signal.
(2) Rotor circuit grounding detecting device activates.
(3) Inspect generator rotor voltage or rotor insulation monitor indicator, one
polarity-to-ground voltage is reduced or returned to zero, while the other
polarity-to-ground voltage is increased or changed as rotor voltage.
2. Reasons
(1) Failure of generator rotor winding
(2) Failure of excitation circuit
3. Handling
(1) Report to the monitor and contact maintenance personnel
(2) Strengthen the supervision of excitation system. In case rotor current is
increased while reactive capacity is reduced obviously, shutdown shall be
implemented immediately.
(3) In case of alarm of leakage indicator or hydroscope is sent along with one-
point grounding signal or water leakage and oil leakage of generator is
detected, shutdown shall be implemented immediately.
(4) In case losing step or loss of field happens for generator along with
grounding, shutdown shall be implemented immediately.
(5) Inspect grounding detecting device, further check insulation value of
insulation detecting device, switch positive & negative polarization-to-earth
voltage indications, and determine the earth electrode and grounding
condition.
(6) Implement thorough inspection of excitation system and check whether
there are obvious groundings. If the grounding is caused by ring slip or
contamination of excitation circuit, contact the maintenance personnel for air
blowing.
(7) Assist the maintenance personnel to determine failure point and its reasons.
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(8) For external grounding of rotor, maintenance personnel shall settle it.
(9) In case of stable metallic grounding inside of rotor, or grounding point
outside or rotor but shutdown is needed, report shall be sent to the monitor
so as shutdown may be implemented immediately.
(10) In case of stage II active tripping of rotor grounding protection, it should be
treated as emergency tripping. If the protection system rejects to act,
separation and de-excitation shall be implemented immediately for the
generator.
VII. Shortage between turns of generator rotor winding
1. Phenomenon
(1) The rotor current is increased significantly (increasing of more than 10%),
and temperature measurement indication of certain air cooling area may be
increased.
(2) The generator vibrates more seriously.
2. Handling
(1) In case the above phenomenon appears under the same load, it may be
concluded as short circuit between turns of rotors, and report must be sent
to the monitor immediately, so as to reduce load, and limit the vibration or
current of rotor to the range accepted. Shutdown, inspection and settlement
must be down immediately.
(2) In case of excitation overload protection activity, overall shutdown shall be
implemented.
VIII. Field loss of generator
1. Phenomenon
(1) In case of field loss of generator, field loss protection activates, system
separation and de-excitation is implemented, and DCS alarm display will
send signals of generation and transformation unit protection activates and
field loss of generator, and signals of step losing, failure of excitation
system, generator TV disconnecting, and low excitation limiter activates
may be sent out.
(2) After field loss of generator, in case field loss protection is not applied or
rejects to work, asynchronous operation will happen for the generator, with
the main phenomenon as follows:
1 Negative indications of generator reactive power, and leading phase of
power factor indications
2 Indications of generator active power are reduced, and swing appears.
3 Relatively small decreasing of generator stator voltage
4 Generator stator current is greatly increased, and periodical swing
appears. If there is relatively large active load at this time, the stator
suffers serious overload.
5 The rotor current indication is equal or close to zero. When rotor circuit
is not disconnected, rotor current swings from zero towards the both
sides.

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6 Generator rotor voltage witnesses periodical swing.
7 The generator speed exceeds the synchronous speed.
8 The force excitation of adjacent unit may activate.
2. Causes
(1) Bus bar, winding, carbon brush and slip ring of excitation circuit faults
(2) AVR faults.
(3) FCB Q02 disconnects wrongly.
(4) Operators or maintenance personnel mis-operation.
(5) Rectifier failure.
(6) Excitation transformer faults.
(7) Secondary circuit faults and mis-activation.
3. Trouble removal
(1) Report it to shift leader and contact the maintenance personnel.
(2) If the generator lose-of-field protection activates and unit trips, treat it as
generator tripping. Check the excitation circuit at the same time.
(3) If the generator loss-of-field protection is out in service or does not activate,
disconnect the generator with the grid immediately and check to see
whether the standby power sources of auxiliary power system is put into
operation automatically. If not, activate it manually after make sure the
working CB is in disconnection position.
(4) When generator loses the field, the AVR of adjacent unit should operate in
automatic mode. Meanwhile, it is allowed to operate the generator and main
transformer in short-time emergent overloaded mode.
(5) Cooperate with the maintenance personnel to find out the reasons of the
faults and eliminate the faults. After that, connect the generator with the grid
when getting the command from the dispatcher.
(6) After carrying out relevant testing and getting the permission from the
dispatching department, production vice manager and chief engineer, take
necessary measures and execute generator asynchronous operation for
short time. Then, take following measures.
1 If there is no system oscillation and serious equipment faults, switch
AVR automatic mode into manual mode and then recover excitation.
2 The operators of boiler and turbine parts should reduce load
significantly. After the generator losing field, reduce the loads to 0.6pu
within 30s. Reduce the loads to 0.3pu within 90s. The stator and rotor
currents should not be more than 1.0 and 1.1pu. The permissive
operation time (loss of field) should not be more than 15min.
3 After switching AVR into manual mode but the excitation cannot be
recovers, or if the system oscillation/equipment faults happen or
excitation cannot be recovered with 15min, disconnect the generator
with the grid immediately.
IX. Generator inverse power operation
1. Description
(1) The generator reactive power is negative and the generator operates as the
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synchronous motor.
(2) The generator main steam stop valve or regulating valve fully-close signal is
sent.
(3) The generator reactive power indication increases while the stator current
indication decreases.
(4) The temperature of turbine exhaust steam increases.
(5) The stator voltage, rotor voltage and rotor current are normal.
(6) System frequency may reduce slightly.
(7) Inverse power activation and program inverse power activation signals are
sent out.
2. Trouble removal
(1) Confirm the alarm and report it to shift leader.
(2) If it is generator inverse power fault, the protection will activate and
disconnect the generator with grid. Treat it as unit shut down.
(3) If the protective devices refuse to activate, check to make sure the main
steam stop valve is closed fully and the generator reactive power is
negative. Then, disconnect the generator with the grid and carry out
deexcitation. The permissive inverse power operation duration should be
less than 1min.
(4) Activate program tripping protection. After main steam stop valve is closed, if
the generator active power indication is still positive do not disconnect the
generator. Take measures to cut off steam source. After the power indication
becomes the negative value, disconnect the generator the carry out
deexitation.
X. Generator open-phase operation
1. Description
(1) During generator open-phase operation, the stator three phase currents are
unbalance. The current difference and vibration are serious.
(2) During CB open-phase operation, the G-T open-phase protection activates,
the generator negative phase current protection activates. The protection
sends out 150KV CB three phase positions different and 150KV circuit
breaker faults alarming signal. The circuit breaker protection may trip.
(3) Negative sequence current indication increases.
(4) Neutral point has zero sequence current.
(5) Active power drops.
(6) The rotor temperature increases quickly while the generator outlet air
temperature increases.
2. Causes
(1) G-T outlet main CB control circuit has problems and open-phase
opening/closing happen.
(2) The mechanism of G-T outlet main CB has problems and open-phase
opening/closing happens.
(3) One phase or two phases of G-T circuit are open.
(4) Generator internal single phase is open.
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3. Trouble removal
(1) Report it to shift leader and contact maintenance personnel.
(2) If the generator open-phase protection and negative sequence current
protection activate and the protection trip main CB, treat it as unit shutdown.
(3) If the main CB fails to open, start CB failure protection. Treat it as unit
shutdown.
(4) If the protection refuses to activate, solve the problems in following principle.
1 Open the main CB manually. If it fails to open, decrease the active
power and switch AVR from auto mode into manual mode. Adjust the
excitation current to make sure it closes to no-load rated value quickly to
decrease reactive power to minimum the unbalanced current of
generator stator. At this moment, do not shut down the turbine. Keep
FCB closed. Ensure the generator rotation speed is the rated value.
2 Since the main steam stop valve is closed due to certain reasons and
the rotation speed decreases, apply to shift leader for opening the
adjacent CB of open-phase operating CB to isolate the faulty CB.
3 Monitor the generator stator current closely and regulate the excitation
according to the current indication to make sure the three phase stator
current are close to zero.
4 Apply to shift leader for opening main CB once manually at site.
5 If the main CB cannot be disconnected manually at site, take measures
to eliminate or isolate the faults. If the problems cannot be solved
temporally, apply to shift leader and dispatcher for opening the adjacent
CB of open-phase operating CB to isolate the faulty CB.
6 Press the G-T emergency tripping button on the operation panel in CCR
to de-excite and close the main SSV.
7 If the protection does not activate or the open phase operation exceeds
the generator negative sequence current permissive range, check the
unit thoroughly to make sure everything is normal before restart up, with
the permission from production vice manager or chief engineer.
8 If the open-phase protection activates and trips, check it thoroughly and
quickly to determine the characteristic of fault. Ask the maintenance
personnel to repair it.
XI. Generator catches fires and hydrogen system explodes
1. Description
(1) Hydrogen leaking points has slight explosion sound and naked flame.
(2) If the internal part of generator has naked flame, the explosion sound is
strong. The two terminals smoke. There is insulation burnt odor.
(3) The purity of hydrogen decreases. If the explosion hydrogen pressure is
great, the safety valve, even the instruments and meters may be damaged.
(4) The temperature of generator iron core and winding increase sharply.
(5) The stator cooling water outlet temperature increases.
(6) The generator outlet air temperature increases.
(7) The generator insulation monitoring device alarms.
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2. Causes
(1) The generator leaks hydrogen and there is naked flames.
(2) The generator internal purity decreases and the oxygen content exceed the
explosion limitation. At the same time, the mechanical parts rub and spark or
the internal parts of generator discharge partially and it reaches the
hydrogen self ignition temperature.
(3) Trouble removal
1 Shut down the unit emergently and carry out de-excitation. Close the
main steam stop valve and report it to shift leader.
2 If the faults are found at site, the operators should latch and shut down
the unit. Report it to operator on duty in CCS and the shift leader. Inform
the fire fighting department.
3 Check to make sure the 150KV CB, FCB and CB of incoming line of
working power source of working section of 6KV auxiliary power trip; the
disconnectors of 150KV CB are disconnected.
4 Cut off the hydrogen source. Stop charging the hydrogen to generator.
Open the hydrogen exhaust valve to discharge the hydrogen to outside
of plant. Meanwhile, use CO2 to put off fire.
5 Maintain the normal operation of generator sealing oil system before
discharging the entire hydrogen in the generator. Monitor and regulate
the oil and hydrogen pressure difference.
6 Maintain the normal operation of stator cooling water system and
cooling water system of hydrogen coolers till the fires are put off. If the
temperature of each part of generator rises rapidly, check to see
whether the cooling water system of generator operates normally. Try
best to reduce the temperature of each part of the generator.
7 During the fire fighting, the rotor will be bent since one side is
overheated. Do not stop the generator rotor totally till the fire is off.
8 If the hydrogen system leaks, try best to isolate it. Do not use open fire
near the leakage point. Try to avoid friction and knocking. It is better to
use operation tools like copper valve hook and copper spanner.
9 If the external parts of generator or the area which is near to generator
catches fires, use 1211, CCL4 or CO2to put off the fire. Do not use foam
fire extinguisher to put off the fire.
10 Activate turning gear as soon as possible after the generator rotor is
stable. Then, shoot the trouble according to shift leaders command.
XII. G-T asynchronous synchronization
1. Description
(1) Generator and system surge. The indications of generator active power,
reactive power and current swing seriously. The generator sound is very
great.
(2) The generator vibrates.
(3) The generator out of step protection may activate.
2. Cause
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(1) The synchronous conditions are not met.
(2) The synchronous circuit has problems.
3. Trouble removal
(1) Report it to shift leader and contact the maintenance personnel.
(2) If the generator out of step protection trips, treat it as unit shut down.
(3) If the generator does not have strong and severe noise and vibration and the
parameters oscillation amplitude damp, the unit can not been shut down.
However, it is necessary to inform the maintenance personnel of that and
determine the reason for the generator asynchronous synchronization.
Additionally, check the G-T thoroughly.
(4) If the generator surge and vibration severely while the indications swing
seriously and the parameters oscillation amplitude do not damp, disconnect
the generator with the grid and shut down the generator immediately.
(5) If the generator without field is connected with the grid wrongly, disconnect it
with the grid immediately.
(6) If the generator is connected with the grid asynchronously, the operators
should work with maintenance personnel together to find out the reasons for
asynchronous synchronization. Additionally, the maintenance personnel
should check the G-T thoroughly and measure the generator rotor AC
impedance.
(7) Check to make sure the G-T is abnormal and all the faults are eliminated
before restart up. The generator synchronization should be carried out with
permission from production vice manager or chief engineer. Before re-
synchronization, raise the generator voltage from zero. Check to make sure
everything is normal.
XIII. G-T protection activates and trips
1. Description
(1) DCS sends out Protection Activates and 150KV CB Trips signals.
(2) The 150KV CB, FCB and the CB of working power source of auxiliary power
system trip.
(3) The entire generator parameters are zero.
(4) The main steam stop valve closes and the boiler MFT.
2. Trouble removal
(1) Check to see whether the standby power source of auxiliary power system is
activated automatically or not. Ensure the normal operation of auxiliary
power source.
(2) Report it to shift leader and contact the maintenance personnel. Ask the shift
leader to see whether the grid has problems or not.
(3) Check the activation of protection. Make records and arrange the relay
operators to check and reset the signal. Find out the reasons for tripping.
(4) If it is caused by external faults, isolate the faulty point and check it
thoroughly. If everything is right, connect the generator with the grid.
(5) If it is caused by internal faults, check the following items.
1 Check the entire equipment thoroughly within the G-T protection range.
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2 Check to see whether the G-T has burnt odor and other serious fault.
3 If the external parts of generator are normal, measure the insulation
resistance of generator stator and rotor to see whether the insulation
resistance and the temperature of each measuring points are normal.
4 If the inspection and measurement listed above are normal and the
generator voltage increasing testing (from zero) is good, connect the
generator with the grid with the approval.
XIV. Generator temperature abnormal
1. Description
(1) The generator temperature logger alarms and the DCS alarm sends out
Generator Temperature Abnormal alarm.
DCS displays that the stator winding temperature and iron core temperature
are abnormal.
DCS displays that the generator stator cooling water temperature are
abnormal.
DCS displays that the generator cold and hot hydrogen temperatures are
abnormal.
DCS displays that the generator slip ring hot air temperature are abnormal.
(2) Trouble removal
1 Confirm the alarm and report it to shift leader.
2 Arrange the I &C operators to check the temperature measuring devices
and elements. Arrange the electric personnel to check the generator
and its auxiliary equipment.
3 Check the relevant DSC display. Strength the monitor of generator
working condition. Pay special attention to alarm frequency.
4 Check to see whether the three phase currents of generator exceed
permissive values; whether the unbalance degree exceeds permissive
values.
5 Check to see whether the generator three phase voltages are balance
or not; whether the power factor is within the normal range; control the
power factor within 0.9 to 0.98 (lagging phase).
6 Check to see whether the cooling system of stator works normally or
not. Adjust it if needed.
7 Check the pressure of generator hydrogen; if it is less than the normal
range, find out reasons and recharge the hydrogen.
8 Check the hydrogen cooler system to see whether the cooling water
flow is normal or not. If the cooling efficiency is low, check to see
whether the coolers are blocked or not. If the cold hydrogen automatic
regulation fails to work, regulate it manually.
9 If the generator cold and hot hydrogen temperature increases seriously,
check to see whether it is because of iron core lamination partial short
circuit, report it to shift leader and apply for unit shutdown.
10 Check to see whether the generator insulation overheating monitor
alarms or not.
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11 If the temperature of certain point of stator winding increases suddenly,
check the temperature measuring devices and temperature measuring
devices, etc. If the temperature decreases seriously along with load
current decrease, check to see whether the stator winding water loop is
blocked or not. At this moment, monitor the temperature closely to make
sure it is less than the normal operating values. If the temperature rise is
caused by water loop blocking, report it to shift leader and apply for unit
shut down.
12 Check to see whether it is temperature measuring elements faults.
Operators could do following work with the I &C operators with the shift
leaders permission.
A. Reduce the generator reactive load properly, however, the power
factor should not be more than 0.98 (lagging) and the voltage should
not be less than 19KV.
B. Reduce the generator load properly and get it stably. Check the load
changing condition. If the temperature measuring element is still
abnormal with different load working condition, which means the
thermal coupler or the resistance may be damaged.
13 If the measures above fails to work or if the reasons of fault cannot be
found, report it to shift leader and reduce the active power to lower the
temperature and temperature difference. Arrange the maintenance
personnel to check it. If it is generator internal faults, report it to shift
leader and apply for unit shut down.
14 If the following fault happens, shut down the unit emergently and report
it to shift leader. Meanwhile, contact maintenance personnel.
A. The temperature of any one interlayer temperature measuring
element inside of generator stator slot is more than 90 or the
outlet water temperature is more than 85 and the temperature
measuring element are normal.
B. The temperature difference of stator winding reaches to 14 or the
temperature difference of outlet water is 12 and the temperature
measuring elements do not have problems.
C. The temperature of any one stator iron core temperature measuring
element is more than 120 and the temperature measuring
elements are normal.
XV.If generator temperature changes suddenly or becomes unstable or
increases continuously, monitor it closely and analyze it
comprehensively. Apply for disconnecting generator and grid as
soon as possible for further inspection.
XVI. Generator stator winding bar or water guiding pipes leakage
1. Description
(1) The pressure of cooling water of stator winding bar increases.
(2) The hydrogen leakage amount and the hydrogen recharging amount
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increase while the hydrogen pressure decreases.
(3) The pressure of stator cooling water tank increases.
2. Trouble removal
(1) Take samples from generator blow down valve for testing to see whether the
stator cooling water leaks.
(2) Check to see whether the stator cooling water pressure increase is caused
by stator winding bar leakage or water guiding pipes leakage.
(3) If the stator winding bar or water guiding pipes leak water, apply for unit
shutdown.

Page 90 of 157
CHARPTER TRANSFORMER OPERATION

SECTION THE WORKING PRINCIPLE AND GENERAL OPERATION


REQUIREMENT

I. The working principle of transformer is based on electromagnetic


induction principle. The transformer has two groups of winding, the
primary winding and secondary winding. The secondary winding
wraps out of primary winding. When the primary winding carries AC,
the transformer iron core will produces alternating field and the
secondary winding will produces inductive electromotive force. The
ratio of transformer turns is equal to ratio of voltage.
II. Ideal transformer
Primary winding: N1, turns; E1, phasor of electromotive force; U1, phasor of
voltage; I1, phasor of current
Secondary winding: N2, turns; E2, phasor of electromotive force; U2, phasor of
voltage; I2, phasor of current
N1N2U1U2 U1U2I2I1
1. General description of transformer
(1) The transformer should be operated according to the specification on the
nameplate with required cooling condition.
(2) General description of upper layer oil temperature of oil immersed
transformer
Table 3-1 General description of upper layer oil temperature of oil immersed
transformer
Maximum
Oil temperature of Oil temperature rise
Cooling mode temperature of
upper layer of upper layer
cooling medium
Natural circulation
air cooling and self 40 95 55
cooling
Forced oil
circulation air 40 85 55
cooling

2. The temperature of HV and LV windings of dry type transformer should not be


more than 100.
3. The external primary voltage supplied for step up transformer and step down
transformer could be more than rated voltage value. However, it should not
exceed 105% the rated value.
No matter where the tap changer is, if the primary voltage is less than the 105%
the rated value of tap changer, the secondary side of the transformer should
carry rated current.
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4. If the tap changer of transformer (without AVR) is changed within 5% the rated
voltage, its rated capacity is not change. If the operation voltage changing rate of
HV standby transformer (with OLTC) varies within -6% the rated voltage to +12%
the rated voltage, the rated capacity is not change.
5. The coolers of the forced oil circulation air cooling transformer have to been
activated during operation. Normally, one group works as auxiliary cooler while
one group works as standby cooler. The rest of the coolers are put into
operation.
6. Try to reduce the switchover frequency of on load tap changer. Generally, it is
only allowed to switch it at the eve of load peak and load valley. As for HV
standby transformer, it could be switched when the voltage is low after the
auxiliary power system is activated automatically.
7. As for LV auxiliary transformer whose neutral line is grounded, make sure the
current of neutral line is less than the 25% the rated current of LV winding
8. Put both the transformer heavy gas relay protection and heavy gas relay of
OLTC at the Trip position. Switch it at the signal position before starting following
operation.
(1) Calibrate the gas relay protection during operation and work done to
secondary circuit.
(2) Filter, recharge or discharge oil during operation; replace silica gel during
operation; clear out the breather and replace thermo-syphon purifying agent
during operation.
(3) Exhaust air, discharge oil and clear the eyelet of breather when carrying out
trouble removal for oil level indicator high indication.
(4) Other work which may cause heavy gas relay trip wrongly;
9. Do not get the entire protection of transformer out of service at the same time.

Page 92 of 157
SECTION TRANSFORMER OPERATION IN PARALLEL

I. Conditions for operating transformers in parallel


1. Same winding vector group
2. Same voltage ratio
3. Same short-circuit impedance

Page 93 of 157
SECTION TRANSFORMER PERMISSIVE OVERLOAD

The transformer could operate in normal overloaded m and emergent


overloaded condition. It could operate in normal overloaded condition frequently. Its
permissive values are determined in accordance with the transformer load curve,
temperature of cooling medium and the transformer load prior to overloaded period.
The emergent overloaded mode can only be used in emergent condition. If the
transformer has severe defects, do not let it operate in overloaded mode.
24 hours average load rate
The daily load rate should be less than 1.0
rated capacity

For oil immersed transformer, if the temperature of cooling mediate is less than
the rated value, it could operate in normal overloaded mode which is higher than
rated value for short time. However, the upper layer oil temperature should not be
more than limitation.
1. The relationship between overloaded multiples and permissive time

Table 3-2 overloaded multiples and permissive time


Overloaded The permissive overloaded duration( when temperature rise of upper
multiple layer oil prior to overloaded period are following values)
18 24 30 36 42 48 54

1.0 Operate continuously

1.05 5:50 5:25 4:50 4:00 3:00 1:30

1.10 3:50 3:25 2:50 2:10 1:25 0:10

1.15 2:50 2:25 1:50 1:20 0:35

1.20 2:50 1:40 1:15 0:45

1.25 1:50 1:15 0:50 0:25

1.30 1:10 0:50 0:30

1.35 0:55 0:35 0:15

1.40 0:40 0:25

1.45 0:25 0:10

1.50 0:15

2. The normal overloaded capacity and emergent overloaded capacity of dry type
transformer
Table 3-3

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Over-current multiple 1.2 1.3 1.45 1.6 1.75 2
Permissive operation
time 60 45 24 5 3 1
(Minutes)

3. Start all the coolers when transformer operates in normal overloaded condition
and emergent overloaded condition. Strengthen the inspection to the upper oil
temperature of transformer and transformer body. Record the overloaded
multiple and time.

Page 95 of 157
SECTION COOLING APPARATUS OF TRANSFORMER

I. Operation Mode of Cooling Apparatus


1. Cooling Apparatus and Its Load

Table 3-4 Cooling Apparatus and Its Load


Load Factor
0-50% 50-75% 75-100%
(S/Se)
Load (MVA) 0-180 180-270 270-360
Operating
2 3 5
Cooler (unit)
Standby Cooler
3 2 1
(unit)
Auxiliary Cooler
1 1
(unit)

(1) Generally the cooler is applied at 75-100%Se, which is not modified in case
of decreasing of load for short period.
(2) If the fan stops running while only submerged oil pump is running, the
transformer may be operated on the basis that the oil surface temperature
increasing shall not exceed 55.
(3) In case the thermometers of the upper layer show difference of larger than
5, reasons shall be found. Check whether the temperature difference is
caused by asymmetric allocation of cooler or insufficient opening of system
valve, and reduce the temperature difference immediately.
(4) When the cooler is not activated, load operation is forbidden for the
transformer, and empty running is also forbidden.
(5) When all cooling apparatus exit operation, the transformer may be allowed
to continue operation under rated load for Max. 10 minutes. If the oil
temperature of the top layer hasnt reached 75 after 10 minutes, its
allowed to operate until 75. However, the maximum operation time shall
not exceed 1 hour after disconnecting all coolers.
(6) The transformer with natural circulation air cooling apparatus has the
operation mode as follows:
1 The air blowing device shall be activated when the oil temperature
of the upper layer is not less than 50.
Table 3-5 air temperature and the operation time

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Air Temperature -10 0 10 20 30 40
()
Time Allowed (hr) 40 16 10 5 3 0.2

2 When the plant high-voltage transformer fan exits operation, the load
acceptable may be 2/3 of the rated capacity.
3 When the high-voltage standby fan exits operation, the load acceptable
may be 4/5 of the rated capacity.
4 When the plant high-voltage transformer fan and high-voltage standby
fan exit operation, operation time with rated load shall not exceed the
following limit:
(7) The cooler for transformer shall be applied before the transformer delivers the
current, and shall be stopped 15 minutes after de-energizing of transformer.
(8) The dry type transformer fan has two modes of startup and shutdown: automatic
and manual. Under automatic mode, the fan will be started up when winding
temperature is higher than 110, which will be stopped when winding
temperature is lower than 90. When winding temperature is higher than 155
and the core temperature is higher than 140, over-temperature alarm signal
will be sent out, and over-temperature tripping will happen when winding
temperature reaches 170. At present, manual mode is applied for the fan.

Page 97 of 157
SECTION NORMAL OPERATION AND INSPECTION OF
TRANSFORMER

I. Preparation before Operation


1. Before operation of transformer, all working permits shall be summarized. Notice
of Operation Approved shall be available for equipment after maintenance.
Grounding line and short circuit line shall be dismantled, fixed safety appliances
shall be restored, and the circuit shall be complete and in accordance with the
operation condition.
2. The following inspection shall be implemented for transformer before operation:
(1) The protection apparatus shall be complete, and the protection clamper shall
be put at correct position.
(2) The oil level and oil color are normal for conserver and sleeve of transformer
and load current voltage regulating tap changer, and there is no oil leakage.
(3) The oil level indication is normal for oil-filled sleeve, the grounding is proper
for small pipe at elevated seat of capacitance bushing, the bushing shall be
clean and without cracking or discharging mark, and the bushing grounding
shall be held down and without any loosening.
(4) The transformer box shall be properly grounded, and grounding line of load
current tap changer shall be connected to the oil tank.
(5) The explosion door or pressure relief valve shall be in proper condition (if
there are other valves, they should be opened), actuation projection is
forbidden (in case of projection, reset and records shall be made). If the
explosion door has position indication signal, the red lamp should be off, and
the green lamp should be on.
(6) There are no dirty or tools forgotten on the cover and in the area around.
(7) The three-phase position indications of the load current tap changer shall be
the same. The regulating device of load current tap changer shall be
complete and proper. The electric motor and tap changer position indications
shall be the same, and the oil surface of gear box in electric motor
mechanism shall be normal.
(8) Valves at one side or both sides of gas actuated relay (including load current
voltage regulating tap changer gas relay), radiator, and oil reclaimer, and oil
inlet & outlet valves towards cooling apparatus shall be opened. The gas
actuated relay and load current voltage regulating tap changer gas relay
shall be filled with oil and without activation signal.
(9) The cooling apparatus or forced ventilation device for transformer shall be
proper, the automatic activation of power supply shall be normal, and there
should be no oil leakage.
(10) The transformer shall have proper direct grounding of neutral point.
(11) The thermometer shall be proper.
(12) For indoor transformer, the door and windows shall be kept closed, the light
illumination shall be enough, the ground shall be clean, and leakage is

Page 98 of 157
forbidden for the roof.
(13) Check whether the secondary circuit equipments (control, instrument,
protection devices, etc) are proper.
(14) Check the switches, disconnector, cables, etc according to related
specifications.
(15) For dry type transformer, it should be clean, without ash deposit or loose
joints/fasteners.
II. Normal Operation of Transformer
1. General Operation Principles
(1) For charging of transformer, switch at high-voltage (or power supply) side
shall be connected firstly, and then switch at low-voltage (or load) side shall
be connected (for shutdown, the disconnecting sequence is on the contrary).
(2) For connecting or disconnecting of transformer, switch must be applied. If
there is not switch, disconnector may be used to disconnect transformer with
no-load current not exceeding 2A. However, for our plant, its forbidden to
disconnect any no-load transformer with disconnector.
(3) The transformer for long-term standby shall be charged regularly.
(4) For newly installed transformer or that after overhaul of coil replacing, before
operation, it shall receive full-voltage attacks for five times (newly installed
transformer) or three times (after overhaul of coil replacing). If applicable,
generator shall be used for boosting from zero.
(5) Before boosting and synchronization or connecting and charging of main
transformer, the neutral point grounding disconnector at high-voltage side
shall be closed and grounded. After connecting of transformer to the grid,
the operation mode of neutral point grounding disconnector is determined by
operation arrangement.
(6) For transformer without excitation regulator, after adjustment of tap changer,
it can be operated with notice from test personnel for qualified resistance to
direct current. Otherwise, it may be operated after approval by the chief
engineer.
(7) For current load tap changer, remote control is generally applied, and local
operation may be used only when remote control fails. After operation, go to
site and check the transformer body to make sure the positions of three
phases are the same.
(8) For main transformer of 220KV level, before normal connecting or
disconnecting, neutral point ground disconnector at high voltage side shall
be closed, with accident condition as exception. When people change
transformers neutral point grounding disconnectors, neutral point ground
disconnector of non-grounding transformer shall be closed first, and then
neutral point grounding disconnector of original grounding transformer shall
be disconnected.
III. Inspection in Operation
1. The inspection of transformers in operation and standby transformer and their

Page 99 of 157
system shall be implemented regularly according to patrol inspection system.
Special patrol inspection of transformer and more inspection shall be made for
the following condition:
(1) Within 72 hours since newly applied, repair or reconstruction of transformer;
(2) Serious defects of transformer;
(3) Significant climate changes (such as strong wind, dense fog, heavy snow,
hail stone, cold wave, etc);
(4) Thunderstorm season, especially after thunder;
(5) High temperature season, peak load period, etc;
(6) Overload operation of transformer.
2. The personnel on duty shall monitor the operation of transformer through control
panel, and make records of oil temperature once each hour for main transformer,
high-voltage auxiliary transformer and high-voltage standby transformer. Oil
temperature of high-voltage auxiliary transformer shall be recorded during patrol
inspection. And records shall be made once each half an hour during normal or
accidental overload period.
3. Normal Inspection of Transformer
(1) Liquid-immersed Transformer
1 The liquid level and color for oil conservator of transformer shall be
normal, and there should be no oil leakage of main body of transformer.
2 There should be no damages, cracking or discharge marks on porcelain
insulator of bushing, and liquid level shall be normal for oil-filled
bushing.
3 Heating is not supposed to happen for joints of leading wires, cables
and bus bars.
4 No serious color changing shall happen for the drying agent, and the
dryer shall operate properly.
5 The noise of transformer shall be normal, there is no strange noise, and
no vibration shall happen for the main body and accessories.
6 The local thermometer of transformer shall have normal indications at
both sides.
7 There should be no sweat or moisture in load voltage-regulating
mechanism box, which condition shall be normal.
8 The temperatures of all coolers shall be similar, according to hand
touch. The fan, oil pump, and oil flow relay shall operate properly. There
should be no overheating or abnormal condition within the power supply
control box. The switches shall be at correct positions. And there should
be no alarm signals.
9 The breather shall be complete, and the color of silicone gel shall be
normal.
10 The grounding iron and iron-cored small bushing of transformer shall be
grounded properly, and oil pit shall be clean.
11 The gas-actuated relay shall be without any gas (filled with oil), and
valves (if applicable) at both side of which shall be open (during
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operation of plant auxiliary transformer, the abovementioned inspections
shall be made, which shall be made only after maintenance for main
transformer and plant high-voltage transformer).
12 Coolers shall be allocated equally.
13 The door, window and light illumination of transformer cabin shall be
proper, leakage is forbidden for the roof, and the temperature shall be
normal.
(2) Dry-type Transformer
1 No strange noise, odor, color change or abnormal vibration shall
happen.
2 Check whether there are loose fastening pieces or connecting pieces,
whether there are rust or erosion, and whether there are creeping or
carbide on the insulation surface.
3 The main body of transformer shall be clean and without ash deposit.
4 The temperature shall be normal, and the temperature control device
shall be proper.
5 There should be no water leakage around the transformer, and its outer
appearance shall be clean and perfect.
6 The front and rear doors of transformer shall be closed.
7 The cooling fan shall operate normally.
4. Special Inspection of Transformer
(1) When there is strong wind, check and confirm that there are no messes
around the transformer that may be blown up. The leading-out shall not
swing seriously or be loose.
(2) During heavy snow, check whether there is overheating according to
steaming or snow melting at joint of transformer.
(3) When the temperature changes suddenly, inspect oil level of transformer
and temperature of cooling system.
(4) After heavy frog, hail stone or thunder storm, check whether there is serious
discharging, cracking or burning marks on the transformer.
(5) Overload operation of transformer

Page 101 of 157


SECTION ABNORMAL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMER AND
ACCIDENT HANDLING

I. Abnormal Operation of Transformer and Accident Handling


1. In case of one of the following conditions, the transformer shall be shutdown, and
be substituted by standby transformer if applicable.
(1) Large and un-uniform noise inside the transformer, and sound of bursting
(2) Under normal cooling condition, the transformer temperature is abnormal
and continuously increases to values unacceptable.
(3) The oil conservator or anti-explosion pipe ejects oil.
(4) Oil level is lower than limit of level indicator due to oil leakage.
(5) The color of oil changes seriously and the oil has carbon matters.
(6) The bushing is damaged severely and it discharges.
(7) The transformer smokes and catches fire.
2. During transformer operation, if the oil temperature exceeds the permissive
value, try to find out the reasons and take measures to reduce the temperature.
(1) Check the transformer loads and the temperature of cooling medium. Adjust
the oil temperature to the required value
(2) Check the indication temperature of CRT in central control room and the
temperature of local thermometer to see whether they are normal.
(3) Check to see whether the cooling devices work normal; whether the standby
coolers are in operation; if the coolers are not activated, start that manually.
(4) Regulate the output to make sure the transformer temperature does not
exceed the permissive values.
3. Pressure release device activation
(1) Check whether it ejects oil violently after the release board is damaged.
(2) Check whether the oil catches fire. If it is on fire, treat it as transformer
catches fire and carry out the trouble removal.
(3) If it is the transformer internal part fault which causes the pressure release
valve activates, treat it as emergency and take measures to solve it.
(4) Check whether the pressure release device can reset automatically.
4. Trouble removal of transformer low oil level
If the transformer oil level is lower than the required oil level which is relevant to
the current temperature seriously, ask the maintenance personnel to recharge
oil. When feeding oil, switch the gas relay protection to signal. If the oil leaks
severely and the oil level drops quickly, do not switch the gas relay protection
into signal. At this moment, contact the maintenance personnel to take measures
to stop oil leaking. Feed oil to transformer. The operators should prepare to solve
emergency tripping.
5. Trouble removal of transformer catches fire
When transformer is on fire, cut off the power source at each side. Contact the
fire department and put standby transformer into operation. Stop coolers and
take measures to put off fires.

Page 102 of 157


6. Trouble removal of transformer gas relay activation
(1) If the signals of transformer gas relay protective devices activate, check the
transformer thoroughly. Find out the reasons of gas relay activation.
Whether it is air enters into transformer or oil lever drops or secondary circuit
has faults.
If the external parts of transformer are normal, exhaust partial gas for
testing. Carry out the chromatographic analysis or check the flash point of
oil. Compare the new flash point with the previous one. If the new flash point
decreases for more than 5, that means the transformer has problems.
Shut down the transformer.
Additionally, pay special attention to the interval of gas relay signal. If the
internal shorten, it means the transformer may trip. Do not stop the gas relay
protection or switch it into signal position at this moment. Report it to
leaders.
(2) If it is flammable gas causes the protective devices activate and trip, do not
put the transformer into operation unit it passes the testing and inspection.
(3) Following reasons may cause the gas relay protective device activate but
not trip CB.
1 The oil filtering system, oil charging system or cooling system are not
tight, which may allow air enters into transformer.
2 Temperature drops or oil leaks, which lower the oil level.
3 The transformer has problems, which will produce little gas.
4 The breather is blocked, which will form negative pressure.
5 Short circuit
6 Secondary circuit activates wrongly.
After gas relay contacts activating, check the oil level of oil conservator,
the temperature of transformer; check to see whether the internal part
has oil explosion sound and abnormal sound. If the external part of
transformer is normal, take gas sampling to test and determine the
characteristic of gas. If the gas is colorless, odorless and inflammable,
the transformer can be operated continuously. If the gas is flammable,
shut down the transformer. If it is air enters into transformer or residual
air existing in oil liberates causes gas relay activates, the operators
should exhaust the air in gas relay. If the gas relay activates due to
other reasons, arrange the electric tester to check the flash point of oil.
Compare the new data with the previous one, the difference is more
than 5, that means the internal parts of transformer has problems.
The transformer has to been shut down.
If the interval of gas relay exhausts air and sends out signal shorten
gradually, that means the transformer may trip. The operators should
take relevant measures. At this moment, do not stop the gas relay
protection or switch it at signal position. If there is standby transformer,
get this standby transformer to supply power. Report it to relevant
supervisors. If the weather changes suddenly, which lowers the gas
Page 103 of 157
relay oil level and causes the protection sends out signal, discharge the
air slowly in this condition since the internal part of transformer may get
negative pressure. If the pressure becomes negative pressure, close
the valve immediately and ask the maintenance personnel to repair it.
When gas relay discharging air, do not touch the testing probe or testing
buttons to prevent mis-activation.
(4) When the relay of OLTC activates, check whether the position of tap
changer are switched or not. Check to see it is increase the voltage or
decrease the voltage. The tester will judge whether to put it into operation or
not.
(5) Generally, when transformer heavy gas relay activates tripping, it will send
out light gas relay signal. However, the heavy and light gas relays will send
out signal and activate tripping at the same time sometimes if there is
emergency.
Reasons for heavy gas relay tripping
1 Serious faults happen inside of transformer
2 Transformer leaks oil severely and the oil level drops quickly.
3 Secondary circuit faults and through fault mis-activation.
4 Air liberates from oil too fast after transformer maintenance.
(6) Gas identification
The reasons for gas relay activation and characteristic of fault can be judged
based on the amount of gas, color and chemical components of the gas.
1 The fault degree can be judged based not the amount of gas.
2 If the gas is colorless, odorless and inflammable, generally speaking, it
is air separating from the oil.
3 If the gas is flammable, the internal part of transformer may have faults.
4 Judge the gas color as soon as possible since the color will disappear
quickly.
5 Comprehensive analysis

Table 3-6 comprehensive analysis


Characteristic of gas Characteristic of fault

yellow, inflammable Water quality fault

light gray, strong odor, flammable paper or paper board fault

gray and black, flammable Oil fault

(7) Open the vent of relay slowly to exhaust the air in the gas relay. If the
pressure of relay is negative, stop exhausting. The negative pressure is
caused by transformer breathing system blockage. Switch the heavy gas
relay into signal position and eliminate the faults immediately. If the blockage
phenomenon cannot be solved, stop the transformer operation.
(8) Solutions for transformer CB automatic tripping
Page 104 of 157
General principle
When the transformer trips automatically, activate the standby transformer
immediately if there is any. Check the automatic activation device of standby
transformer if there is any. Then, find out the tripping reasons.
If there is no standby transformer, determine the type of protection according
to indication. Check the transformer external part to see whether it is normal.
If it is the external faults which cause the transformer tripping, eliminate the
external faults and put it operation, without inspecting the internal part of
transformer. Otherwise, check the internal part of transformer to see whether
there are faults. Measure the insulation resistance of transformer winding.
Contact the electric maintenance personnel to find out the reasons of
tripping.
(7) Solutions of transformer coolers faults
1 If the power source of coolers of main transformer is out of service due to
faults, the main transformer is allowed to operate continuously for 10
minutes, with rated loads. 10 minutes later, if the upper layer oil temperature
is less than 75, it is allowed to get it rise to 75. The maximum operation
duration of the transformer working without coolers is 1 hour. It the condition
permits, the loads of the transformer can be reduced to prolong the
operation duration for recovering the cooler operation. If the power sources
of coolers cannot be recovered, deactivate the transformer.
2 one group of cooler fault
A. Description
The cooler fault device alarms while the standby coolers are activated
automatically.
B. Solution
When one group of cooler fails to work, check to see whether the
standby coolers are activated automatically. Cut off the power source of
fans of faulty coolers, check that and find out the faulty causes.
3 The entire transformer coolers fault or power source fault
A. Description
The entire coolers fault or power source fault device alarm. All the
coolers stop running or power source of circuit /of coolers trip.
B. Solution
a. If power source of circuit / of cooler is in trouble, check to see
whether the standby power source is activated or not. Whether the
coolers work normally or not. Find out the reasons for power source
fault. After trouble removal, re-energize it.
b. If power sources of circuit and of cooler are in trouble and the
entire coolers stop working, report it to shift leader and contact the
dispatcher to reduce the loads of main transformer, within the
permissive range. If the entire coolers shutdown and load reduction
protection are deactivated, the electric operators should reduce the
reactive power.
Page 105 of 157
c. Finish following operation within 10 minutes.
Check to see whether the voltages of power sources of two circuits
in control box are normal. Whether the automatic air switch of the
power sources trip or not.
Check whether there is short circuit. De-activate the entire working
coolers.
If there are serious faults and one of the power sources is normal,
open the automatic air switch of the power source which loses the
power immediately. Try to recover the normal power supply. If the
switch cannot be closed, check to see whether the voltages of three
phases are normal. Whether the switch of control power source trip
or not. Whether the control switch is damaged or not. If the voltages
of three phases are normal, close the electromagnetic switch by
force to recover power supply when necessary. Restart the coolers
one by one.
If both the power sources of the control box lose power, check to
find out the faulty points as soon as possible. If serious faults are
found, deactivate the entire working coolers immediately. Energize
one power source. If the circuit has power, re-start the coolers one
by one. If not, cut off the power and measure the insulation section
by section.
If the switch of power source trips after one group of coolers startup,
de-energize that group of coolers immediately. Recover the power
source and start other coolers to recover the output. Check the
faulty coolers and find out the reasons for cooler faults and
automatic air switch tripping failure.
(4) If the faulty coolers cannot be recover within 10 minutes and the cooler
deexitation asynchronization protection is not activated, minimum the
generator loads immediately. Monitor the upper layer oil temperature and
ensure it is less than 75. Measure the insulation section by section. Take
measures to eliminate the fault according to the insulation resistance and
recover the operation.

Page 106 of 157


CHARPTER MOTOR OPERATION

SECTION WORKING PRINCIPLE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF


THREE PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

1. Working principle of three phase asynchronous motor


The asynchronous motor works based on the interactions between stator
rotary field and rotor current .

Diagram 4-1 the interaction between stator rotary field and rotor current
Since the rotor rotation speed is different from synchronous rotation speed, the
ratio of rotation speed difference(n0-n)to synchronous rotation speed n0 is called
rotation difference ratio of asynchronous motor, whose symbol is S.

Here, .
2. The casing of motors should have the manufacturer nameplates. If the nameplates
are lost, add new nameplates according to manufacturer data or testing results.
3. The motor in standby status should be activated at any time. Switch the motors
status regularly. Start the motor half a month once if the condition permits. If the
motor is not started within specified period, measure its insulation resistance
before startup. If the standby motor is affect by damp, it is necessary to measure
its insulation resistance.
4. The rated current value of fuse should be marked on the casing of fuse. The
capacity of fuse should be controlled between 2 to 2.5 times the rated current of
motor.
5. Write down the data after measuring the insulation resistance of motor.

Page 107 of 157


SECTION OPERATION MODE OF MOTOR

I. With rated temperature (cooling air), operate the motor following the
data on the manufacturer nameplate.
II. No matter with any kind of operation mode, keep the temperature of
motor winding and iron core less than the required value. If the
manufacturer requirement is unavailable, see the following table 4-1.

Table 4-1
Insulation degree
A E B F H
Resistance

Resistance
Thermomete

Thermomete

Thermomete

Thermomete

Thermomete
Temperature

Temperature

Temperature

Temperature

Temperature
Name
Resistance

Resistance

Resistance
detector

detector

detector

detector

detector
r

r
Stator
wind-
ing 8 10 10 10 12
60 60 70 70 70 80 85
temper 0 0 0 5 5
-ature

Stator-
iron
core 10 10
60 70 80
tempe 0 5
rature

III. If the voltage of motor varies within -5% to +10% the rated voltage,
its output will not change.
IV. When the motor operates with rated output, make sure the phase to
phase voltage difference ratio is less than 5%.
V. During motor operation, make sure the bearing vibration is less than
the value listed in the following table 4-2.

Table 4-2
Rated rotation speed
3000 1500 1000 750
r/min
Vibration double
0.05 0.085 0.10 0.12
amplitudemm
Page 108 of 157
VI. The maximum permissive temperature of motor bearing should
follow the requirement provided by manufacturer. If the
manufacturer regulation is unavailable, use the following standards.
Table 4-3

Name Maximum permissive temperature

Sliding bearing 80

Rolling bearing 100

Page 109 of 157


SECTION INSPECTION PRIOR TO NORMAL OPERATION AND
STARTUP

I. For motors which are shut down for more than 15 days or motor
after repair, measure the insulation resistance before putting it into
operation.
1. Use a 2500V megger to measure the insulation resistance of stator winding
of 6KV motor. Make sure the resistance is more than 6 .
2. Use a 500V megger to measure the insulation resistance of motor whose
capacity is equal to or is less than 380V. The insulation resistance should be
more than 0.5 .
3. The insulation resistance absorption ratio (R60/R15) of the motor stator
winding should be more than 1.3.
4. If the insulation resistance values are less than the required values, report
that to shift leader immediately and contact the maintenance personnel.
II. Check the following items before starting the motor.
1. Check to make sure there is no foreign matter on the motor or around the
motor. The work permits has been completed.
2. The devices driven by the motor should meet the conditions for operation.
3. The protection device of motor is activated.
4. The oil for bearing oil ring is sufficient.
5. Try to turn the rotor to check whether the rotor and stator rub each other.
Make sure the machine which is driven by the motors is not blocked.
6. Check the starter. As for wound motor, check to make sure the contacting
surface of carbon brush and slip ring is normal.
7. Check the earthing wires of motor casing, the protective cover of coupler,
the cover of outgoing line. Make sure they are fixed firmly.
8. Check whether it rotates reversely. If it does, try to stop that.
III. Normally, for squirrel cage motor, it is allowed to start twice to 3
times in cold status and once in hot status. Only during trouble
removal or for motor whose starting time is less than 2s to 3s, it is
allowed to start it for another time.
IV. When finding the central line for motor and its mechanical part, keep
the starting interval less than half an hour.
1. Cold status: if the motor is stop for half an hour, it is in cold status.
2. Hot status: after closing the motor CB, if the current weakens firstly and then
becomes still, it is in hot status.
VII. When starting the motor remotely, arrange the operators to inspect
the appearance firstly and then inform the controller that the motor is
ready for startup. The operators should monitor the startup with the
ammeter. After motor startup, check the motor current to see
Page 110 of 157
whether it is more than rated value. If it is, re-check the motor.
VIII. For the newly installed motor or the motor after major overhaul, if
the CB will be closed remotely, leave the operators and
maintenance personnel near the motor till the rotation speed
reaches to rated speed.

Page 111 of 157


SECTION MOTOR INSPECTIONS DURING OPERATION

I. Operators on duty should check the appearances of the working


motors/ standby motors in the power plant periodically.
II. Inspection items of motor during operation
1. The motor current indication value should not be more than the rated value.
2. The motor temperature and ambient temperature should be normal. The
area around the motor should be clean.
3. The temperature and the sound of motor and bearing are normal.
4. The casing earthing wires should be complete and fixed firmly.
5. As for wound motor or DC motor, check the slip ring or the commutator to
see whether it has spark or not. Make sure the protective cover of slip ring
and commutator are normal.
6. Check to make sure the cable joint protective cover and the coupler
protective cover are complete.
7. Check to make sure the motor does not have abnormal burnt odor. The
cooling fans are normal. The venting duct should be smooth, without
blocking.
8. The oil ring of bearing pad and the oil level should be well, without oil
leakage.

Page 112 of 157


SECTION MOTOR FAULTS AND TROUBLE REMOVAL

I. During startup, if the motor does not run but sounds or the speed
cannot reaches to the normal rotation speed after closing the CB,
the reasons may as follows.
1. One phase of the stator circuit is broken.
2. Rotor circuit is broken or the contact is poor.
3. The motor or the devices which are driven by the motor are blocked.
4. The wires of stator circuit of the newly installed motor or the motor after major
overhaul is connected wrongly.
II. During motor startup, if it sparks, stop the starting. Check and find
out the reasons. If it is because of the broken squirrel cage or open
welding end ring, the electric maintenance personnel have the right
to determine whether to start it for another time. During the startup, if
it smokes or catches fire, stop the operation immediately. Cut off the
power and put out the fire and then ask the maintenance personnel
to repair it.
III. For the newly installed motor or motor after maintenance, if the
short-circuit or overloaded protective device activates during startup,
the reasons may as follows.
1. The machine which is driven by the motor has problems.
2. The motor or cable is short circuited.
3. For wound rotor motor, the slip ring is short-circuited during startup or the
rheostat is not at the starting position.
4. The set activation current of short circuit protective device is too small. The time
limit of overloaded protective device is not enough.
IV. During motor normal operation, if the sound changes suddenly or
the current indication increases or drops to zero, the reasons may
as follows.
1. One phase of the stator circuit is broken.
2. System voltage decreases.
3. Winding turn to turn short circuit.
4. The machine which is driven by the motor has problems.
V. During motor normal operation, if the stator current indication swings
periodically, the reasons may as follows.
1. The copper bar of squirrel cage rotor is damaged. The welding joint of wound
rotor winding is damaged.
2. The slip short circuit device of wound motor or the rheostat contact poorly.
3. The mechanical load changes unevenly.
VI. The motor stator heats abnormally.
Page 113 of 157
1. Check to see whether the inlet air temperature, the ventilation and the water loop
of cooling water system are normal.
2. Check to see whether the air duct of motor is blocked or not; whether the blades
are broken or not.
3. Check to see whether the three phases current are balance or not. Whether the
current exceeds the normal operating value.
VII. If the motor vibrates violently, the reasons may as follows.
1. Anchor bolts loosen.
2. The devices which are driven by motor are damaged.
3. The motor loses balance.
4. The center line of motor is different from the center line of its attached
equipment.
5. The bearing is damaged. The blade falls off the fans. The stator rubs against the
rotor. One phase of wound motor rotor is open.
6. The center is not at the right position. The double wedge of plastic couple works
unevenly.
VIII. If the bearing temperature is high, the reasons may as follows.
1. The oil is inefficient. The oil grease for rolling bearing is not too much or is not
enough.
2. The oil quality is not good.
3. The bearing internal parts of bearing rub or the internal part is damaged.
4. The belt is too tight. The bearing cover is fastened too tight. The bearing surface
is machined badly. The distance between bearings is too small.
5. The motor shaft and bearing incline
6. The bearing carries current. The surface of bearing journal is not smooth. The
alloy of bearing pad melts.
7. The rotor is not at the center of filed, which causes the axial vibration, bearing
knocking or bearing squeezing.
IX. If the carbon brush sparks during wound motor operation, the
reasons may as follows.
1. The surface of carbon brush and slip ring are not smooth.
2. The surface of slip ring is not clean or is worn.
3. The pressure of carbon brush is not even.
4. The slip ring vibrates axially violently.

Page 114 of 157


SECTION TROUBLES REMOVAL OF MOTOR

I. The motor should be deactivated emergently in following conditions.


1. Personnel accidents which needs stop the motor.
2. Devices which are driven by motor are broken and it is dangerous.
3. The motor or the starter smoke or catch fire.
II. In following condition, as for the important auxiliary motors, start the
standby motor and then stop the working motor.
1. Motor has abnormal sounds or burnt odor.
2. The motor or the starter sparks or smokes.
3. The stator current exceeds the normal operating values.
4. Severe vibration
5. The bearing temperature is higher than the required value.
6. The cooling water system of the large scale closed cooling motor has problem.
III. As for the main auxiliary motor, when it trips, if there is no standby
motor or if the standby motor cannot be started immediately, it is
allowed to activate the tripped motor once for preventing damage to
boiler and turbine. However, it cannot be started in following
condition.
1. The protective device of tripped motor sends out alarm signal and bus bar
earthing signal.
2. The motor starter or power source cable has short-circuited or damaged
phenomenon.
3. Emergent personal injury which needs stopping the motor immediately.
4. The machine which is driven by motor is damaged.
IV. When the important auxiliary motor loses the power or if the voltage
drops, the operators should not deactivate the auxiliary motor
manually within 1 minute.
V. When motor catching fire, cut off the power source of motor firstly
and then put out the fire. Use the special fire extinguishers, such as
CO2 or CCL4 to put out the fire.

Page 115 of 157


SECTION OPERATION REGULATION OF SPECIAL MOTOR

I. The inspection of boiler water circulation pump prior to startup


1. Check to make sure the air in the motor is exhausted totally.
2. Feed the water to the bottom of motor slowly. Keep the water flow at 2.27L/min.
II. Inspection during operation
1. No matter motor is in hot status or cold status, keep the flow of flushing water at
2.27L/min till the pressure of the steam drum to 2.07Mpa and the iron chloride
content is less than 0.3PPm. Then, stop feeding water to boiler water circulation
pump.
2. When it operates in cold status, take motor cooling water for testing every 12
hours once. When it operates in normal condition, test the cooling water weekly.
III. Operate the standby boiler water circulation pump monthly. Keep it
running for 10 to 15 minutes each time.
IV. Monitor the motor cooling water temperature of the standby boiler
water circulation pump. Make sure the temperature is more than
4. Take measures to prevent against freezing.
V. The motor starting interval should be more than 15 minutes.
VI. Shut down the motors if following condition occurs.
1. The current increases suddenly and is more than the required value.
2. The motor temperature is higher than 60.
3. The LP cooling water for HP cooler should not be interrupted for more than 4
minutes.
4. The vibration is more than 0.13mm to 0.15mm.
VII. If the motor cannot be started within 5s, shut down the operation
immediately and find out the reasons.

Page 116 of 157


CHARPTER AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEM AND POWER
DISTRIBUTION DEVICE

SECTION GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEM


AND POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

I. The category of auxiliary power system and loads


If it is classified according to voltage of power source, it has HV auxiliary power
and LV auxiliary power.
1. If the phase voltage 250V, it is HV auxiliary power.
2. If the phase voltage 250V, it is LV auxiliary power.
II. If it is classified according to the importance of load, it has class I,
class and class load.
Class I load: this kind of load plays a very important role in the power plant. Even
during the short-time power interrupted period (from power off to recover power
supply manually), it will endanger personal and equipment safety and effect
production or lower the power generating capacity. FD fans, ID fans and feed
water pump, etc are such kind of load.
Class load: This kind of load can endure short time power interruption.
However, if the time is too long, the equipment or the normal production may be
damaged. Steel ball pulverizer and coal crusher, etc are such kind of load.
Class load: This kind of load does not have direct relationship with the
production. Even the power is interruption for long period; the normal operation
will not be effected. The oil treatment devices and central repairing devices are
such kind of load.
Along with the increase of unit capacity and improvement of automatic degree,
certain loads have higher requirement for the stability of power source. For
example, the power interruption time for the unit computer controlling system
should be less than 5ms. Otherwise, the data will be lost or out of control. In the
past, this kind of load is called uninterrupted power load. Nowadays, they are
called class 0I load, which gets power from UPS. The DC load is called class 0
load.
III. The earthing mode for neutral point of HV auxiliary power system
1. Non-earthing
2. Earthing via high resistance
3. Earthing via arc-extinguishing coil
4. Earthing via middle resistance
IV. The earthing mode for neutral point of LV auxiliary power system
1. Non-earthing
2. Earthing directly
3. Earthing via small resistance

Page 117 of 157


SECTION THE OPERATION MODE OF AUXILIARY POWER SYSTE

I. The operation mode of 6KV auxiliary power system


1. There are two 6KV auxiliary power systems. They are equipped with working
section ,,, as well as standby section ,.
6KV working sectionand get power from the two branches of LV side of #1 HV
working auxiliary transformer.
6KV working section and get power from the two branches of LV side of #2
HV working auxiliary transformer.
6KV standby section and get power from the two branches of the LV side of #1
startup standby transformer.
2. The standby power source for 6KV working sectionand is the 6KV standby
section while the standby power source for 6KV working section and is the
6KV standby section .
The standby power source CB of 6KV working sectionand should be at hot
standby status.
The standby power source CB of 6KV working section and should be at hot
standby status.
The CB between 6KV standby section and 6KV working section and should
be at operation status.
The CB between 6KV standby section and 6KV working section and
should be at operation status.
The automatic activation device of 6KV working ,,, should be activated.
3. If the 6KV standby and supplies power to two 6KV working bus-bars of one
unit, the automatic activation device of working section of another unit should be
deactivated.
4. When startup standby transformer stopping operation, one set supplies power to
two 6KV standby bus-bars while the automatic activation device of 6KV working
bus bar of another unit should be deactivated.
II. Operation mode of 400V auxiliary power system
1. The PC section of 400V section gets power from working power source. The bus
tie CB between section A and section B of PC section should be at hot standby
status. The automatic activation device should be activated. Do not get section A
and B work as a loop for long time.
2. For 400V MCC, normally, one power source supplies power while the CB of
another power source is at hot standby status.
3. Normally, the 400V emergency section of each unit should have the working
power source. The standby power source is at hot standby status. The diesel
generator is at hot standby status. The automatic activation device of bus-bar is
activated.

Page 118 of 157


SECTION OPERATIONS AND TROUBLE REMOVAL OF AUXILIARY
POWER SYSTEM
I. Operational precautions
1. The switchover should be done with the command from shift leader.
2. Before carrying out the operation listed on the work permit, simulate the
operation at the simulation panel and check the wire connection.
3. After equipment maintenance, the principal should write down whether the
equipment meets the conditions for operation on the log and sign his name.
4. The entire work permits should be complete before equipment energization. The
temporary safety measures should be removed. The rails and warning boards
should be installed. Check the equipments and its auxiliary circuits thoroughly.
Check and re-activate relevant protection devices according to the command of
dispatcher and the relevant regulations. Do not operate the equipment without
devices.
5. For the CB equipped with synchronous device, activate the synchronous device
firstly and then close the CB. If one side of CB does not have voltage, the
synchronous interlocking circuit can be released with the permission of shift
leader.
6. Before energizing equipment, activate the fuse of instrument and protective
circuit as well as the auxiliary power source fuse of small switch and transmitter.
7. Carry out the switchover following the Operation Management Regulation and
Power Industry Safety Regulation.
8. Do not carry out switchover during shift hand over.
II. Basic operational principle and relevant regulation
1. Energization and de-energization
When opening/closing the disconnectors or draw-out CB to de-energize or
energize, make sure the CB is open.
(1)Do not open/close disconnector with loads. The electric and mechanical
interlocking devices should not be deactivated randomly.
(2)When de-energizing, open the CB firstly, then open the disconnector at the
load side. Open the disconnector at the busbar side at last. The procedures
for energizing are just opposite.
(3)When operating, if the disconnector is opened/closed wrongly, do not reclose
or re-open it. Only when the safety measures are taken can the mis-
opened/closed disconnector be closed/opened.
2. loop operation
(1)When closing the system loops, check to make sure the phase and the
voltage are the same.
(2)When closing the loop, if the CB has synchronization identification device,
identify the synchronization firstly and then close the loop. If the CB does not
have synchronization identification device, check to make sure it is the ring-
system and then close the loop.
(3)Before opening or closing loop, consider the variation of voltage. Additionally,

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pay attention to the flow and loads of electric elements.
3. Impulse closing operation
(1)Carry out the full-voltage impulse test according the relevant regulations for
the newly-installed equipment or equipment after major over (transformer,
bus-bar, etc). If the condition permits, raise the voltage from the zero to
charge.
(2)Carry out the full-voltage impulse test according the relevant regulations for
equipment after emergency tripping (transformer, bus-bar, etc). If the
condition permits, raise the voltage from the zero to charge.
(3)Precautions
1 The CB should have enough tripping capacity while the fault tripping
frequency should be within the required range.
2 The protective devices of the CB should be complete and activated. The
automatic enclosure device should be stopped. Reduce the setting
values of protective devices before carrying out impulse closing test if
needed.
3 Try to select the power source which may impact the system slightly as
the impulse closing test power. Check and regulate the flow of
connecting wires if necessary.
4 When carrying out impulse test for transformer of neutral earthing
system, get the neutral point grounded.
4. Operation regulation of auxiliary power system
(1)When switching the auxiliary power, in addition to the general cautions of
electric system and equipment operation and basic principle, following
regulations should also be obeyed.
1 During normal operation, do not get HV auxiliary transformer and HV
standby transformer (LV auxiliary transformers) operate in parallel for
long time. However, they are allowed to operate in parallel for short
moment during switchover.
2 The two power sources for MCC power distribution panel and I&C
power distribution box should not supply power at the same time. That
is to say, do not get the two power sources work in parallel.
3 Do not get the 380V PC sections operate in parallel.
4 Conditions for switching auxiliary power in parallel for short time
A. The voltage difference should be less than 10%.
B. For the newly installed equipment or the equipment after
maintenance whose phase sequence may change later, it is
necessary to check the phase and explain that to the maintenance
personnel, and then put that into operation.
C. When two units are in operation status, if one HV standby
transformer carries one bus bar, deactivate the quick breaking
devices of other bus bars.
D. It is not allowed to ground the power sources at two sides via same
phase.
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When energizing auxiliary power system, close the CB at power source
side firstly and then CB at the load side. When de-energizing, open the
CB at the load side firstly and then CB at the power source side.
7 When switching the 6KV and 380V auxiliary power emergently, open the
incoming CB of the bus-bar which loses the power. Check to make sure
the bus bar is normal. Then, close other standby incoming CB and bus
tie CB.
(2)Operational regulation of MCC panel and special power distribution panel
1 Switchover mode of MCC power distribution panel during operation
A. De-energization switchover: if the condition permits, cut off the
power and then switch over the MCC power distribution panel.
B. Non-deenergization switch over: if the condition does not permit,
use the equal potential closing loop method to switch over the MCC
power distribution panel, without cutting off the power.
2 When operating MCC which get power from the single power source
loses power, check to make sure the operating loads of the de-
energized MCC have been switched automatically. Cut off the power of
the loads of the branches of de-energized MCC. Find out the reasons
and eliminate the faults and then recover the power supply.
3 When operating MCC which has two power sources loses power, check
to make sure the bus bar is normal. Then, cut off the power for the loads
of branches of the de-energized MCC. Use another power source to
supply the power. If the bus bar is abnormal, repair it firstly and then
recover the power supply.
4 When power of operating MCC power distribution panel is interrupted, if
there is no requirement for loads of branches, cut off the power of
branch load. When recovering the power supply, comply with the
Dynamic Power Energization Regulation to supply power.
(3)Operational regulation of energization and deenergization
1 Obey relevant regulation of switchover when energizing/reenergizing
power via CB.
2 When de-energizing loads which do not have visual break point in the
circuit, use the clip on ammeter to measure the circuit to make sure
there is no current. Then open the disconnector of the power source of
the loads or remove the power source fuse. When energizing it, check
to make sure the CB of the load, the controlling and interlocking CB are
at open position firstly and then close the power source disconnector or
the power source fuse.
(4) When energizing LV auxiliary transformer, close the CB at the HV side and
then the CB at the LV side. The procedures for de-energizing is opposite.
(5) Procedures for energizing/de-energzing auxiliary bus bar
1 Before energizing auxiliary bus bar, check to ensure the outgoing CB
and disconnector are at open position. The bus bar PT is at operation
position. The HV fuse is activated. The low voltage DC small switch of
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PT is closed. After energization, check to make sure the voltage of bus
bar is normal. Then, activate the quick breaking device and energize
each power supplying circuit.
2 Before de-energizing auxiliary bus bar, stop the power supply circuit of
the bus bar and then stop the quick breaking device of the bus bar.
Finally, open the incoming CB of the bus bar power source. Check to
make sure the bus bar voltage is zero and then open the low voltage
DC small switch of PT, put the bus bar PT AT the isolation position.
(6) When opening/closing disconnector to energizing/de-energizing draw-out
CB, check and make sure the relevant CB is at the disconnected status. The
specific regulations are listed as follows.
Before de-energizing 6KV vacuum CB, open the small air switch of the
power source of closing circuit firstly. Before energizing, check to make sure
the Remote/local selective switch is put at Local. After energization, close
the small air switch of the power source of closing and opening circuit.
Check to make sure the opening/closing indication lamps indicate correctly.
The non-energy storage lamp indicates correctly. Put the Remote/local
selective switch is put at Remote. Before energizing 6KV F-C circuit, check
to make sure the three phase fuses are complete.
III. Basic principle of trouble removal
1. Main task
(1) Limit the accident as soon as possible. Find out the reasons of the accident
and eliminate that. Ensure the personal and equipment safety and prevent
the accident from worsening.
(2) Try to ensure the normal operation of the auxiliary power system, especially
the normal power supply for the emergency power source to avoid power
plant power interruption.
(3) Try to keep the main unit operating continuously to ensure the power supply
for the customer. Increase the output of the unit which is not affected if
needed.
(4) Recover the power supply to the customer as soon as possible.
(5) If the accident is under the control, adjust the operation mode and recover
the system as soon as possible.
2. The trouble removal is under the command of shift leader and the operators are
led by centralized control leader or unit leader.
3. When electric system is in trouble, the operators should take measures based on
the following procedures.
(1) Determine the characteristic of faults according to the alarm displays,
system surge, relay protection activation and automatic device activation,
the data of fault recording device as well as the equipment appearance.
(2) Check and test the equipment thoroughly to determine the position and
range of the fault.
(3) If the fault is a danger for human being and equipment, eliminate it
immediately. Stop the operation if needed. If not, try to maintain and recover
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the normal operation of equipment.
(4) Ensure the normal operation of normal equipment. Isolate the normal
equipment. Start the standby equipment if needed.
(5) After determine the characteristic and range of the faults, the operator
should take safety measures, for the convenience of maintenance
personnel.
(6) Report the proceeding of trouble removal to shift leader quickly and exactly
to prevent accident from worsening and confusing.
4. In emergent situation, the operators on duty could carry out following
operation quickly to prevent accident from worsening, without report to shift
leader immediately.
(1)Cut off the power to broken equipment which is a danger to person and
equipment.
(2)Isolate equipment in operation which has risk of damage.
(3)Open the CB of the bus bar whose voltage disappears.
(4)Recover the power source after auxiliary power is interrupted totally or
partially.
5. If the bus bar is in trouble, it is necessary to check the bus bar. Open the entire
CB of bus bar and measure the insulation resistance. Only when the insulation
resistance meets the requirement can carry out voltage increase test or impulse
test. If there is somebody working at the power distribution device, before
carrying out test, inform them and let them leave that place.
6. Precautions for closing tripped CB in force manually
(1)When close the CB in force, pay attention to voltage, current and system
impulse. Open this CB if there is fault.
(2)If the equipment has serious faults (smoke, fire, arc), do not close the CB by
force.
(3)When closing the tripped CB by force, predict the equipment failure ahead.

Page 123 of 157


SECTION GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UPS

I. General description
1. In this power plant, each unit is equipped with one on-line UPS. Normally, the
UPS supplies AC power to loads via rectifier and inverter. If the rectifier is in
trouble, convert the 220V DC power into AC and supplies the AC power to the
loads. If the inverter is in trouble, it will be switched into the bypass via static
switch automatically.
Switchover duration of static switch should be controlled within 5ms. The
normal input power source for working UPS should be controlled within 380V
10% -15%. The frequency is 50HZ. The voltage of bypass power source
should be within 380V+10% -15%. The frequency is 50HZ. The DC power
source comes from 220V DC system. The UPS outputs single phase as 220V
AC.
2. The UPS mainly supplies AC power to following loads.
Unit distributed control system (DCS), the power source of control room,
electric measuring device, fire detecting and alarm system, alarm control main
panel and other automatic regulating, monitoring and protective devices.
3. The output power of UPS is 220V single phase AC. There is no earthing
system. It could supply power to main loads. The rated capacity of unit UPS is
80KVA.
4. The UPS rectifier gets power from 380V auxiliary system and supplies DC
power to inverter. Meanwhile, the unit 220V DC system, which works as the
standby power source for inverter, is connected with the UPS via diode. If the
rectifier is in trouble, the diode will be automatically on. The inverter gets power
from unit 220V DC system without interruption.
5. If the inverter is in trouble or the output side of inverter is overloaded or load
failure, the static switch will switch the load into bypass automatically.
6. When the faults are eliminated, the static switch will switch the load into inverter
circuit from the bypass.
7. When repairing inverter or the static switch, close and then open the switch
automatically to switch it into bypass, without interruption.
8. Rectifier
The rectifier whose AC input is adjustable will supply stable DC power to
inverter.
The rectifying system consists of input transformer, rectifier, and the control
unit. The rectifier input side has an automatic switch with thermal element to
work as the over current protection.
The rectifier input voltage is 380V three phase AC POWER. The frequency
is 50Hz. The permissive voltage variation range is -5% to +5%.
9. Inverter
The inverter is made up of static elements with constant voltage and
constant frequency. The inverter should have automatic current limiting devices

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which prevent the output from exceeding the maximum operation value or
overload or short circuit. The radiator and ventilation device of inverter should be
in good condition.
The input for inverter is the rectifier DC output or comes from the unit 220V
DC system. When rectifier input voltage and frequency change within required
range or the DC bus bar voltage of battery is 12.5% the rated value, the inverter
could supply 220V and 50Hz single output, with various working condition. The
output voltage variation range is 1% while the frequency variation range is
0.5%. The effective value of inverter output total harmonic should be less than
5% while the effective value of single harmonic is less than 2%.
The inverter could work for 60s when the power factor is 0.7 to 0.9 and the
maximum impulse load is 1.5 time the rated value.
The inverter output of UPS could trace bypass input continuously. Therefore,
when the main unit is in trouble or the working power source is interrupted, it will
switch into bypass without disturbance.
The input side of UPS inverter should be equipped with isolation
transformer.
10. Static switch
The static switch is a quick switchover device. It is part of the UPS. It could
switch load into bypass manually or automatically, without interruption. After the
inverter faults and load faults are eliminated, when inverter output is within
required range, it could switch into inverter automatically. The static switches are
installed at the bypass power source side and the inverter output side.
In any condition, control and make sure the static switch switchover duration is
short than 5ms.
11. Manual bypass switch
The manually operated bypass mechanical switch is supplied for the
convenience of maintenance. The manually switch is closed firstly and then
opened for ensuring the continuity of AC power source. The inverters output and
bypass power source synchronous control devices are supplied for ensuring the
synchronization of inverter output and bypass power source. If power frequency
is out of the limitation, keep the inverter output frequency within the required
range. After power frequency becoming normal, the inverter frequency will
become synchronous with the power frequency with 1Hz/s frequency difference.
UPS control panel has the synchronization indication. During manual switchover,
synchronize inverter output and bypass power source. When static switch
switches due to inverter failure or external short circuit, it will not follow this
condition.
12. Diode
The diode is used for isolating rectifier output and the 220V DC system.
Select the diode according to the maximum input current of inverter. It is able to
endure the output terminal short circuit. It can withstand at least 1500V inverse
voltage.
The manufacturer will supply a diode fault indication device and/ the monitor.
Page 125 of 157
13. UPS bypass power source
The bypass power source includes step down isolation transformer and
AVR. The step down isolation transformer is used for isolating UPS load and
system input power. Therefore it could prevent transient process enters into or
disturbs the load circuit.
The bypass transformer is 500V dry type transformer. Its transformation ratio
is 380V/220V. With 40 ambient temperature, it could operate with full load for
long time credibly.
The AVR is used for increase or decrease the output voltage along with the
voltage changing. It will supply power with constant voltage to UPS load.
The rectifier, transformer and reactor are dry type.
14. Power distribution panel
1 The bus bar inside of UPS power distribution panel is copper bar. It can
withstand short circuit supplied by UPS power.
2 The load feeder inside of UPS power distribution panel uses small air circuit
breaker. The type of the air circuit breaker will meet the requirement of short-
circuit. The air CB has one auxiliary contact and one alarm contact. The
manufacture will connect the entire alarm contacts of air CB in the power
distribution panel to the terminal board in parallel.
3 Neutral points that connect all communication systems and earthing copper
busbar are provided in the cabinet. The points apply compression type
terminal connecting to outer earthing cable.
II. Operation of UPS
1. Startup procedures
(1) In normal status, the UPS will be started according to UPS startup
procedures. The following part will introduce the UPS startup procedures.
(2) Close the air switch of standby power source: the standby power source and
input LED indication lamps are on. The standby static switch circuit may
have power. The output terminal and UPS may also have power. The fans
start to run.
(3) Close rectifier air switch: if the input terminal is connected correctly, the
rectifier will start automatically. The voltage of DC bus will increase slowly till
to rated range. When the voltage of DC bus reaches to rated value, the DC
power will supply power to inverter.
(4) Close the air switch of battery: in order to operate safely, the fuse is installed
between batteries and DC bus. After the air switch of battery closing, it will
supply power to inverter when rectifier cannot supply DC power.
(5) Press inverter startup switch: press the inverter startup switch P and inverter
control switch Q at the same time, the inverter will start to work. 4s later, the
inverter output builds. About 3s later, the static switch will switch load into
inverter output from standby power source. Then, the UPS starts to work.

Page 126 of 157


(6) Check the LED indication: on the right of panel, the entire LED indication
lamps are off. On the left part of panel, two LED lamps are on. If the load is
more than 70% the rated capacity, the 70% LOAD LED lamp will on as
showed in diagram 5-1.



/ /

Diagram 5-1 Display of normal working mode


2. Shut down procedures
If the UPS has to been disconnected totally, carry out the following procedures.
(1) Open inverter switch: press the inverter disconnection switch R and inverter
control switch Q at the same time. The static switch will switch the output
loads into standby power source from the inverter automatically, without
interruption.
(2) Open the battery air switch: if the entire power sources of UPS have to been
cut off, continue to open the battery air switch. Therefore, the DC bus bar will
get power from the rectifier.
(3) Open the rectifier air switch: If the air switch of rectifier is disconnected, the
AC power cannot be converted into DC power and sent to DC bus via
rectifier. At this moment, the DC bus will release the power energy slowly.
About 5 minutes later, the entire power energy will be released totally.
(4) Open the standby power source air switch: check to make sure the load is
out of service before disconnecting the air switch. Since the output will be
cut off once the air switch is opened, which may damage the equipment
attached to it.
(5) The entire power source is cut off. The LCD indication and LED indication
lamps are off. The UPS is shut down.
3. Operation procedures for switching load from inverter to bypass
(1) When repairing the UPS, operate according to following procedures to
switch the loads, without interrupt the output AC power.
(2) Open inverter switch: press the inverter disconnection switch R and inverter
control switch Q at the same time. The static switch will switch the load into
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standby power source from inverter automatically, without interruption.
(3) Open battery air switch: open the battery air switch to cut off the entire
power sources in the UPS.
(4) Open rectifier air switch: If the air switch of rectifier is disconnected, the AC
power cannot be converted into DC power and sent to DC bus via rectifier.
At this moment, the DC bus will release the power energy slowly. About 5
minutes later, the entire power energy will be released totally.
(5) Close bypass air switch: The bypass air switch is closed; however, the air
switch of standby power source and static switch of standby power source
are still connected. The impedance of bypass is low; the power will switch
into bypass from standby power source circuit and continue to supply power
to loads, without interruption.
(6) Open air switch of standby power source: the air switch of standby power
source can be opened now to release the power energy in the UPS to
ensure the safety of maintenance personnel.
4. Operation procedures for switching load into inverter from bypass
If the bypass has to been repaired, switch the loads according to following
operation procedures, without interrupting the AC power.
(1) Close the air switch of standby power: the LED indication lamps of standby
power source and output part are on. The standby power source static
switch circuit, the output terminal and the UPS may have power. The fans
start to work.
(2) Open bypass air switch: when bypass maintenance air switch is close, it is
not allowed to close the inverter switch. After closing the standby power
source air switch, the standby power source circuit will continue to supply
power if the bypass air switch is open, without interrupting AC output.
(3) Close rectifier air switch: if the input terminal is connected correctly, the
rectifier will start automatically and the voltage of DC bus will increase slowly
till the rated value within 15s to 30s. The DC power will supply power to
inverter when the DC voltage reaches to rated value.
(4) Close battery air switch: in order to operate more safely, the battery and DC
bus is connected by fuse. If the rectifier is in trouble, the battery will supply
DC power to inverter immediately.
(5) Press inverter startup switch: press the inverter startup switch P and inverter
control switch Q at the same time. The inverter will start to work. About 4s,
the inverter output is ready. About 3s later, static switch will switch the load
into inverter from the standby power source.

Page 128 of 157


SECTION POWER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

I. Bus bar
1. Fully-connected isolated phase enclosed bus bar, non-separated bus bar and
cable bus bar
Normal Operation and Inspection
(1) Inspection before Operation of Bus bar
1 Check and confirm that works of the primary and secondary systems of
the bus bar has been completed, the primary and secondary circuits are
normal, the working permits are summarized, qualification clarification is
provided by maintenance department, there are no objects remained on
site, all temporary safety facilities are dismantled, all fixed safety
facilities are restored, the fences are fixed around the bus bar, and
distance to the live equipment shall comply with safety regulations.
2 Check and confirm that all disconnectors (including grounded
disconnectors) are disconnected, temporary grounding wires have been
dismantled, and draw-out circuit breakers are at disconnecting position.
3 Check and confirm that all gates for enclosed bus bars are locked, the
outer case of enclosed bus bar is grounded properly, all screws are
tightened, all supporting parts are strong and without cracking,
inclination, distortion or loosening, and three-phase short circuit board
on outer case of isolated phase enclosed bus bar shall be connected
properly.
4 Check and confirm that bus bars are sealed well after maintenance, the
leakage test is qualified, and there should be no condensate water in
drain valve at the lowest point of isolated phase enclosed bus bar, which
shall be closed.
5 Check and confirm that arrester and potential transformer cabinet can
satisfy the operation requirements, high and low voltage ruses are
perfect for potential transformer, counter for arrester, and transformation
ratio and polarity of potential transformer are correct.
6 Check and confirm that insulation value of bus bar shall satisfy: 380V
bus bar shall be 1M when measured with 500V megger, 6kV shall be
50M when measured with 2500kV megger, and 20kV enclosed bus
bar shall be 50M. If insulation value is measured for enclosed bus
bar together with transformer (or generator-transformer unit), the neutral
point of transformer shall be disconnected (or the earthing disconnector
of generator neutral point shall be disconnected), the working incoming
line or standby incoming line potential transformer (or generator outlet
potential transformer) shall be switched to isolation position.
7 The system equipment shall be clean, and without obvious grounding or
short circuit.
8 For newly installed bus bar or that after overhaul, voltage withstanding
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test shall be prepared.
9 Check and confirm that all switches are at position of test/maintenance,
and switchboard and switch cabinet shall be grounded properly.
10 Check and confirm that all protection, automatic, measuring and signal
devices are ready for operation.
11 Check and confirm that all working and standby power supply incoming
line switches are ready for operation.
(2) Inspection during Operation
1 No heating or color changing happens for surface and joint of bus bar.
2 No cracking, distortion or discharging happens for insulator.
3 No loosing, heating or abnormal electromagnetic noise or vibration
happens for joints of bus bar.
4 The shell gate of enclosed bus bar shall be closed, no un-uniform
sinking of enclosed bus bar shell shall happen, the shell temperature
shall not exceed 65, the shell is grounded properly, and the three-
phase short circuit board of isolation phase enclosed bus bar shell shall
be connected properly.
5 For operation or short-period shutdown of unit, the air circulation drying
device (pressure charging device) for isolation phase enclosed bus bar
shall be automatically applied; the air circulation drying device of
enclosed bus bar at exit of #5 generator shall be operated properly, and
there should be no air leakage or abnormal alarm; the pressure device
of enclosed bus bar at exit of #6 generator shall be operated properly,
the pressure shall be normal, there should be no water accumulated at
the bottom of oil-water separator, and there should be no gas leakage.
6 The hydrogen isolation and discharging device of isolation phase
enclosed bus bar shall be enclosed properly, and there is no alarm for
online hydrogen leakage device.
7 The aerial bus bar shall not be broken or disperse.
8 No abnormal heating shall happen for the adjacent metal structures.
9 Check that there is no water condensed in water drain valve at the
lowest point of isolation phase enclosed bus bar, and close the valve.
10 Check there are no abnormal phenomenon for neutral point grounding
transformer, exit arrestor and various TV cabinets, and the arrestor shall
be proper in term of leakage current.
(3) The following special inspections shall be made for outdoor bus bar in case
of heavy wind or snow:
1 There should be no ice attached or discharging for bus bar,
disconnector and all leading wires.
2 There should be no objects around the bus bar and distribution devices
which may cause short circuit due to wind.
3 Snow shall not be melted and evaporated immediately after its falling on
joints and diconnectors.
(4) Abnormal Operation and Its Handling
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1 Overheating of Bus bar in Operation
A. Phenomenon: There are obvious heating, color changing or odor.
And temperature indications are higher than normal values.
B. Reasons: The load current exceeds the rated value, or the bus bar
connection loses contact.
C. Handling:
a. If the bus bar in operation is overheated, adjust load according
to the heated condition and places.
b. Install temporary cooling devices.
c. If load is not permitted to be reduced, strengthen the
supervision of temperature changes.
d. Stop service according to the practical condition, and handle
the effects.
(2) Handling of Bus bar De-energizing
1 Check whether there are obvious faults of the bus bar, whether there is
arcing of porcelain insulators, and whether there are faults for
equipment connected to the bus bar.
2 If there is obvious fault of the bus bar, it should be isolated and handled
by the maintenance personnel.
(3)If there is no obvious fault of the bus bar, check whether the protection device
is mis-operated or whether the branch rejects to operate. If there is
misoperation of the protection device, exit such protection, and adjust
operation mode of bus bar to restore operation. If there is rejection by the
branch, isolate such branch and restore normal operation.
(4)In no circumstances will the bus bar operate without protection.
5. Reasons and Handling for Abnormal Condition of Enclosed Bus bar
Table 5-1
No. Abnormal Condition Reasons Handling
1. The current value
Overheating of 1. Reduce current.
1 exceeds the limit.
conductor 2. Stop service and repair.
2. Heating of cable head
1. Loosening of
fastening bolt 1. Fasten it.
2 Overheating of shell
2. Loosening of fastened 2. Fasten it.
material
1. Abnormal noise: Stop
Loose bolt Abnormal noise, and service and repair.
3
Loose of materials vibration 2. Shell: Find the reason
and handle it.
Reduce the current.
Abnormal temperature or
4 Odor Find the discharging reason
partial discharging
and handle it.
Breaking or cracking
Mechanical damages and
5 of porcelain insulator Replace it.
electrical damages
bushing
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No. Abnormal Condition Reasons Handling
Un-uniform sinking of Un-uniform sinking of Notify maintenance
6
bus bar shell foundation personnel
1. The current exceeds
1. Reduce the current
7 Heating of cable head the rated value.
2. Stop service and repair.
2. Improper contact

II. Arrestor
1. Normal Operation and Inspection of Arrestor
(1) Arrestor in normal operation shall be applied.
(2) Inspection of arrestor during normal operation:
1 For arrestor, the porcelain insulator and flange shall be clean and
perfect, and there should be no cracking, discharging mark or abnormal
noise.
2 For leading wire of arrestor, there shall be nothing hanging, and no
overheating, discharging, breaking, burning or serious swing.
3 The arrestor equalizing ring shall be perfect, without loosening, rust or
tilting.
4 ABC The arrestor action counter shall be perfect, the leakage current
indication shall be normal, and A, B and C three phase leakage currents
shall be basically the same, there should be no sudden changes
compared with history values, and arrestor action shall be recorded
regularly.
5 The grounding device of arrestor shall be complete, without loosening or
rust.
(3) Special inspection for arrestor:
1 90For operation with overload or overvoltage, the joint shall be checked
for heating condition and the temperature of switchboard shall not
exceed 90(infrared temperature measurement).
2 For heavy snow weather, check the leading wire for snow accumulation,
and observe snow melting condition to determine the overheating
condition of leading wire.
3 For strong wind weather, check whether there are materials around the
arrestor, which might be blown and fall on living part of arrestor.
4 For weather of dense fog, light rain and light snow, the porcelain
insulator shall be checked for serious corona or discharging.
5 In case of abnormal noise of arrestor, supervision shall be strengthened,
and inspection shall be made for whether there are breakdown of
transformer body, leading wire and joint, and whether there are
damages, cracking and arcing discharging.
6 After thunderstorm, thunder shock or accident tripping of switch, the
arrestor shall be checked for damages, cracking and discharging mark,
the leading wire shall not be disconnected or loosening and records
shall be made for discharging action recorder.
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7 During thunderstorm, its forbidden to access the grounding wire and
down lead of arrestor.
(4) Abnormal operation and emergency handling
1 The arrestor shall not be used in case of one of the following condition:
A. There is explosion, damage or obvious cracking of porcelain
insulator of arrestor.
B. There is discharging noise inside of arrestor.
C. The leading wire or ground wire of arrestor breaks.
(2) Handling of explosion of arrestor in operation:
1 When the explosion of arrestor has not caused short circuit earthing, it
must be reported to the monitor immediately, so as to implement power-
off, deactivate the arrestor and replace it.
2 When the explosion of arrestor has caused short circuit earthing, it must
be reported to the monitor immediately, so as to implement power-off,
and replace the arrestor.
III. Switch
1. General Regulations
(1) Before application, inspection shall be made for outer appearance of switch.
(2) Before application after major and minor overhaul, maintenance personnel
shall inspect the insulation condition of switch.
2. General Principles
(1) SF6Check the AC and DC power supply of switch, SF6 air pressure shall be
within the specified range, the energy storing condition of operating
mechanism shall be normal, abnormal condition shall be investigated and
handled with timely, and deactivation of locking device or manual operation.
(2) For switch with remote control operation function, remote control mode shall
be applied for normal living connection or disconnection. During operation,
instrument indications and signal lamp shall be monitored, and local
operation may only applied to special condition, such as switch verification
of power down maintenance and handling of failures.
(3) For switch that needs synchronization evaluation for closing, related
synchronized condition shall be satisfied before closing the switch.
(4) The switch that has problems for tripping circuit or tripping mechanism shall
not be used.
(5) When the indicating lamp of control switch is flashing, the reset of control
switch shall be made under supervision, and reset direction shall be paid
attention to. Wild operation is strictly forbidden, so as to avoid mis-operation
of switch.
3. Four statuses of switch
(1) Operation status: the draw-out CB is at the work position in the cabinet. Its
main circuit and control circuit are connected with the wires in the cabinet.
The CB is at closed status.
(2) Hot-standby status: the draw-out CB is at the working position in the cabinet.
Its main circuit and control circuit are connected with the wires in the
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cabinet. The CB is at the open status.
(3) Testing status: the draw-out CB is at the open position in the cabinet. Its
main circuit and the wires in the cabinet are separated. Its control circuit is
connected with the wires in the cabinet.
(4) Maintenance status: the draw-out CB is at the open position in the cabinet.
Its main circuit and control circuit are disconnected.
4. General procedures for draw-out CB energization
(1) Check to make sure the draw-out CB and its circuit is ready for operation.
(2) Check to make sure the earthing disconnector behind the switch cabinet is
open.
(3) Check to make sure the CB is at open position.
(4) Check to make sure the relevant protective devices and interlocking links
are activated.
(5) Put the CB at testing position.
(6) Insert the secondary plug and close the cabinet gate. Close the switches of
operational and signal power sources.
(7) Put the switch at the working position.
(8) Close the switch of closing power source of the CB.
(9) Check to make sure the comprehensive protective device of the switch
cabinet is activated. The operation lamp is on. There is no abnormal alarm
signal.
(10) The energy of CB is stored well. The opening indication green lamp is on.
(11) Put the local/remote switch at the remote position.
5. General procedures for de-energizing draw-out CB
(1) 0Check to make sure the CB is at closed status.
(2) /Put the local/remote switch at the local position.
(3) Open the switch of closing circuit of the CB.
(4) Put switch at the test position.
(5) Cut off the operational and signal power source of CB.
(6) Remove the secondary plug and close the gate of the cabinet.
6. Inspection items prior to CB energization
(1) Check to make sure the work done to the primary system and the secondary
system of the CB is finished. The primary and secondary circuits are normal.
The work permit is completed. Explain the work to maintenance department
technically. Check to make sure there are no objects left at the site. The
entire temporary safety measures have been removed. Recover the
permanent safety measures.
(2) The interlocking devices should be complete and normal. The earthing
disconnector has been disconnected. The earthing wires have been
removed.
(3) The CB proper and the area around it should be clean and complete. There
is no foreign matter affecting the normal operation. The electric heaters
should operate normally.
(4) 6kV380VThe appearance of the CB is normal. The position of mechanism is
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correct. The energy storage position, the opening/closing position, the
earthing disconnector position and the indication lamp position indicate
correctly. As for 6KV and 380V draw-out CB, check to make sure the CB is
at the open position before energization and deenergization.
(5) The primary contact and secondary plug of CB should be in good condition.
The secondary circuit and the auxiliary elements are good. The CB energy
storage device work well. The CB and the operation mechanism are fixed
firmly. The porcelain insulator of CB bushing is clean, without cracks. The
CB proper and auxiliary elements are complete, without burnt and
discharging marks.
(6) Measure the contact to contact insulation and contact to ground insulation.
The insulation resistance should be good. The insulation of loads and cables
should be normal.
(7) As for the newly operated CB or CB after maintenance, carry out CB
opening and closing testing before operation. Make sure the CB opens and
closes normally. Carry out the no-load closing and tripping testing at most for
3 times. When carrying out opening and closing testing, take measures to
preventing other CB from tripping interlockly.
(8) 6kV380V/150kVPut the 6KV/380V draw-out CB at maintenance/ testing
position. Lock the gates of LV chamber of CB cabinet, CB chamber, cable
chamber tightly. Close the 150KV CB control box gates and the mechanism
gates.
(9) Check to make sure the protective devices, automatic device, measuring
devices and the signal device are ready for operation.
(10) 150kVSF6The pressure of SF6 of 150KV is normal. There is no alarm
signal.
7. Inspection items during CB operation
(1) 408025The fire fighting device in power distribution room or near the power
distribution device should be complete. The lighting and ventilation are good.
The air conditioners work normally. The cable holes are plugged tightly. The
power distribution room and the area near the power distribution device are
clean, without foreign matters, water, dust, etc. There is no insulation burnt
odor. The temperature and humidity of power distribution room meet the
relevant requirement. The temperature is 40while the humidity is 80. If the
power distribution room is equipped with air conditioner, control the
temperature at about 25.
(2) 70Each part of CB should be clean, without damaged part, discharging,
flashover, and overheating, dewing phenomenon. The temperature indicator
should not melt. There is no abnormal sound, vibration, and odor. The
casing is well grounded. The gate is locked. Use the infrared thermometer to
measure the temperature of cable joint if necessary. Make sure the
temperature is less than 70.
(3) The primary contact and secondary plug of CB should be in good condition.
The secondary circuit and the auxiliary elements are good. The CB energy
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storage device works well. The CB and the operation mechanism are fixed
firmly.
(4) SF6The pressure of SF6 is normal. The CB counter works normally.
(5) Check to make sure the protective devices, automatic device, measuring
devices and the signal device work normally.
(6) The CB mechanism position, opening/closing position and indication lamps
indicate correctly.
(7) Check the appearance carefully after CB disconnecting the faults.
(8) During normal operation, the heaters inside the operation mechanism box
should be activated.
(9) /Put the local/remote control mode of operating CB at the remote position.
The operating power sources are normal.
(10) The current indication of operating CB is normal.
(11) Check to make sure the operation mode of each CB is the same as the
actual status. The warning board hung at site matches the relevant work
permits.
8. If following accidents occur, report it to shift leader immediately and get CB out of
operation.
(1) The porcelain bushing has serious cracks, flashover or broken parts.
(2) It leaks air severely. The minimum required value cannot be maintained.
(3) The vacuum arc extinguishing chamber leaks air or the operation
mechanism cannot store the energy automatically.
(4) The internal part of CB has abnormal and severe discharging sound.
9. Abnormal operation and trouble removal of CB
(1) 6kVTrouble removal of 6KV vacuum CB failure
1 Check to see whether the secondary circuit is normal. Check whether
the operation fuse blows. Replace the broken fuses. If the fuse melts
again, ask the maintenance personnel to repair it. If the operation power
source circuit uses small air switch, re-close it if it is normal. However, if
the small air switch trips for another time, it is not allowed to re-close it.
Contact the maintenance personnel to find out the reasons and
eliminate the faults. Check to see whether the operational voltage is
normal. If not, find out the reasons and eliminate the faults.
2 Check the voltage storage condition. If the automatic storage function
fails to work, contact the maintenance personnel and realize the energy
storage manually.
3 Contact the maintenance personnel to open the CB mechanically on the
switch panel.
4 Predict the accident.
5 If the mechanism is in trouble and the fault cannot be eliminated
temporally, report it to shift leader and treat it as CB failure and bus-bar
de-energization. Work out detailed plans according to the actual
situation.
(2) SF6SF6Solutions for SF6 low pressure
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1 SF6SF6When the SF6 pressure is lower than the alarm value, the
operators should contact maintenance personnel to recharge SF6 to the
CB.
2 SF6SF6SF6If the SF6 continue to leak, the pressure will decrease
continuously. When the pressure is less than the opening and closing
interlocking pressure, it will send out SF6 low pressure interlocking
signal to prevent CB from opening/closing. At this moment, the
operators should inform the shift leader and contact the maintenance
personnel to recharge the SF6. If the SF6 cannot recover to the normal
value, report it to shift leader and apply to dispatcher to stop the CB.
3 SF65If the SF6 leaks severely, the personnel should take measures to
prevent poisoning when he/she checking the CB. If there are no such
measures, the personnel should be far away from the CB, for more than
5m.
IV. Disconnector
1. Operation inspection and monitor
(1) Inspection prior to disconnector operation
1 Check to make sure maintenance work to primary system and
secondary system has been finished. The primary and secondary
circuits are normal. The equipment should be complete and clean. They
should meet the conditions for operation. The work permits are finished.
The maintenance personnel have already proved that the equipment is
ready for operation. There are no objects left at site. The entire
temporary safety measures have been removed. The permanent safety
measures have been recovered.
2 The supportive insulator and rod insulator should be clean, without
cracks and damaged parts.
3 The mechanism of disconnector should be complete. The interlock
between main disconnector and earthing disconnector or the interlock
between disconnectors should be credible.
4 Check to make sure the operation mechanism works freely. The main
power source is on. The manual operation and electric operation are
normal. The electric interlock between manual operation and electric
operation as well as manual operation and switches are in good
condition.
5 Check to make sure the drive mechanism is complete. The pins should
not flake off. Each drive mechanism contacts well and operate freely.

6 The three phases should work synchronously. Apply lubrication grease


to friction surface.
7 Check to make sure the disconnector open/close indicator indicates
normal. The local status is the same as the local status.
(2) The inspection during disconnector operation
1 70During normal operation, check to make sure the conductive circuit,
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contacts, contacting surfaces of static contacts and movable contacts
do not have overheated parts. Use the infrared thermometer to measure
the temperature if necessary. The temperature should not out of range.
During normal operation, the temperature of disconnector should be
less than 70. Check to make sure the temperature measuring slice
should not melt.
2 The porcelain insulator should be clean, without creeping, broken parts,
cracks, etc. Each contact should be fastened firmly, without flaking,
vibration and discharging.
3 The disconnector should contacts well. The scissor disconnector should
not swing. The voltage equalizing ring should be fixed firmly, credibly.
The leading wires should not loosen and do not have serious swing,
burnt parts and broken parts and so on appearances.
4 The control box and driving mechanism box should be sealed well,
without leaked water and accumulated water.
5 The operation mechanism should be complete. The position indicator
should work normally. The connection links and pins should be
complete, without broken parts and flaking off phenomenon.
6 The position of disconnector is indicated correctly. The remote indication
consistent with the actual indication at site. The mis-interlocking
protection is activated correctly.
(3) Special inspection items of disconnector
1 Check the appearance of the disconnector which carries the short circuit
after short circuit happening.
2 Check to make sure the disconnector is installed firmly, without
discharging after snowing. There are no sundries.
3 After heavy wind, check to make sure the disconnector is fixed firmly,
without discharging. There are no sundries on the disonnector.
4 When it snows or rains, each porcelain insulator should not discharge or
spark.
5 If the loads exceed the rated value, check each part of disconnector to
see whether it is overheated.
(4) Operation of disconnector
1 The disconnector is only used for isolating the voltage but not disconnect
the circuit.
2 Normally, the disconnector is controlled remotely and electrically. After
opening or closing disconnector, check to make sure the actual position
of disconnector at site consistent with the indicated position of
disconnector remotely. In special condition, if the disconnector has to be
operated at site, take relevant measures to prevent accidents.
3 Before operating the disconnector, check to make sure the relevant CB is
at open position and then operates the disconnector. During
energization, close the disconnnector at power source side and then the
disconnector at load side. The procedures for de-energizing are just
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opposite.
4 Do not release the mis-interlocking protection of the disconnector
randomly.
5 After operating the disconnector, check to make sure the static and
movable contacts contact well. The contacting part should be proper.
6 If the disconnector connects the faulty circuit, it is not allowed to re-open
the closed disconnector in any case. Otherwise, the accident will be
enlarged and worsen and become the danger for operators and
supervisor.
7 Main point of disconnector operation: the disconnector should be operated
quickly, correctly and decisively, especially when opening the
disconector. Extinguish the arc quickly and decisively when the opening
the disconnector. Note: there should no severe impact when closing the
disconnector.
8 Operation range of disconnector: if the circuit does not have the CB, check
to make sure the equipment is normal and the earthing does not
grounded when carrying out following inspections.
9 Connect and disconnect the PT without fault.
10 Connect and disconnect the valve arrestor without fault.
11 2AConnect and disconnect the no-load transformer whose excitation
current is less than 2A.
12 Connect and disconnect the circuits in parallel (equal potential method).
13 5A20kVConnect and disconnect the no-load circuit whose capacitive
current is less than 5A. If the voltage is less than 20KV, use the triple
disconnectors.
14 Connect and disconnect the power transformer neutral point earthing
wire.
15 10kV70AConnect and disconnect the circular current whose voltage is
more than 10KV while the current is less than 70A.
16 Connect and disconnect the equipment whose earthing bus bar is
grounded directly and the normal no-load bus bar.
(5) Disconnector abnormal operation and trouble removal
1 If the disconnector is hot, take measures and solve the problems. Adjust
the load till it reaches to the permissive heating limitation. If the
regulation fails to work, report it to shift leader and apply for de-
energization.
2 If the disconnector is closed but the contacting is not good, open and re-
close it for another time when there is no load. Otherwise, contact the
maintenance personnel for repairing.
3 Disconnection failure: If the disconnector refuses to close or open, do
not close or open it by force. Take following measures to solve the
problems.
4 Check to see whether the operation is correct; whether it is blocked by
the protective devices.
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5 Check to see whether the motor power source and control power source
are normal; whether the positions of control switches in the control
panel are correct.
6 Check to see whether the thermal coupler is reset after activation.
Whether the fuse melts or not. Whether the air switch trips or not.
Whether the electric equipments are damaged or not.
7 Check to see whether the emergency handle is at the normal position.
8 Check to see whether the auxiliary contacts and the limit contacts of CB
as well as the interlocking circuits are normal.
9 If it is hard to solve the problems or find out the reasons, contact
maintenance personnel to repair that.
V. CT and PT
1. During normal operation, do not get the secondary side of PT short circuit.
Meanwhile, do not get the secondary side of CT open circuit.
2. PT inspection prior to operation
(1) Check to make sure the work done to the primary and secondary systems
are finished. The primary and secondary circuits are normal and ready for
operation. The work listed in the work permits is finished. There are no
objects and tools left at the maintenance site. The entire safety measures
are disassembled. The permanent safety measures have been recovered.
(2) TV Check to make sure the casing of PT as well as the neutral point is well
grounded.
(3) Check to make sure each part of PT is complete and clean. There are no
short circuit wires and other sundries. The screws are fixed firmly, without
loosening. The bushing and porcelain insulator are complete, without cracks,
damaged parts and discharging parts.
(4) The fuses at the HV and LV side of PT are complete. If the air switch is
installed at the secondary side, check to make sure it works normally.
(5) Check to make sure the phase and polarity of secondary circuit of PT are
correct.
3. CT inspection prior to operation
(1) Check to make sure the work done to the primary and secondary systems
are finished. The primary and secondary circuits are normal and ready for
operation. The work listed in the work permits is finished. There are no
objects and tools left at the maintenance site. The entire safety measures
are disassembled. The permanent safety measures have been recovered.
(2) Check to make sure each part of PT is complete and clean. There are no
short circuit wires and other sundries. The screws are fixed firmly, without
loosening.
(3) The CT does not leak or creep oil. The oil level and oil color are normal. The
bushing and porcelain insulator are complete, without cracks, damaged
parts and discharging mark.
4. PT inspection during operation
(1) The appearance of PT is clean and complete. The bushing and porcelain
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insulator are complete, without cracks, damaged parts and discharging.
There is no abnormal vibration and sounds.
(2) The contacts and leading wires do not have overheating, discharging,
loosening and broken phenomenon.
(3) TVTV The neutral point of the primary side of PT as well as the casing of PT
is well grounded.
(4) The wires at the secondary side are complete. The fuse is good, without
melting. The air switch does not trip.
(5) The fuses at the HV side should not melt.
(6) The moisture content of the panel should not be too high. The casing of dry
type transformer is clean, without dew.
(7) TVT here is no water and dew in the PT terminal. When it is cold or wet,
activate the heaters in the terminal box.
5. CT inspection during operation
(1) The appearance of CT is clean and complete. The bushing and porcelain
insulator are complete, without cracks, damaged parts and discharging.
There is no abnormal vibration and sounds.
(2) The CT does not leak or creep oil. The oil level and oil color are normal. The
bushing and porcelain insulator are complete, without cracks, damaged
parts and discharging mark.
(3) TVT here is no water and dew in the CT terminal. When it is cold or wet,
activate the heaters in the terminal box.
(4) The contacts and leading wires do not have overheating, discharging,
loosening and broken phenomenon.
(5) The secondary circuits should not open.
6. Abnormal operation and trouble removal
(1) TV Stop the PT and CT operation if following condition happens.
1 TV The internal parts of PT and CT have severe discharging and
abnormal sounds.
2 TV The PT and CT vibrate severely. The HV fuse of PT melts again after
replacement.
3 The PT and CT smoke, catches fires or gives out abnormal odor.
4 The parts between the leading wires and casing as well the parts
between winding and casing spark or discharge, which will endanger
the safety of equipment.
5 The CT leaks oil severely and the oil level is invisible.
6 The accident causes human injury and equipment accident severely.
(2) CT fire fighting
1 Report it to shift leader and inform the fire fighting department and ask
the maintenance personnel.
2 Stop the protective and automatic devices related to voltage circuits or
change the operation mode of protective and automatic devices related
to voltage circuits.
3 Cut off the power by CB immediately.
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4 CCL41211Use the CO2, dry type fire extinguisher, such as CCL4, 1211 to
put out the fire.
(3) CT fire fighting
1 Report it to shift leader and inform the fire fighting department and ask
the maintenance personnel.
2 Cut off the power of primary side immediately.
3 CCL41211Use the CO2, dry type fire extinguisher, such as CCL4, 1211 to
put out the fire.
(4) Solution of CT oil leakage and oil creep
1 Stop the CT immediately if it leaks oil severely and the oil level is
invisible.
2 If it leaks or creeps oil slightly and the oil level is visible, contact the
maintenance personnel for maintenance.

VI. Cable
1. The following table 5-2 will show the permissive operating data of cables during
normal operation.
Table 5-2
Rated voltage
Category 3KV
6kV 110330kV

Natural rubber
65 65
insulated cable
Sticky paper
80 65
insulated cable
PVC insulated
65 65
cable
PE insulated cable 70
XLPE insulated
90 90 90
cable
Ethylene propylene
90
rubber

2. Regulation of cable during normal operation


(1) 115During normal operation, the working voltage of cable should be less
than the 115% the rated voltage.
(2) Generally speaking, overloaded operation is not allowed. In emergent
condition, if it is overloaded, try to recover to the normal current immediately.
(3) Do not use water to flush the outdoor cable joints.
3. Inspection prior to cable energization and inspection during normal operation
(1) Do not put slag, construction materials, and heavy objects on the cables and
do not pour acid or alkaline objects to the cable lines.
(2) Keep cable joint clean and complete. The cable joints should not be
overheated. It should not discharge.
Page 142 of 157
(3) The cable external layer should be complete, without damaged part. The
temperature of external layer should not be more than the required value.
(4) The cable is well grounded.
(5) For the cable with shielding, make sure the shielding layer complete, without
damaged parts.
(6) The cable trench and cable rack should not have water, dust, oil and other
sundries. Discharge that if there is any.
(7) The cable racks should be complete, without rusty parts or damaged parts.
(8) The temperatures of cables which are laid in parallel should be the same.
Regulate the operation mode if necessary to make sure the current of each
cable should not be more than permissive value.
(9) The cable fire prevention blocking devices should be complete.
(10) Carry out special inspection for the cable trench during rainy seasons.
4. Abnormal operation and trouble removal
(1) Cut off the cable power sources if following condition happens.
1 The cables smoke, catch fire even explode.
2 The cable insulation layer breaks down. The cable is grounded and it
discharges.
3 The external layer of cable is broken. The shielding layer is damaged.
The normal operation, measurement and control are influenced.
(2) The temperature of cable is high.
1 If the load is distributed unevenly and the cable temperature is high, it is
necessary to adjust the loads.
2 If the cable joint contacts poorly and the temperature are high, de-
energize and solve the problems if condition is allowed. If not, reduce
the loads and keep temperature less than the permissive values and de-
energize it if condition is allowed.
(3) The cable is on fire
1 Cut off the power source of the cable, report it to the shift leader and
inform the fire fighting department immediately.
2 1211The automatic fire fighting devices will activate automatically if
there is any. Start the fire fighting device manually if necessary. Use the
1211 fire extinguisher, CO2, fire extinguisher or sand to put out fire if
there is no automatic fire fighting device. Do not use foam fire
extinguisher or water to put out fire.
3 The fire fighter who will work in cable trench, channels or room should
wear positive pressure air breather, insulation gloves and insulation
shoes.
4 When putting out the fires, take measures to isolate the fire source and
prevent the fire from enlarging and worsening.
5 The fire fighters should not touch the earthing metal by hands. They
should not touch the cable racks and move the cables.

Page 143 of 157


SECTION DC SYSTEMS

I. General description and operation mode of DC system


1. General description of DC system in main plant
(1) Unit DC 110V system
1 The unit 110V DC system is single bus-bar sectional wire connection
mode. It has the charging bus-bar and power distribution bus-bar. The
charging bus-bar is used for charging the batteries and test. The DC
feeder is connected with the power distribution bus-bar. The battery
charger is connected with the power distribution bus-bar and charging
bus-bar via double throw switch.
2 Two groups of 110V power distribution bus-bars are connected via
switches. Additionally, they are equipped with the interlocking devices
for preventing two groups of batteries from operating in parallel. The
110V DC system supplies power for the unit control devices, measuring
devices, signal devices, reply protective devices, automatic activation
devices as well as the ash and dust removal system.
(2) Unit DC 220V system
1 The unit 220V DC system is single bus-bar sectional wire connection mode.
It has the charging bus-bar and power distribution bus-bar. The charging
bus-bar is used for charging the batteries and test. The DC feeder is
connected with the power distribution bus-bar. The battery charger is
connected with the power distribution bus-bar and charging bus-bar via
double throw switch.
2 220V power distribution bus-bars of two units are connected via switches.
Additionally, they are equipped with the interlocking devices for preventing
two groups of batteries from operating in parallel. The 220V DC system
supplies DC power to unit DC motor, the AC uninterrupted power source,
incandescent lamps and other DC power sources of power load.
3 Each unit is equipped with one 220V DC bus bar. The bus tie disconnector
or is installed between two 220V bus bars of two units. During normal
operation, do not get two batteries operate in parallel for long time.
4 Each unit is equipped with two 110V DC bus bars. It uses single bus bar
sectional connection mode. The bus tie disconnector is installed between
two DC bus bars. During normal operation, do not get two batteries operate
in parallel for long time.
5 The 110V DC system has 2 chargers. The charger has intelligent high
frequency charging module. This charging module is configured as N+1
mode, with 1 redundancy.
6 The 220V DC system has 2 chargers. The charger has intelligent high
frequency charging module. This charging module is configured as N+1
mode, with 1 redundancy.
7 One 110V batteries group has 52 batteries. The capacity is 1000Ah. At the

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end of emergency, the discharging voltage per battery is 1.87V. The
equalizing charging voltage per battery is between 2.30V to 2.40V. The
floating charging voltage per battery is between 2.23V to 2.27V. One 220V
batteries group has 103 batteries. The capacity is 1800Ah. At the end of
emergency, the discharging voltage per battery is 1.87V. The equalizing
charging voltage per battery is between 2.30V to 2.40V. The floating
charging voltage per battery is between 2.23V to 2.27V.
8 192.6246.1VThe permissive voltage changing range of 110V DC bus bar is
between 96.2V to 119.6V while permissive voltage changing range of 220V
DC bus bar is between 196.2V to 245.1V.
9 //The DC system consists of AC power distribution unit, intelligent charging
module, reducing devices, batteries, DC feeder unit, AC/DC monitoring
module, on/off monitoring module, battery inspection module, insulation
monitor module, DC power source system centralized control device, etc.
The DC power source system centralized control devices realize the real
time control and manage to high frequency switch power source, AC/DC
monitor module, on/off monitor module, battery inspection module, insulation
monitor module, DC bus bar and power distribution condition. Additionally, it
acquires data about battery operation condition, control the charging and
discharging, carry out battery floating charging temperature compensation,
display and stores the historical data and send DC system normal or faulty
information to DCS.
2. Normal operation mode of DC system
(1) During normal operation, the battery and charger operate in parallel. The
high frequency charger supplies power to DC loads. Additionally, it charges
the batteries in floating way with small current for compensating the batteries
self discharging. Generally, the charger is put at the Auto stable voltage
mode.
(2) During normal operation, the batteries operate in floating charging mode.
The DC power source centralized control devices will control charger to
charge the batteries automatically and periodically in equalizing mode.
Arrange special operator to charge, discharge and repair the batteries
periodically.
(3) 110V1A12B2ABNormal operation mode of 110 DC systems: the #1 charger
supplies power to the loads of section A of DC bus bar and charges #1
batteries in floating charging mode. #2 charger supplies power to the loads
of section B of DC bus bar and charges #2 batteries in floating charging
mode. Section A and section B operates separately. The bus tie
disconnector is open.
(4) 220VNormal operation mode of 220V DC system: During normal operation,
the unit charger is connected with the DC bus bar. It supplies power to unit
loads and charges the batteries in floating mode. The two unit 220V DC bus
bars operate separately. The bus tie disconnector is at the open position.
3. Abnormal operation mode of DC system
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(1) Abnormal operation mode of 220V DC system
1 If the #1/#2 charger of 220V DC system is out of operation due to
maintenance or fault, the bus tie CB will close and the #2/#1 will supply
power for two bus bars. The two bus bars of 220V system will operate in
parallel. #1/#2 charger and the relevant batteries will deactivate.
2 If the chargers of 220V DC system are deactivated due to fault, the
batteries will supply power to normal loads. Pay attention to the capacity
and the load current at this moment. The bus bar voltage should be
more than 192.6V in case of batteries over-discharge.
(2) Abnormal operation mode of 110V DC system
1 If the #1/#2 charger of 110V DC system is out of operation due to
maintenance or fault, the bus tie CB will close and the #2/#1 will supply
power for bus bar section A and section B. The two bus bars will operate
in parallel. #1/#2 charger and the relevant batteries A/B will deactivate.
Monitor the DC loads at this moment to avoid charger overload.
2 If the batteries A/B of 110V DC system is out of operation due to fault,
use #2/#1 charger to supply power to two bus bars. Section A and B
operate in parallel. The faulty batteries group A/B and the relevant #1/#2
charger are de-activated.
3 If the charger of 110V DC system is out of service, the batteries supply
power to normal loads. Pay attention to the capacity and the load
current at this moment. The bus bar voltage should be more than96.2V
in case of batteries over-discharge.
4. General description
(1) The power supply net open loop point operation mode of 110V DC system
1 The open loop point of control DC power supply net of 380V auxiliary
power system is set on the ground. Its DC power source switches of the
DC bus bar are closed.
2 The open loop point of other DC power supply system is set at the DC
bus bar. The local DC switches are closed.
(2) The single bus bar of DC bus bar operates separately. That is to say, the
disconnector of each bus bar is open. Do not close the loop at the open loop
point for loads of different DC bus bar.
(3) If the working charger of any bus bar is out of operation due to certain faults,
activate the standby charger to supply power to loads of that bus bar and
charge the batteries in floating mode.
(4) For DC bus bar, do not use charger to supply power to loads alone, without
batteries.
(5) Before starting up DC oil pump, adjust the charger output current
immediately to make sure the voltage of DC bus bar is within the permissive
range. After stopping DC oil pump, adjust the charger output current
immediately to make sure the voltage of DC bus bar is within permissive
range.
(6) During DC system operation, activate the earthing insulation monitoring
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device.
(7) During operation, if the charger fails to work, use batteries to supply power
to loads temporally. However, try to repair and recover the operation of
charger. If the faulty charger cannot be activated, get the standby charger
operate with batteries in parallel. If the standby charger cannot be used too,
get the two bus bars operate in parallel by bus tie CB as required.
(8) During normal operation, make sure the operation to the DC system does
not interrupt the DC bus bar.
(9) Do not get two bus bar operate in parallel if any one of them has earthing
signal.
(10) When two DC power source operate in parallel, check to make sure
following conditions are met. They should have same polarity and same
voltage (or the voltage difference is 2V to 3V). That is to say, only when the
polarity and the voltage of the synchronization point are correct can
synchronization be done.
(11) When two DC bus bars are operating in parallel, it is unnecessary to get one
of the CL6885 microcomputer DC system insulation monitoring devices out
of operation. If the DC system is grounded, the two insulation monitoring
devices can be switched when determining the grounded branch.
(12) Do not use the load CB to get two equipments which get power from two
different power source operate in parallel. Only when two bus bars operate
in parallel can the switch be closed and then opened.
(13) Do not get two groups of batteries operate in parallel. Do not get two
chargers operate in parallel for long time. Before synchronizing two DC bus
bars, adjust the voltages of two bus bars and make sure they are the same
or make sure the voltage difference is within 2V to 3V. After switching, stop
the chargers which have to be deactivated immediately.
5. Inspection and monitor during DC system operation
(1) Charge the batteries in floating charging mode continuously. Make sure the
charging current meets the following regulation and the voltage per battery is
between 2.23V to 2.27V

Table 5-3
Floating battery Floating current

Control battery 1A

Power battery 2A

(2) During normal operation, control the voltage of bus bar of 110V DC system
between 110V to 119.6V. For 220V DC system, the voltage of the DC bus
bar should be controlled between 220V to 240V. Adjust the voltage
immediately if it exceeds the required values. In any case, the voltage of the
bus bar should not out of the voltage required in 4.1.1.8. after batteries
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floating current is normal, make sure the charger output current of 110V DC
system 50A while the charger output current of 220V DC system 100A.
(3) Battery inspection items
1 The appearance of battery is complete. The joints are connected firmly,
without corrosion, loose and overheated parts. The acid should not
overflow.
2 Keep the battery room clean. The battery and the frame should be
complete, without contamination. Keep the room temperature between
15and 25.
3 The battery room should be complete. The ventilation and lighting are
good, without acid odor.
4 The batteries inspection devices work normally.
(4) inspection items of DC panel, charger, insulation inspection devices
1 Check the positions of small switch on the DC panel and the
instruments and signal indications. Make sure they are normal.
2 The insulation of each DC system is good. The insulation value between
operating DC to ground should be more than 20 k. Find out the reasons
and eliminate that if there is earthing.
3 The monitoring device of DC power source system should work normal.
The status indication is correct. There is no alarm and signal.
4 The connection between charger and feeder panel is tight, without loose
and overheated parts.
5 The voltage of DC bus bar and the floating current are normal. They
should not swing or increase/decrease sharply and frequently.
6 The AC power source indication lamp on the charger panel is on. The
Incoming operation indication lamp on the charger is off while the
System fault indication lamp is off.
7 /The Voltage lamp and the Actual measurement indication lamp on the
high frequency switch panel are on. The Auto/Manual selective switch is
at Auto position.
8 The insulation monitoring device indicates normally, without abnormal
alarm.
6. DC system operation
(1) Inspection prior to operation
1 The DC circuit should be complete. The entire safety measures have
been removed. The operation conditions are met.
2 The insulation resistance passes the test.
3 The CB and the contactor mechanism should not be blocked. The wire
connection of secondary circuit should not loosen.
4 The phase and the polarity are correct.
5 The standby floating charging device should be normal.
6 Each instruments and fuse are in good condition.
(2) DC bus bar synchronization
1 Adjust the voltages of two DC bus bars and make sure the they are the
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same(U2V, no earthing signals).
2 Adjust the outlet ammeter of the battery which will be stopped and make
sure the indication is zero.
3 Switch the outlet switching CB of the battery which will be stopped to
another DC bus bar.
4 Adjust the output current of high frequency switch power source module
to zero. Open the input CB at the AC side and the output disconnector.
5 Adjust the output current of high frequency switch power source module
till the DC bus bar voltage is normal and the battery floating charging
current is 0.5A.
6 Take off the output fuse of the battery which is stopped.
(3) activate one group of batteries
1 Insert the output fuse for the batteries which will be activated.
2 Adjust the output current of the high frequency switch power source
module and make sure the voltage of the bus bar the same as the
voltage of the batteries which will be activated.
3 Switch the output CB of batteries which will be activated to the DC bus
bar.
4 Activate another high frequency switch power source module recharger.
5 Adjust the output currents of the high frequency switch power source
module of two bus bars to make sure the voltages of bus bars are within
the required range. The floating charging current of battery should be
0.5A.
(4) Operation procedures for high frequency switch power source module to
supply power to DC bus bar and charge battery in floating way
1 Check to make sure the high frequency switch power source module
circuit is complete. The operation conditions are met.
2 Insert the output DC fuse of high frequency switch power source
module.
3 Put the output switching CB of high frequency switch power source
module at the bus bar side.
4 /Put the Manual/Auto selective switch on the high frequency switch
power source module panel at the Auto.
5 Check to make sure the status indicated on the DC power source
monitoring panel is floating charging.
6 Check to make sure the high frequency switch power source module in
the DC power source system monitoring device is at Start status.
7 Close the AC incoming air switches of high frequency switch power
source module.
8 Close the AC incoming arrestor air switch of high frequency switch
power source module.
9 Close the three phase AC input switches of high frequency switch power
source module. Check to make sure the Incoming operation indication
lamp is on.
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10 Check to make sure the ammeter and voltmeter of charging bus bar on
the DC panel indicate normally.
11 Check to make sure the ammeter of the batteries on the DC panel is
about 0.5A.
(5) Operation for shutting down the high frequency switch power source module
1 Open the AC incoming air switches of high frequency switch power
source module.
2 Open the three phase AC input switches of high frequency switch power
source module. Check to make sure the Incoming operation indication
lamp is off.
3 Put the output switching CB of high frequency switch power source
module at the open position.
4 Take off the output DC fuse of high frequency switch power source
module.
5 Start the standby high frequency switch power source module.
7. DC system faults and trouble removal
(1) Protection and alarm
1 Input over-voltage protection: if it 456V5VAC, the device will stop and
alarm. It will be recovered after grid is normal.
2 Input low-voltage alarm: 2805VAC
3 Output over-voltage alarm: 320V(220V DC system) 160V( 110V DC
system). The device will stop and alarm. It will recover when the voltage
is normal.
4 Output low-voltage alarm: It is set by monitoring system.
5 Overheated protection: if the temperature of charger is 755, it will stop
and alarm. It will recover when the temperature is normal.
6 Output short-circuit protection: The output current is limited. It will
recover after the trouble-removal.
7 Lightning protection: it is equipped with lightning protection circuit.
(2) Abnormal operation of DC system
1 The DC bus bar high voltage optical illustration board lights.
A. Check the bus bar voltage value to see whether the voltage relay
activates correctly.
B. Adjust the GZDW high frequency switch power source module
output current to maintain the bus bar voltage within the required
range.
C. Check to see whether the Auto charging indication lamp on the DC
panel is on. If it is on, that means the charger charge the batteries
automatically. Strengthen the monitor. After charging, make sure
the DC bus bar is normal.
D. If the charger is in trouble, activate the standby charger and contact
the maintenance personnel for repairing.
2 The DC bus bar low voltage optical illustration board lights.
A. Check the bus bar voltage value to see whether the voltage relay
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activates correctly.
B. If it is the auxiliary power system failure or the charger control circuit
failure causes the charger AC power source interruption, try to recover
the power source of charging devices as soon as possible.
C. If it is caused by overloading, increase the high frequency switch power
source module immediately to keep bus bar voltage normally.
D. If it is because of GZDW high frequency switch power source fault, start
the standby GZDW high frequency switch power source. If the standby
GZDW high frequency switch power source fails to work too, consider to
get two bus bars operate in parallel.
(3) DC system earthing fault
1 Description
A. The insulation monitoring devices of control/power DC system
sends out alarm signal.
B. DCS The DCS optical illustration display sends out Control/power
DC system insulation low signal.
C. UACS The UACS system sends out Control/power DC system
insulation low signal.
D. The local insulation monitoring devices send out low insulation
alarm.
2 General solutions
A. If the DC system is grounded and there is earthing alarm, use the
microcomputer DC insulation monitoring devices on DC distribution
panel to determine the circuit numbers, the earthing polarity and
earthing degree. Report it to shift leader and cooperate with the
relay protection operators and I&C operators to find out the earthing
point.
B. Before determining the earthing point, predict the relevant
accidents, such as the protection failure, equipment mis-operation,
and equipment damages.
C. Determine the earthing points according to failure bus bar series
indicated on the microcomputer insulation monitor devices. Ask
whether there is operator working on that circuit. Stop the work if
there is operator.
D. Check to see whether there is newly started equipment, wet
equipments. Cut off the power supply for the equipment for short
time if needed.
E. Pay special attention to the equipments whose insulation resistance
is low, the faulty equipment and the electric equipment and circuits
which have the maintenance work and check them carefully.
F. Cut off the power for short time to determine the earthing point.
Energize the equipment immediately after switchover no matter
whether the equipment is grounded. As for the control DC system,
stop the operation part, protective part, and the I &C parts at last.
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As for power DC system, stop the lighting part and then the power
parts. When cutting off the power sources of DC oil pumps, check
to make sure the oil pump is out of service.
G. The 110V DC system mainly supplies power to operation and
protective loads, it is not suitable to cut off the power source for
short time to determine the earthing point since it may influence the
unit normal operation. Just use the DC insulation monitoring
devices to determine the earthing point.
H. Check to see whether the insulation monitoring devices, high
frequency switch power source module, the batteries and the DC
bus bar are grounded.
I. If the grounded equipment is not allowed to be stopped, report it to
shift leader.
J. After eliminating the earthing faults, try to recover the original
operation mode of DC system as soon as possible.
3 Precautions when determining the DC system earthing
A. Arrange two personnel to determine the earthing point. One person
works while another one supervise the maintenance.
B. When determining the earthing point, take measures for preventing
DC circuit short circuit or another point earthing.
C. Do not work to the secondary circuit if the DC system is grounded.
D. If the DC system is grounded, make sure the maximum operation
period is less than 2 hours.
E. use the instrument whose internal resistance is less than 2000/V to
determine the earthing point.
F. If the equipment of other department has to be activated/deactivated,
report it to shift leader and predict the accidents.
(4) DC bus bar short circuit
1 DCSUACS Description: the charger connected with the bus bar trips.
The battery outlet fuse melts. The bus bar voltage disappears. The
DCS, UACS and the local automatic monitoring devices send out alarm
signal.
2 Solution
A. Predict the relevant accidents, such as CB and protection devices
mis-operation as well as protection devices refuse to work.
B. Open the CB of the loads connected with the faulty bus bar.
C. Open the disconnectors between batteries and bus bar.
D. Open the outlet output disconnector of the high frequency switch
power source module.
E. Open the AC incoming CB of high frequency switch power source
module.
F. Find out the no-load bus bar and measure the insulation resistance
of the bus bar. If the insulation resistance is normal, check the
charger and batteries to make sure they are normal. Report it to
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shift leader and try to energize the DC bus bar by charger. Replace
the battery outlet fuse and then measure the insulation of loads to
determine the faulty points. Finally, recover the operation of loads
without fault.
(5) Battery faults and battery fuse melts
A. If the charger trips at this moment, disconnect the switches for the loads
connected with the faulty bus bar. If the charger does not trip, adjust the
output current to maintain the bus bar voltage.
B. If it is the fuse of battery of DC bus bar melts causes the problems,
open the battery outlet output disconnector and use charger to supply
power separately. Recover the original operation mode after trouble
removal.
C. If it is the battery has the problems, get two bus bars to operate in
parallel. Report it to shift leader and contact the maintenance personnel.
8. Maintenance of DC power source system
(1) high frequency switch module
Table 5-4
Faults Causes Solutions
It displays meaningless It interrupted by Open and close AC input
characters. thunderstorm. once.
Input AC switch is not
It does not display or Close the AC input switch.
closed.
the non-indication lamp
Plug at the rear plate is
is on. Insert plug tightly.
loose.
It is controlled manually and
Reset the potentiometer or
the potentiometer is adjusted
The current/voltage is control it manually.
too low.
close to zero.
The module is activated via
Activate the module.
the monitor.
The baud rate is set wrongly. Set the baud rate as 9600.
Actual measurement
indication lamp flashes The plug at the rear plate is
Insert the plug tightly.
loose.
The plug at the rear plate is
Insert the rear plate tightly.
The inter-module loose.
current is not good. Use the current average Use the module rated current
value to calculate the ratio. as the denominator.

(2) High frequency switch AC/DC monitor module


Table 5-5
Faults Causes Solutions
The module does not get
The power indication lamp is off Apply power source.
the power source.
or the brightness of the lamp is
Replace it with 3A/250V
abnormal The internal fuse is broken
fuse.

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Faults Causes Solutions
The operation indication lamp It is interrupted by Open and close the AC
flashes abnormally. thunderstorms. input switch once.
The measurement value is not The connecting wire is Reconnect the
precise. loose. connecting wires tightly.
The baud rate of monitor Set the baud rate as
The communication is is wrong. 9600.
abnormal. The communication wires Re-connect the
are loose or broken, communication wires.

(3) DC monitoring device


Table 5-6

Faults Causes and solutions


Cause: fuse of device power source melts
The monitor displays nothing. The
Solution: replace the fuse.
power source lamp of the device is
Cause: the plug at the rear plate of device
off. The system sends out audible
contacts poorly
and visual alarm.
Solution: insert the plug tightly.
The key board has no response and Cause: the program is locked after strong
the operation indication lamp does interruption.
not flash. Solution: open and close the power source once.
Cause: the device communication wires are
The communication lamp does not
broken or short circuit.
light or always light.
Solution: replace the communication wires.
Causes: communication wires of other module
Sub-module communication error
and devices are broken or short circuit.
alarms
Solution: replace the communication wires.
Causes: system AC voltage is too high or too low.
The phase is open. The fuse of AC sampling
AC power voltage abnormal alarms
device of charging panel melts.
Solution: replace the melt fuse.
Cause: the incoming power source switch trips.
AC power voltage interruption alarms
The system AC power source is off.
Causes: arrester failure
Arrester air switch failure alarms Solution: replace the arrester and re-close the
CB.
Causes: arrestor failure
Arrestor failure alarms
Solution: replace the arrestor
Causes: the fuse of batteries in communication
Batteries fuse broken alarms panel is broken.
Solution: replace the fuse.
Cause: the charging module is set as Manual
Power bus bar high voltage alarms
mode and the voltage is set too high.
Power bus bar low voltage alarms Causes: the AC power source is interrupted too
long the batteries discharge excessively.

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Faults Causes and solutions
Monitoring devices fail to control the charging
module. The DC sampling fuse in the charging
panel melts.
Solution: replace the monitor. Replace the fuse.
The charging module is set at Manual and the
Control bus bar high voltage alarms
voltage is set too high.
Causes: the AC power source is interrupted too
long the batteries discharge excessively.
Monitoring devices fail to control the charging
Control bus bar low voltage alarms
module. The DC sampling fuse in the charging
panel melts.
Solution: replace the monitor. Replace the fuse.
The insulation resistance of branch decreases.
Insulation resistance abnormal
The insulation of bus bar in the cabinet
alarms
decreases. The insulation of batteries decrease.
Feeder CB tripping alarms Feeder branches failure
Cause: battery failure
Single battery high voltage alarms
Solution: replace the battery.
Cause: battery failure. Batteries charges
Single battery low voltage alarms excessively.
Solution: replace the batteries.
Single battery unbalanced voltage
alarms

Diagram 5-2 DC system supervisory device

Page 155 of 157


Training Document Series of Indonesia Tanjung Awar-Awar 2x350MW
Power Plant Project

Training Document for Steam Turbine Operation


Training Document for Boiler Operation
Training Document for Electric Operation
Training Document for Fuel Operation
Training Document for Chemical Operation
Training Document for Steam Turbine Maintenance
Training Document for Boiler Maintenance
Training Document for Electric Maintenance
Training Document for Fuel Maintenance
Training Document for Chemical Maintenance
Training Document for I&C Maintenance
Plant Safety Management Manual