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UNIT I Intro to business research methods questioning about past attitudes, history, and future expectations. Responses to
Business Research Definition: Business research is a systematic inquiry that these kinds of questions should be interpreted with care, however.
provides information to guide managerial decisions. it is a process of planning, Time-series Research:A time series design introduces repeated observations
acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating relevant data, information, and insights before and after the treatment and allows subjects to act as their own controls.
to decision makers in ways that mobilize the organization to take appropriate The single treatment group design has before-after measurements as the only
actions that, in turn, maximize performance. Business Research Significance:1) controls. There is also a multiple design with two or more comparison groups as
It allows to gather new knowledge 2) To enables to find solutions to operational well as the repeated measurements in each treatment group.The time series
and planning problems of business 3) It aids the enterprise to enhance format is especially useful where regularly kept records are a natural part of the
productivity, reduce cost, save time and maintain expertise of their core environment and are unlikely to be reactive. The time series approach is also a
competencies through research discovery 4) Helps in creating benchmarks to good way to study unplanned events in an ex post facto (meaning investigators
measure business progress 5) Early research identifies holes in the services and have no control over the variables and they cant manipulate it) manner.
regular research indicate whether advancements can be made in business. Research Questions/Problems:Research question is the hypothesis that best
The research process: Stage 1: Exploration: Clarifiying the research question states the objective of the research; the question(s) that focuses the researchers
Discover the management dilemma, Define the management question, Define attention. Research question is an alternative action that management might
the research question(s), Refine the research question(s). Stage 2: Research take to solve the management dilemma. Usually the most plausible action or the
proposal. Stage 3: Research design Strategy (type, purpose, time frame, scope, one that offers the greatest gain using fewer resources, is researched first.
environment) Data collection design, sampling design, Instrument development Research Problem:Defining a research problem is the fuel that drives the
& pilot testing. Stage 4: Data collection & preparation. Stage 5: Data analysis and scientific process, and is the foundation of any research method and
interpretation. Stage 6: Research reporting. Stage 7: Management decision. experimental design, from true experiment to case study.It is one of the first
Types of Research: 1)Reporting - provides a summation of data, often recasting statements made in any research paper and, as well as defining the research
data to achieve a deeper understanding or to generate statistics for comparison. area, should include a quick synopsis of how the hypothesis was arrived at.
The task may be quite simple and the data readily available. At other times, the Research Objectives:The research objectives address the purpose of the
information may be difficult to find. A reporting study calls for knowledge and project/investigation. These objectives may be research questions and associated
skill with information sources and gatekeepers of information sources. Such a investigative questions.
study usually requires little inference or conclusion drawing. 2) Descriptive -tries Research Hypothesis & Characteristics: Research hypothesis is a proposition
to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, and, some- times, which is formulated for empirical testing. As a declarative statement about the
how. The researcher attempts to describe or de ne a subject, often by creating a relationship between two or more variables, a hypothesis is of a tentative and
pro le of a group of problems, people, or events. Such studies may involve the conjectural nature. Hypotheses have also been described as statements in which
collection of data and the creation of a distribution of the number of times the we assign variables to cases. A case is defined in this sense as the entity or thing
researcher observes a single event or characteristic (known as a research the hypothesis talks about. The variable is the characteristic, trait, or attribute
variable), or they may involve relating the interaction of two or more variables. 3) that, in the hypothesis, is imputed to the case. Aproposition as a statement
Explanatory - goes beyond description and attempts to explain the reasons for about observable phenomena (concepts) that may be judged as true or false. A
the phenomenon that the descriptive study only observed. Research that studies descriptive hypothesesstate the existence, size, form, or distribution of some
the relationship between two or more variables is also referred to as a variable. Researchers often use a research question rather than a descriptive
correlational study. The researcher uses theories or at least hypotheses to hypothesis. Relational hypothesesdescribe a relationship between two variables
account for the forces that caused a certain phenomenon to occur. 4) Predictive with respect to some case. Correlational hypotheses state that the variables
this study is rooted both in theory and in explanation, It helps in providing occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the
plausible explanation for an event after it has occurred and it is desirable to be other. explanatory (causal) hypotheses, there is an implication that the existence
able to predict when and in what situations the event will occur. of or a change in one variable causes or leads to a change in the other variable.
Exploratory Research:Exploration is particularly useful when researchers lack a Role of Hypothesis:It guides the direction of the study. It identifies facts that
clear idea of the problems they will meet during the study. Through exploration are relevant and those that are not. It suggests which form of research design
researchers develop concepts more clearly, establish priorities, develop is likely to be most appropriate. It provides a framework for organizing the
operational definitions, and improve the nal research design. Exploration may conclusions that result. Strong Hypothesis:It should fulfill 3 conditions
also save time and money.Phases: 1) Discovery and analysis of secondary sources Adequate for its purpose, Testable, Better than its rivals.
published studies, document analysis, retrieval of information from orgs A concept is a generally accepted collection of meanings or characteristics
database. 2) Expert interviews 3) Interviews with individuals involved with the associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, and behaviors.
problem 4) GD with individuals involved with the problem. Objectives to Classifying and categorizing objects or events that have common characteristics
accompolish: 1) Expand your understanding of the management dilemma 2) beyond any single observation creates concepts. A construct is an image or
Gather background information on your topic to refine the research question. 3) abstract idea specifically invented for a given research and/or theory-building
Identify information that should be gathered to formulate investigative purpose. We build constructs by combining the simpler, more concrete concepts,
questions. especially when the idea or image we in- tend to convey is not subject to direct
4) Identify sources for and actual questions that might be used as measurement observation. Dictionary Definition is a concept defined with a synonym. An
questions. 5) Identify sources for and actual sample frames (lists of potential operational definition is a definition stated in terms of specific criteria for testing
participants) that might be used in sample design. or measurement. In practice, the term variable is used as a synonym for
Causal Research:Its also called explanatory research. It is the investigation of construct, or the property being studied. In this context, a variable is a symbol of
(research into) cause-and-effect relationships. In order to determine causality, it an event, act, characteristic, trait, or attribute that can be measured and to which
is important to observe variation in the variable that is assumed to cause the we assign values. Predictor or Independent Variable (IV)is manipulated by the
change in the other variable(s), and then measure the changes in the other researcher, and the manipulation causes an effect on the dependent
variable(s).There are two research methods for exploring the cause-and-effect variable.Criterion or Dependent Variable (DV)is measured, predicted, or
relationship between variables:Experimentation (e.g., in a laboratory) otherwise monitored and is expected to be affected by manipulation of an
andStatistical research. independent variable. A moderating or interaction variable (MV) is a second
Theoretical research:The term theoretical is sometimes informally used in lieu of independent variable that is included because it is believed to have a significant
hypothetical to describe a result which is predicted by theory but has not yet contributory or contingent effect on the original IVDV relationship. infinite
been adequately tested by observation or experiment.Theories are formulated to number of extraneous variables (EVs) exists that might conceivably affect a given
explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge relationship. Some can be treated as IVs or MVs, but most must either be
and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumed or excluded from the study. Control variables (CV) might influence the
assumptions.The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support DV, but their effect is not at the core of the problem which is investigated but still
a theory of a research study. it is included so that results arent biased. Extraneous variables can also be
Empirical Research: It is to denote observations and propositions based on confounding variables (CFVs) to thehypothesized IVDV relationship, similar to
sensory experience and/or derived from such experience by methods of inductive moderating variables. Intervening Variable (IVV) can be defined as a factor that
logic, including mathematics and statistics. Researchers using this approach theoretically affects the DV but cannot be observed or has not been measured.
attempt to describe, explain, and make predictions by relying on information Research in an evolutionary perspective: Descriptive, predictive, and normative
gained through observation.It is the design f procedures to collect factual models are found in business researchs evolutionary perspective. Descriptive
information about hypothesized relationships that can be used to decide if a models are used frequently for more complex systems. They allow visualization
particular understanding of a problem and its possible solution are correct. of numerous variables and relationships. Predictive models forecast future
Cross-sectional Research: It carried out once and represent a snapshot of one events. Normative models are used chiefly for control, informing us about what
point in time. It is opposite to Logitudinal research which is repeated over an actions should be taken. Models may also be static, representing a system at one
extended period. While longitudinal research is important, the constraints of point in time, or dynamic, representing the evolution of a system over time.
budget and time impose the need for cross-sectional analysis. Some benefits of a The role of theory in research:A theory is a set of systematically interrelated
longitudinal study can be revealed in a cross-sectional study by adroit concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict
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phenomena (facts). In this sense, we have many theories and use them
continually to explain or predict what goes on around us. To the degree that our
theories are sound and t the situation, we are successful in our explanations and