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BIOLOGY

Ms.KalyaniGanapathi

DIABETES

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ByKarthikey


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INTRODUCTION
Diabetesisadiseasewhichisverycommonthesedaysinpeople.Itisadiseasewhichiscaused
byhighbloodpressureorbloodglucose.Foodsgiveourbodyglucose.Foodswhichhave
excessiveglucosearenotadvisabletobeeatenbypeoplewhohavediabetes.Insulinisa
hormonethathelpstheglucosegetintoyourcellstogivethemenergy.

Therearemanydifferenttypesofdiabetes.Thereare3maintypesofdiseases-Type1,Type2
andGestationaldisease.

Diabeteshasmanyeffectsifleftforalotoftime.Itcandamageyoureyes,kidneys,nerves,and
canalsocauseheartdiseases,strokesandmayalscausetoremovealimb.

TheRoleofInsulin
Isletcellsarerequiredforthepancreastoproduceinsulin.Insulinplaysamajorpartin
metabolism.Ittransportssugarintothebloodandregulatessugarandglucose
concentration.Itdestroyssugarifexcesssugarisproduced.Asyourbloodsugarlevel
drops,sodoesthesecretionofinsulinfromyourpancreas.

Thebloodsugarcontentwillincreaseifpancreasstopsproducinginsulinwhichwillcause
differenttypesofdiseases.

TheRoleofGlucose
Glucoseisamainsourceofsugarforthecellstomakeupcellsandothertissues.Glucose
comesfromtwomajorsources:foodandyourliver.Sugarisabsorbedintothe
bloodstream,whereitenterscellswiththehelpofinsulin.Yourliverstoresglucoseas
glycogen.Whenyourglucoselevelsarelow,suchaswhenyouhaven'teateninawhile,
theliverconvertsstoredglycogenintoglucosetokeepyourglucoselevelwithinanormal
range.

TypesofDiabetes
Therearemanydifferenttypesofdiabeteswhichhaveslightvariations.

TYPE1DIABETES

Betacellsinourbodyproduceinsulinwhichdigeststhesugarandglucosethatistakenby
ourbody.Intype1diabetes,theinsulinproducingbetacellsslowlyarekilled.This
processtakesaboutafewyearsbutthesymptomsareseenearly.Thesecellsdieduetoa
misguidedattackbythebodysimmunesystem

Thisisusuallyseeninchildrenandyoungpeople.Thediagnosisstartsafterage30.The
usual.Geneticsmayplayaroleinthisprocess,andexposuretocertainenvironmental
factors,suchasviruses,maycausethedisease.

Causes

Sotheactualreasonswhythebetacellsarekilledorwhytype1diabetesoccursisstill
unclear.Thereareafewmajorcauses

Genes-Mostofthethetype1diabetespatientshaveoneoftheparentswhoareaffected
bytype1diabetes.

FoodConsumption-Ifwhilethebabywasyoung,exposutetodairyfoodsandfoodshigh
innitratedcancausetype1diabetes.

Treatment

Treatmentincludesaproperdietlowoncarbohydrates,regularexerciseseveralinsulin
injections.Monitoringbloodglucoselevelsseveraltimesadayandmaintainingit,
accordingly.Regularmedicalcheckupsforkidney,eye,heart,bloodandnervediseases.
Whenalloftheseconditionsaremaintaineditcancausethediabetestosubsidebutthe
dietshouldbeonecheckandafewtabletsshouldbetaken.

TYPE2DIABETES

Type2diabetesoccursusuallyintheelderpeopleandisoneofthemostcommondiabetes
withaboutmorethan80%ofdiabetesproblemsasType2.

Insulinallowsglucoseinthebloodtobeabsorbedbycellstobeused.Types2diabetes
usuallystartswhenthereisinsulinresistanceinthecellsandmoreinsulinisrequiredto
allowformovementofglucosetobeabsorbedbytheblood.Inthestarting,moreinsulinis
producedtomakeupfortheinsulinresistance,slowly,theinsulinneededdecreases
comparedtotheglucoseneedsandmoreglucoseisleftinsidethebloodcauseHighglucose
concentrationofblood.

Causes-

Genes,overweight

Treatment-

Insulinshotsareneeded.Medicineswhichreducebloodglucose,makemore
insulintobeproduced.

GESTATIONALDIABETES

Gestationaldiabetesisdiabeteswhichispresentinwomenduringpregnancywhenthey
havehighbloodsugarandmostofthetimeisreducedafterpregnancy.Thiscanalsocause
Type2DiabetesandpeoplewhoalreadyhaveType1orType2diabetesbefore
pregnancyhaveahighprobabilityofgettingGestationaldiabetes.

Duringpregnancy,bodygoesintomanyotherchangessuchasweightgainwhichchanges
thefunctionsandtheamountofinsulinrequiredforthecellsforglucosetogointothe
cells.Mostofthewomenhaveinsulinresistanceduringpregnancybutformostofthem
thepancreasisabletoproducemoreinsulin.

Bibliography

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