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Body Ritual among the Nacirema

Most cultures exhibit a particular conguration or style. A household has one or more shrines devoted to this pur-
single value or pattern of perceiving the world often leaves pose. The more powerful individuals in the society have
its stamp on several institutions in the society. Examples several shrines in their houses and, in fact, the opulence
are machismo in Spanish-inuenced cultures, face in of a house is often referred to in terms of the number of
Japanese culture, and pollution by females in some high- such ritual centers it possesses. Most houses are of wattle
land New Guinea cultures. Here Horace Miner demon- and daub construction, but the shrine rooms of the more
strates that attitudes about the body have a pervasive in- wealthy are walled with stone. Poorer families imitate the
uence on many institutions in Nacirema society. rich by applying pottery plaques to their shrine walls.
The anthropologist has become so familiar with the diver- While each family has at least one such shrine, the ritu-
sity of ways in which dierent people behave in similar als associated with it are not family ceremonies but are
situations that he is not apt to be surprised by even the private and secret. The rites are normally only discussed
most exotic customs. In fact, if all of the logically possi- with children, and then only during the period when they
ble combinations of behavior have not been found some- are being initiated into these mysteries. I was able, how-
where in the world, he is apt to suspect that they must be ever, to establish sucient rapport with the natives to ex-
present in some yet undescribed tribe. The point has, in amine these shrines and to have the rituals described to
fact, been expressed with respect to clan organization by me.
Murdock[1] . In this light, the magical beliefs and prac- The focal point of the shrine is a box or chest which is
tices of the Nacirema present such unusual aspects that built into the wall. In this chest are kept the many charms
it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the and magical potions without which no native believes he
extremes to which human behavior can go. could live. These preparations are secured from a variety
Professor Linton[2] rst brought the ritual of the of specialized practitioners. The most powerful of these
Nacirema to the attention of anthropologists twenty years are the medicine men, whose assistance must be rewarded
ago, but the culture of this people is still very poorly un- with substantial gifts. However, the medicine men do not
derstood. They are a North American group living in provide the curative potions for their clients, but decide
the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and what the ingredients should be and then write them down
Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the in an ancient and secret language. This writing is under-
Antilles. Little is known of their origin, although tradi- stood only by the medicine men and by the herbalists who,
tion states that they came from the east. According to for another gift, provide the required charm.
Nacirema mythology, their nation was originated by a The charm is not disposed of after it has served its pur-
culture hero, Notgnihsaw, who is otherwise known for pose, but is placed in the charmbox of the household
two great feats of strengththe throwing of a piece of shrine. As these magical materials are specic for certain
wampum across the river Pa-To-Mac and the chopping ills, and the real or imagined maladies of the people are
down of a cherry tree in which the Spirit of Truth resided. many, the charm-box is usually full to overowing. The
Nacirema culture is characterized by a highly developed magical packets are so numerous that people forget what
market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habi- their purposes were and fear to use them again. While the
tat. While much of the peoples time is devoted to eco- natives are very vague on this point, we can only assume
nomic pursuits, a large part of the fruits of these labors that the idea in retaining all the old magical materials is
and a considerable portion of the day are spent in ritual that their presence in the charm-box, before which the
activity. The focus of this activity is the human body, the body rituals are conducted, will in some way protect the
appearance and health of which loom as a dominant con- worshiper.
cern in the ethos of the people. While such a concern is
Beneath the charm-box is a small font. Each day every
certainly not unusual, its ceremonial aspects and associ- member of the family, in succession, enters the shrine
ated philosophy are unique.
room, bows his head before the charm-box, mingles dif-
The fundamental belief underlying the whole system ap- ferent sorts of holy water in the font, and proceeds with a
pears to be that the human body is ugly and that its nat- brief rite of ablution[3] . The holy waters are secured from
ural tendency is to debility and disease. Incarcerated in the Water Temple of the community, where the priests
such a body, mans only hope is to avert these charac- conduct elaborate ceremonies to make the liquid ritually
teristics through the use of ritual and ceremony. Every pure.


In the hierarchy of magical practitioners, and below the The medicine men have an imposing temple, or latipso,
medicine men in prestige, are specialists whose des- in every community of any size. The more elaborate cer-
ignation is best translated as holy-mouth-men. The emonies required to treat very sick patients can only be
Nacirema have an almost pathological horror of and fas- performed at this temple. These ceremonies involve not
cination with the mouth, the condition of which is be- only the thaumaturge[7] but a permanent group of vestal
lieved to have a supernatural inuence on all social re- maidens who move sedately about the temple chambers
lationships. Were it not for the rituals of the mouth, in distinctive costume and headdress.
they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums The latipso ceremonies are so harsh that it is phenome-
bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and
nal that a fair proportion of the really sick natives who
their lovers reject them. They also believe that a strong enter the temple ever recover. Small children whose in-
relationship exists between oral and moral characteristics.
doctrination is still incomplete have been known to resist
For example, there is a ritual ablution of the mouth for attempts to take them to the temple because that is where
children which is supposed to improve their moral ber.
you go to die. Despite this fact, sick adults are not only
The daily body ritual performed by everyone includes willing but eager to undergo the protracted ritual puri-
a mouth-rite. Despite the fact that these people are so cation, if they can aord to do so. No matter how ill the
punctilious[4] about care of the mouth, this rite involves supplicant or how grave the emergency, the guardians of
a practice which strikes the uninitiated stranger as revolt- many temples will not admit a client if he cannot give a
ing. It was reported to me that the ritual consists of insert- rich gift to the custodian. Even after one has gained and
ing a small bundle of hog hairs into the mouth, along with survived the ceremonies, the guardians will not permit the
certain magical powders, and then moving the bundle in neophyte to leave until he makes still another gift.
a highly formalized series of gestures[5] . The supplicant entering the temple is rst stripped of all
In addition to the private mouth-rite, the people seek out his or her clothes. In everyday life the Nacirema avoids
a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. These practition- exposure of his body and its natural functions. Bathing
ers have an impressive set of paraphernalia, consisting of and excretory acts are performed only in the secrecy of
a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods. The use of the household shrine, where they are ritualized as part
these items in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth in- of the body-rites. Psychological shock results from the
volves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the client. The fact that body secrecy is suddenly lost upon entry into the
holy-mouth-man opens the clients mouth and, using the latipso. A man, whose own wife has never seen him in an
above mentioned tools, enlarges any holes which decay excretory act, suddenly nds himself naked and assisted
may have created in the teeth. Magical materials are put by a vestal maiden while he performs his natural functions
into these holes. If there are no naturally occurring holes into a sacred vessel. This sort of ceremonial treatment
in the teeth, large sections of one or more teeth are gouged is necessitated by the fact that the excreta are used by a
out so that the supernatural substance can be applied. In diviner to ascertain the course and nature of the clients
the clients view, the purpose of these ministrations[6] is sickness. Female clients, on the other hand, nd their
to arrest decay and to draw friends. The extremely sacred naked bodies are subjected to the scrutiny, manipulation
and traditional character of the rite is evident in the fact and prodding of the medicine men.
that the natives return to the holy-mouth-men year after Few supplicants in the temple are well enough to do any-
year, despite the fact that their teeth continue to decay. thing but lie on their hard beds. The daily ceremonies,
It is to be hoped that, when a thorough study of the like the rites of the holy-mouth-men, involve discomfort
Nacirema is made, there will be careful inquiry into the and torture. With ritual precision, the vestals awaken
personality structure of these people. One has but to their miserable charges each dawn and roll them about on
watch the gleam in the eye of a holy-mouth-man, as he their beds of pain while performing ablutions, in the for-
jabs an awl into an exposed nerve, to suspect that a cer- mal movements of which the maidens are highly trained.
tain amount of sadism is involved. If this can be estab- At other times they insert magic wands in the supplicants
lished, a very interesting pattern emerges, for most of the mouth or force him to eat substances which are supposed
population shows denite masochistic tendencies. It was to be healing. From time to time the medicine men come
to these that Professor Linton referred in discussing a dis- to their clients and jab magically treated needles into their
tinctive part of the daily body ritual which is performed esh. The fact that these temple ceremonies may not cure,
only by men. This part of the rite includes scraping and and may even kill the neophyte, in no way decreases the
lacerating the surface of the face with a sharp instrument. peoples faith in the medicine men.
Special womens rites are performed only four times dur- There remains one other kind of practitioner, known as a
ing each lunar month, but what they lack in frequency is listener. This witchdoctor has the power to exorcise the
made up in barbarity. As part of this ceremony, women devils that lodge in the heads of people who have been
bake their heads in small ovens for about an hour. The bewitched. The Nacirema believe that parents bewitch
theoretically interesting point is that what seems to be a their own children. Mothers are particularly suspected
preponderantly masochistic people have developed sadis- of putting a curse on children while teaching them the
tic specialists.

secret body rituals. The counter-magic of the witchdoctor From the Latin abluere, to wash away
is unusual in its lack of ritual. The patient simply tells
[4] Marked by precise observance of the ner points of eti-
the listener all his troubles and fears, beginning with
quette and formal conduct.
the earliest diculties he can remember. The memory
displayed by the Nacirema in these exorcism sessions is [5] It is worthy of note that since Prof. Miners original re-
truly remarkable. It is not uncommon for the patient to search was conducted, the Nacirema have almost univer-
bemoan the rejection he felt upon being weaned as a babe, sally abandoned the natural bristles of their private mouth-
and a few individuals even see their troubles going back rite in favor of oil-based polymerized synthetics. Addi-
to the traumatic eects of their own birth. tionally, the powders associated with this ritual have gen-
erally been semi-liqueed. Other updates to the Nacirema
In conclusion, mention must be made of certain practices culture shall be eschewed in this document for the sake of
which have their base in native esthetics but which de- parsimony.
pend upon the pervasive aversion to the natural body and
its functions. There are ritual fasts to make fat people thin [6] Tending to religious or other important functions
and ceremonial feasts to make thin people fat. Still other [7] A miracle-worker.
rites are used to make womens breasts larger if they are
small, and smaller if they are large. General dissatisfac- [8] Malinowski, Bronislaw. Magic, Science, and Religion.
tion with breast shape is symbolized in the fact that the Glencoe: The Free Press, page 70. Bronislaw Mali-
ideal form is virtually outside the range of human varia- nowski (1884-1942) is a famous cultural anthropologist
best known for his argument that people everywhere share
tion. A few women aicted with almost inhuman hyper-
common biological and psychological needs and that the
mammary development are so idolized that they make a function of all cultural institutions is to fulll such needs;
handsome living by simply going from village to village the nature of the institution is determined by its function.
and permitting the natives to stare at them for a fee.
[9] Did you get it?
Reference has already been made to the fact that excre-
tory functions are ritualized, routinized, and relegated to
secrecy. Natural reproductive functions are similarly dis-
torted. Intercourse is taboo as a topic and scheduled as
an act. Eorts are made to avoid pregnancy by the use
of magical materials or by limiting intercourse to cer-
This work is in the public domain worldwide because it
tain phases of the moon. Conception is actually very
has been so released by the copyright holder.
infrequent. When pregnant, women dress so as to hide
their condition. Parturition takes place in secret, without
friends or relatives to assist, and the majority of women
do not nurse their infants.
Our review of the ritual life of the Nacirema has certainly
shown them to be a magic-ridden people. It is hard to un-
derstand how they have managed to exist so long under
the burdens which they have imposed upon themselves.
But even such exotic customs as these take on real mean-
ing when they are viewed with the insight provided by
Malinowski[8] when he wrote:

1 Footnotes are added by Dowell as

modied by Chase
[1] Murdock, George P. 1949. Social Structure. NY: The
Macmillan Co., page 71. George Peter Murdock (1897-
1996 [?]) is a famous ethnographer.

[2] Linton, Ralph. 1936. The Study of Man. NY: D.

Appleton-Century Co. page 326. Ralph Linton (1893-
1953) is best known for studies of enculturation (main-
taining that all culture is learned rather than inherited; the
process by which a societys culture is transmitted from
one generation to the next), claiming culture is humanitys
social heredity.

[3] A washing or cleansing of the body or a part of the body.


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