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Bhagwani Bai

HIAD 7510

Dr. Mitsunori Misawa

December 5, 2015

Dictionaries of Terms

Academic Capitalism

Here institutions of higher education become a commercial enterprise in the the pursuit

of market and market-like activities to generate external revenues Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004,

p. 11). So while students my shop for their education, colleges and universities are also

shopping for students! Merriam & Bierema. 2014, P. 3)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Academagogy

In this model of teaching and learning, it falls to the informed and critically aware

academic (scholar) to select the most appropriate style of learning and evaluation for a given

class and a given learning experience. This new model dispenses with tautological arguments

over whether we are teaching children or adults, men or women, and allows us to bring the focus

back to becoming better teachers or facilitators of learning for our students and selecting the
most appropriate evaluation tools that will most effectively assess whether our learning

objectives have been achieved. (p.3)

Winter, Abigial. J., McAuliffe, Marisha. B., Hargreaves, Doug. J., & Chadwick, Gray.

(2009). The transition to academagogy . Paper presented at the philosophy of eduation

society of Australasia (PESA) Conference Brisbane, Queensland,

http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17367

Action Learning

Action Learning (AL), a form of action research, is an approach to developing people

that emphasized learning from and through experience by working on a meaningful problem. In

AL, participants learn as they work in small groups to examine and take actions on a problem.

(Watkins and Marsick (2010, P. 64-65)

Watkins Karen. E. and Marsick Victoria. J. (2010) Group and organizational learning. In In

Kasworm, C.E., Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and

continuing (pp. 59-68) Los Angeles: SAGE.

Methods by which learners actively participate in the learning process, e.g. discussion

group, problem-solving, experimentation, etc. Jarvis et al. (1999, p. 4)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Adult and Continuing Education


According to the Merriam and Brockeet, adult and continuing education can be defined

as activities intentionally designed for the purpose of bringing about learning among those

whose age, social roles or self-perception, define the adults. (2007, p. 8 as cited in Kasworm et

al. 2010, p. 1)

Kasworm, Carol. E., Rose, Amy. D., & Ross-Gordon, Jovita. M. (2010) In In Kasworm, C.E.,

Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 1-10) Los

Angeles: SAGE.

The fusion of two concepts, adult education and continuing education, as in the National

Institute of Adult Continuing Education, is an attempt to end the historic division between adult

liberal education and vocational education and to illustrate that both are about the education of

adults. It should be noted that the two terms are frequently used separately but in the same

phrase, ie adult and continuing, eg in the 1989 Handbook of the American Association. Jarvis et

al. (1999, p. 5)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Adult Literacy Education

Adult literacy education is a function of the evolving concept of literacy that over time

has moved from a school-based model to a functional set of skills or competencies to be

mastered, the more recent social and cultural notion of multiple literacies (Askov, 2000, 248).

Underlying literacy education are behaviorist and cognitivist learning theories. These two

theories align with the double thrust towards an education for workers (behaviorist) and one
for leaders (cognitive), the former being taught to behave without thinking the latter to think

without any resulting praxis or action. (p. 104)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Analytic Philosophy of Adult Education

It originated in such movements as logical positivism, scientific positivism and British

analytic philosophy. This approach to philosophy emphasizes the need for clarifying concepts,

arguments, and policy statements used in adult education. (p. 14)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Anarchist

The anarchist tradition in education has been examined by Spring (1973, 1975). As

social and political philosophy, anarchism has raised fundamental questions about the role and

nature of authority in the society, and since the eighteenth century it has questioned the very

existence of state system of schooling and the possibility of non-authoritarian forms of

education (p.148)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.


Andragogy

Andragogy is the theory of adult learning that sets out the scientific fundamentals of

the activities of learners and teachers in planning, realizing, evaluating, and correcting adult

learning (Zmeyov, 1998, p. 106 as cited in Taylor and Kroth, 2009. P. 3).

Taylor Brayn., & Kroth, Michael. (2009) Andragogys transition into the future: Meta-analysis

of andragogy and its search for a measurable instrument. Journal of adult education

38(1), (p. 1-11)

Helping human beings learn, and it therefore has implications for the education of

children and youth (Knowles, 1970, 38-39 as cited in Elias and Merriam, 2005. p.132)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Creating good learning experiences for adults is what andragogy is all about (Merriam

and Berrima, 2014. p.44) Andragogy comes from the Greek word aner, meaning man, so

andragogy means helping adults learn (Knowles, 1973, p. 42-43 as cited in Merriam and

Berrima, 2014. p.44)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L.. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

An andragogical approach, however, also refers to a way of thinking and being with

adult learners and developing adult-adult relationships. (Bourcouvalas M. and Lawrence R.L.

2010, pp.36)
Boucouvalas Marcie. and Lawrence Randee. L. (2010), Adult learning. In Kasworm, C.E.,

Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 35-48)

Los Angeles: SAGE.

Behaviorism

An experimental and theoretical approach in psychology, associated with J B Watson

and B F Skinner, in which experimental psychologists study observable, measurable behavior.

Jarvis et al. (1999, p. 18)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Behaviorist believe that human behavior is the result of the arrangement of particular

stimuli in the environment. If this behavior is reinforced or rewarded, it is likely to continue; if it

is not reinforced it is likely to disappear. (Merriam and Bierema, 2014, p. 26)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Behaviorism focus upon the overt, observable behavior of an organism. The Intellect,

feelings, emotions and a persons inner life are not observable or measurable and therefore not

investigated in and of themselves/ Behaviorists from Watson through Skinner believe all human

behavior is the result of a persons prior conditioning and is determined by external forces in the

environment over which a person has little or no control. (p. 83)


The way to understand humans is through observing their behavior, not exploring the

inner, unobservable recesses of mind and emotions. (p. 86)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Cognition

Cognition drives from the Latin root (cognosco, Cognoscere, Cognovi, Congnitum) and

is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as the action or faculty of knowing, knowledge,

consciousness, Friquently, however, discussions revolving around adult cognition restrict the

term to thinking, which is actually derived from a different Latin root (cogito, cogitare, congitavi,

congitatum.) Boucouvalas and Lawrence, 2010, p. 36)

(Boucouvalas Marcie. and Lawrence Randee. L. (2010). Adult learning. In Kasworm, C.E.,

Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 35-48)

Los Angeles: SAGE.

Cognitive Learning Theory

Cognitive learning theory is about how the brain processes information; social cognitive

theory includes learning through observing, modeling, and mentoring Merriam and Bierema,

2014, p. 41)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass
Community Education

Community education as it has developed since the early decades of the twentieth

century can be characterized by its two major thrusts more easily than by a single definition. The

two thrusts are 1) the enhancement of school programs by involving the community in the school

programs by involving the community in the schools and 2) the enhancement of the community

through providing educational experiences for all people of all ages in the community. (p. 77)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Constructivist Learning Theory

Constructivist learning theory is not only about how we mechanically process

information, but how we make meaning of that information, meaning which is shaped by our

sociocultural context. Merriam and Bierema, 2014, p. 41)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L.. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Conscientization

Conscientization for Freire entails a radical denunciation of dehumanizing structures,

accompanied by an announcement of a new reality to be created. It entails a rigorous and rational

critique of the ideology that supports these structures and is brought about not through
intellectual efforts alone but through praxis, the authentic union of action and reflection.

Conscientization for Freire is a social activity in which individuals communicate through

dialogue with others about how they experience reality (p.157)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Content Reflection

Reflection on what we perceive, think, feel or act upon. (Merriam and Bierema, 2014,

p. 85)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Critical Management Studies

Critical management studies emerged in 1992 with a book of the same title by Alvesson

and Willmott. CMS critically evaluates management theory and practice and questions the

truths that tend to preserve power among managers and executives, typically white males. Its

goals include fostering insights, providing critique, and creating a transformative redefinition

of organization practices, cultures and structures. (Alvesson and Deetz 1996) (p. 2200

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass
Critical theory

Critical theory assumes that inequity is a permanent structural reality and is accepted

without complaint because complaint ideology has convinced the majority that inequity is

normal and predictable. The purpose of critical theory is to change this state of affairs. (p. 75)

Brookfield, D. Stephen (2010). Theoretical framework for understanding the field. In Kasworm,

C. E., Rose, A. D., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2010). Handbook of adult and continuing

education. (pp, 71-81) Los Angles: SAGE

Critical theory is a philosophical stance that critiques social conditions and challenges

ideologies we have come to accept as truth as a means of ending oppression and promoting

emancipation. (p. 236)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

A sociological approach to analyzing society that owes its origin to the Frankfurt

School, especially more recently to the work of Jrgen Habermas. Critical theory finds its roots

in Marxism and Freudian psychology, but more recently it has become more philosophical and

linguistic. It does not accept the positivist value-free approach of certain forms of social science

but asserts that no interpretation of social fact is value free. Hence, it is possible to analyze the

values that underlie social action and the methods through which interpretation is socially

constructed. This process, claim the critical theorists, is emancipatory. (p. 45-46)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK


Critical Race Theory

Critical race theory emerged from a legal movement that evolved in the 1970s as a form

of critique over delayed progress of civil rights litigation and racial reform. CRT challenges us to

confront the role of law in upholding white supremacy. (p. 219)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking the ability to assess your assumptions, beliefs and actions is

imperative to survival; failure to engage in it makes youre a target of those who may wish to

harm or manipulate you (Brookfield, 2012b). Intellectually engaged, skillful and responsible

thinking that facilitates good judgment, critical thinking requires the application of assumptions,

knowledge, competence and the ability to challenge ones own thinking. (p. 222)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Disorienting Dilemma

A disorienting dilemma is brought about when a significant personal life event

precipitates a crisis in our lives such as the death of a loved one, being a victim of a crime, or

losing your job. Subsequent research suggests that while a disorienting dilemma is most easily
identified as triggering the process, there can also be an accumulation of experience over the

time that eventually come together to foster a transformation. . (Merriam and Bierema, 2014,

p. 84)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Situations that are disturbing and surprising because they contradict very dramatically

what we thought were stable understandings of how the world works. (p. 78)

Brookfield, D. Stephen (2010). Theoretical framework for understanding the field. In Kasworm,

C. E., Rose, A. D., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2010). Handbook of adult and continuing

education. (pp, 71-81) Los Angles: SAGE

Embodied Knowing

Embodied knowing is about attending to our body as a site of knowing and learning.

(Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 145)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Ethnocentrisms
The tendency to assess social behavior and values against those of ones own group.

This often results in certain forms of prejudice occurring in people who are ethnocentric. Jarvis

et al. 1999, p.?)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Ethnomethodology

The sociological study of the way in which ordinary people understand and produce

coordinated social interaction. As a research technique, it has been more frequently used in the

study of childrens education than it has been in adult education. (p. 70)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Epistemology

Epistemology investigates the rules for determining whether we have arrived at truth,

opinion, or falsehood (Elias & Merriam 2005, P. 3)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

The theory of knowledge; a branch of philosophy. (p. 69)


Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Experiential learning

In experiential learning the learners are engaged in learning about interconnectedness

rather than learning about objects. The focus is primarily on elements such as the conscious and

unconscious contents of individuals minds; individuals relationships with others with whom

they have a personal link; individuals minds; individuals relationships with others with whom

they have a personal link; individuals relatedness to others with whom they have connection but

no personal link. (pp. 152-153)

Smith Rgina.O. (2010) Facilitation and design of learning. In In Kasworm, C.E., Rose, A.D., &

Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 147-155) Los Angeles:

SAGE.

Existential Humanism

Existentialism is a modern expression of humanistic thought that has had great influence

on a number of adult educators, especially Carl Rogers. Existentialism is a broad term: that

embrace the thought of a rather diverse groups of thinkers; Soren Kiekegaard, Fredriech

Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Albert Camus, Gabriel Marcel, Paul Tillich, Martin

Buber, Jean Paul Sartre and Simone deBeauvoir . This philosophical movement is deeply

concerned with the freedom and integrity of the individuals in the face of increased
bureaucratization in society and its institution, as well as the whole gamut of human relations.

Existentialist stress awareness, consciousness, perception, the total meaning-structure of

individuals, their visions of life and death, their work choice and other aspects of their lives. (p.

113)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Expressiveness

"The expressiveness of postmodern adult education leads it to reject overly planned events and

needs-based programming in favor of being responsive to the non-cognitive, emotive interests,

inclinations, and preferences of its participants Bagnall 1999, 135) (p. 240)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Feminist pedagogy

Feminism focuses on women and other marginalized social marginalized social group,

bringing attention to inequality in politics, economics, and society. Feminist pedagogy seeks to

create learning environments where learners can critique social conditions and understand how

their gender, race, sexuality, or class affects their personal, work, and social lives. In other words,

its is not simply concerned with the individual experience of women, but rather how social forces
create condition that marginalize all women into situation such as being segregated into gendered

jobs or receiving less pay than men for comparable skill and work. (p. 218)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Freudian

One of the basic problems of the Marxist socialist approach to educational change is its

assumption that once people become aware of what they view as evil social structures, they will

be able to bring about the necessary changes. The Freudian left addresses itself to the problem

inherent in this assumption. It points out that many persons are prevented from acting in their

own self-interests because of a structure of authoritarianism that is imposed from the earliest

stages of child development The solution of the Freudian left lie in sexual freedom, changes in

family organization, and libertarian methods of childrearing and education (p.151)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Homodynamic

A society in which a balance could be achieved between cultural components that

imitated the past and components that were inventive of the future. Survival of individuals and

society depended upon achieving this balance (Robert Blaely, 1965 as cited in Elias and

Merriam, 2005, p. 74)


Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Holism

According to Fasokun, Katahoire, and Oduaran (2005), holism is a belief that

individuals learn through continuous interaction with the community and the environment.

According to Erickson (2007), the term holism is derived from the Greek work holo, which

means whole but the concept of holism is rooted in an ancient Indian Vedic culture that existed

thousands of years ago. In Sanskirt language used by the Indian Vedic culture, the world sarvah

which means whole, intact, or uninjured, was used to describe the nature of humans as an

integral part of the universe. More specifically, the word sarvah means that when the physical

form of the human spirit is instilled with omnipotent source of energy (or spirit) derived from the

universe. It is whole, uninjured, and intact. (Erickson, 2007, pp. 130-140)

1. An approach to learning that seeks to engage fully all aspects of learner mind, body

and spirit. 2. Holism is a belief that individuals learn through continuous interaction with the

community and the environment. (p. 150)

Smith. Regina.O. (2010) Facilitation and design of learning. In In Kasworm, C.E., Rose, A.D.,

& Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 147-155) Los

Angeles: SAGE.

Heutagogy
The term heutagogy was coined by Hase and Kenyon in the late 1990s. They see

heutagogy as a desire to go beyond the simple acquisition of skills and knowledge as a

learning experience (Hase and Kenyon 2000, p.3); 'knowledge sharing' rather than 'knowledge

hoarding' (Ford, 1997 in Hase and Kenyon, 2000), where knowing how to learn will be a

fundamental skill in the future of our workplaces. (as cited in Winter et. Al. 2009, p. 2)

Winter, Abigial. J., McAuliffe, Marisha. B., Hargreaves, Doug. J., & Chadwick, Gray.

(2009). The transition to academagogy . Paper presented at the philosophy of eduation

society of Australasia (PESA) Conference Brisbane, Queensland,

http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17367

Hidden curricula

The term refers to unstated norms, values, and beliefs that are transmitted to students

through underlying rules that structure the routines and social interactions in the educational

setting (Giroux 1983). (p. 3)

Corley, Mary. A. (2003). Poverty, racism, and literacy (ERIC Digest No. 243). Columbus, OH:

ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Ohio State University

Humanistic Adult Education


Humanistic adult education is related in its development to existential philosophy and

humanistic psychology. The key concepts that emphasized in this approach are freedom and

autonomy, trust, active cooperation, participation and self-directed learning. (p. 13)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Idiosyncratic

Idiosyncrasy; differences which do not get themselves realized in action may readily

become negative regrets and frustrations. (Lindeman 1926, P. 55)

Lindeman, Eduard. C. (1926). The meaning of adult education. New York: New Republic, Inc.

Institutional Racism

The operative force that causes certain groups of people to be marginalized in society, to

be regarded as inferior, and to experience unequal and limited access to resources is institutional

racism. (p.3)

Corley, Mary. A. (2003). Poverty, racism, and literacy (ERIC Digest No. 243). Columbus, OH:

ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Ohio State University

Intelligence
Psychologically speaking intelligence is the ability to learn, the capacity to solve the problems,

to utilize knowledge in evolving, continuing accommodations to changing environments. (p. 25)

Lindeman, Eduard. C. (1926). The meaning of adult education. New York: New Republic, Inc.

Learning

A change in human disposition or capacity or capacity that persists over a period of time

and is not simply ascribable to processes of growth. Gange, 1985, p.2 as cited in Meriam and

Bierema, 2014, p. 25)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Liberal Adult Education

Liberal adult education has its beginnings in the philosophical theories of classical

Greek philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This liberal education tradition was adopted

and adapted in the Christian schools in schools in early, medieval and modern times. It became

the predominant educational theory today. The emphasis in this tradition is upon liberal learning,

organized knowledge, and the development of the intellectual powers of the mind. (p. 12)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.


Materialism

The theory that the laws of matter and motion can explain reality without any appeal to mind or

spiritual reality. In the materialist viewpoint humans are part of nature, though they are complex

parts. (p. 84)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Metaphysics

Metaphysics searches out the most general principles of reality. Many contemporary

emphases in philosophy question the possibility of metaphysical knowledge, i.e., knowledge

about reality in the most general sense that is applicable to all reality. (Elias & Merriam, 2005,

P. 3)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

The study of human existence and phenomena as a whole, instead of through the study

of elements of it empirically through the natural sciences. (Jarvis & Wilson, 1999, p. 131)

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Motivation
Motivation is the drive and energy we put into accomplishing something we want to do.

We cannot see or touch it, but it is present in our thought and action. (p. 166)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Multicultural Education

Multicultural education is concerned with providing strategies for education to create

democratic, inclusive learning environments that honor the cultural diversity of learners p. 220)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Philosophy

For the Greeks, who coined the word, it was the search for what is real in a world of

appearances. It was the quest for the beautiful in a garish world. It was separating of good from

the bad. It was searching for unity among the fragmented elements of life. (p. 2)

Philosophy is a more reflective and systemic activity than common sense. Philosophy

raises questions about what we do and why we do it, and goes beyond individual cases and

phenomena to treat questions of a general nature. (p. 5)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.


Positivism

Positivism is the third philosophic tradition to which modern behaviorism is allied. Positivism

was proposed by Auguste Comte who contended that one arrived at knowledge not through

theology or traditional philosophy but through scientific observation and the measurement of

facts. (p. 85)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, like critical theory, emerged in the 20th century. Postmodernism

critiques what are considered absolute truth or metanarratives (Lyotard, 1984). A

metanarrative is a grand story or shared historical account of events that is not questioned.

(p.217)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Postmodern Adult Education

Postmodern adult education offers a trenchant criticism of the entire enterprise of adult

education. Postmodernist critiques, which began in arts, now permeates all academic disciplines,

including education. Based on the writings of well-known European philosophers and theorists
this philosophy questions such fundamental concepts as truth, theory, reality, knowledge, and

power. (p. 14)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Process Reflection

Process reflection is an examination of how we perform these functions of perceiving,

thinking, feeling, or acting (Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 85)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Progressive Adult Education

Progressive adult education has its beginnings in the progressive movement in politics social

change, and education. This approach to educational philosophy emphasized such concepts as

the relationship between education and society, experience-centered, vocational, and democratic

education. (p. 12)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Queer Studies
Different from Queer Theory (an analysis within queer studies that challenges how we

socially construct categories of sexuality) queer studies emered approximately 20 years ago. Is is

a multidisciplinary field grounded in critical theory that explores power relations related to

sexuality and gender identity with a focus on LGBTI (Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and

intersex) individuals. Queer studies examines queer influences in society and is also concerned

with their relationship to the social and political oppression of marginalized people based on

gender, race and class. (p. 220)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Radical Adult Education

Radical or critical adult education derives from the various radical movements that have

emerged in the past three centuries anarchism, Marxism, socialism, left-wing Freudianism,

critical theory and radical feminism. The radicals in education propose education as a force for

achieving radical social change. Education in this view-point is closely connected with social,

political and economic understanding of cultures and with the development of methods to bring

people to an awareness of responsible social action. (p. 14)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Reflective Practice
Practice based learning or reflective practice is learning that is acquired through

reflection on or in practice (experience). (Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 126)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Reflexive Contextualization

Postmodern adult education is its goals, curriculum, procedures, and programs is

partially determined by its cultural context and is partially undermined. This in contract to

modernist theories of philosophies that determine educational events. This situation arises

because of the postmodern tenet of not privileging any particular discourses as necessarily

leading to the true, the good, the authentic and the beautiful and contingency of all beliefs (1999)

This tendency produces great diversity in the field of adult education in goals, curriculum,

procedures, and participants. This diversity recognizes many forms of knowledge, including the

ethnical, the technical, and the aesthetic, postmodern adult education is thus open to influences

that may have been suppressed in the past through centralized planning. Systematization,

outcomes-based education, and evaluation. The role of the state in regulating adult education is

rejected. The tendency also favors a short term perspective in program planning, remaining open

to all contingencies. Finally this tendency privileges experiential learning including the

recognition of prior learning. (p .240-241)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.


Scientific Realism

A second philosophic tradition to which modern behaviorism is allied is scientific realism and

empiricism. Francis Bacon introduced into Western through the inductive method by which one

arrived at truth through an examination of information gained from the senses alone. (p. 84)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Self-actualization

The desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is

capable of becoming (Maslow, 1959, p. 2 as cited in Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 30)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass.

Self-actualization, growth or self-transcendence are innate human characteristic according to

humanistic philosophy and psychology. Men and women continuously strive towards personal

growth and towards their unique potentialities (p. 121)

Elias, John., & Merriam, Sharan. B. (2005). Philosophical foundations of adult education.

Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Self-directed Learning Process


Knowles is well-known for his definition of the SDL of process in which individuals

take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their needs formulating

learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and

implementing appropriates learning strategies, and evaluating those learning outcomes.

(Knowles, 1975, p. 18 as cited in Merriam & Bierema 2014, p. 63)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Social Movement

Social movements on the other hand engage in social action and promote a prescriptive

approach to social change. Within adult and continuing education, social movement learning

refers to the a) learning by persons who are part of any social movement; and b) learning by

persons outside of a social movement as a result of actions taken or simply by the existence of

social movements. (Hall & Clover, 285, p, 324 as cited in Kasworm et al. 2010, p.7)

Kasworm, Carol. E., Rose, Amy. D., & Ross-Gordon, Jovita. M. (2010) In In Kasworm, C.E.,

Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 1-10) Los

Angeles: SAGE

Somatic Learning
Somatic or embodied knowing involve accessing knowledge through the body.

Embodied learning challenges the Cartesian dualistic belief of the mind being separate from the

body by calling attention to the body as a source of learning

(Boucouvalas Marcie. and Lawrence Randee. L. (2010), Adult learning. In Kasworm, C.E.,

Rose, A.D., & Ross-Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 35-48)

Los Angeles: SAGE.

Those forms of learning founded on the biological rather than the psychological. Jarvis,

& Wilson. (1999, p. 191).

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Spirituality in Learning

Spirituality in learning is about connections to others, to the world around us, to a force

beyond ourselves, For some spirituality is an avenue of meaning-making in learning. (Merriam

& Bierema, 2014, p. 145)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass
Stigma

A mark or blemish, typically culturally or economically defined, that causes some

people to be treated as different by others. Jarvis, & Wilson. (1999, p. 193).

Jarvis, Peter., & Wilson, A. L. (1999). International dictionary of adult and continuing

education. Kogan Page. London N1 9JN, UK

Systemic Violence

Members of some groups live with the knowledge that they must fear random unproved

attacks on their persons or property, which have not motive but to damage, humiliate, or destroy

the persons (Young, 1990, p. 62) They suffer not only from actual attacks but from the fear of

such assaults which deprives the oppressed of freedom and dignity (p.62) Everyone know it

happens and will happen again always at the horizon of social imagination (p.62 as cited in

Butterwick and Egan, 2010, p. 116)

Butterwick. Shauna., and Egan. John. P. (2010). Sociology of adult and continuing education;

some key understanding for the field of practice. In Kasworm, C.E., Rose, A.D., & Ross-

Gordon,J.M. (E.ds) Handbook of adult and continuing (pp. 113-122) Los Angeles:

SAGE.

Transformative Learning

Transformative learning is about change in your perspective on yourself and you place

in the larger social context. (Merriam and Bierema, 2014, p. 102)


Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass

Transformation as Social Change

The third perspective, is about systemic, sociopolitical change and is most associated

with Paulo Freire. (Merriam and Bierema, 2014, p. 102)

Merriam Sharan, B., and Bierema Laura, L. (2014) Adult learning linking theory and

practice. Jossy-Bass