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Act of Teaching Chapter 7

Outline
I. Discussion: Learning through Informative Interaction
- What Is a Discussion?
- Purposes and Characteristics of Discussion
- Good Discussion Leaders
- Good Discussions
- When Discussions Should Be Used
- Research on Discussion
- Limitations of Discussions
- Summary on Discussion
II. Independent Study: Teaching as Giving and Guiding Seatwork and Homework
Assignments
- What Is Independent Study?
- Purpose and Characteristics of Independent Study
- Good Independent Study Leaders
- Good Independent Study
- When Independent Study Should Be Used
- Limitations of Independent Study
- Making Good Homework Assignments
- Summary on Independent Study
III. Individualized or Differentiated Instruction: Tailoring Teaching
- What Is Individualized Instruction?
- Purpose and Characteristics of Individualized Instruction
- Types of Individualized Instruction
- Good Users of Individualized Instruction
- Good Individualized Education Programs
- When Individualized Instruction Should Be Used
- Limitations of Individualized Instruction
- Summary on Individualized Instruction
IV. Matching Instructional Alternatives to Learners
V. Overview of 31 Instructional Alternatives
VI. Using Technology in Teaching
- Selecting Quality Software and Websites
- Utilizing Digital Content
- Get Better Prepared for the Digital Age

Notes
I. Discussion: Learning through Informative Interaction
- What Is a Discussion?
- A discussion is a situation wherein students, or students and a teacher,
converse to share information, ideas, or opinions or work to resolve a
problem.
- Mutual interaction between the teacher and students
- Purposes and Characteristics of Discussion
- To review what students have learned, encourage students to reflect on
their ideas.
- A discussion can also be held when the purpose is to have students
examine their ideas or opinions.
- Good Discussion Leaders
- Four Beliefs:
1. Intrapersonal skills
2. Review and extension of what was already learned
3. Examination of ideas and opinions
4. Problem solving
- Good Discussions
- Preparation: this will include the purpose of the discussion
- Delivery
- Closure: make sure that the teacher somehow summarizes and covers
the important content of the discussion.
- When Discussions Should Be Used
1. Review information
2. Examine ideas and problems
3. Improve oral communication skills
- Research on Discussion
- It promotes knowledge retention, higher-order thinking, positive
attitude change, enhanced moral reasoning, and increased motivation.
- Limitations of Discussions
- Dependence on student knowledge and participation

II. Independent Study: Teaching as Giving and Guiding Seatwork and Homework
Assignments
- What Is Independent Study?
- Any assignment the students complete on their own: reading, writing,
rehearsing, etc.
- Purpose and Characteristics of Independent Study
1. To be certain that your learners gain specific knowledge or skills.
2. To encourage students to acquire study skills that will serve them
throughout life.
- Good Independent Study Leaders
- Confidence in the students ability to work alone is key
- Keeps learners involved in worthwhile independent activities
- Shows variety and challenge
- Good Independent Study
- Preparation: determine purpose and the assignment type
- Delivery: making the study assignment and guiding it to a satisfactory
conclusion
- Closure
- When Independent Study Should Be Used
- when learners need to practice information or a skill to get it into
long-term memory
- Limitations of Independent Study
- intentions , conducts, assessments
- They assignment must mean value to the students or they will not work
on it at all
- Making Good Homework Assignments
- Let learners, parents, and caregivers know when and how often
assignments will be made and approximately how long they will be.
- Serve a good purpose.
- The learners understand the good purpose and meaning of the
assignment and that they have resources necessary to succeed.
- The assignment is clear and that learners know both what is to be
accomplished and how.
- Summary on Independent Study
- The teachers role is to facilitate and guide learning.

III. Individualized or Differentiated Instruction: Tailoring Teaching


- What Is Individualized Instruction?
- This is instruction re-tailored by the teacher in order to address each
students specific laerning needs
- Purpose and Characteristics of Individualized Instruction
- Students are autonomous and differ from each other
- Individualized instruction may range in different level
- Types of Individualized Instruction
- Contracts: signed agreements in which learners promise to perform
specific academic work
- Programmed and Computer-Assisted Instruction
- Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI)
- Individually Guided Education (IGE)
- Tutoring
- Distance Learning
- Project Method: Self-directed learning
- Good Users of Individualized Instruction
- Good Individualized Education Programs
- When Individualized Instruction Should Be Used
- Limitations of Individualized Instruction
- Very very time consuming
- Summary on Individualized Instruction: can meet a great many personal,
professional, and educational needs for teachers and students.
IV. Using Technology in Teaching
- Selecting Quality Software and Websites
- Utilizing Digital Content
- Get Better Prepared for the Digital Age

Reflection
Through this reading that focuses more on the three particular modes, I aimed better
for the future opportunity in making more lesson plans with those modes. The details of each
mode that this chapter provides would be helpful for my preparation, just like a step by step
procedure of creating a new environment in the learning process. However, I would still need
to know the qualities of the learners. Even though those modes could possibly happen for
certain subjects only, I could still use it during the Centers (Math or English Centers).