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Act of Teaching Chapter 6

Outline
I. Pros and Cons of Instructional Planning
II. Planning Is Especially Beneficial for New Teachers
III. Deciding What to Teach
- State Standards and How They Are Developed
- What State Standards Look Like
- The Power of State Standards
- What Happens at the School District Level
- The Formal and Taught Curricula
- The Power of the Curriculum
IV. Instructional Objectives
- What Instructional Objectives Look Like
- Instructional Objectives Differ in Two Ways: General & Specific
- The Kinds of Objectives We Use Result in Three Different Kinds of Learning:
Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
- Another Way of Classifying Learning Outcomes
V. Writing Specific Objectives
- The Value of Specific Objectives
- When Are Objectives Good?
VI. Preparing Instructional Plans of Varying Duration
- The "Long and Short" of Planning
- Preparing Long-Range Plans: Yearly and Semester Plans
- Preparing Unit Plans
- Preparing Lesson Plans
- Evaluating Lesson Plans
- The "Backward Design" Idea of Lesson and Unit Planning
- Resources Useful When Planning
- Collaborative, Cooperative, or Team Planning
- Comparative Planning

Notes
I. Pros and Cons of Instructional Planning
II. Planning Is Especially Beneficial for New Teachers
- Teaching events is considerable in detail, leaving little or nothing to chance. Because
plan is vital part of the act of teaching.

III. Deciding What to Teach


- State Standards and How They Are Developed
- The standards are influenced by
Societal expectations, that comes from national and international events.
The nature and the needs of the children, is considered when standards are
set.
Advice from professional education societies
- What State Standards Look Like

b. The Power of State Standards


- Have proficiency test that measure the extent to which students have attained
the standards.
- The standards flow down to school districts and influence the curriculum.

c. What Happens at the School District Level


Goals of a curriculum:
- Developing a vision for a high quality school curriculum.
- Determining programs of study
- Determining each course within each program
- Identifying useful instructional materials
- Ensuring the proposed curriculum

d. The Formal and Taught Curricula


- The formal curricula requires some standards from state standards and school
district curriculum committees, in result documents such as state guidelines,
local curriculum guides, and other documents.
- The taught curriculum includes items from the formal curriculum and anything
deemed by the teachers.

e. The Power of the Curriculum, drives life in the classroom.


The students will have a meaningful learning when they see the connection of what
they learn with the reality (authentic).

IV. Instructional Objectives


a. What Instructional Objectives Look Like
- It describes what the learners must know and able to do.
- It is much like benchmarks that would become identical if its specific enough.

b. Instructional Objectives Differ in Two Ways


- Objectives for the Cognitive Learning
- Objectives for the Humanistic and Behavioral Learning

c. Some Objectives Are General, Others Are Specific


From the objectives will come the real purpose of instruction is to change pupils'
behavior and enable them to do things they couldn't do before instruction
occurred. Thus, teachers should write statements that describe the behaviors
instructional activities are intended to help pupils learn.
d. The Kinds of Objectives We Use Result in Three Different Kinds of Learning:
Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
- Cognitive Domain, will cause the learners to engage with the intellectual task.
Knowledge (recall the information).
Comprehension (understand and can explain the knowledge with their own
understanding).
Application (apply knowledge in the real situations).
Analysis (break down the complex concepts into simpler).
Synthesis (combine the elements into something original).
Evaluation (able to make judgments).

- Affective Domain, deals with the emotional and valuing goals for the learners.
Receiving/attending (concentrate on and receive information).
Responding (respond positively to the information by actively engaging with
it).
Valuing (express attitude/belief about the value of something).
Organization (internalizing the value).
Characterization (act out their values).

- Psychomotor Domain, related to the physical skills.


Perception (use sensory cues to guide their attempt to perform a skill).
Set (ready to perform a skill).
Guided Response (practice the skill under the supervision).
Mechanism (become more proficient in skill through the practice).
Complex response (perform skills with a high degree of proficiency).
Adaptation (modify previous learned skills).
Origination (create new, performances based on the previous learned skills).

e. Another Way of Classifying Learning Outcomes


Gagne
Verbal information
Intellectual skill
Cognitive strategies
Motor skills
Attitudes

V. Writing Specific Objectives


Good objectives tell learners exactly what they are expected to know and to be able
to do.
a. The Value of Specific Objectives
to communicate it clearly to the learners so that they will be aware of what they are
expected.

b. When Are Objectives Good?


Judge the instructional objectives by asking yourself the following questions:
- Are the objectives relevant to the curriculum?
- Do the objectives promote learning outcomes?
- Do the objectives promote a range of levels of understanding within each
domain?
- Are the objectives written in terms of what the learners are expected to do?
- Can the learners achieve the objectives?

VI. Preparing Instructional Plans of Varying Duration


a. The "Long and Short" of Planning
Intermediate, middle-range, or unit planning involves decisions about how courses
can be broken into parts with a particular theme.

b. Preparing Long-Range Plans: Yearly and Semester Plans


- Consider objective (Where specifically do you want to accomplish?)
- Consider timeline (How much time can you spend in each part of the lesson?)
- Consider resources (Will you need to take a long to ensure the lesson will end
successfully?)

When engage in long-range planning you should keep in mind:


- The course primarily should be derived from the established formal curriculum.
- The course should be developed to reflect what is known about the subject area.
- The course should be developed to take into account what you know about the
learners.
- Decision about what to teach in value laden.

c. Preparing Unit Plans


Develop several types of units:
- Resource units
- Teaching units
- Experience units
- Integrated units

Benefits of Unit Planning:


- Once completed, unit plas give clear direction for short-term planning
- Good unit planning makes you more aware of the learners quality
- Unit planning causes you to think imaginatively about how to get the job done
using a variety of instructional materials.
- Unit planning asks you to consider how to help students in an
disciplinary/holistic way.

d. Preparing Lesson Plans


Lesson plan describes specifically what and how something will be learned within
a brief period. It further defines a daily plan and more detailed.

e. Evaluating Lesson Plans


- The lesson plan ties with the curriculum
- The objectives are clear and measurable
- The objectives promote the highest learning domain
- Resources are appropriate
- The lesson is achievable in terms of time and space

f. The "Backward Design" Idea of Lesson and Unit Planning


The focus is to use the 6 understandings and preparing a lesson assessment
procedure in advance of teaching.

g. Resources Useful When Planning


- Curriculum Guides
- Instructional Material (resource units, textbooks, and non-print material)

h. Collaborative, Cooperative, or Team Planning


- Teacher-team planning
- Teacher-pupil planning

i. Comparative Planning
The teachers should know when to compare the interesting and informative
educational practices across cultures.

Reflection
The author provides more detail about the lesson planning that I could ponder on
because personally I still need to improve myself in planning an effective lesson or unit. With
certain qualities that this chapter has listed, I knew better about how I should design my
lesson and unit plan. In the future opportunity, I would try to apply each detail from this
chapter on my lesson and unit. In addition, I could also aim better goals for the students with
detailed lesson plans and units.