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120 THE EARTH REVIEW.

expanse extending from earth to th e distant heights in which the


heavenly bodies are placed. R ecent discoveries lead to the supposition
J
of some subtle fluid m edium in which they move. If, as we presame,
D r. G eikie refers to the etheieal medium, which is supposed to fill
- NOT A GLOBE -
space and also the spaces betw een the m inute particles of all bodies,
his ignorance of th e several states of m atter does indeed evidence a
zeal not according to know ledge. B ut surely he knows, or should To Him that stretched out the Earth above the W aters; fo r His mercy
know, that to the H ebrew of old, as to the G reek of H o m ers time, and endureth for ever. Psa. 1 3 6 : 6 .
to th e Polynesian of to-day, th e firm am ent was a solid dome, an d no
ether-filled expanse in which the stars perform their m ovements. . . . No. 6. M A R C H , 1894. P r ic k 2 d.

D r. G eikie represents a class o f fretful, uneasy-m inded expositors,


who trem ble lest the theory of the inspiration of scripture should be THE SUN STANDING STILL.
upset by the non-confirm ation of its scientific, historical, an d topo (Continued).
graphical statem ents by m odern research. W hy this feverish anxiety
THE LATEST EXPOSITION.
to harm onise th e nebular hypothesis with the first verse of the Book of
Genesis, and the reference to A ccad with the pre-Babylonian civilisa But our readers will naturally b e anxious to know w hat is the final
tion ? . . . . H e hastens to contend th at in any case the book explanation given by th e writer in question, who acknowledges that
as it stands is to us the very word of God, speaking as only H e could, he had previously been utterly bew ilded with every attem pt either to
through H is servants, to m ankind. I t seems well-nigh incredible that explain th e miracle, or to explain it away. W e shall let him speak for
with the latest translations of th e Assyrian and Babylonian tablets himself. H e says
before him, and with the consensus of all com petent scholars as to I have now a iiit h tib w to lay before youj which appears to be both rational
these recording the cosmical legends whence those of G enesis are and simple. . . . My 6 eS e/is this : Joshua and his men having walked
all night, as the 9th verse tells ns, would be tired next morning, but God
derived (?) that a writer professing to illum inate the Bible by modern
caused a great trembling to spread itself amongst the foe, and there was an
light, can place him self in such an impasse....................... B ut our chief easy victory. When the war had pursued the Amorites some distance, hail
com plaint against this book is its lack of straightforwardness. I t Is an stones fell upon them and did much damage. A t the approach to Beth-
evasive com m entary. E very crucial question is clouded in ink, after horon the hailstorm increased in fu ry ; and Joshua, seeing the devastation
the m anner of th e retreating cuttle-fish. T h e chapters on A dam and produced, and being cognisant of the fatigue of his men, prayed Heaven to let
E ve and their descendants, an d on the Flood, are filled with a mass of the hurricane go on till total and irreparable disaster was inflicted.
interesting but irrelevant talk........................ A few cheap rhetorical We refrain from saying all we th in k about this so-called explana
phrases about that terrible an d all-destructive visitation which the tion, as the writer is evidently b o th sincere an d d e v o u t; an d he says
condition o f things am ong m ankind drew down as awful that it flashed across my m ind m any years ago, when I was on my
punishm ent, are followed by discussions on the size of the ark, and the knees. B ut we think it doom ed to th e same failure as th e rest, and
volcanic com m otion th at might have brought about the catastrophe. and for sim ilar re a so n s; it is not tru e to the sacred narrative. I t re
N ow here does Dr. G eikie com e to close quarters with th e difficulty of minds us of w hat th e editor of th e D a ily Chronicle said of Dr. G eikies
reconciling the legend of m ans special creation with the dem onstration book, The Bible by Modern Li%ht. H e m akes assertions which have
of biology as to his unbroken descent with m odification from lower the charm of novelty, b ut also th e vice of inaccuracy. (See fuller re
forms (!) or the legend of his paradisaical state with the evidence marks from the D . C. in an o th er page). T his is th e case with the pres
supplied from every habitable part of the globe (!) as to his primitive ent attem pt. W e have no record th at Joshua prayed H eaven to let
savagery ; or the legend of a flood with the geological arguments the hurricane go on. T his is an assertion, n o t of th e narrator, b ut of
there against, to say nothing of the grave ethical aspects of the question. the expositor. Jo sh u a prayed for the sun to stand still. not for the
Such m ethods as these, while confirming no m an in th e faith, and hailstorm to proceed, an d we are to ld th a t there was no day like that,
convincing no sceptic, moreover, do great injustice to the Bible. For
before it or after it, th a t the L o r d hearkened unto th e voice of a man
they obscure its real value as a record of ancient speculations (Oh !)
into the causes of things corresponding to those of other peoples than for the L o r d fought for Israel. But to g et rid of this fact our exposi
the H ebrew s. t he D a ily Chronicle, Oct. i-jth, i8 ^ j. tor s a y s;
122 THE EARTH REVIEW.
r THE SUN STANDING STILL

T h en I t is poetical, an d all poets are allowed som e latitude in thdir


123

" The chapter (10th of Joshua) is made up of two accoonts, the one historical descriptions. O ur expositor o u g h t'to be a poet of no m ean standing
the other poetical. The poetical extends from the 12th to the 15th verse. for he evidently claim s a poets privilege ! H e says th e account is ex
The rest is historical. tracted from th e B ook of Jasher, which seem s to have been m ade up of
martial odes, in ten d ed to develop patriotism an d faith in G od. I f
T his is oracular an d a u th o rita tiv e ! Mr. H ow ard com es back
j^Ir. H ow ard h ad n ot prefixed th e title R ev . to his nam e, a title which
after all to a Poetical Theory" although such a theory was
his M aster has practically forbidden (M att. 2 3 : 8 vs.) we m ight have
th e first one he so conclusively rejected. T h is only proves the
thought this th e suggestion o f a sceptic, th a t faith in G od could be
im possibility o f explaining th e account in harm ony w ith modern
developed by th e poetical recounting of a false miracle ! B ut suppos
science on any theory. In short the narrative needs no explanation in
ing th at M r. H s bare assertion th a t th e poetical portion extends from
itself; IT ONLY NEEDS BELIEVING ! A nd, as all m en have n o t faith,
the 12th to th e 15th verse were true, w hat has h e already told us re
let anyone of those w ithout try to prove, if he can, th a t th e account is
specting th e genius of H ebrew poetry ?
not in harm ony with th e facts of N ature. T his would b e straight for
w ard an d rea so n ab le; b u t to wrest the Scriptures, to twist an d torture I have sought all through the Bible and have not discovered one instance of
their language until it is m ade to m ean anything th e w riter wishes, is a natural event being exalted into a miracle by any of its bards. Great occur
neither strictly honest nor truly scientific. T h e very attem p t to do so re n c e s -which are wonderful in themselves are greatly adorned, but left free
from all miraculous elements.....................This enquiry into the veracity of
only serves to shew th e unconscious influence an d injurious effect
Hebrew poetry has amazed memade me feel how, contrary to the general
m odern astronom y has h ad on th e m inds of otherw ise good a n d honest view, in all their highest inspirations, the Bible bards kept a clear eye on sober
searchers after truth. O nly let th e incubus of this superstition (and we a remark, I think, which applies to the poets of no other nation.
use the w ord superstition advisedly as o f som ething standing above, or
outside, natural facts) only let this incubus be rem oved from their minds, T hus his own words are sufficient to answer th e supposition th a t the
an d th e skill such writers m anifest m ight do cred it to th e expository account in question is a poetical figment. B ut we do n ot adm it
science they a ffe c t; b u t while th eir m inds are, consciously or uncon that three verses are poetical. T h ey seem to us ju st as historical as th e
sciously, enchained by th e tram m els of a false philosophy, imposed rest of th e chapter, a n d ancient Israel believed them to b e so. W e
upon them while they were too young to question it, they will n o t only believe th a t Mr. H . would never have objected to them as equally
wrest the Scriptures, as they do, b u t w rithe as it were in th e meshes historical with th e rest of th e ch ap ter were it n ot for th e absurd idea
o f a critical snare evidently laid for us by th e A rch D eceiver of man that we are living on a vast globe, tu rning us all head over heels
kind. W e have need to pray th at our m inds, an d ,th a t th e m inds of our once every twenty-four hours, an d so alternately bringing day and
M inisters, may be delivered from this snare of th e fowler. The night. T his appears from his further rem arks. H e says \
miracle u nder consideration shews th a t G od hears prayer, an d answers The first remark I have to make upon these words, as here rendered, is that
i t ; but when H e does H e never flashes ideas or interpretations across if the prayer had been answered the day would not have been lengthened. To
the m ind which are o ut of harm ony with the general statem ents of that lengthen the day the mrt'h must either slow in her rotatory motion or stop it
D ivine Cosm ogony revealed in his H o ly W ord. altogether; and Joshua, had he wanted more hours of light, should have said,
E a k t h pause in thy revolution upon thy axis, or go slower. Thus you see

" T o th e Law and to th e T estim ony ; if they speak n o t according to our Versions take all the meaning out of Joshuas iprayer. Our Yizm shows
its point and beauty.
this W ord, it is because there is no light in them . Isa. 8 : 20.
T his would really b e am using to Z etetics if th e m atter were n ot
J o sh u a C orrected.
otherwise so serious, an d th e writer evidently so earnest. H e calls
Before concluding our paper let us briefly consider th e validity of poetry, H ebrew , an d astronom y all to his aid. H e says th a t th e H ebrew
some of the reasons given for this novel interpretation. Firstly, the word dom never m eans to stand still. I t may n o t b e again so trans
em ploym ent of a hailstorm was a m eans already in operation, an d in lated, n o t exactly, an d yet it m ay have this m eaning. W e th in k it has.
every way capable of securing th e en d in contem plation. T his is so The root w ord is damam. T h e writer adm its it is once translated
utterly beside th e question th at we dism iss it at once. W e m ight deny tarry i Sam. 1 4 :9 . A though th e word som etim es may b e rendered
the hailstorm itself on such flimsey grounds. Secondly, we are told that he silent, this passage clearly shews it also m eans to stand still. I t reads,
the language of the inspired penm an suits this theory, a n d no other ! If they say u nto us, T a rry {damam) until we com e to you, then we will
W e will content ourselves with putting a n o te of exclam ation after that!
124 THE EARTH EEVIEW. THE SUN STANDING STILL 125

stand still (am ad) in our place. T his latter word am ad is th e very and th a t it is so established ' th at it should n ot be rem oved for ever?
H ebrew term used in H ab . 3 :1 1 , which again speaks of th e sun stand psa. 104 : 5., &c., &c. Y et in spite of this good advice, an d th e fact
ing s t i l l ! Is this wrong also ? W e have faith in th e translators to that th e Scriptures do teach th e P lan e system, th e writer speaking about
believe th a t they understood H ebrew as well, if n o t better, th an the his new theory or explanation sa y s;
w rite r; and they, while giving various shades of m eaning in th e margin,
Our theory disposes of an old infldel objection to revelation. Sceptics sneer
give unm istakably th e right m eaning in th e text, Sun stand thou still'' at the Scriptures because as they say, they inculcate the Greo-centric system of
for we read th e sun stood still (am ad) in th e m idst of heaven. v. 13. asti-onomy. instead of the true (!)the Helio-centrio; and this miracle has
Mr. H . says th e latter term m eans to rise up. But it can n ot m ean this ever been the prop of their charge. 'See,' they have said, when Joshua
only, for P arkhurst gives th e primE.ry m eanings, To stand, stand stilly wanted the day lengthening, he commanded the sun and moon to stand still,
thinking falsely (?) that they circled round the earth every 24 hours; whereas
stay, rem ain' T h is H eb rew L exicographer also says th a t T he
it is the earth (o h !) revolving round on her own axis, that makes day and
Seventy generally render th e verb by istemi to stand, an d its com night. But our theory will put an end to this, and prove that Joshua knew
pounds. As it may interest th e read er we will give th e translation what he was doing.-
from th e Septuagint, shewing, how ancient G reek translators, untram
Vain hope ! N o m ere theory will p ut an en d to th e infidels sneer.
m elled by m odern astronom ical theories, understood this passage ;
Our plan is not to oppose theories or quibbles to th e sneer o f the scep
Then Joshua spoke to the Lord, in the day in which the Lord delivered the tic, but f a c ts ; an d th en let him sneer if h e can for shame. I f th e infidel
Amorite into the power of Israel, when He destroyed them in Qabaon, and
can prove th a t water is convex, or th a t th e earth really tum bles at all,
they were destroyed from before the children of Israel. And Joshua said. Let
the sun stand over against Gabaon, and the moon over against the valley of land an d water, topsy-turvey once every twenty-four hours, th en he has a
of Aelon. And the sun and the moon sfood still, until Grod executed vengeance right to sneer a t Jo sh u as ignorance ; b u t if h e cannot, an d th e pages of
on their enemies. the E arth Review are open for any respectable effort, th e n we shall
sneer at his ignorance, his lack of reasoning power, an d his consum m ate
Italics of course are ours. T h o se who wish to pursue this point
folly for allowing him self to b e d uped o u t of E tern al Life over the
further will find th e sam e H ebrew word {am ad) translated stand still,
simple an d plain facts of N atu re 1 W e have a word also for th e C hris
or its equivalent, in th e following passages j Josh. 3 : 8 , i 7 ; i o : i 3 ;
tian. W hy should you allow infidel theories respecting th e universe, its
and I I ; 1 3 ; I Sam. 14 . 9 ; and 2 Sam. 2 ; 23 an d 28 j & c .; as also in
form and its origin, to blind your eyes to th e facts you see, or m ay see,
th e rem arkable passage referred to in H ab . 3 : 1 1 . I t plainly appears, around you, an d to th e harm onious teachings of th a t D ivine system of
therefore, unless th e translators d id n ot un d erstan d H ebrew , th at stood
Cosmogony revealed in H o ly W rit ? You need n o t attem p t to m ake
still is a correct and frequent translation of a m a d ; an d doubtless it
truth reasonable ; it is reasonable, to the unfettered an d really free
never w ould have been called into question as applied to the sun were thinking m ind. N either need you attem pt to explain a m ira c le ; it is
it not for th e baseless theories o f m odern astronom y. T h ese are at the above you. W hile th e attem p t to defend a m iracle is puerile an d
bottom of the w hole contention. T h e passage had to be harm onized absurd. A m iracle is its own defence. All you have to do is to believe
w ith a philosophical, or rath er an philosophical, th e o ry ; so th e trans it, when attested. D efending a m iracle is like a child defending a giant,
lation m ust be altered to s u i t ! As Mr. H . rem arks ; or a fox defending a lion I B ut if you cannot believe your Bible, and
When once a theory takes holds it grows apace and wields a power over if you are too indifferent or too ignorant to go into th e proofs offered
future ages that is seen in expositions, annotations, and translations . . . around you, th en honestly jo in the infidel party, an d prove th e Bible is
till the original modicum of truth is distorted or lost in the process. wrong in its C reation and its Cosmology, th a t is i f you can.
A nd again, we quote w ith ap p ro v a l; We shall conclude our paper with a quotation from Josephus, a
' The Bible itself will have to be studied anew in its own lig h t; and when this Jewish writer an d historian who lived in th e first century of th e Chris
is done, and we get back to its grand and simple truths unmixed with false tian era, an d who was doubtless well acquainted b o th with the language
views from extraneous sources, we shall be delighted with what it is and what of the Jews an d th e rem arkable an d m iraculous history of Israel.
it has to tell us.
Respecting th e m iracle in question he writes ;
T his is good advice, if followed. A nd am ongst th e grand and Joshua made haste with his whole army to assist them (the Gibeonites), and
sim ple truths of the Bible will be found th a t th e sun has m otion (Psa. marching day and night, in the mornirg he fell upon the enemies as they were
19 :4 ) j that the earth ( or land) rests on fo u n d atio n s ( i Sam. 2 :8 ); going up to the seige ; and when he had discomfited them he followed them, and
126 THE EARTH REVIEW.

pursued them down to the descent of the hills, The place is called Bethhoron;
where he also understood that God assisted them, which He declared hy thunder
and thunder-bolts, as also by the falling of hail larger than usual. Moreover it
r STAR MOTIONS versus EARTHS^SHAPE.

move in th e sam e d ire c tio n ; rising in th e east, culm inating or


s o u th in g in th e south w hen on th e m eridian, an d setting in the
127

happened that the day was lengthened that the night might not come on too soon, west, or on th e right h an d looking south. B ut they m ove with varying
and be an obstruction to the zeal of the Hebrews in pursuing their enemies v e lo c itie s according to their h eig h t above th e earth. T h e fixed stars
. . . . Now that the day was lengthened at this time, and was longer than re v o lv e a little faster th an the sun, which therefore loses one revolution
ordinary, is expressed in the books laid up in the Temple. in a year. T h is m arks th e solar year ; an d together with th e fact th a t
A n t i q . B. V. C. I. S. 1 7 . the sun m oves in a spiral orbit, shews th e reason why th e sun is found
in th e different signs of th e Zodiac during the twelve m onths of th e
In a n o te u nder this paragraph Mr. W histon, th e learned com piler of year. T h e sun is left behind by th e stats 30 each m onth. T h e m oon,
Josephus works, while hesitating what explanation to give th e miracle being nearer to the earth revolves still m ore slowly ; an d as she gets
says ; left behind by th e sun 12 or 13 daily, she thus passes through th e
twelve signs in a m onth, o r m oon-th. N eith er s ta r s n o r p lan ets are
The fact itself was mentioned in the Book of Jasher, now lost, Josh. 10 : 13,
and is confirmed by Isaiah (28 ; 21), Hahakkuk (3:11), and by the son of Siraoh ever actually stationary, m uch less retrograde, as th e astronom ers
(Eccles. 46 : 4). In the 18th Psalm of Solomon, ver. ult. it is also said of the teach ; b u t as th e latter m ove w ith varying velocities, they som etim es
luminaries, with relation no doubt to this and the other miraculous standing still a p p e a r so relatively to th e signs or constellations. H en c e they are
and going back, in the days of Joshua and Hezekiah. They hare not wandered c alled planets, or w anderers. T h e so-called fixed stars have always
from the day He created them, they have not forsaken their way, from ancient
practically th e sam e declination, an d right ascension, except for very
generations, unless it were when God enjoined them (so to do) by the command
of his servants. See Authent. Rec. part I, p. 154. long periods ; b ut like th e sun an d th e m oon, m oving in spiral orbits,
the planets are som etim es found n o rth of th e equator an d som etim es
H ea r the ju st law, th e judgm ent of the skies, south. T h is is called th eir declination ; a n d as th eir actual heights
H e th a t hates tru th shall b e th e dupe of lies ; probably alter with th eir declination th ey vary in th eir velocities.
A nd he that w ill b e cheated, to the last When a p lan et keeps up w ith th e fixed stars, it rem ains in th e same
D elusions strong as H ell shall b ind him fast. sign, or constellation, an d th e sam e degree or distance in that
sign, an d it is th en astronom ically said to b e stationary ! W hen
a planet gains on th e fixed stars, an d gets som ew hat before them , th e
STAR MOTIONS versus THE EARTHS SHAPE. astronom ers actually call it retrogade ! B u t w hen a planet loses on
the stars, an d gets left b eh in d them a little in th e daily round, it is
(Continued.)
supposed to b e going in th e contrary direction, an d said to be d ire c t I
i-N our last we shew ed th e inconsistency o f deciding u p o n the B e ca u se of this direct m otion, th e planets are further supposed to
shape of the E arth, by studying th e motions of the heavenly revolve around th e solar orb, though th e superior planets never get
y bodies. T h ere is little, or nothing, in com m on betw een them. on this side of th e sun, nor th e inferior planets on th e oth er side of
Y et som e astronom ical books attem p t to prove the earth is a globe by that lu m in a ry ; while the m oon, although she acts likes some of the
such logic an d analogy as this ; T h e planets are spherical, therefore the planets, only m oving m ore slowly an d getting left b eh in d daily more,
earth is a sphere ! W e m ight as well say, a bub b le is globular, there is alone supposed to revolve aro u n d th e earth 1 Such is the astronom i
fore a clay pipe is the s a m e ; or again, th e sun an d th e stars are self cal jugglery an d jum ble ! As we have shewn th e m otions of the
lum inous, therefore th e earth a n d our dull d istan t m ountains are heavenly bodies are m uch sim pler, th e stars moving in circular orbits
shining ! I t is pitiable to read th e logic of som e of th e globularists. aronnd and above the earth, an d th e sun, moon, an d planets in spiral,
T h e heavenly bodies are evidently small, light, electrical, m ovable and or nearly circular orbits, alternately contracting an d expanding from a
im ponderable ; while th e earth is large, heavy, dull, generally flat, and mean or m iddle circle called the equinoctial, or celestial equator. But, as
m ost stable. T h e earth has never been proved to have th e motions anyone can see in th e n o rth all th e heavenly bodies move in th e same
which the astronom ical theory necessarily assumes it has ; while the general direction, from east to west. T h e cause o f th is m otion, th e
stars, planets, sun and m oon can be seen daily to m ove around us. In Primiim Mobile, is n o t know n, except as it reveals both will an d intelli
northern latitudes they all seem to be moving around one common gence, and so points back to th e F irst G reat Cause of all things, T h e
centre, th e north centre, com m only called the N orth Pole. T hey all A l m ig h t y C r e a t o r . As th e Psalm ist sang ;
128 THE EARTH REVIEW. 129
STAR MOTIONS versus EARTHS SHAPE.

" The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament (solid dome, or
be west 15 south," th e sun setting at 6 p.m. H e further says :
expanse, Joh. 37 :18), sheweth His handiwork. Day unto day uttereth
speech and night unto night sheweth knowledge . . . A n oth er known fact is, th at on th e equator at the equinox th e sun
sets du e west. Again, referring to an o th er observation, said to be
Their line {rule, margin) is gone out through all the earth, and their worda
' I to the end of the world. In them hath He set a tabernacle (tent, Heb). fo r tak e n at A uckland, N.Z., D ec. 20th, 1885, h e w rite s; So we learn
the sun, which is as a bridegroom coming out his chamber, and rejoiceth as that the sun sets nearly 30 South of W est. W e find by th e A lm anac
I' a strong man to run a race.
|V that the sun sets (?) a t 4.14 p.m ., D ec. 20th. H e th en cynically re
His going forth is from the end of the heaven(s) and his circuit (revolution) marks \ P erhaps it m ight be claim ed th at th e inhabitants of N ew Zea
to the ends of it (them) : and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof. land were all cross-eyed; thus accounting for th eir seeing th e sun in th e
The Law of the L o k d (Jehovah) is perfect, converting the so u l; the testi s o u th -w e s t ! L et us see, G.W .B. ! P erhaps it is you, as you attem pt
mony of the L o e d is sure, making wise the simple. Psa. 19 : 17. to criticise P arallax, who are so cross-eyed. Y ou w rite at least as
though you were so. A hasty tem per, th e bias o f early training, and
Now, we do not in any way disparage actual an d practical Science,
' sc ie n tific as well as religious p redjudice are all poor factors in the
b u t only that theoretical science, falsely so-called, which exalts itself
elucidation o f T ru th . H ow ev er to m ake it clear th a t such phenom ena
against G od a n d H is W ord. I n th e face o f this so-called science o f the
are not consistent with th e globular theory we will refer to th e following
nineteenth century, we are n ot asham ed to own th a t our wisdom comes
from above. I f our friend, w hose p ostcard started these articles, likes diagram
- ./
the wisdom o f the world better, he may have i t ; b u t as a C hristian he L et A D E C re
will be inconsistent, an d perhaps suffer loss. W ith all th e Seventh p resen t th e globe,
1
D ay A dventists, to whom h e belongs, he believes in th e literal obser v a /^ - 1 j.. A B th e equator,
vance of the F ou rth C om m andm ent against which we have nothing to ^ 'C an d C D th e im
say but here is where th e inconsistency com es m o n th e p art o f this aginary axis u p
\
A m erican sect, they do n ot believe in accepting literally the statem ents
V .r
N
X I
1
\ \
on w hich it is
supposed to rotate,
of th e second p recept o f th e Law, w hich declares th a t H ea v en is above X' \\ \
'X ' C being th e N o rth
us, the E arth beneath, an d th e W aters under the earth." N ow where is '.. pole, an d D the
t
th e consistency of keeping th e Sabbath as th e m em orial o f G o d s Creation u \ S o u t h pole.
while practically denying th at C reation in th e D ivine system of Cosmog a . ----------Lt L et the line K L
i
ony which the C reator has revealed ? Is E xodus correct, an d Genesis I
extended to O and
m isleading ? Is the F o u rth C o m m andm ent all right a n d th e Second all 1 P , rep resen t the
w rong? I f th e P rotestan t m ay reject th e Cosm ogony o f the second I- tropic of Cancer,
T 2 3 ! n o rth o f the
com m and th e n th e R om anist m ay reject its prohibition o f idolatry. Yet t
eq u ato r; an d Q M
our S.D.A. friends com plain of other sects not keeping to th e Law as V 1 N R th e tro p ic o f
well as to th e T estim ony ! an d as our S atire shews they m ore th an com f/ 'y Capricorn, 23^
plained of us when only privately pinning them down to th e W ord of s o u t h o f the
G od rather than to th at of man, or woman either. O Tem poral 0 equator. T hese
Mores ! H ow ever, we will now proceed to exam ine som ew hat into the tropics represent
cause of our friends disturbance, and notice his objections, which he ^ th e suns position
based upon certain in the heavens where it seems to tu rn back, an d beyond w hich the sun
Solar P h en o m en a .
is never seen vertically either n o rth or south o f the equator. See F.arth
Review, N o. 3, article head ed O ur C ritics. O n line C D, whicl. may
In the E a rth Review for O ctober, 1893, we published the statem ent also represent a m eridian, m ake tw o dots at X an d Z m erely to rep re
o f a friendly Z etetic in Auckland, N ew Zealand, th a t n ear th e shortest sent the latitudes, say at L eicester as being near th e centre of E ngland,
day there the sun rises E .N .E ., and sets W.S W. Tim es of rising I or about 52^ north, an d W ellington as being near th e m iddle of New
an d setting n o t stated. A nother writer, an opponent to Zeteticism , has Zealand, o r ab o u t 401 south, a n d nearly on th e opposite m eridian, or
stated that A n observation was taken at W ellington O bservatory, New about 175 E . Now as th e p o in t Z will b e alm ost as far south o f the line
Zealand, M arch 20th, 1885, an d the point of sunset was ascertained to MN as this tropic is south o f th e equator, it is m anifest th a t when, during
130 THE EABTH EEVIEW . HAKD NAMES. 181

the longest day in N Z., th e sun is rising at R , or setting at Q, a spectator point F. Similarly it would tak e another twelve hours to reach
on the globe would have to look considerably northw ard to see it. j j - twelve m ore to reach G ; an d another twelve to get back
T herefore, if it be a fact th a t ab o u t D ec. 20th, the N ew Z ealanders see again to E . So th a t a spectator at C for every twelve hours light he
th e sun setting in the south-w est, then so m uch th e worse for the would enjoy, would be left in the dark for thirty-six hours ! A nd the
globular theory, an d those astronom ical theories respecting the motions whole day, consisting of day and night, would last forty-eight hours, with
of light which go with it, an d which are here found to be in such con only one quarter of it daylight. T h is is ju st where th e globular theory
flict with th e facts 1 T o enable a spectator a t Z to see the sun anywhere lan d s us, in at least three tim es m ore darkness th an light ! A nd if this
near the south-w est th e sun would have to be placed som ew here near theory were a fact instead o f being only a pernicious assum ption, the
th e point G, w here it would also be ju st visible at th e south pole D. consequences would be m uch m ore disastrous. B ut th e C reator knew
B ut no astronom er ever ventured to assum e th a t th e sun gets so far jjis business better, and kindly gave us equal alternations of night an d
south. Sim ilar confusion to th e globularist follows when we remember day. T h ere is, therefore, in th e very nature o f things, a good reason
th a t the lum inaries can som etim es be seen rising and setting far north why we may hold, with the gifted w riter o f an ancient epistle, th at T h e
of due east an d west from th e p o in t X in our own latitudes. As we wisdom of this world is foolishness with G od. T h e globular theory,
write this' article, Sunday, Jan . 20th, th e m oon is rising (4.5 p.m .) fully with the evolutionary theories based upon it, m ust seem the same to all
in th e n o rth west from here. Y et her declination is only ab o u t 24 enlightened students of H is W ord an d of H is W orks.
north, while the parallel latitude of L eicester is about 28 still further
north. W e ought therefore, on the globular theory, to have to look for
the m oon at P in a southerly direction from X. As we have before HARD NAMES.
intim ated we th in k that th e explanation o f these things, as regards
Zeteticism , will be found in connection with a new theory of the motions So m any abusive epithets have at different tim es been hurled at
o f light as it com es down to us from above. B ut w hether this be the me that I have grown som ew hat indifferent to h ard nam es. N ever till
case or not, no theory can alter the proved fact th a t w ater is level and 1894, however, have I been called a globularist. T his term I find
th e earth therefore a plane. H ow ever, we wait for further proof of the applied to m yself in th e January n um ber of the Eai-th Review a good
various phenom ena. All we are now concerned to shew is th at the beginning for th e New Y e a rl H ow ever, it is som e com fort to know
phenom ena recorded are not as o u r correspondent imagined, proofs of that m any besides m yself are afflicted with globularism. A globular
th e globular theory. T his we th in k we have succeeded in shewing. It ist, it seems, is one who supposes th e earth to be round, as opposed to
m ay be further proved by reference to a pianist, who knows it to be flat. T h e pianists are now an OTganised
sect, with a Review to propogate the tenets of their creed. G lobu
A n o t h e r Str a n g e F a ct. larism, therefore, although for th e m om ent in the ascendant, has re
ceived notice to quit. I t m oves, said Galileo, th e Arch-G lobularist,
A nother strange fact com es to light in this investigation, an d one utterly on a m em orable occasion, an d up to a point he was right, b u t I doubt
at variance with th e assum ption th a t the world is spherical. I t is based whether he appreciated how often it moves backw ards. From Truth (1)
on th e acknow ledged fact th a t the horizon to an observer anywhere Jan. i8 th , 1894.
would always be a tangent to the sphere. W hat little refraction our
opponents attribute to th e atm osphere is only sufficient to allow th e sun [Poor Labouohere 1 It is very hard of us to call him a globularist, when
to be seen in the m orning eight m inutes before he is above th e hori he has to confess he is one ; hut not so cruel or abusive of him to c.ill
us lunatics, while declining to allow us the opportunity of refuting
zon. See E a rth Review, No. 5, p. 100, 2nd. par. R eferring again to
the veracity of the ep ith et! Oh, no ! The case, is altered then ! If he
our diagram, to save the expense of another, let A C B D now represent prefer the term we will call him a globite instead. But the Ea^lh
th e equator. Suppose th e tim e is th e vernal equinox w hen th e sun is Renew is perhaps making him ashamed of the belief he has entertained
vertical over th e equator, an d th e daylight lasts twelve hours. L et E that he hangs head downwards from a globe for twelve hours out of
be th e position of th e sun ju st rising upon a spectator a t C. every twenty-four ! No doubt others are afflicted with the same
mental belief, or disease; but whether this aggravate or only extenuate the
In six hours the sun would be overhead at the point V ; and in six
malady, we will leave our readers to judge. And is this the only answer
m ore it would be setting along th e line C.F, at point F. T h a t is, it of Truth (?) to our challenge ? E d .]
would take the sun twelve hours to ap p ear to travel from point E to
132 THE EARTH REVIEW.
CORRESPONDENCE NOTES 133

EVOLUTION.
IS THE WORLD RO UND?
T his question seems to be still agitating the A ustrian G overn
When grovelling minds of little worth, ment, an d m ore th a n one A ustrian man-of-war th a t has called here
rorsake the Lord of heaven and earth. lately has h ad an officer on board whose special com m ission was
What dreams of fancy they imbibe ;
They claim as kin the monkey tribe. to make observations for th e purpose o f ascertaining th e attraction
They set all history at defiance of the earth in order thereby to arrive at th e exact shape of th e globe.
And call their speculations science. An officer thus em ployed is on th e A ustrian steam er F asana, who,
Then try to shew the wondrous plan
Of how the ape became a man. since th e vessels arrival, has spent a good deal of tim e at th e N ational
Bank, where a room was allotted him for th e purpose of adjusting his
All things to God men used to trace.
And every species kept its place. instruments. A n officer engaged on sim ilar duty was on the K aiserin
But now were told that men and worms E lizabeth the o th er day. Ceylon Independent, Dec. 23rd, 1893.
Have only sprung from lower forms ;
And when proud science lends her aid
TheyTl tell us how these forms were made ; THE AGNOSTICS CREED.
This thought is theirsO happy notion !
Mind is but matter put in. motion. I believe in a chaotic N eb u la self-existent E volver of H eav en and
In works of art they see design. E a rth ; an d in th e differentiation of this original hom ogeneous Mass.
And own that wisdom did combine ; Its first-gotton P ro d u ct which was self-formed into separate worlds, divi
They say you may behold it in ded into land an d water, self-organized into plants an d anim als, repro
A watch, a mouse-trap, or a pin j
But aU the flowers that scent the breeze. duced in like species, further developed into higher orders, an d finally
The fruits that grow upon the trees, refined, rationalised, and perfected in M an. H e descended from the
The wondrous form and powers o man,
Arose, they say, without a plan. Monkey, ascended to th e P hilosopher, an d sitteth down in th e rites and
customs o f Civilisation u n d er th e laws of a developing Sociology. From
If science shews that man escapes thence he shall com e again, by th e disintegration of th e culm inated
And leaves the ranks of grizzly apes ;
Then science may reverse the plan Heterogeneousness, back in to th e original H om ogeneousness of Chaos.
And prove the ape a fallen man. I believe in th e wholly im personal Absolute, th e wholly un-Catholic
And this new species yet may boast
And gain the tails their fathers lo s t ; Church, th e D isunion of th e Saints, th e Survival of th e F ittest, th e P er
As matter moves and beauty withers. sistence of Force, th e dispersion of th e Body, an d in D eath E verlasting.
Time yet may class them with their fathers. fro m the Nezo York Independent.
No Gk)d they see in all creation ;
They spurn the thought with indignation.
Their main pursuit in life is pelf ; CORRESPONDENCE.
Their creed is" Always mind yourself.
They say to saint and sage and rufilan A ll Letters sent to the Editor should he legibly written on one side
The future state is but a coffin ;
And when we pass beyond lifes storms. only o f the paper, and should have some direct hearing on the subject
We hope to be devoured by worms. before its. They must he accompanied h/ the iiame and address o f the
O charming hope for which they w a it! sender. Stamped addressed envelopes ought to be enclosed fo r replies.
W hat glory gilds their future state ! Short pointed letters or articles preferred.
If here they do but little good.
Yet after death theyre used as food. The E ditor cannot, of course, be held responsible fo r the various opinions
Then let this glowing prospect cheer.
Take care of self while you are here. of his correspondents; nor can he enter into correspondence respecting articles,
Grow fat and plump till latest breath, 4"c, held over or declined. Letters must he prepaid, and addressed to
And youll be useful after death.
D.S. Z E T E T E S ;
Editor o/ T he E a r t h {not-a-Globe) R e v ie w ,
From the " Christian Commonwealth, Jan, 25th, 1894.
Plutus House, St. Saviours Road,
Leicester, England.
134 THE EARTH REVIEW. CORRESPONDENCE. 135

Letters to the Editor.


NOTES. in surveying it is a difficult matter to
' AUDI ALTERAM PARTEM.
carry out an accurate measurement of
Portsmouth, E.B.Tour letters, and many otters, crowded out for lack of I Dear Sir,Again " Enquirer has a perfectly straight line of any con
H a tte m p te d a " demolition of Parallax ! siderable length. It must also be
space. All cuttings sent should be labelled and dated. This time experiment 14, Earth not borne in mind that to reduce the error
a Globe page 57, is the subject of to a minimum the number of measure
Belfast, J.A.T hants for 2/6 for Free Literature Distribution fund. A attack. I hope therefore you will find ments required in executing the survey
Parcel was sent to Mr. (j. T. Bolt, Southsea, who acknowledges the same room for an outlandish Zetetic like me of a country, a plan is adopted to
with thanks to you. to shew this gentleman that he has measure one line. This is considered
again proved t h e non-existence of the " base line, and from each of the
Toronto, W .B .Thanks for copy of Mr. Gleasons work. As you say it is a "'earthcurvature, and consequently extremities of this, the angular dis
contribution to the subject, though lacking in literary perfection. It that the World is a vast irregular tance is measured with a prominent
plane. How does this obscurantist try object in the distance. Here then we
needs critical revision before the next edition is published. Could you to prove, that the essential statements see the basis upon which Ordinance
get us a copy of his map, as this book was without one ? We should be in experiment 14 are false ? Does he Maps are made, and it clearly shews,
glad if any friend could supply us with a good large map. like an honest enquirer go to Shooters to those whose sole object is truth, that
HiU, and there test the experiment ? as a test of such an experiment as
Doncaster, H .C.B.w rites; " I am told that in the last edition of the Oh dear no ! What does he do ? Why Parallaxs No. 14., the Maps are
Encyclopedia Brittanica, in the article ' Astronomy, by Proctor, there is Sir, he, in his own house (?) takes an utterly worthless I ThirdlyBecause
arm chair, and sitting down calls for a theodolite, if only turned ? at the
an admission that the Plane Earth satisfies phenomena as well as the Thomas to bring him an Ordinance point of observation the one thirty-
globular theory. We should be glad to receive the extract referred to Survey Map and straight edge. With second of an inch, from the object
if any friend can find it. these upon the table, this doughty viewed, would at a distance of twelve
demolisher proceeds to make miles more than cover the half a mile,
Allegheny, W. QM.Thanks for copies of your journal. We are glad to see measurements. This is done, and the this careless Enquirer asserts
you are boldly taking up the subject of Natural and Bible Astronomy services of Thomas are again re Parallax is wrong by ! This shews
q u is itio n e d to remove the Map, &o., the absolute necessity of carrying out
in the Herald of Olad Tidings. There is much in yoiir articles we approve
and bring the writing materials that he the experiment as propounded by
of, but we have not yet seen any proof of what you call the Enspherical may write an expose for the Parallax. FourthlyBecause he
form of the Universe. Let us keep to ascertained facts, and beware of Ptiture, and try to shew that himself says that a line taken from
the weakness of the astronomers for mere speculation. We are glad to Parallax invented his experiments. Shooters H ill over the centre of St.
notice our papers have been of some use to you. Now Enquirer asserts that a line Pauls will pass on to WiUesden Green
from Shooters H ill to Hampstead H ill Station. WeU, Sir, that is a Willes-
Santa Cruz, H .V.What proof can be offered that winter is less severe at will not catch the Cross on St. Pauls, den-Green-Station proof that the earth
as that object is fully half a mile to the is a plane, for a line taken from
the South Pole than at the North ? or for the assertion that railway S.W., of the line of sight. Parallax Shooters H ill that w ill pass on to
engines running north have a tendency to run off on the east side ; but is thus demolished. Ha, ha ! But W. G. Station cannot form a part of
when going south, to run oH on the west side of the track ? Can you before the demolisher finally consigns a curve! Fifthly, and ListlyBecause
give instances, with the gradients and curves ? Parallax to oblivion, a poor Hotten in a letter to Mr. S., dated July 6th.,
tot presents himself before this editor 1892., referring to the sketches of the
iwii!, of Nov. 25th, wrote; Zetetes (Leicester).Your article or letter ially protected champion of the globular Bedford Canal experiment, he says, " I
theorywho writes letters f o r a maga think there is enough to shew that no
has been overlooked; we shall try to attend to it, so please look out. zine in which he knows we are not curvature was apparent. A dead level
We are sorry for delay. W e have been looking out for about six allowed to reply to themand demands is all I can see from the sketches.
months, and now we give it up. Perhaps this so-called anti-infidel paper a little delay while he is allowed else But in the " Future (Feb. 1893)
prefers after all the infidels globe before Natural and Biblical Cosmog where, i.e., in the more open pages of referring to the same experiment he
ony ? Yet the editor promised (Aug 16th, 1893), to let our reply to D. the E.R., to say a few words as to says, the curvature you (Mr. Car
Neilds article appear. why his Ordinance Survey Map and penter) deny is imagined there before
straight edge proof cannot be other you, and you know it to be curvature.
than an elaborate and artfully Now Sir, whose statements are utterly
Southwark.Glad to hear that lectures have been given, or papers read at designed imposture, and that his unworthy of credit, Enquirers or
Birmingham by Mr. James Naylor, and Mr. W, L HipweU ; a t HaUfax own essential statements are abso "P arallaxs ? E h ?
by Mr^ J. Shackleton; and in London by Mr. Isaac Smith of Halifax, lutely false.
the Secretary of the XTZ S., and the Editor. Forward comrades ! To gull the "Futurewhat a blunder
FirstBecause he has not tested the Enquirer tells some tales of wonder;
experiments as an honest Enquirer B ut Hottentot points now to Jane,
The Life of Christ ZeteticaUy Considered was never published. for truth ought to. SecondlyBecause And says hes proved the earth a plane !
he seems to be ignorant of the difficul
New Plymouth.W.M.R. Too late for this issue, Pamphlets sent for those ties attending the survey of the country, Auh Weuauh to such Enquirers !
received. Ed. and the lines on which such surveys are
H ottentot.
carried out. I t is acknowledged that.
136 THE EARTH REVIEW. CORRESPONDENCE. 137

Darlington, g e r m a n philosopher. Dr. Shoepfer, who the most pressing matters that requires
Of course they are bound -----to answer
January 6, 1894. according to the Scriptures of Science. says, the assumption that the planets settlement in this controversy, is the
Dear Friend in the Lord,I am mucli B ut these Scriptures of the Scientists ai6 inhabited Worlds, or that the Earth measurement of a degree of longitude
obliged by the receipt of copy of E. aver truly that a convex surface such is a -P la n e t revolving round the Sun, is at two different latitudes South of the
Review, &c. as the Moons cannot throw off light, v o id of any probability, and will soon Equator. Strange this is a matter
as she does, from every part of her liave to pass into the realms of fiction. that has occupied my mind for some
Our Blessed Lord referred to Moses _ . . I curse this modern theory of time. During my leisure, I have been
and the Prophets in his oonverations. face. Moreover, that a dull, dead body
such as she is said to be, is not iitted C o sm o g o n y , and hope there may appear trying to work this out from the
No true disciple of the Son of God will, to reflect either lig h t or heat. Bather in due time some scientist of genius variation of daylight at different
I dare to say, question His infallibility .(fjio will pick up courage enough to latitudes. I begin to see my way for
and Divine accuracy. His references such a surface would absorb both the
received ligh t and heat. And again it u p s e t this universally disseminated determining the circumference at the
cover Jonah and Joshua. The Bible is certain that whilst light is trans delirium of lunatics. latitude of Auckland 37 S., and at the
has been ignorantly attacked by the latitude of 45 S., from the difference of
merely natural man, with the rashness mitted from the Moon to us, little or no And now Mr. Editor, let me say that
heat iswhich anyone can test for our " formidable rival who still daylight between Ontario 45 N., and
characteristic of him from his youth as himself. Auckland 37 S. . . . However, this
regards its history, archasology, biology, believes that the earth is a globe, asks
the same question as we ask ; Can Copernican falsehood is doomed. It
geology and psychology, in all of which The signature at foot of letter p. 113 will not be tolerated much longer.
studies it has been proved correct even is not correct. any man in his sober senses believe
that the earth could fly through space When the public get a little more light
in minute details. And I am assured Yours faithfully, they will demand an alteration in the
that the Astronomy of the Bible will at the rate of one thousand miles a
minute ? Could the moon keep her school system as far as physical
eventually be proved correct. E dwakd W. F oesteb. geography is concerned.
constant path round the earth at 237,
What a spectacle to thoughtful ob 000 miles distant, if the earth was Yours respectfully,
servers the sight of great Astronomers A W RIT DE LTJNATICO flying at this terrific speed ? Oh, what
standing by without a protest while dupes ! So say we, and the attention J no. T. L a w s o n .
engineers lay down railroads and con INQUIEENDO.
of the editor of the Keview of Reviews
struct waterways without paying any is called to the above.
Dear Sir, T ntJi says we are Toronto, Jan. 11th, 1894.
regard to the Astronomical dogma that lunatics, does he ? (No I I t is Mr. BALiAMs Ass.
the world is a globe. My dear Brother,
Labouchere who says so. Ed.) Well
In spite of the astronomical priest it is not the first time the public I enclose a cutting from a paper in
hood, the travelling world is very well press has given vent to such vindic Ontario, Canada, N.Y. State, shewing that a Mr. M. C.
satisfied to journey over these roadways tiveness. But we speak the truth, January 15th, 1894. Flanders is on the war-path against
constructed on the plan of a plane and when we tell Truth that we are not popular astronomy, &c. He carries
level earth. under the control of a " Board of Dear Friend,Please accept my apparatus, I understand, in order to
Visitors, the same as those gentlemen thanks for the papers and two copies of demonstrate his positions to the eyes
Many scientists refuse to believe the the Barth Review.
Bible. But the Book itself is a stand at the Greenwich Observatory ! Ah, of his hearers, as well as appeal to
ing miracle ! All the opposition and Truth ! , I am going to speak the The report of Mr. Runcimans lecture their minds through their ears. I wish
hatred of centuries has left unabated truth, and the source of my information in New Zealand is gratifying. He dealt there was a cheap edition of Parallax
its interest and vitality. And yet these is, the Astronomical Register for with the question in a discreet and out, which he could recommend to his
same persons inflated with the vigour May 1872. An observatory can never straightforward way. his hearers rather than Mr. Gs book.
and prescience of mortality, and stand without some useful object, not 1 notice a letter on page 112 from H. I have three copies of P arallax; one
daringly disdainful of their very limited only to prevent astronomers from going C. Bowker, M.A., of Doncaster, of some for myself, which has been rebound
capacity, demand that we shall believe mad, as they have been apt to do since importance. He refers to Parallax, p. with many additions and illustrations,
all their dicta and dogma upon their the time of Plamstead, and hence the 9G and 97. The direct distance from and two which are often out on a loan,
authority alone, without reliable board of visitors." So much for the Valencia, (Ireland), to Cape Town, from reading which several intelligent
proofs. lunatics ! (South of Africa), is 1,164 miles ; this persons have quite renounced the old
must be a mistake. Yesit is a views. I think it is important that
The books and prophets of the Bible Evidently Truth has not read our Parallaxs Statements respecting that
never contradict one another. The formidable rivals teaching, and mistake. Mr. John Hampden gives the
Equatorial circumference as 25,000 wager between Wallace and Hampden,
various books and prophets of Science compared it with the truth of the Plane should be added to my new edition, for
are continually in conflict. earth, or he would have found that the milesand he states in a letter to me
that he had found several minor mis so many seem to have heard of the
rivals have much in common. For wager who know nothing about the way
Not being an Astronomer, I cannot instance Mr. Gillespie says, they (the takes in Parallax in regard to distances.
dispute on the more intricate details of Now if the Equatorial circumference is in which it was said to have been won,
modern astronomers) are in a worse though under false pretences.
that science. B ut I keep mostly now position by fa r than the heathen, who 25,000 miles, the radial distance from
to one stone and sling. I ask my has no chance ofiknowing better. The the North Centre to Equator must be In yonr January number, your cor
opponents to answer me on the question sun, the moon, and the planets all 3,979 miles. Parallax gives the radial respondent H seems to be very much
of the Moons " reflection. I get prove that their system is false, the distance from North Centre to Valencia in the condition of Mr. E. 'V^en I
them by questioning to allow that they Bible and reason also teach us that it is correctly, (I think) 2,556 miles ; but saw him last, he was talking to me
hold the theory of the Moon being a false. Again, he asks ; can the the distance he gives from Valencia to about the same matter, and I answered
globe i then that it shines by reflected mind of man take in or credit such an Cape Town is incorrect. It is not 1,164 him very much after your style, refer
light. I then refer them to the Laws idiotic system ? Lastly, we find on statute miles, but 2,390 miles. Mr. ring him to the one superlative proof-
of Light, of reflection, and radiation. p. 29., he quotes from the eminent Bowker says, I am sure that one of test of water, as the proper standard of
138 THE EARTH REVIEW. RENEWAL OE ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION. 139

appeal, and not stais in the matter of years experience has convinced W'hat was proven by that pamphlet shewing how he thought he had fairly
the Earths form, &o. Mr. E. has that the public has no desire to lear may be proven as long as the world won the wager. This would not only
lately joined the Astronomical Society th at which is out of harmony -with lasts, namely, that standing water is have tended to clear his character,
of Toronto, and I suspect the stars have what they ha^e been taught. The level; but if you would like any further but would have been a service ren
dazzled his mind for awhile ; though he whole affair lies in a nutshell, and particularsto aid someones common dered, and due to the public from
is a man of good miderstanding. people are afraid to look inside, go s e n se I shall be happy, Mr. Editor, to him, as the champion of the globular
In January number 1894, the r e p o r t s
intent are they in looking all roun^ be your obedient servant, theory. The Earth Review is open
of Bruce and Donald, are most impor the outside where the thing is not. It W m. Carpenter . to him for this purpose. In the
tant. I t is a point in the Southern is simply this :A six-mile stretch o{ meantime our readers would doubt
aspect upon which I am much accus standing water was proven by those [We certainly think it was Mr. Wal less be glad of the further promised
tomed to dwell in argument, and it experiments to be l b v e l ; and all the laces duty to publish a statement statement of Mr. Carpenter. E d .E.E.]
always carries weight with the thought trickery in the world w ill never succeed
ful, that the i-emarkable differences bein proving it convex! Alfred R. Wallace
tween the south and north view could who claimed the winning of the waget,
not exist under the spherical and rotary and pocketed the money on the 1st. of renew al of a n t a r c t ic e x p l o r a t io n .
principle of the earth, were such true. April. 1870, should be called upon
If the Geog. Society were only in loudly and persistently to explain his [Extracts from a Paper read at the Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society
earnest to settle the vexed question case. He dare not so much as attempt Nov. 27th, 1893, by John Murray, Phd.D, L.L.D. of the ' Challenger
which is confronting them every now it. Were he to try to do this, without Expedition].
and then, it appears to me the question subterfuge and banter, it would be the
could be easily solved in some such finest demonstration in favour of the
manner as t h is :let two parties be plane earth that could be wished for! H ero d o tu s tells us that, ab o u t six hu n d red years before Christ,
formed, one to investigate the matter Here is what is inside the nutshell Phoenician sailors reported that, in rounding Africa to the south, they
at the North, and the other at the Six miles of standing water presents a
South. Let a given parellel at each had th e sun on th eir right hand. T his for my p art. says H erodotus,
certain configuration of surfacewhat
point, &c., the line of investigation, is that configurationis it level or I do n ot believe ; b ut others may. T his observation as to the position
say 70 or 65, as 70 S. is so trying to convex ? One would suppose it were of the sun is, however, good evidence th a t the expedition of N echo
seamen in colds and storms, &c., each the greatest puzzle of modern tim es!
to pursue its parallel from a given why, if people had nothing to guide really took place. . . .
longitude in a direct easterly or wester them but the commonest of common
ly course over sea and land tiU it sense, it need not remain unsolved P om ponius M ela who lived in the first century of our era . . .
reached that given longitude again, five m inutes; and, in putting pen to
and shewed the number o f miles paper at this time, the conviction is held, like m ost of his predecessors, th at th e habitable world of E urope,
traversed, and then compare the results forced upon us that we are either telling Asia, an d Africa, form ed a single island surrounded by an all-encircling
of difference or similarity. I t must, as people who know, or those who do not
inevitably, I think, shew the true con sea.
want to Tcnow I W hat a disgrace to
dition geographically, and mathemati science that its victims have not pluck [After describing the first circumnavigation of the earth the paper unwarrant
cally, as would two circles drawn, the enough to see for themselves, and if
one near the hub, the other near the ably proceeds;E d .]
Mr. Wallace has not courage enough to
rim of a wheel. face his opponents and throw off the T h e sphericity of th e E arth, the existence o f antipodes, were no
Could not your "Sundial be printed odium that attaches to his name, do it longer scientific theories, b ut dem onstrated facts. T h e loss or gain of
in E.R. with a diagram ? I t might for him, Six miles of water bulged up in
induce many perhaps to try the ques the middle; and precisely the same a day in sailing ro u n d th e world, together with a m ultitude of other un
tion. W ell brother, the Lord sustain appearance presents from either end familiar and bew ildering facts, struck the imagination, an d altogether th e
thee in the fight for Truth revealed, a continuous straight line ! I Surely,
whether in Nature or the Wordand Mr. Editor, it would be a work of effect of these startling events was without parallel in th e history of the
for every ray of Light received, may we supereroffation to attempt seriously to world. T h e solid im m ovable earth ben eath m ens feet was replaced by
receive seven rays of Love to enable us explain this in the year, 1894. I did
to spread abroad and use the light this in 1871, in a 32 p.p, pamphlet (1/-) , the mental picture of the great floating globe swung in space, supported
aright'! which I advertised in the London Daily by some unseen power. . . .
Telegraph until that paper was threat
Tours sincerly in Christ, ened with legal proceedings, and there [Only a mental picture drawn by the scientific imagination. If we
W. Bbookman. fore, refused my advertisement, (Much sailed round an island we might draw the same mental picture of it, but
better would it have been for Mr,
Wallace to defend himself !) This would it be true to fact ? E d].
Baltimore, U.S.A., Jan. 29th. publication was entitled Water not Cook reached latitude 71 10' S., in longitude ic 6 54' W., and here
Convex : The Earth not a Globe!
SiE,If ever a useless ta s t were Demonstrated by Alfred R. Wallace, he probably saw th e ice-barrier an d m ountains beyond. H e believed
given to a man, surely such a task is Esq., F.E.G.S, &c, on the 5th of March,
given to me, when I am asked to re 1870, by experiments conducted on the there was a tract of land tow ards the South Pole extending further north
count the facts of the Bedford Level old Bedford Canal, near Downham in the A tlantic and In d ian O ceans than elsewhere, an d says I t is true
Experiments of 1870! The past Market. Norfolk.' however, th at the greatest part of this southern continent (supposing
140 THE EARTH REVIEW. SCIENTIFIC DOGMATISM. U1

there is one) m ust be w ithin th e P o lar circle, w here th e sea is so pej, - is greater th an that^of A ustralia, or nearly 4,000,000 square miles. O f all
tered with ice that th e land is thereby inaccessible. T h e risk one runs the bold southern explorers, Ross an d D U rville are the only two who
in exploring a coast in th ese u nknow n a n d icy seas is so very great that have set foot on lan d w ithin the A rctic circle. . . .
I can be bold enough to say th a t no m an will ever venture further than
I have done, an d th a t the lands which m ay lie to th e south will never A few m onths ago I bade good-bye to N ansen, an d said I expect
be explored. T hick fogs, snow-storms, intense cold, an d every other ed within two years to welcome him on his retu rn from the A rctic ; but
thing th a t can render navigation dangerous, m ust b e encountered, and I e x p re ss e d som e d oubt if I should again see th e Fram. I think you
these difficulties are greatly heightened by th e inexpressibly h o rrid aspect aie wrong, was th e r e p ly ; I believe you will welcome m e on th e very
o f the country, a country doom ed by nature never once to fee l the warmth sam e deck, and, after m y return from th e Arctic, I will go to th e South
o f the suns rays, b u t to b e b u ried in everlasting snow an d ice. , , . Pole, an d th en m y lifes work will be finished. From th e Geological
Journal, J a n ., 1894.
Tw o navigators have, however, ventured further th an . C o o k ; Wed
dell in 1893 p enetrated to 74 S., b u t saw no land. Sir Jam es Clark
SCIENTIFIC DOGMATISM.
R oss in 1841 and 1842 reached the 78th. parallel, an d discovered Vic
toria L and. T h ese three explorers, Cook, W eddell a n d R oss, are the Mr. T yndall resigned in 1887 th e Professorship at th e Royal In sti
only ones who have passed beyond th e 7oth parallel of south latitude. tution which he had held for m ore th an thirty years. . . . He
never h^d any d oubt about anything, from H o m e R u le to spontaneous
I n Jan. 1841, after passing heavy pack-ice far to th e south of New generation, from th e com position of dust to th e origin of things. . . .
Zealand, R oss discovered V ictoria L and, consisting of m ountain ranges But while P rofessor T yndall, th e brilliant lecturer, th e lum inous exposi
from 7,000 to 12,000, an d 15,000 feet in height. T o the east he found tor, the intrepid clim ber, th e pugnacious controversialist, th e genial and
open navigable water with oif-lying islands, on two o f w hich Possess amiable com panion, was in m any respects an interesting personage, no
ion an d F ranklin Islands h e landed. T h is b old coast was traced for part of his character would repay study so well as th e scientific dogm a
500 miles to th e south, w here it term inated, in latitude 78 S., in the tism in which it was all steeped. D r. A rnold pro tested h a lf a century
volcanic cones of M ounts E rebus an d T error, M ount E rebus at th e time ago in his entertainiug, if n o t very practical, notes on .T hucydides,
vom iting forth flame an d lava from an elevation o f 12,000 ft. Glaciers against what, as a philological student, h e discerned Ito b e a tendency
descending from the m ountain sum m its filled the valleys an d bays of of the times, I t is n o t to be endured, h e said, th at scepticism should
th e coast, a n d projected several m iles in to th e sea. I t was impossible run at once in to dogm atism , an d th a t we shouid be required to d oubt
to enter any of the indentations or breaks on th e coast where in other with as little discrim ination as we were formerly called upon to be
lands harbours usually occur. O n some days th e sun shone forth with lieve. D r. A rnold was of course referring directly an d im m ediately to
great brilliancy from a perfectly serene an d clear sky o f a m ost intense the tam pering o f com m entators with th e text of the G reek historian.
indigo blue, an d th e m em bers of th e expedition gazed with feelings of But the sym ptom which h e observed has spread into other spheres, an d
indescribable delight upon a scene o f grandeur a n d magnificence beyond for the old tyranny of th e C hurch there has been substituted th e despo
anything they had before seen or could have conceived. tism of th e laboratory. T h e delight of dealing with certainties des
cribed by an accom plished m an of letters, who m ade an hasty plunge
From th e eastern foot of M ount T error, Ross found a perpendicular into the P rincipia, is a high form of m ental enjoym ent. B ut it is
wall o f ice from 100 to 120 feet in height, extending away to th e east, rather a dangerous guide through th e maze of conflicting probabilities,
through which, as he says, th ere was no m ore chance o f sailing than from which even th e sacred College of Science has n ot yet succeeded in
through th e cliffs o f D over. H e traced this ice barrier in an east and delivering th e h um an race. . . .
west direction for 300 miles ; an d within a mile of it he o b tain ed a depth
of 260 fathoms, with a fine soft m ud at th e bottom . In the following Mr. Balfour wrote a book w hich is n ot nearly so well know n as it
season R oss was n o t successful; for weeks h e was a prisoner in th e pack- ought to be. T h e D efence o f Philosophic D o u b t is dry and un
ice. . . . attractive in form. But it is acute an d ingenious in substance. It
would b e a m ore agreeable work if it were w ritten in literary English.
T o my m ind there seems to be ab u n d an t evidence that there exists I t would be a m ore candid one if it m entioned th e nam e of D avid
in this region a vast extent of true continental land, th e area of which H um e. I t is, notw ithstanding these drawbacks, a valuable antidote to
142 THE EA"TH REVIEW.
A CHURCH TAX. 1431
th e pretensions of m odern science. In it Mr. Balfour, one of the fe\y
living Englishm en with a real ap titu d e for philosophy, turns against the blazing suns an d fiery com ets an d a host o f solar systems with their
exaggerated claim s of science th e argum ents form erly em ployed with so rotating and revolving planets like our d ear little e a r th ! all, all, all
m uch vigour against the exaggerated claims of theology. I t is useless," becoming jam m ed up together in o ne vast nebula in the closing scene
he says in effect, to tell m e th at your conclusions are tru e because ^as undoubtedly appalling an d terribly tragic to the h earer w hose edu
they are universally accepted. W hat is the ignorant im pression of the cation fitted him for its reception, an d for whom th e prophecies of a
unthinking m ultitude really worth ? . . . M r. Balfour is f o n d of modern F ren ch savant m ust have been a sweet morsel as they were
paradox, an d he may press his theory too far. B ut at least h e deserves hurled down th e throats of th e poor ed ucated people at M ount Ver-
credit for pointing out th at th e infallibility o f science rests on no surer pon I Truly, w hat is one m an s m eat is an o th er m an s p o iso n ; an d we
foundation than any other form o f orthodox opinion. T h e greatest Icnow o f one fellow who was so com pletely sickened by it th at to wait
nam es in scientific history cannot b e cited to support th e doctrine that for the benediction would have been too m uch for him he h ad to go
a know ledge of physics, how ever accurate an d extensive, entitles its put I L et the worlds crash if th ey w ant t o ! was one elegant out
possessor to lay down th e law on final causes an d th e origin o f things. burst of th e m inister who is nothing for such a congregation as his if he
In his fam ous address at Belfast nearly tw enty years ago, Professor be not SCIEN TIFIC ! L et th e worlds c r a s h ! I f it were perm issible to
T yndall declared that m atter contained th e power an d potency o f every stand up an d ask a question in church, th e sick m an would have asked,
form o f life. I f this phrase was m ore th an em pty rhetoric it implied i What worlds ! I n vain would th e Rev. scientist turn th e leaves of
th a t Professor T ynd all knew how th e world cam e in to existence, a n d his Bible for an answ er 1 T h e B ook is virtually buried u n d er a heap o f
how life began. Mr. D arw in, th e greatest m an of science since New scientific lu m b e r! . . . I f a scientist has never heard of P a r a l
ton, if not since A ristotle, p u t forward no such assum ption. In humble l a x , of E ngland, h e stands, confessedly, an ignorant scientist; an d every
and dignified language he explained th a t his m arvellous generalisations scientist who has read th a t au th o r an d fails to take action in th e prem
with reference to th e origin of species an d th e d ecent of m an began, as ises well, it were b etter for jhis soul had h e rem ained ig n o r a n t!
they ended, with a living creature. H e traced m an to th e m a r in e The scientific world knows full well n ot a m an will dare to deny it, in
ascidian. T h e m arine ascidian h e d id n ot p reten d to trace. From response to this le tte r th at if they did N O T hold th eir peace as they
The D a ily N ews, D ec. 5th, 1893. are doing to day they would knock out th at j>eg, about w hich the M adi
[Could anyone spare the Editor a copy of Mr. Balfours book, The Defence of son Square m inister spoke, an d to which he drew pointed attention ! It
Philosophic l>oult ? E d ] is coming ! T h e crash will be terrific 1 Galileo turning the Bible up
side downwards was a m ere bagatelle to th e task o f putting th e Book
once m ore in its tru e position 1 A narchists an d Socialists in league
A CHURCH TAX. against th e Bible, shall we have also the M ethodists, A dventists an d
[C o m m u n ic a t e d .] Clergy ? Is th ere not m ore genuine infidelity in professing to love th at
M r . E d it o r . I do n o t for a m om ent suppose although your ex which you suffer to lie u n h eed ed even on a pulpit desk th an th ere is
perience is decidedly extensive th at you ever knew of a case in which with those who ju st dont w ant th e thing at all ? T hose who are called
a tax, of no m ean proportion, was im posed on a Sunday m orning. It by D r. T alm age th e infidel scientists have th e devil at th eir back,
was in an aristocratic portion of th e city, too : near w here th e fountains and all the powers of darkness will b e used to give th e devil th e victory I
play in sum m er tim e. Y ou w ouldnt think it could be in a church, Silence ! ye scientists, a little longer, as silenced you surely shall be.
w here you go to hear th e sim ple gospel of Jesus C hrist held up before Let the old folks depart in p e a c e : th en th e b a ttle ! C atholics far-see-
you, or som e plain tru th brought forward from th e good old book, but, ing folk as they are now enjoined by th e H o ly F ath er to study the
indeed, it w as; and in M o u n t V ernon C hurch, on Sunday m orning last, Bible, will do it th at their pow er should be f e lt; (but they will have to
there was such a taxing o f th e people N o, we are n ot thinking of the lake out the word globe an d restore th e plain w ords o f the original
nickles an d dim es as they chinked into 'the plates. Oh, no I T h a t tax text: for, globe of th e earth is nonsense, anyway, See Isaias 40 : 42,
was a trifle ! T h e Rev. G entlem an, from a pile of M.S., read a scientific Douay version). Yes, they will jo in in the contest, an d th e Bible will
lecture on th e destruction o f M other E arth at th e final day th a t must come out in th e en d as th e tru e scientific te x t-b o o k ; because it will be
have taxed th e credulity of th e Bible student (if there b e any such to known to th e people, as it is now know n to the scientists, th a t th e only
peg which retained a m onstrous structure in position was the theoreti
be found now-a-days) to th e utm ost capacity ! T h e talk o f rolling and
cal, heretical an d dam nable peg th at th e earth is a globe an d flies
144 THE EARTH REVIEW.

around the sun I T hen, an d n ot till then, shall we find the Bible an
open Book in the churches, an d we m ay go to th e church of th e peopig
w ithout being T A X E D ! From The {Single) T ax y o u rn a l, December
20th, 1893.

ROMAN CATHOLIC EESUTATIONS OF GALILEO.


ABTIf- "BEVI W

F rom th e mass of books w hich appeared u n d er the auspices of the To Him that stretched out the Earth above the Waters ; fo r His mercy
church im m ediately after th e condem nation of Galileo, for th e purpose endureth for ever. Psa. 1 3 6 : 6.
of rooting out every vestige of th e hated C opernican theory from the
m inds of the world, two may be taken as typical. T h e first of these was No. 7 . MAY, 1894. P r ic e 2 d.
a work by Scipio C hiaram onti, dedicated to C ardinal Barberini. Among
his argum ents against the double m otion of th e earth m ay be cited the PROFESSOR TOTTEN
following : AND

Animals, which move, have lim bs an d muscles j th e earth has no JOSHUAS LONG DAY.
lim bs or muscles, therefore it does n ot move. It is angels who make ^ I N C E publishing our pam phlet on the The Sun Standing Still,
Saturn, Jupiter, th e sun, etc. turn round. I f th e earth revolves, it must a friend has lent us a copy of a larger pam phlet by Professor
also have an angel in the centre to set it in m otion ; b u t only devils T otten, of N ew H aven, en titled Joshuds Long D ay. I t is a
live th e r e ; it would therefore be a devil who would im part m otion to remarkable production, an d serves generally to shew the w onderful ac
th e earth..................... T h e planets, th e sun, th e fixed stars, all belong curacy of Bible Chronology. I t is on the sam e lines as th e writings of
to one species namely, th a t of stars they therefore all m ove or stand Mr. Dimbleby in A l l P a st Time, a gentlem an whom th e editor of The
still. I t seems, therefore, to be a grievous wrong to place th e earth, Earth Review has had th e pleasure of m eeting m ore th an once in L on
w hich is a sink of impurity, am ong th e heavenly bodies, which are pure don, But while these gentlem en b o th m ake good C hronologists, we
an d divine things. are sorry to have to p o in t out th eir inconsistency as Cosm ologists an d
T h e next, which I selected from the mass o f works, is the Anti- as Christian writers. T h ey h old with m odern A stronom ers, infidels,
Copernicus Catholicus of Polacco. I t was intended to deal a finishing and evolutionists of all kinds, th a t th e earth on which we live, is a rota
stroke at G alileos heresy. In this it is d e c la re d : T h e scripture ting globe, revolving about th e sun, an d dashing onw ards through
always represents th e earth as at rest, an d th e sun and m oon as in space quicker th an a flash of lightning. T his is n ot only con
m otion : or, if these latter bodies are ever represented as at rest, scrip trary to natural appearances, b u t is also contrary to th e Bible doctrine
ture represents this as the result of a great miracle. T h ese writings that the earth rests upon foundations, an d is established so fast th at
m ust be prohibited, because they teach certain principles about the it cannot be m oved. O ne or oth er of th ese views m ust b e false.
position an d m otion of th e terrestrial globe repugnant to holy scripture What is the use o f proving th a t Bible Chronology is correct if Bible
and to th e catholic interpretation of it, n ot as hypotheses b u t as estab Cosmology is all wrong ? A nd where is th e consistency of defending
lished facts. . . . I t is possible to work with th e hypotheses of one part of the Sacred W ritings, while practically denying another ?
Copernicus so as to explain m any phenom ena. . . . Y et it is not According to inspired writers, Bible Cosm ogony is at th e basis of all
perm itted to argue on his prem ises except to show their falsity. Dr. Gods dealings with, an d revelation to, his creatures. H en ce it is placed
Andrew D . W hitt, Popular Science Monthly." in the forefront of th e H oly Scriptures, in th e very first chapter of
Genenis. A nd as Mr. T o tte n s a y s;
I learnt as my first great lesson in the inquiry into these obscure fields of It is the Bible that Atheists and Infidels attackthe Old Testament
knowledge never to accept the disbelief of great men, or their accusations of chieflyfor they are logical, and perceive that if the foundation goes, the
imposture or of imbecility, as of any weight when opposed to the repeated super-structure cannot stand, no matter how eloquently it can be clothed in
observation of facts by other men, admittedly sane and honest. The whole history Agnostic sermons . . . It will not do to doubt the universality of the
of science shows us that whenever the educated and scientific men of any age have Plood, and ask men to accept a Saviour who alludes to it . . . If the
denied the facts of other investigators on a priori grounds of absurdity or im story of Eden, and the Deluge, of Jericho and Joshua are myths or fables, and
possibility, the deniers have always been wrong.Prof. Alfred E. Wallace.