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THE THIRD ACT OF THE MIND The argument, the whole of it, is where
we adduce VALIDITY


Ability to acquire knowledge beyond In formal logic, reasoning is

experience. expressed through syllogisms.
If we know that everything has It is presupposed here that the
atoms must be able to reflect light reasoning we utilize is that of
If we know that all green men on deduction we are in search for
mars have atoms necessary truth.
Then we know with certainty that all Syllogism literally means connected
little green men on mars must be thought
able to reflect light Syn (together) + logos (thought/
Universal truths: 2 + 2 = 4 idea)
We can know necessary and
unchangeable truths that it FOUNDATIONS OF THE SYLLOGISM
necessarily follows. 1. Dictum de omni - the law about all.
If A is B and B is C, then A must Whatever is universally true of a subject
necessarily be C. must be true of everything contained in that

The essential structure of every a. If X must be true of all S, then it

must be true of every single S
argument consists of a relationship
between two parts: premises and b. The universal is the foundation of
conclusion. syllogism.
Conclusion what you are trying to
prove 2. Dictum de nullo the law about
Premises your reasons, your none. Whatever is universally false of a
evidence, your proof subject must be false of everything
Premise indicators: because, since, contained in that subject.
but, on account of, for, inasmuch as,
a. If X is not true of any S, of S as
insofar as, for the reason that, etc.
Conclusion indicator: therefore, thus, such, then X must not be true of any single
hence, so, ergo, consequently, it follows S.
that, we may conclude that, etc. 3. Two things identical with one
Before we proceed, it is but necessary to another one and the same third thing are
note again that arguments can only be identical with each other.
valid or invalid neither true or false nor a. All men are mortal; Socrates is a
clear or unclear. Since arguments are man; Thus...
composed of propositions (premises and
conclusions), it is necessary that each 4. If there are two things, one of
proposition have a truth value of its own. which is identical with a third thing and
In other words, the truth value of the the other of which is not, then those two
conclusion or premises do not things are not identical with each other.
necessarily affect the VALIDITY of the a. No men are angels; and Socrates is
argument. a man; therefore
5. (3) and (4) assume the LAW OF
All evil spirits are birds (False) IDENTITY

And all sparrows are evil spirits (False) A things is what it is

Therefore, all sparrows are birds (True) 6. The (3) and (4) supposes likewise the
We can see from the example the
conclusion logically follows from the CONTRADICTION
premises despite their falsity. IT IS A thing is not what it isnt; X is not non-X.
VALID. In fact, it was shown likewise
that one can arrive at TRUE 7. Lastly, the (3) and (4) assume as
conclusions despite the presence of well the LAW OF EXCLUDED
false premises.
Premises and Conclusions, being
propositions can only be true of false

a thing is [only] either X or not X. A

Predicate must either be affirmed or denied
Because no politicians are loyal
of a subject no third possibility.
And some teachers are highly paid
All men are mortal persons,
And Socrates is a man Some professional people are teachers,
Therefore Socrates is mortal
Hence, some persons who are
competent to rule the
From the example:
For the reason that all highly paid
1. There can only be three persons arecountry are not politicians,
propositions: two premises and a professional people,
And all loyal Filipinos are competent to
2. There can only be three terms. Each rule the country,
terms is only used twice.
3. Subject of the conclusion = MINOR
TERM All heroes are not afraid to die,
Since, some valuable things are not
useful too,
4. Predicate of the conclusion =
MAJOR TERM Some heroes are Filipinos,
5. The term that is not present in the
conclusion = MIDDLE TERM
Hence, some valuable things are not
6. The premise containing the minor machines, consequently,
some Filipinos are not afraid to die,
7. The premise containing the major
Premise indicators: because, since, but, CHECKING SYLLOGISMS FOR THEIR
on account of, for, inasmuch as, insofar as, VALIDITY
for the reason that, etc. (Aristotles Six Rules)
Conclusion indicator: therefore, thus, Rule 1: A syllogism must have three (3) and
hence, so, ergo, consequently, it follows only three (3) terms.
that, we may conclude that, etc.
Violation: Fallacy of Four Terms

Some Filipinos are responsible people,

Rule 2: A syllogism must have three (3) and
And all teachers are responsible people, only three (3) propositions.
Since some Filipinos are teachers, Violation: Unnamed

Inasmuch as all Christians are God- Rule 3: The MIDDLE TERM must be
fearers, DISTRIBUTED (universal) at least once.
And some Christians are Filipinos, Violation: Fallacy of Undistributed Middle
It follows that some Filipinos are God-
Rule 4: No term that is undistributed in the
premise may be distributed in the
And some plants are not trees,
Violation: Fallacy of Illicit Minor or Major
Because no roses are trees,
Term(Corollary Rules)
It follows that some plants are roses,
Rule 5: No syllogism can have two (2)
negative premises.

Violation: [Fallacy of] Exclusive All violence is aggression

No violence is just
Rule 6: If one (1) premise is negative, the
Therefore, Some aggressions are not just
conclusion must be negative; and if the
conclusion is negative, one premise must
be negative.
Violation: Unnamed
Compassion is a virtue
Justice is not compassion
A violation of either of the corollaries
also violates one of the six rules of Therefore, justice is not a virtue
Aristotle. However, it is but helpful to
state these corollaries for it is easier to
identify. Rule 5: Two terms negatively related to one
third term are not necessarily identical or
CHECKING SYLLOGISMS FOR THEIR unidentical with each other
Corollary 1: No syllogism may have two
particular premises. Example:
Corollary 2: If a syllogism has a Odd numbers are not even numbers
particular premise, it must have a
particular conclusion. Three is not an even number T

RULES EXPLAINED herefore, three is an odd number

Rule 1: One can only connect two ideas

with a common bridge only one third term. Example:
Ryle 2: Syllogisms, by definition, should Birds are not fish
have three (3) propositions. This is a
MEDIATE (bridged) inference Humans are not fish

If an argument contains only two Therefore, humans are birds

propositions (2), it is an immediate
inference: conversion, obversion and
contraposition Rules 3 and 4 concern with the
distribution of terms
In diagramming, if there is a way that one
These two rules pertain to the essential
can diagram the premise without having
structure of the syllogism
the conclusion, the argument is invalid
Rule 3: The reason the middle term must
be distributed at least once is because if it is
not, then the minor term and the major term Rules 5 and 6 concern negative
may be related to two totally different parts premises
of the extension of the middle term that 1. Some dogs are creatures of God;
justifies the relationship they bear to each Since creatures of God are animals; And
other in some animals are dogs;
the conclusion
2. Jogging is good for the body; But
All dogs are animals milk is good for the body; Therefore,
milk is jogging.
All cats are animals DOGS CATS
Therefore, all dogs are cats
3. And fruits are sweet;
*In both instances, the middle term is
particular Some mangoes are sweet;
Rule 4: False or Hasty But all mangoes are sweet;
Generalization/Assumptions. Example:

4. No servants of the country are

government officials;
9. Some fruits are sweet;
But some government officials are But some fruits are sour;
corrupt persons;
In this case, some corrupt persons are
6. Jeremy is a writer of fairy tale servants of the Therefore, some fruits
stories; But Jeremy is a student; are sweet.
Therefore, all students are writers of
fairy tale stories. 10. No chimpanzee are rational animals;
For the reason that all snakes are
animals; But no philosophers are
7. All machines are useful tools; chimpanzees;

But some valuable things are useful And some animals are lovable
tools; Therefore, some valuable things creatures; Therefore, no philosophers
are machines. are rational animals.

Some lovable creatures are snakes.

8. Chocolates are houses

; And houses are white;
But chocolates are brown;