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Table 1.3: Typical POME Characteristic (Ahmad et al.

, 2003)
Parameters Value
pH 4.7
Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD 25,000
Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD 50,000
Total Solid, TS 40,500
Suspended Solid, SS 18,000
Ammonia Nitrogen, NH3-N 35
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, TKN 750
Oil and Grease 4,000
Total Volatile Solids, TVS 34,000
Temperature (C) 80-90
all values, except pH and temperature, are expressed in mg/L

Table 2.1.: Initial characteristics of Raw POME


Parameters Units Characteristics of Raw POME
1
Biochemical Oxygen Demand mg/L 25,000
1
Chemical Oxygen Demand mg/L 50,000
1
Total Solids mg/L 40,500
1
Suspended Solids mg/L 18,000
1
Oil and Grease mg/L 4,000
1
Ammoniacal nitrogen mg/L 35
1
Total nitrogen mg/L 750
1
Temperature C 80-90
2
pH 3.4-5.2
3
Turbidity NTU 1155
3
Colour PtCo 11500
4
Phosphorus mg/L 94-131
4
Potassium mg/L 1,281-1,928
4
Magnesium mg/L 254-344
4
Calcium mg/L 276-405
4
Manganese mg/L 2.1-4.4
4
Iron mg/L 75-164
4
Zinc mg/L 1.2-1.8
4
Copper mg/L 0.8-1.6
4
Chromium mg/L 0.05-0.43
4
Cobalt mg/L 0.04-0.06
4
Cadmium mg/L 0.01-0.02
Sources: Ling (2007), Shah, (2004), Wong et al, (2009), 4 Wu et al, (2010)
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Regulatory Standard for POME


The Malaysian governments effort to reduce the effluent from the palm oil industry
has been implemented through a licensing system, which mainly consists of effluent
standards and effluent charges (Onyegbado and Igwe, 2007) where the Parameters
Limits for Watercourse Discharge of Effluent from Oil Palm Industry are shown in the
Table 1.4.
Specifically after being given one year to install treatment facilities, palm oil
mills were required to reduce their waste water discharges, by taking BOD
concerntration as the key parameter from 25,000 mg/L untreated effluent to 5000
mg/L and to ( 100 mg/L by 1984 onwards) (Markandya and Shibli, 1995).
In addition to the standards, effluent charges are levied on the BOD load
discharge. Palm oil mills were given one year of paying a low fee for the BOD load
exceeding a standard of 5000 mg/L in recognition of the initial difficulties the industry
would faced. A more stringent BOD standard (100 mg/L in 1984 on word) and hence,
higher effluent charges were imposed after that (Onyegbado and Igwe, 2007).