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CBEMS 125B Cheat Sheet: Thing You Should

Include
Conduction

Name Equation Description


W
q' = Heat flux ( )
m
2

q = Heat transfer (W)


q ' '=k T T ^ T ^ T
T =i^ +j +k
q=kA T x y z
Fouriers Law
''
1 D :q x =k
dT
dx
k =Conductivity const . ( mW K )
The - sign indicates flux
occurs in the direction
opposite the gradient.

Convection

Name Equation Description


W

Newtons
q= Heat flux
m2( )
q' ' =
q h = Conv. heat transfer
Law of =h(T S T )
A coefficient.
Cooling
TS = Surface temperature
T = Fluid temperature

Radiation

Name Equation Description


Eb = Emissive power of black
body
Stephen- = Stephen-Boltzmann
Boltzmann 4
constant = 5.67x108
Eb = T S
Law
(Black Body)
( m W K )
2 4

TS = Surface Temperature
Stephen-
Boltzmann q
q' ' = =E= (T 4s T 4surr ) = Emissivity (0 1)
Law (Real A
Surface)

Gabs = Emission absorption


||=G G = Emissive power of
Irradiation
G surface
= Absorptivity
Thermal Resistance

Name Equation Description


Can be used to relate
heat transfer and
temperature differentials
Tip: If you can assume
that the total heat
transfer rate is the same
Resistance T Driving force through two areas, those
R=
definition q Energy /time areas can be related via:
T
q x=
R
Use this equation! Use
the right expression for q
depending on the system!

T
( 1T 2 )L The area here is tied to
( T 1 T 2 ) kA Newtons Cooling Law.
T T 2 As such it is the cross
RCond = 1 =
Resistance (1D qx sectional area
system) perpendicular to the
L heat flow.
RCond =
kA L: wall thickness
RConv =1/hA A: Perpendicular
RRad =1/hr A
Resistance in ro L refers to the length
Cylinders
RCond =
ln
( )
ri of the cylinder
2 Lk
1
RConv =
h ( 2 r ) L
1
RRad =
hr ( 2 r ) L
Resistances in
Rtotal= R i
Series
Resistances in 1 1
R total Ri
=
Parallel
1. Draw the thermal
circuit
2. Calculate each R
General 3. Calculate the total R
Methodology 4. Calculate the heat
transfer rate:
T
q=
R total
1
U=
Overall Heat Rtotal A
Transfer
Coefficient T
q= =UA T
R total
r

Cylindrical Rcond =
( )
ln out
r
2 L k
Systems
1
Rconv =
h(2 rL)
Cylindrical Systems

Name Equation Descripti


on
q' ' =k T
Fouriers
Law (del
T 1 T T
operator) T =i
r
+j ()
r
+k
z
T
q'r' =k
r
Fouriers
'' T 1
Law q =k
r
Heat Flux
T
q'z' =k
z
Heat
Diffusion Relates
1 T 1 T T T
Equation
(Cylindrical,
r r (
kr + 2 ) k + k
r r z z (
+q= C p ) ( )
t
time and
temp.
Full Form)

Spherical Systems

Name Equation Descripti


on
T
q'r' =k
r
k T
Heat Flux q'' =
r
k T
q'' =
r sin ( ) z
Heat
Diffusion Relates
1 2 T 1 T 1 T T
Equation
(Spherical,
r
2
(r
k r
r )
+ 2
r sin
k

+ (
2
r sin )
ksin(
temp.
)
time Cand
+q= p
t

Full Form)

Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces

Name Equation Description


P is perimeter
associated with
Long Fin convection
Approximati
on
T T
=
0 T 0T
=emx m=
hP
kA A is the cross
section area
associated with
conduction
Extended q fin qmax: maximum
fin =
Surfaces qmax heat transfer
Fin Efficiency q max=h A fin ( T BaseT ) rate from fin.
Usually at the
q fin= Actual heat transfer rate base of the fin
qfin: actual heat
transfer rate
A: surface area
AS: Fin surface
q fin=h fin A s ( T S T )
area
TS: Max fin
temperature
tanh ( m L )
fin =
m L
Rectangular
L: Fin length
Straight Fin e x ex
tanh ( x )= x x m: lumped
with e +e
constant
Adiabatic Tip

m=
hP
kA

Unsteady Conduction

Name Equation Description


A: Surface Area
t: time
Cp: heat capacity
^ of material (not
V C p fluid)
Lumped KNOW THIS

Capacitance DERIVATIVE!!!!!!
T T Derived from
=exp
T iT energy balance
and T(t)
assumption. Eout
= Estored
LC is the
characteristic
Rconduction h LC length
Biot Module Bi= =
R convection k If <0.1, we can
use lumped
capacitance
CP: heat capacity
Fouriers t k t
Module
Fo= = ( )
LC C p L2C
2 of material (not
fluid)
T T
Y Y=
T T 0
t k t x1: radius or
X X= 2=
x1 ( )
C P x 21 semi-thickness
x: distance of
x
n n= interest (relative
x1
from center)
k
m m=
h x1
2D
Y total=Y A Y B
Conduction

CONVECTION STUFF
Thermal Boundary Layers (External Forced Convection Exact &
Empirical)

Name Equation Description


S: surface shear
Shear Stress S=
u
y |
y=0
stress
: dynamic
viscoscity
Friction S
Cf= 2
Coefficient (u /2)
Convection
Heat ''
q s =h ( T S T ) h=
T
k f
y y=0| Results form
equation the
Transfer T S T convection and
conduction
Coefficient
equations
u and v refer to
Mass the horizontal
u v
Conservatio + =0 and vertical flow
x y
n Equation components,
respectively
Conservatio 2
n of
Momentum
u
u
x
+v
u u
= ( )
y y2
Conservatio
2 T k 2u
n of Thermal
Energy
u
T
x
+v
T
y
=
y2
= ( )
C p y 2 ( )
Correlation
4 1
for Turbulent x =0.036 R e x5 Pr 3
Nu
Flow Over
Flat Plate
Correlation
1 1
for Laminar x =0.664 R e 2x P r 3
Nu
Flow Over
Flat Plate
External ONLY FOR
5
Reynolds 5 10 EXTERNAL
Limit FLOWS!
Stanton &
Reynolds

Analogy
Stuff

Internal Forced Convection

Name Equation Description


Energy T outlet T S Can be used to
Balance
ln(T inlet T S
= ) h

u x C P D
4L
check a bulk
Result: temperature
Heat guess. All
Transfer properties are at
Equation bulk
temperature.
: dynamic
Correlation 1 viscosity at bulk
D =1.86 R e D Pr D
for Internal
Laminar
Nu ( L ) ( )
3
W

temperature
W: dynamic
Flow viscosity at wall
temperature
Correlation D =0.023 R e0.8
Nu D Pr
n

for Internal

Turbulent n = 0.4 if heating fluid
Flow n = 0.3 if cooling fluid
Internal ONLY FOR
Reynolds 2300 INTERNAL
Limit FLOWS!
1. Guess the bulk temperature, TB
2. Get fluid properties at TB (k, ,
)
3. Determine Re
The 4. Use Correlation Equations, get

Technique h
5. Use energy balance to evaluate
outlet temperature
6. Calculate bulk temperature
again

Dimensionless Numbers (For Convection)

Name Equation Description


Reynolds VL u L V & uinfinity both refer to the
= =
Number speed of the fluid outside
(Re) the boundary layer
Use ReD for pipes
L is the length of the
boundary layer interface
Prandtl Cp kf refers to the conductivity
Pr =
Number kf of the fluid
(Pr) is the fluid viscosity
Nusselt hL Used with correlation
Nu=f ( , Pr )=
Number kf equation to relate flow
(Nu) properties to the convection
heat coefficient for certain
flow conditions.
Stanton Nu Used in conjunction with the
St=f ( Nu, , Pr )=
Number RePr Reynolds analogy to
(St) h h calculate the convective
St= =
V C p u C p heat transfer coefficient of a
boundary system
Reynolds Cf Valid for Pr ~ 1
St= if Pr 1
Analogy 2
Modified 3
Cf Valid for 0.5 < Pr < 50
Reynolds
St=Pr 2
2( )
Analogy
Grashuf 3
g ( T ST ) L bouyancy is the kinematic viscosity
Number G rL= =
viscosity
(Gr)
Rayleigh g ( T ST ) L
3

Number Ra=Gr Pr=

(Ra)

Heat Exchanger (Convection)

Name Equation Description


Three C , These equations
Basic T C ,out T basically state that the
Equations q=( m
C CP )
C heat lost by the hot
H ,T H , out stream is the heat
T gained by the cold
q=( m
H CP )
H stream.
q=UA ( T H T C )Mean =UA T mean Equation 3 has a Tmean
term, it must be
calculated using LMTD
or NTU. It is the HT
equation.
LMTD T 2 T 1 doubletube F is the correction
Method
T LM = (
ln ( T 2 / T 1) single pass ) factor
Requires knowledge of
T '
LM =F T LM both the inlet and
outlet temperatures.
Only used for design
probs.
(TLMq=UATLM)
Correction Obtained from charts, using: Use charts
Factor
s ,T t ,
T
T
T t ,out t ,

Y =

T t ,out T t ,
T s ,T s ,out


Z=

NTU q NTU is associated with


Effectiveness= =
Method qmax the physical
configuration. Used for
C H =m
H C P ; CC =m
H
CCC design problems. (Calc.
& CR NTU=UA/Cmin)
C , is used for
H ,T performance based
T problems. (Calc. NTU &
q max=C min CR =q/qmax
qmax=Cmin(TH,in-TC,in)
C min
C R=
C max

UA
NTU =
C min
NTU for 1exp [NTU ( 1+C R ) ]
Double =
1+C R
Tube
Parallel
Flow

Natural Convection

Name Equation Description


Dominanc Gr L If >> 1, natural
e Re 2
L convection is dominant
If << 1, forced
convection is dominant
If ~= 1, both must be
considered
Correlation Nu = f(Pr,Ra)

RADIATION

Name Equation Description


Wiens C 2898 m K Applies to black
max =
Law T T bodies. Identifies the
wavelength with the
greatest emission
power
Emission q Total HT Rate
E= =
Power A Emitting Area
Stefan- Body : Eb= T 4S is known as the
Boltzmann emissivity it is
Law Real Body : E= Eb between 0 and 1.

=5.67 108
Kirchhoffs 1= 1 Applies to small bodies
Law in steady state thermal
equilibrium in a cavity.
We apply when TS ~=
T1
These a gray surfaces
Gray body q rad =q out q =A (T 4Surf T 4Surr ) Area is the surface
net area of the small
radiation object
View A 1 F 12= A2 F21 Only a fraction of
Factors emission reaches the
other bodies (1 2)
Net HT by q net1 2=q1 2 q2 1= A 1 F 12 ( T 1 T 2 ) = A2 F 21 (T 14T 42 )
4 4

Radiation

BOILING & CONDENSATION


Name Equation Description
Heat flux q ''
surface =h ( T sT sat )=h T excess k = heat conductivity
from constant
surface to q = heat generation
boiling
liquid
Empirical 1
l is the viscosity
[ ](
3
g ( l g ) C p ,l T ex
Correlation
Equation
q''
surface = l hf g

2

C s ,f h fg Pr n )

hfg is the latent heat
is the surface tension

Additional Essential Equations

Name Equation Description


Heat E Eout + E gen=E stored k = heat conductivity
Diffusion T constant
Estored =C p dxdydz
Equation t q = heat generation

T T T T
k( ) ( ) ( )
+ k
x x y y z z
+ k + q= C p
t
Heat 2 2 2
= k/Cp
Diffusion
T
=
k T T T
2
+ 2+ 2
t C p x y z ( Relates temperature )
Equation and time
(NO Heat 2 2 2
Gen)
T
t
=
T T T
2
+ 2+ 2
x y z ( )
Heat dT Though easily self
Diffusion
k
x dx
=0 ( ) derived, this equation
Equation has an important
(1D, SS, implication that
No Heat k*dT/dx is constant.
Gen) This gives rise to a
differential equation.
Relates temperature
and position in a
steady state
environment.
Dynamic & : dynamic viscosity
=
Kinematic : kinematic viscosity
Viscosity
Tips: Try:
Finding h Correlation Equations
Finding UA Use resistance:

1 ln ( r o / r i) 1
RT = + +
hi A i 2 kL ho A o